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Patricia Leake, PhD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentOtolaryngology
Address533 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-476-5958
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoPh.D.1976 Graduate Division (Anatomy)

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    Collapse Overview
    Patricia A Leake, PhD, is a Professor and Director of the Saul and Ida Epstein Laboratory for Auditory Physiology and Genetics in the Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery (OHNS) at the University of California, San Francisco. She received her MA and PhD in neuroanatomy from the University of California, San Francisco, and this was followed by a postdoctoral fellowship in the Coleman Laboratory in the Department of OHNS at UCSF.

    Dr. Leake’s main research interest is in the development and safe clinical application of multichannel cochlear prostheses, with a particular focus on the plasticity elicited in the developing auditory system following early onset profound hearing loss and cochlear implantation. Research in the Saul and Ida Epstein Laboratory for Hearing Research explores the functional encoding of electrical stimulation delivered to the auditory nerve by a cochlear implant, examining the responses of ensembles of neurons within the auditory midbrain or inferior colliculus (IC).

    Dr. Leake’s primary areas of research interest have been in exploring the effects of early deafness, electrical stimulation from a cochlear implant and exogenous neurotrophins on the morphology of the cochlea and cochlear nucleus, on the development of auditory nerve projections to the brainstem, and on functional alterations in the central auditory system. Most recently, this research has focused on the potential use of AAV-mediated neurotrophin gene therapy to improve auditory nerve survival after early deafness and thereby to optimize the function of a cochlear implant.

    Specialty:
    Research in Auditory neuroscience, cochlear implants, plasticity, gene therapy

    Expertise:

    Professional Interests:
    Cochlear morphology, cochlear prostheses, auditory nerve, auditory system development, auditory system plasticity, central auditory neural pathways, cochlear spiral ganglion, cochlear nucleus, development of topographic maps, electrical stimulation, neonatal deafness, neurotrophin/neurotrophic agents, temporal processing, tonotopic organization, adeno-associated viral vector therapies

    Education and Training:
    • MA: University of California, San Francisco - Neuroanatomy
    • PhD: University of California, San Francisco - Neuroanatomy
    • Postdoctoral Fellowship: University of California, San Francisco

    Awards and Honors:
    • 1966 Baldwin Wallace College, Berea, OH - George J. Record Scholar
    • 1970 Baldwin Wallace College, Berea, OH - Laurels Honor Society for Women
    • 1970 University of California, San Francisco Department of Anatomy - Regents Scholar
    • 1998 European Symposium on Paediatric Cochlear Implants - Keynote Lecturer, Netherlands
    • 1998 Purdue University - Distinguished Lecturer in Neuroscience
    • 2004 7th European Symposium on Paediatric Cochlear Implantation, Geneva - Keynote Lecture
    • 2002 University of California, San Francisco Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery - Georgia G. Sullivan Endowed Chair in Hearing Research
    • 2002 Helmholtz Instituut, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands - Helmholtz Lecturer


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    AVV-Mediated Neurotrophin Expression in the Deafened Cochlea
    NIH/NIDCD R01DC013067Dec 1, 2013 - Nov 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    TAS::75 0890::TAS-REQUISITION B
    NIH 263200700054C-7-0-1Sep 30, 2007 - Sep 29, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    EFFECTS OF PATTERNED ELEC. STIM ON DEAFENED AUDITORY SYS
    NIH/NIDCD N01DC002108Sep 30, 2000 - Sep 29, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PROTECT EFFECTS PATTERNED STIM DEAF AUDITORY SYSTEM
    NIH/NIDCD N01DC042143Sep 30, 1994 - Sep 29, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PATTERNED ELECTRICAL STIMULATION/DEAFENED
    NIH/NIDCD N01DC012400Jun 30, 1991 - Sep 30, 1994
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Development &Connections of Cochlear Spiral Ganglion
    NIH/NIDCD R01DC000160Jul 1, 1980 - Nov 30, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MORPHOLOGY AND CONNECTIONS OF THE SPIRAL GANGLION
    NIH/NINDS R01NS016361Jul 1, 1980 - Jun 30, 1988
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Kandathil CK, Stakhovskaya O, Leake P. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on the cochlear nucleus in cats deafened as neonates. Hear Res. 2016 Oct 20. PMID: 27773647.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Vollmer M, Beitel RE, Schreiner CE, Leake P. Passive stimulation and behavioral training differentially transform temporal processing in the inferior colliculus and primary auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2016 Oct 12; jn.00392.2016. PMID: 27733594.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Leake P, Roberts PO, Pitzul K, Plummer JM. Should Delayed Cholecystectomy Following Acute Calculous Cholecystitis Be Discouraged in a Resource-restricted Setting? West Indian Med J. 2015 Sep; 64(4):388-92. PMID: 26624592.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Plummer JM, Condell M, Ferron-Boothe D, Johnson P, Leake P, McDonald AH. The Impact of Trans-thoracic Ultrasound on Cardiac Injuries. West Indian Med J. 2014 Jun; 63(3):258-61. PMID: 25314284.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Leake P, Plummer JM, Rhoden A, Frankson MA, Gordon-Strachan G, Powell LP, Roberts PO. Colorectal anastomotic leakage at the university hospital of the west indies: an analysis of risk factors. West Indian Med J. 2013 Nov; 62(8):711-5. PMID: 25014872.
      View in: PubMed
    6. McFarlane ME, Plummer JM, Leake P, Powell L, Chand V, Chung S, Tulloch K. Dengue fever mimicking acute appendicitis: A case report. Int J Surg Case Rep. 2013; 4(11):1032-4. PMID: 24096347; PMCID: PMC3825978.
    7. Leake P, Stakhovskaya O, Hetherington A, Rebscher SJ, Bonham B. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and electrical stimulation on survival and function of cochlear spiral ganglion neurons in deafened, developing cats. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2013 Apr; 14(2):187-211. PMID: 23392612; PMCID: PMC3660916.
    8. Leake P, Qureshi A, Plummer J, Okrainec A. Minimally invasive surgery training in the Caribbean--a survey of general surgical residents and their trainers. West Indian Med J. 2012 Oct; 61(7):708-15. PMID: 23620969.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Schoenecker MC, Bonham BH, Stakhovskaya OA, Snyder RL, Leake P. Monopolar intracochlear pulse trains selectively activate the inferior colliculus. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2012 Oct; 13(5):655-72. PMID: 22722899; PMCID: PMC3441950.
    10. Leake P, Hamilton-Johnson TN, Harry M, Gordon-Strachan GM, Plummer JM, Newnham MS. Open abdominal aortic aneurysm repair in the era of endovascular repair. West Indian Med J. 2011 Dec; 60(6):636-40. PMID: 22512220.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Leake P, Hradek GT, Hetherington AM, Stakhovskaya O. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes cochlear spiral ganglion cell survival and function in deafened, developing cats. J Comp Neurol. 2011 Jun 1; 519(8):1526-45. PMID: 21452221; PMCID: PMC3079794.
    12. Plummer JM, Mitchell DI, Arthurs M, Leake P, Deans-Minott J, Cawich SO, Martin A. Laparoscopic colectomy for colonic neoplasms in a developing country. Int J Surg. 2011; 9(5):382-5. PMID: 21419240.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Verbist BM, Skinner MW, Cohen LT, Leake P, James C, Boëx C, Holden TA, Finley CC, Roland PS, Roland JT, Haller M, Patrick JF, Jolly CN, Faltys MA, Briaire JJ, Frijns JH. Consensus panel on a cochlear coordinate system applicable in histologic, physiologic, and radiologic studies of the human cochlea. Otol Neurotol. 2010 Jul; 31(5):722-30. PMID: 20147866; PMCID: PMC2945386.
    14. Plummer JM, Bonadie KO, Williams N, Leake P, Mitchell DI. Duodenal fibrosarcoma mimicking Franz tumour complicated by post-resection chylous ascites. West Indian Med J. 2010 Jan; 59(1):84-7. PMID: 20931921.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Leake P, Hradek GT, Bonham BH, Snyder RL. Topography of auditory nerve projections to the cochlear nucleus in cats after neonatal deafness and electrical stimulation by a cochlear implant. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2008 Sep; 9(3):349-72. PMID: 18574634; PMCID: PMC2516742.
    16. Leake P, Stakhovskaya O, Hradek GT, Hetherington AM. Factors influencing neurotrophic effects of electrical stimulation in the deafened developing auditory system. Hear Res. 2008 Aug; 242(1-2):86-99. PMID: 18573324; PMCID: PMC2516744.
    17. Stakhovskaya O, Hradek GT, Snyder RL, Leake P. Effects of age at onset of deafness and electrical stimulation on the developing cochlear nucleus in cats. Hear Res. 2008 Sep; 243(1-2):69-77. PMID: 18590947; PMCID: PMC2575007.
    18. Rebscher SJ, Hetherington A, Bonham B, Wardrop P, Whinney D, Leake P. Considerations for design of future cochlear implant electrode arrays: electrode array stiffness, size, and depth of insertion. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2008; 45(5):731-47. PMID: 18816423; PMCID: PMC2562296.
    19. Vollmer M, Beitel RE, Snyder RL, Leake P. Spatial selectivity to intracochlear electrical stimulation in the inferior colliculus is degraded after long-term deafness in cats. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Nov; 98(5):2588-603. PMID: 17855592; PMCID: PMC2430866.
    20. Jones TA, Leake P, Snyder RL, Stakhovskaya O, Bonham B. Spontaneous discharge patterns in cochlear spiral ganglion cells before the onset of hearing in cats. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Oct; 98(4):1898-908. PMID: 17686914; PMCID: PMC2234389.
    21. Rebscher SJ, Hetherington AM, Snyder RL, Leake P, Bonham BH. Design and fabrication of multichannel cochlear implants for animal research. J Neurosci Methods. 2007 Oct 15; 166(1):1-12. PMID: 17727956; PMCID: PMC2581920.
    22. Leake P, Hradek GT, Vollmer M, Rebscher SJ. Neurotrophic effects of GM1 ganglioside and electrical stimulation on cochlear spiral ganglion neurons in cats deafened as neonates. J Comp Neurol. 2007 Apr 20; 501(6):837-53. PMID: 17311311; PMCID: PMC2409118.
    23. Stakhovskaya O, Sridhar D, Bonham BH, Leake P. Frequency map for the human cochlear spiral ganglion: implications for cochlear implants. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2007 Jun; 8(2):220-33. PMID: 17318276; PMCID: PMC2394499.
    24. Duncan ND, Gabay L, Williams E, Dundas SE, Plummer N, Leake P. Hermaphroditism: cytogenetics, gonadal pathology and gender assignment: a case report. West Indian Med J. 2006 Dec; 55(6):430-3. PMID: 17691240.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Sridhar D, Stakhovskaya O, Leake P. A frequency-position function for the human cochlear spiral ganglion. Audiol Neurootol. 2006; 11 Suppl 1:16-20. PMID: 17063006; PMCID: PMC2432090.
    26. Leake P, Hradek GT, Chair L, Snyder RL. Neonatal deafness results in degraded topographic specificity of auditory nerve projections to the cochlear nucleus in cats. J Comp Neurol. 2006 Jul 1; 497(1):13-31. PMID: 16680765; PMCID: PMC2430266.
    27. Wardrop P, Whinney D, Rebscher SJ, Roland JT, Luxford W, Leake P. A temporal bone study of insertion trauma and intracochlear position of cochlear implant electrodes. I: Comparison of Nucleus banded and Nucleus Contour electrodes. Hear Res. 2005 May; 203(1-2):54-67. PMID: 15855030.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Wardrop P, Whinney D, Rebscher SJ, Luxford W, Leake P. A temporal bone study of insertion trauma and intracochlear position of cochlear implant electrodes. II: Comparison of Spiral Clarion and HiFocus II electrodes. Hear Res. 2005 May; 203(1-2):68-79. PMID: 15855031.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Vollmer M, Leake P, Beitel RE, Rebscher SJ, Snyder RL. Degradation of temporal resolution in the auditory midbrain after prolonged deafness is reversed by electrical stimulation of the cochlea. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Jun; 93(6):3339-55. PMID: 15659529.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Leake P, Snyder RL, Hradek GT. Postnatal refinement of auditory nerve projections to the cochlear nucleus in cats. J Comp Neurol. 2002 Jun 17; 448(1):6-27. PMID: 12012373; PMCID: PMC2386504.
    31. Moore CM, Vollmer M, Leake P, Snyder RL, Rebscher SJ. The effects of chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation on inferior colliculus spatial representation in adult deafened cats. Hear Res. 2002 Feb; 164(1-2):82-96. PMID: 11950528.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Osofsky MR, Moore CM, Leake P. Does exogenous GM1 ganglioside enhance the effects of electrical stimulation in ameliorating degeneration after neonatal deafness? Hear Res. 2001 Sep; 159(1-2):23-35. PMID: 11520632.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Rebscher SJ, Snyder RL, Leake P. The effect of electrode configuration and duration of deafness on threshold and selectivity of responses to intracochlear electrical stimulation. J Acoust Soc Am. 2001 May; 109(5 Pt 1):2035-48. PMID: 11386556.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Leake P, Snyder RL, Rebscher SJ, Moore CM, Vollmer M. Plasticity in central representations in the inferior colliculus induced by chronic single- vs. two-channel electrical stimulation by a cochlear implant after neonatal deafness. Hear Res. 2000 Sep; 147(1-2):221-41. PMID: 10962187.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Snyder RL, Vollmer M, Moore CM, Rebscher SJ, Leake P, Beitel RE. Responses of inferior colliculus neurons to amplitude-modulated intracochlear electrical pulses in deaf cats. J Neurophysiol. 2000 Jul; 84(1):166-83. PMID: 10899194.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Beitel RE, Snyder RL, Schreiner CE, Raggio MW, Leake P. Electrical cochlear stimulation in the deaf cat: comparisons between psychophysical and central auditory neuronal thresholds. J Neurophysiol. 2000 Apr; 83(4):2145-62. PMID: 10758124.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Beitel RE, Vollmer M, Snyder RL, Schreiner CE, Leake P. Behavioral and neurophysiological thresholds for electrical cochlear stimulation in the deaf cat. Audiol Neurootol. 2000 Jan-Feb; 5(1):31-8. PMID: 10686430.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Vollmer M, Snyder RL, Leake P, Beitel RE, Moore CM, Rebscher SJ. Temporal properties of chronic cochlear electrical stimulation determine temporal resolution of neurons in cat inferior colliculus. J Neurophysiol. 1999 Dec; 82(6):2883-902. PMID: 10601427.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Leake P, Hradek GT, Snyder RL. Chronic electrical stimulation by a cochlear implant promotes survival of spiral ganglion neurons after neonatal deafness. J Comp Neurol. 1999 Oct 4; 412(4):543-62. PMID: 10464355.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Sato M, Leake P, Hradek GT. Postnatal development of the organ of Corti in cats: a light microscopic morphometric study. Hear Res. 1999 Jan; 127(1-2):1-13. PMID: 9925011.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Leake P, Kuntz AL, Moore CM, Chambers PL. Cochlear pathology induced by aminoglycoside ototoxicity during postnatal maturation in cats. Hear Res. 1997 Nov; 113(1-2):117-32. PMID: 9387991.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Snyder RL, Leake P. Topography of spiral ganglion projections to cochlear nucleus during postnatal development in cats. J Comp Neurol. 1997 Jul 28; 384(2):293-311. PMID: 9215724.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Snyder RL, Leake P, Hradek GT. Quantitative analysis of spiral ganglion projections to the cat cochlear nucleus. J Comp Neurol. 1997 Mar 3; 379(1):133-49. PMID: 9057117.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Snyder R, Leake P, Rebscher S, Beitel R. Temporal resolution of neurons in cat inferior colliculus to intracochlear electrical stimulation: effects of neonatal deafening and chronic stimulation. J Neurophysiol. 1995 Feb; 73(2):449-67. PMID: 7760111.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Leake P, Snyder RL, Hradek GT, Rebscher SJ. Consequences of chronic extracochlear electrical stimulation in neonatally deafened cats. Hear Res. 1995 Jan; 82(1):65-80. PMID: 7744715.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Lustig LR, Leake P, Snyder RL, Rebscher SJ. Changes in the cat cochlear nucleus following neonatal deafening and chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation. Hear Res. 1994 Apr; 74(1-2):29-37. PMID: 8040097.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Leake P, Snyder RL, Hradek GT. Spatial organization of inner hair cell synapses and cochlear spiral ganglion neurons. J Comp Neurol. 1993 Jul 8; 333(2):257-70. PMID: 8345106.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Leake P, Snyder RL, Hradek GT, Rebscher SJ. Chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation in neonatally deafened cats: effects of intensity and stimulating electrode location. Hear Res. 1992 Dec; 64(1):99-117. PMID: 1490906.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Leake P, Snyder RL, Merzenich MM. Topographic organization of the cochlear spiral ganglion demonstrated by restricted lesions of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. J Comp Neurol. 1992 Jun 22; 320(4):468-78. PMID: 1629399.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Snyder RL, Rebscher SJ, Leake P, Kelly K, Cao K. Chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation in the neonatally deafened cat. II. Temporal properties of neurons in the inferior colliculus. Hear Res. 1991 Nov; 56(1-2):246-64. PMID: 1769918.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Leake P, Hradek GT, Rebscher SJ, Snyder RL. Chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation induces selective survival of spiral ganglion neurons in neonatally deafened cats. Hear Res. 1991 Aug; 54(2):251-71. PMID: 1938628.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Hultcrantz M, Snyder R, Rebscher S, Leake P. Effects of neonatal deafening and chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation on the cochlear nucleus in cats. Hear Res. 1991 Aug; 54(2):272-80. PMID: 1938629.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Snyder RL, Rebscher SJ, Cao KL, Leake P, Kelly K. Chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation in the neonatally deafened cat. I: Expansion of central representation. Hear Res. 1990 Dec; 50(1-2):7-33. PMID: 2076984.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Zook JM, Leake P. Connections and frequency representation in the auditory brainstem of the mustache bat, Pteronotus parnellii. J Comp Neurol. 1989 Dec 8; 290(2):243-61. PMID: 2592612.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Jackler RK, Leake P, McKerrow WS. Cochlear implant revision: effects of reimplantation on the cochlea. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1989 Oct; 98(10):813-20. PMID: 2802465.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Leake P, Snyder RL. Topographic organization of the central projections of the spiral ganglion in cats. J Comp Neurol. 1989 Mar 22; 281(4):612-29. PMID: 2708585.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Snyder RL, Leake P. Intrinsic connections within and between cochlear nucleus subdivisions in cat. J Comp Neurol. 1988 Dec 8; 278(2):209-25. PMID: 3230161.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Leake P, Hradek GT. Cochlear pathology of long term neomycin induced deafness in cats. Hear Res. 1988 Apr; 33(1):11-33. PMID: 3372368.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Leake P, Snyder RL. Uptake of horseradish peroxidase from perilymph by cochlear hair cells. Hear Res. 1987; 25(2-3):153-71. PMID: 3104269.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Wong-Riley MT, Merzenich MM, Leake P. Changes in endogenous enzymatic reactivity to DAB induced by neuronal inactivity. Brain Res. 1978 Feb 3; 141(1):185-92. PMID: 414822.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Merzenich MM, White MW, Leake P, Schindler RA, Michelson RP. Further progress in the development of multichannel cochlear implants. Trans Sect Otolaryngol Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1977 Mar-Apr; 84(2):181-2. PMID: 898495.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Leake P. Central projections of the statoacoustic nerve in Caiman crocodilus. Brain Behav Evol. 1974; 10(1-3):170-96. PMID: 4455353.
      View in: PubMed
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