Patricia Leake, PhD

Title(s)Professor Emeritus, Otolaryngology
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address533 Parnassus Avenue, #M876
San Francisco CA 94117
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoPh.D.1976 Graduate Division (Anatomy)

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Patricia A Leake, PhD, is a Professor and Director of the Saul and Ida Epstein Laboratory for Auditory Physiology and Genetics in the Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery (OHNS) at the University of California, San Francisco. She received her MA and PhD in neuroanatomy from the University of California, San Francisco, and this was followed by a postdoctoral fellowship in the Coleman Laboratory in the Department of OHNS at UCSF.

    Dr. Leake’s main research interest is in the development and safe clinical application of multichannel cochlear prostheses, with a particular focus on the plasticity elicited in the developing auditory system following early onset profound hearing loss and cochlear implantation. Research in the Saul and Ida Epstein Laboratory for Hearing Research explores the functional encoding of electrical stimulation delivered to the auditory nerve by a cochlear implant, examining the responses of ensembles of neurons within the auditory midbrain or inferior colliculus (IC).

    Dr. Leake’s primary areas of research interest have been in exploring the effects of early deafness, electrical stimulation from a cochlear implant and exogenous neurotrophins on the morphology of the cochlea and cochlear nucleus, on the development of auditory nerve projections to the brainstem, and on functional alterations in the central auditory system. Most recently, this research has focused on the potential use of AAV-mediated neurotrophin gene therapy to improve auditory nerve survival after early deafness and thereby to optimize the function of a cochlear implant.

    Research in Auditory neuroscience, cochlear implants, plasticity, gene therapy


    Professional Interests:
    Cochlear morphology, cochlear prostheses, auditory nerve, auditory system development, auditory system plasticity, central auditory neural pathways, cochlear spiral ganglion, cochlear nucleus, development of topographic maps, electrical stimulation, neonatal deafness, neurotrophin/neurotrophic agents, temporal processing, tonotopic organization, adeno-associated viral vector therapies

    Education and Training:
    • MA: University of California, San Francisco - Neuroanatomy
    • PhD: University of California, San Francisco - Neuroanatomy
    • Postdoctoral Fellowship: University of California, San Francisco

    Awards and Honors:
    • 1966 Baldwin Wallace College, Berea, OH - George J. Record Scholar
    • 1970 Baldwin Wallace College, Berea, OH - Laurels Honor Society for Women
    • 1970 University of California, San Francisco Department of Anatomy - Regents Scholar
    • 1998 European Symposium on Paediatric Cochlear Implants - Keynote Lecturer, Netherlands
    • 1998 Purdue University - Distinguished Lecturer in Neuroscience
    • 2004 7th European Symposium on Paediatric Cochlear Implantation, Geneva - Keynote Lecture
    • 2002 University of California, San Francisco Department of Otolaryngology – Head and Neck Surgery - Georgia G. Sullivan Endowed Chair in Hearing Research
    • 2002 Helmholtz Instituut, University of Utrecht, The Netherlands - Helmholtz Lecturer

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    AVV-Mediated Neurotrophin Expression in the Deafened Cochlea
    NIH R01DC013067Dec 1, 2013 - Jul 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH 263200700054C-7-0-1Sep 30, 2007 - Sep 29, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NIDCD N01DC002108Sep 30, 2000 - Sep 29, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NIDCD N01DC042143Sep 30, 1994 - Sep 29, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NIDCD N01DC012400Jun 30, 1991 - Sep 30, 1994
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Development &Connections of Cochlear Spiral Ganglion
    NIH R01DC000160Jul 1, 1980 - Nov 30, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01NS016361Jul 1, 1980 - Jun 30, 1988
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Neurotrophin gene therapy to promote survival of spiral ganglion neurons after deafness. Hear Res. 2020 09 01; 394:107955. Leake PA, Akil O, Lang H. PMID: 32331858; PMCID: PMC7660539.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    2. AAV-Mediated Neurotrophin Gene Therapy Promotes Improved Survival of Cochlear Spiral Ganglion Neurons in Neonatally Deafened Cats: Comparison of AAV2-hBDNF and AAV5-hGDNF. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2019 08; 20(4):341-361. Leake PA, Rebscher SJ, Dore' C, Akil O. PMID: 31222416; PMCID: PMC6646500.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    3. Virally Mediated Overexpression of Glial-Derived Neurotrophic Factor Elicits Age- and Dose-Dependent Neuronal Toxicity and Hearing Loss. Hum Gene Ther. 2019 01; 30(1):88-105. Akil O, Blits B, Lustig LR, Leake PA. PMID: 30183384; PMCID: PMC6343370.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    4. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) on the cochlear nucleus in cats deafened as neonates. Hear Res. 2016 12; 342:134-143. Kandathil CK, Stakhovskaya O, Leake PA. PMID: 27773647; PMCID: PMC5140101.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    5. Passive stimulation and behavioral training differentially transform temporal processing in the inferior colliculus and primary auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2017 01 01; 117(1):47-64. Vollmer M, Beitel RE, Schreiner CE, Leake PA. PMID: 27733594; PMCID: PMC5209545.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    6. Effects of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and electrical stimulation on survival and function of cochlear spiral ganglion neurons in deafened, developing cats. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2013 Apr; 14(2):187-211. Leake PA, Stakhovskaya O, Hetherington A, Rebscher SJ, Bonham B. PMID: 23392612; PMCID: PMC3660916.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    7. Monopolar intracochlear pulse trains selectively activate the inferior colliculus. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2012 Oct; 13(5):655-72. Schoenecker MC, Bonham BH, Stakhovskaya OA, Snyder RL, Leake PA. PMID: 22722899; PMCID: PMC3441950.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    8. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor promotes cochlear spiral ganglion cell survival and function in deafened, developing cats. J Comp Neurol. 2011 Jun 01; 519(8):1526-45. Leake PA, Hradek GT, Hetherington AM, Stakhovskaya O. PMID: 21452221; PMCID: PMC3079794.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 45     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    9. Consensus panel on a cochlear coordinate system applicable in histologic, physiologic, and radiologic studies of the human cochlea. Otol Neurotol. 2010 Jul; 31(5):722-30. Verbist BM, Skinner MW, Cohen LT, Leake PA, James C, Boëx C, Holden TA, Finley CC, Roland PS, Roland JT, Haller M, Patrick JF, Jolly CN, Faltys MA, Briaire JJ, Frijns JH. PMID: 20147866; PMCID: PMC2945386.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 62     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Topography of auditory nerve projections to the cochlear nucleus in cats after neonatal deafness and electrical stimulation by a cochlear implant. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2008 Sep; 9(3):349-72. Leake PA, Hradek GT, Bonham BH, Snyder RL. PMID: 18574634; PMCID: PMC2516742.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    11. Factors influencing neurotrophic effects of electrical stimulation in the deafened developing auditory system. Hear Res. 2008 Aug; 242(1-2):86-99. Leake PA, Stakhovskaya O, Hradek GT, Hetherington AM. PMID: 18573324; PMCID: PMC2516744.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    12. Effects of age at onset of deafness and electrical stimulation on the developing cochlear nucleus in cats. Hear Res. 2008 Sep; 243(1-2):69-77. Stakhovskaya O, Hradek GT, Snyder RL, Leake PA. PMID: 18590947; PMCID: PMC2575007.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    13. Considerations for design of future cochlear implant electrode arrays: electrode array stiffness, size, and depth of insertion. J Rehabil Res Dev. 2008; 45(5):731-47. Rebscher SJ, Hetherington A, Bonham B, Wardrop P, Whinney D, Leake PA. PMID: 18816423; PMCID: PMC2562296.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 56     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Spatial selectivity to intracochlear electrical stimulation in the inferior colliculus is degraded after long-term deafness in cats. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Nov; 98(5):2588-603. Vollmer M, Beitel RE, Snyder RL, Leake PA. PMID: 17855592; PMCID: PMC2430866.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    15. Spontaneous discharge patterns in cochlear spiral ganglion cells before the onset of hearing in cats. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Oct; 98(4):1898-908. Jones TA, Leake PA, Snyder RL, Stakhovskaya O, Bonham B. PMID: 17686914; PMCID: PMC2234389.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 45     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    16. Design and fabrication of multichannel cochlear implants for animal research. J Neurosci Methods. 2007 Oct 15; 166(1):1-12. Rebscher SJ, Hetherington AM, Snyder RL, Leake PA, Bonham BH. PMID: 17727956; PMCID: PMC2581920.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    17. Neurotrophic effects of GM1 ganglioside and electrical stimulation on cochlear spiral ganglion neurons in cats deafened as neonates. J Comp Neurol. 2007 Apr 20; 501(6):837-53. Leake PA, Hradek GT, Vollmer M, Rebscher SJ. PMID: 17311311; PMCID: PMC2409118.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Frequency map for the human cochlear spiral ganglion: implications for cochlear implants. J Assoc Res Otolaryngol. 2007 Jun; 8(2):220-33. Stakhovskaya O, Sridhar D, Bonham BH, Leake PA. PMID: 17318276; PMCID: PMC2394499.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 151     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. Hermaphroditism: cytogenetics, gonadal pathology and gender assignment: a case report. West Indian Med J. 2006 Dec; 55(6):430-3. Duncan ND, Gabay L, Williams E, Dundas SE, Plummer N, Leake PA. PMID: 17691240.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. A frequency-position function for the human cochlear spiral ganglion. Audiol Neurootol. 2006; 11 Suppl 1:16-20. Sridhar D, Stakhovskaya O, Leake PA. PMID: 17063006; PMCID: PMC2432090.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Neonatal deafness results in degraded topographic specificity of auditory nerve projections to the cochlear nucleus in cats. J Comp Neurol. 2006 Jul 01; 497(1):13-31. Leake PA, Hradek GT, Chair L, Snyder RL. PMID: 16680765; PMCID: PMC2430266.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    22. A temporal bone study of insertion trauma and intracochlear position of cochlear implant electrodes. II: Comparison of Spiral Clarion and HiFocus II electrodes. Hear Res. 2005 May; 203(1-2):68-79. Wardrop P, Whinney D, Rebscher SJ, Luxford W, Leake P. PMID: 15855031.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. A temporal bone study of insertion trauma and intracochlear position of cochlear implant electrodes. I: Comparison of Nucleus banded and Nucleus Contour electrodes. Hear Res. 2005 May; 203(1-2):54-67. Wardrop P, Whinney D, Rebscher SJ, Roland JT, Luxford W, Leake PA. PMID: 15855030.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 50     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Degradation of temporal resolution in the auditory midbrain after prolonged deafness is reversed by electrical stimulation of the cochlea. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Jun; 93(6):3339-55. Vollmer M, Leake PA, Beitel RE, Rebscher SJ, Snyder RL. PMID: 15659529.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Postnatal refinement of auditory nerve projections to the cochlear nucleus in cats. J Comp Neurol. 2002 Jun 17; 448(1):6-27. Leake PA, Snyder RL, Hradek GT. PMID: 12012373; PMCID: PMC2386504.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 36     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
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