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Patrick O'Farrell, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Biochemistry and Biophysics
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Phone415-476-4707
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0003-0011-2734 Additional info
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    We are interested in the decoding of biological information to produce functional structures at the level of cells and organisms. We focus on the control of the cell cycle during development using Drosophila genetics, molecular biology and fancy microscopy. We are examining temporal coordination of early embryonic cell cycles with development. Having found that slowing early rapid cell cycles is due to prolongation of S phase, the period of DNA replication, we are studying this control. This prolongation of S phase is tightly integrated with a developmental program of chromatin changes that introduces epigenetic controls. Using GFP tagged proteins marking molecular hallmarks of these events, we are able to watch them occur in real time in embryos and to probe the processes that regulate their onset.

    A newer effort explores the genetics and biology of the mitochondria. Our principle interest is in a newly recognized mystery. The mitochondrial genome encodes functions that benefit the host rather than propagation and transmission of the mitochondrial genome. This would not be problem if evolution of this genome were based on the usual selection for fit organisms as Darwin suggests. However, we found that selection is based on the ability of genomes to compete for transmission from one generation to the next. This ought to select for selfish genes promoting genome success. To achieve the real outcome, the host manipulates the competition to favor genes to its benefit. We are trying to understand how this managed evolution is achieved.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Host management of the mitochondrial genome
    NIH/NIGMS R01GM120005Sep 19, 2011 - Jun 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The genetic basis for tissue specific sensitivities to mitochondrial stress
    NIH/NIEHS R01ES020725Sep 19, 2011 - Jun 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Nitric Oxide Signaling in Hypoxia and Immunity in Drosophila
    NIH/NIGMS R01GM086854Mar 1, 2000 - Jul 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Nitric Oxide and Responses to Hypoxia in Drosophila
    NIH/NIAID R01AI060102Mar 1, 2000 - Sep 29, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NITRIC OXIDE AND RESPONSES TO HYPOXIA IN DROSOPHILA
    NIH/NIGMS R01GM060988Mar 1, 2000 - Apr 14, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Developmental Programs of Cell Cycle Control
    NIH/NIGMS R37GM037193Jul 1, 1986 - Jun 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Developmental Programs of Cell Cycle Control
    NIH/NIGMS R01GM037193Jul 1, 1986 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Seller CA, Cho CY, O'Farrell PH. Rapid embryonic cell cycles defer the establishment of heterochromatin by Eggless/SetDB1 in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2019 04 01; 33(7-8):403-417. PMID: 30808658.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Seller CA, O'Farrell PH. Rif1 prolongs the embryonic S phase at the Drosophila mid-blastula transition. PLoS Biol. 2018 05; 16(5):e2005687. PMID: 29746464.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Duronio RJ, O'Farrell PH, Sluder G, Su TT. Sophisticated lessons from simple organisms: appreciating the value of curiosity-driven research. Dis Model Mech. 2017 12 19; 10(12):1381-1389. PMID: 29259023.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Yu Z, O'Farrell PH, Yakubovich N, DeLuca SZ. The Mitochondrial DNA Polymerase Promotes Elimination of Paternal Mitochondrial Genomes. Curr Biol. 2017 Apr 03; 27(7):1033-1039. PMID: 28318978.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Yuan K, Seller CA, Shermoen AW, O'Farrell PH. Timing the Drosophila Mid-Blastula Transition: A Cell Cycle-Centered View. Trends Genet. 2016 08; 32(8):496-507. PMID: 27339317.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Ma H, O'Farrell PH. Selfish drive can trump function when animal mitochondrial genomes compete. Nat Genet. 2016 07; 48(7):798-802. PMID: 27270106.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Yuan K, O'Farrell PH. TALE-light imaging reveals maternally guided, H3K9me2/3-independent emergence of functional heterochromatin in Drosophila embryos. Genes Dev. 2016 Mar 01; 30(5):579-93. PMID: 26915820.
      View in: PubMed
    8. O'Farrell PH. Growing an Embryo from a Single Cell: A Hurdle in Animal Life. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2015 Aug 07; 7(11). PMID: 26254311.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Ma H, O'Farrell PH. Selections that isolate recombinant mitochondrial genomes in animals. Elife. 2015 Aug 03; 4. PMID: 26237110.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Yuan K, O'Farrell PH. Cyclin B3 is a mitotic cyclin that promotes the metaphase-anaphase transition. Curr Biol. 2015 Mar 16; 25(6):811-816. PMID: 25754637.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Farrell JA, O'Farrell PH. From egg to gastrula: how the cell cycle is remodeled during the Drosophila mid-blastula transition. Annu Rev Genet. 2014; 48:269-94. PMID: 25195504.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Ma H, Xu H, O'Farrell PH. Transmission of mitochondrial mutations and action of purifying selection in Drosophila melanogaster. Nat Genet. 2014 Apr; 46(4):393-7. PMID: 24614071.
      View in: PubMed
    13. O'Farrell PH. Two-dimensional gel electrophoresis and the beginning of proteomics. Clin Chem. 2014 Jul; 60(7):1012-3. PMID: 24568796.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Yuan K, Shermoen AW, O'Farrell PH. Illuminating DNA replication during Drosophila development using TALE-lights. Curr Biol. 2014 Feb 17; 24(4):R144-5. PMID: 24556431.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Farrell JA, O'Farrell PH. Mechanism and regulation of Cdc25/Twine protein destruction in embryonic cell-cycle remodeling. Curr Biol. 2013 Jan 21; 23(2):118-26. PMID: 23290551.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Yuan K, Farrell JA, O'Farrell PH. Different cyclin types collaborate to reverse the S-phase checkpoint and permit prompt mitosis. J Cell Biol. 2012 Sep 17; 198(6):973-80. PMID: 22965907.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Farrell JA, Shermoen AW, Yuan K, O'Farrell PH. Embryonic onset of late replication requires Cdc25 down-regulation. Genes Dev. 2012 Apr 01; 26(7):714-25. PMID: 22431511.
      View in: PubMed
    18. DeLuca SZ, O'Farrell PH. Barriers to male transmission of mitochondrial DNA in sperm development. Dev Cell. 2012 Mar 13; 22(3):660-8. PMID: 22421049.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Shermoen AW, McCleland ML, O'Farrell PH. Developmental control of late replication and S phase length. Curr Biol. 2010 Dec 07; 20(23):2067-77. PMID: 21074439.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Yakubovich N, Silva EA, O'Farrell PH. Nitric oxide synthase is not essential for Drosophila development. Curr Biol. 2010 Feb 23; 20(4):R141-2. PMID: 20178753.
      View in: PubMed
    21. O'Farrell PH. Patrick H. O'Farrell. Curr Biol. 2010 Feb 23; 20(4):R133-4. PMID: 20213891.
      View in: PubMed
    22. McCleland ML, Shermoen AW, O'Farrell PH. DNA replication times the cell cycle and contributes to the mid-blastula transition in Drosophila embryos. J Cell Biol. 2009 Oct 05; 187(1):7-14. PMID: 19786576.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Dijkers PF, O'Farrell PH. Dissection of a hypoxia-induced, nitric oxide-mediated signaling cascade. Mol Biol Cell. 2009 Sep; 20(18):4083-90. PMID: 19625446.
      View in: PubMed
    24. McCleland ML, Farrell JA, O'Farrell PH. Influence of cyclin type and dose on mitotic entry and progression in the early Drosophila embryo. J Cell Biol. 2009 Mar 09; 184(5):639-46. PMID: 19273612.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Stroschein-Stevenson SL, Foley E, O'Farrell PH, Johnson AD. Phagocytosis of Candida albicans by RNAi-treated Drosophila S2 cells. Methods Mol Biol. 2009; 470:347-58. PMID: 19089394.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Xu H, DeLuca SZ, O'Farrell PH. Manipulating the metazoan mitochondrial genome with targeted restriction enzymes. Science. 2008 Jul 25; 321(5888):575-7. PMID: 18653897.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Lee SJ, Feldman R, O'Farrell PH. An RNA interference screen identifies a novel regulator of target of rapamycin that mediates hypoxia suppression of translation in Drosophila S2 cells. Mol Biol Cell. 2008 Oct; 19(10):4051-61. PMID: 18653470.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Hickson GR, O'Farrell PH. Anillin: a pivotal organizer of the cytokinetic machinery. Biochem Soc Trans. 2008 Jun; 36(Pt 3):439-41. PMID: 18481976.
      View in: PubMed
    29. McCleland ML, O'Farrell PH. RNAi of mitotic cyclins in Drosophila uncouples the nuclear and centrosome cycle. Curr Biol. 2008 Feb 26; 18(4):245-54. PMID: 18291653.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Hickson GR, O'Farrell PH. Rho-dependent control of anillin behavior during cytokinesis. J Cell Biol. 2008 Jan 28; 180(2):285-94. PMID: 18209105.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Dijkers PF, O'Farrell PH. Drosophila calcineurin promotes induction of innate immune responses. Curr Biol. 2007 Dec 04; 17(23):2087-93. PMID: 18060786.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Saleh MC, van Rij RP, Hekele A, Gillis A, Foley E, O'Farrell PH, Andino R. The endocytic pathway mediates cell entry of dsRNA to induce RNAi silencing. Nat Cell Biol. 2006 Aug; 8(8):793-802. PMID: 16862146.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Hickson GR, Echard A, O'Farrell PH. Rho-kinase controls cell shape changes during cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 2006 Feb 21; 16(4):359-70. PMID: 16488869.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Stroschein-Stevenson SL, Foley E, O'Farrell PH, Johnson AD. Identification of Drosophila gene products required for phagocytosis of Candida albicans. PLoS Biol. 2006 Jan; 4(1):e4. PMID: 16336044.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Echard A, Hickson GR, Foley E, O'Farrell PH. Terminal cytokinesis events uncovered after an RNAi screen. Curr Biol. 2004 Sep 21; 14(18):1685-93. PMID: 15380073.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Foley E, O'Farrell PH. Functional dissection of an innate immune response by a genome-wide RNAi screen. PLoS Biol. 2004 Aug; 2(8):E203. PMID: 15221030.
      View in: PubMed
    37. O'Farrell PH, Stumpff J, Su TT. Embryonic cleavage cycles: how is a mouse like a fly? Curr Biol. 2004 Jan 06; 14(1):R35-45. PMID: 14711435.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Hériché JK, Ang D, Bier E, O'Farrell PH. Involvement of an SCFSlmb complex in timely elimination of E2F upon initiation of DNA replication in Drosophila. BMC Genet. 2003 Jun 04; 4:9. PMID: 12787468.
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    39. Parry DH, Hickson GR, O'Farrell PH. Cyclin B destruction triggers changes in kinetochore behavior essential for successful anaphase. Curr Biol. 2003 Apr 15; 13(8):647-53. PMID: 12699620.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Echard A, O'Farrell PH. The degradation of two mitotic cyclins contributes to the timing of cytokinesis. Curr Biol. 2003 Mar 04; 13(5):373-83. PMID: 12620185.
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    41. Teodoro RO, O'Farrell PH. Nitric oxide-induced suspended animation promotes survival during hypoxia. EMBO J. 2003 Feb 03; 22(3):580-7. PMID: 12554658.
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    42. Foley E, O'Farrell PH. Nitric oxide contributes to induction of innate immune responses to gram-negative bacteria in Drosophila. Genes Dev. 2003 Jan 01; 17(1):115-25. PMID: 12514104.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Vidwans SJ, Wong ML, O'Farrell PH. Anomalous centriole configurations are detected in Drosophila wing disc cells upon Cdk1 inactivation. J Cell Sci. 2003 Jan 01; 116(Pt 1):137-43. PMID: 12456723.
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    44. Vidwans SJ, DiGregorio PJ, Shermoen AW, Foat B, Iwasa J, Yakubovich N, O'Farrell PH. Sister chromatids fail to separate during an induced endoreplication cycle in Drosophila embryos. Curr Biol. 2002 May 14; 12(10):829-33. PMID: 12015119.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Su TT, Parry DH, Donahoe B, Chien CT, O'Farrell PH, Purdy A. Cell cycle roles for two 14-3-3 proteins during Drosophila development. J Cell Sci. 2001 Oct; 114(Pt 19):3445-54. PMID: 11682604.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Parry DH, O'Farrell PH. The schedule of destruction of three mitotic cyclins can dictate the timing of events during exit from mitosis. Curr Biol. 2001 May 01; 11(9):671-83. PMID: 11369230.
      View in: PubMed
    47. DiGregorio PJ, Ubersax JA, O'Farrell PH. Hypoxia and nitric oxide induce a rapid, reversible cell cycle arrest of the Drosophila syncytial divisions. J Biol Chem. 2001 Jan 19; 276(3):1930-7. PMID: 11054409.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Price D, Rabinovitch S, O'Farrell PH, Campbell SD. Drosophila wee1 has an essential role in the nuclear divisions of early embryogenesis. Genetics. 2000 May; 155(1):159-66. PMID: 10790391.
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    49. Rubin GM, Yandell MD, Wortman JR, Gabor Miklos GL, Nelson CR, Hariharan IK, Fortini ME, Li PW, Apweiler R, Fleischmann W, Cherry JM, Henikoff S, Skupski MP, Misra S, Ashburner M, Birney E, Boguski MS, Brody T, Brokstein P, Celniker SE, Chervitz SA, Coates D, Cravchik A, Gabrielian A, Galle RF, Gelbart WM, George RA, Goldstein LS, Gong F, Guan P, Harris NL, Hay BA, Hoskins RA, Li J, Li Z, Hynes RO, Jones SJ, Kuehl PM, Lemaitre B, Littleton JT, Morrison DK, Mungall C, O'Farrell PH, Pickeral OK, Shue C, Vosshall LB, Zhang J, Zhao Q, Zheng XH, Lewis S. Comparative genomics of the eukaryotes. Science. 2000 Mar 24; 287(5461):2204-15. PMID: 10731134.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Vidwans SJ, Wong ML, O'Farrell PH. Mitotic regulators govern progress through steps in the centrosome duplication cycle. J Cell Biol. 1999 Dec 27; 147(7):1371-8. PMID: 10613895.
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    51. Foley E, O'Farrell PH, Sprenger F. Rux is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor (CKI) specific for mitotic cyclin-Cdk complexes. Curr Biol. 1999 Dec 02; 9(23):1392-402. PMID: 10607563.
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    52. Wilkie GS, Shermoen AW, O'Farrell PH, Davis I. Transcribed genes are localized according to chromosomal position within polarized Drosophila embryonic nuclei. Curr Biol. 1999 Nov 04; 9(21):1263-6. PMID: 10556096.
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    53. Vidwans SJ, O'Farrell PH. Cytoskeleton: centrosom-in absentia. Curr Biol. 1999 Oct 21; 9(20):R764-6. PMID: 10531022.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Su TT, Campbell SD, O'Farrell PH. Drosophila grapes/CHK1 mutants are defective in cyclin proteolysis and coordination of mitotic events. Curr Biol. 1999 Aug 26; 9(16):919-22. PMID: 10469601.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Wingrove JA, O'Farrell PH. Nitric oxide contributes to behavioral, cellular, and developmental responses to low oxygen in Drosophila. Cell. 1999 Jul 09; 98(1):105-14. PMID: 10412985.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Su TT, O'Farrell PH. Size control: cell proliferation does not equal growth. Curr Biol. 1998 Sep 24; 8(19):R687-9. PMID: 9768354.
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    57. Su TT, Sprenger F, DiGregorio PJ, Campbell SD, O'Farrell PH. Exit from mitosis in Drosophila syncytial embryos requires proteolysis and cyclin degradation, and is associated with localized dephosphorylation. Genes Dev. 1998 May 15; 12(10):1495-503. PMID: 9585509.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Su TT, Campbell SD, O'Farrell PH. The cell cycle program in germ cells of the Drosophila embryo. Dev Biol. 1998 Apr 15; 196(2):160-70. PMID: 9576829.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Follette PJ, Duronio RJ, O'Farrell PH. Fluctuations in cyclin E levels are required for multiple rounds of endocycle S phase in Drosophila. Curr Biol. 1998 Feb 12; 8(4):235-8. PMID: 9501987.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Su TT, O'Farrell PH. Chromosome association of minichromosome maintenance proteins in Drosophila endoreplication cycles. J Cell Biol. 1998 Feb 09; 140(3):451-60. PMID: 9456309.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Duronio RJ, Bonnette PC, O'Farrell PH. Mutations of the Drosophila dDP, dE2F, and cyclin E genes reveal distinct roles for the E2F-DP transcription factor and cyclin E during the G1-S transition. Mol Cell Biol. 1998 Jan; 18(1):141-51. PMID: 9418862.
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    62. Su TT, O'Farrell PH. Chromosome association of minichromosome maintenance proteins in Drosophila mitotic cycles. J Cell Biol. 1997 Oct 06; 139(1):13-21. PMID: 9314525.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Sprenger F, Yakubovich N, O'Farrell PH. S-phase function of Drosophila cyclin A and its downregulation in G1 phase. Curr Biol. 1997 Jul 01; 7(7):488-99. PMID: 9210381.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Su TT, Yakubovich N, O'Farrell PH. Cloning of Drosophila MCM homologs and analysis of their requirement during embryogenesis. Gene. 1997 Jun 19; 192(2):283-9. PMID: 9224901.
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    65. Serrano N, O'Farrell PH. Limb morphogenesis: connections between patterning and growth. Curr Biol. 1997 Mar 01; 7(3):R186-95. PMID: 9162486.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Follette PJ, O'Farrell PH. Connecting cell behavior to patterning: lessons from the cell cycle. Cell. 1997 Feb 07; 88(3):309-14. PMID: 9039257.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Follette PJ, O'Farrell PH. Cdks and the Drosophila cell cycle. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1997 Feb; 7(1):17-22. PMID: 9024630.
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    68. Duronio RJ, Brook A, Dyson N, O'Farrell PH. E2F-induced S phase requires cyclin E. Genes Dev. 1996 Oct 01; 10(19):2505-13. PMID: 8843201.
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    69. Leclerc V, Tassan JP, O'Farrell PH, Nigg EA, Léopold P. Drosophila Cdk8, a kinase partner of cyclin C that interacts with the large subunit of RNA polymerase II. Mol Biol Cell. 1996 Apr; 7(4):505-13. PMID: 8730095.
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    70. Su TT, Feger G, O'Farrell PH. Drosophila MCM protein complexes. Mol Biol Cell. 1996 Feb; 7(2):319-29. PMID: 8688561.
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    71. Campbell SD, Sprenger F, Edgar BA, O'Farrell PH. Drosophila Wee1 kinase rescues fission yeast from mitotic catastrophe and phosphorylates Drosophila Cdc2 in vitro. Mol Biol Cell. 1995 Oct; 6(10):1333-47. PMID: 8573790.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Davis I, Girdham CH, O'Farrell PH. A nuclear GFP that marks nuclei in living Drosophila embryos; maternal supply overcomes a delay in the appearance of zygotic fluorescence. Dev Biol. 1995 Aug; 170(2):726-9. PMID: 7649398.
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    73. Treisman JE, Follette PJ, O'Farrell PH, Rubin GM. Cell proliferation and DNA replication defects in a Drosophila MCM2 mutant. Genes Dev. 1995 Jul 15; 9(14):1709-15. PMID: 7622035.
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    74. Su TT, Follette PJ, O'Farrell PH. Qualifying for the license to replicate. Cell. 1995 Jun 16; 81(6):825-8. PMID: 7781058.
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    75. Duronio RJ, O'Farrell PH, Xie JE, Brook A, Dyson N. The transcription factor E2F is required for S phase during Drosophila embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1995 Jun 15; 9(12):1445-55. PMID: 7601349.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Duronio RJ, O'Farrell PH. Developmental control of the G1 to S transition in Drosophila: cyclin Eis a limiting downstream target of E2F. Genes Dev. 1995 Jun 15; 9(12):1456-68. PMID: 7601350.
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    77. Edgar BA, Lehman DA, O'Farrell PH. Transcriptional regulation of string (cdc25): a link between developmental programming and the cell cycle. Development. 1994 Nov; 120(11):3131-43. PMID: 7720557.
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    78. DiNardo S, Heemskerk J, Dougan S, O'Farrell PH. The making of a maggot: patterning the Drosophila embryonic epidermis. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1994 Aug; 4(4):529-34. PMID: 7950320.
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    79. Vincent JP, Girdham CH, O'Farrell PH. A cell-autonomous, ubiquitous marker for the analysis of Drosophila genetic mosaics. Dev Biol. 1994 Jul; 164(1):328-31. PMID: 8026635.
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    80. Duronio RJ, O'Farrell PH. Developmental control of a G1-S transcriptional program in Drosophila. Development. 1994 Jun; 120(6):1503-15. PMID: 8050359.
      View in: PubMed
    81. O'Farrell PH. Developmental biology. Unanimity waits in the wings. Nature. 1994 Mar 17; 368(6468):188-9. PMID: 8145815.
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    82. Edgar BA, Sprenger F, Duronio RJ, Leopold P, O'Farrell PH. Distinct molecular mechanism regulate cell cycle timing at successive stages of Drosophila embryogenesis. Genes Dev. 1994 Feb 15; 8(4):440-52. PMID: 7510257.
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    83. Girdham CH, O'Farrell PH. The use of photoactivatable reagents for the study of cell lineage in Drosophila embryogenesis. Methods Cell Biol. 1994; 44:533-43. PMID: 7535883.
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    84. Kalionis B, O'Farrell PH. A universal target sequence is bound in vitro by diverse homeodomains. Mech Dev. 1993 Sep; 43(1):57-70. PMID: 7902124.
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    85. Moazed D, O'Farrell PH. Maintenance of the engrailed expression pattern by Polycomb group genes in Drosophila. Development. 1992 Nov; 116(3):805-10. PMID: 1363229.
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    86. O'Farrell PH. Developmental biology. Big genes and little genes and deadlines for transcription. Nature. 1992 Oct 01; 359(6394):366-7. PMID: 1406945.
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    87. O'Farrell PH. Cell cycle control: many ways to skin a cat. Trends Cell Biol. 1992 Jun; 2(6):159-63. PMID: 14731984.
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    88. Vincent JP, O'Farrell PH. The state of engrailed expression is not clonally transmitted during early Drosophila development. Cell. 1992 Mar 06; 68(5):923-31. PMID: 1547492.
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    89. Shermoen AW, O'Farrell PH. Progression of the cell cycle through mitosis leads to abortion of nascent transcripts. Cell. 1991 Oct 18; 67(2):303-10. PMID: 1680567.
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    90. Léopold P, O'Farrell PH. An evolutionarily conserved cyclin homolog from Drosophila rescues yeast deficient in G1 cyclins. Cell. 1991 Sep 20; 66(6):1207-16. PMID: 1833067.
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    91. Heemskerk J, DiNardo S, Kostriken R, O'Farrell PH. Multiple modes of engrailed regulation in the progression towards cell fate determination. Nature. 1991 Aug 01; 352(6334):404-10. PMID: 1861720.
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    92. Jaynes JB, O'Farrell PH. Active repression of transcription by the engrailed homeodomain protein. EMBO J. 1991 Jun; 10(6):1427-33. PMID: 1673924.
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    93. Lehner CF, Yakubovich N, O'Farrell PH. Exploring the role of Drosophila cyclin A in the regulation of S phase. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1991; 56:465-75. PMID: 1840259.
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    94. Lehner CF, O'Farrell PH. Drosophila cdc2 homologs: a functional homolog is coexpressed with a cognate variant. EMBO J. 1990 Nov; 9(11):3573-81. PMID: 2120045.
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    95. Edgar BA, O'Farrell PH. The three postblastoderm cell cycles of Drosophila embryogenesis are regulated in G2 by string. Cell. 1990 Aug 10; 62(3):469-80. PMID: 2199063.
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    96. Vincent JP, Kassis JA, O'Farrell PH. A synthetic homeodomain binding site acts as a cell type specific, promoter specific enhancer in Drosophila embryos. EMBO J. 1990 Aug; 9(8):2573-8. PMID: 1973384.
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