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    Michael Merzenich, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentOtolaryngology
    AddressCore Campus, HSE
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-476-0490

       Overview 
       Overview
      Our laboratory is principally interested in 1) defining the neural bases of learning, recognition and memory; 2) defining mechanisms underlying the origins of functional brain illnesses and disabilities; and 3) developing training strategies for remediating learning-disabled and movement-disabled adults and children.

      Cortical plasticity studies are conducted within somatosensory, auditory, and motor forebrain systems in rodent, primate and human models. Electrophysiological studies employ the derivation of highly detailed microelectrode neuron response maps in sensory cortical areas and subcortical nuclei, and detailed microstimulation maps in motor cortex. Acute and chronic quantitative single and multiple-unit recording experiments are conducted. Many studies are undertaken in behaviorally trained animals. Human learning experiments are conducted using psychophysical procedures and magnetoencephalographic (MSI) and functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging). Pragmatic human studies involve computer engineering and AV development, as well as electrophysiological and psychophysical experiments conducted in patient models.

      Cortical representations have been shown to be substantially functionally remodeled following new behavioral experiences or training in animal models in which limited sectors of the sensory epithelium and/or specific movements are differentially engaged in new behavioral tasks. Studies of this "representational plasticity" in the adult nervous system have revealed many facets of the self-organizing processes of the brain that account for the progressive differentiation of behavior in child development, and that account for adult learning. In current experiments: 1) We are relating specific experience-driven changes in neuronal responses in the cortex to behaviorally measured gains in skills acquired with practice in the same animal(s). 2) We are constructing computational models of the dynamic, self-organizing cortical machinery. 3) We are studying developmental plasticity in the auditory system relevant to understanding the development of fundamental human capacities. 4) We are modelling the contributions of learning to the genesis of learning disabilities, and to the emergence of occupationally-induced movement disabilities and pain syndromes. 5) We are studying some practical implications of cortical representational plasticity mechanisms for designing remedial therapies for brain injury patients, and for learning-disabled and movement-disabled human populations.


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       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Merzenich MM, Van Vleet TM, Nahum M. Brain plasticity-based therapeutics. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014; 8:385.
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      2. Zhu X, Wang F, Hu H, Sun X, Kilgard MP, Merzenich MM, Zhou X. Environmental acoustic enrichment promotes recovery from developmentally degraded auditory cortical processing. J Neurosci. 2014 Apr 16; 34(16):5406-15.
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      3. Mishra J, Merzenich MM, Sagar R. Accessible online neuroplasticity-targeted training for children with ADHD. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2013; 7(1):38.
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      4. Anomal R, de Villers-Sidani E, Merzenich MM, Panizzutti R. Manipulation of BDNF signaling modifies the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e64208.
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      5. Nahum M, Lee H, Merzenich MM. Principles of neuroplasticity-based rehabilitation. Prog Brain Res. 2013; 207:141-71.
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      6. Merzenich MM, Nahum M, Van Vleet TM. Introduction. Prog Brain Res. 2013; 207:xxi-xxvi.
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      7. Moore CI, Crosier E, Greve DN, Savoy R, Merzenich MM, Dale AM. Neocortical correlates of vibrotactile detection in humans. J Cogn Neurosci. 2013 Jan; 25(1):49-61.
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      8. Froemke RC, Carcea I, Barker AJ, Yuan K, Seybold BA, Martins AR, Zaika N, Bernstein H, Wachs M, Levis PA, Polley DB, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE. Long-term modification of cortical synapses improves sensory perception. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Jan; 16(1):79-88.
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      9. Miyakawa N, Katsumata N, Blake DT, Merzenich MM, Tanifuji M. High-density multielectrode array with independently maneuverable electrodes and silicone oil fluid isolation system for chronic recording from macaque monkey. J Neurosci Methods. 2012 Oct 15; 211(1):114-24.
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      10. Zhou X, Merzenich MM. Environmental noise exposure degrades normal listening processes. Nat Commun. 2012; 3:843.
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      11. Bruno R, Merzenich M, Nudo R. The fantastic plastic brain. Adv Mind Body Med. 2012; 26(2):30-5.
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      12. Bavelier D, Green CS, Han DH, Renshaw PF, Merzenich MM, Gentile DA. Brains on video games. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2011 Dec; 12(12):763-8.
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      13. Simpson KL, Weaver KJ, de Villers-Sidani E, Lu JY, Cai Z, Pang Y, Rodriguez-Porcel F, Paul IA, Merzenich M, Lin RC. Perinatal antidepressant exposure alters cortical network function in rodents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Nov 8; 108(45):18465-70.
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      14. Zhou X, Panizzutti R, de Villers-Sidani E, Madeira C, Merzenich MM. Natural restoration of critical period plasticity in the juvenile and adult primary auditory cortex. J Neurosci. 2011 Apr 13; 31(15):5625-34.
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      15. de Villers-Sidani E, Merzenich MM. Lifelong plasticity in the rat auditory cortex: basic mechanisms and role of sensory experience. Prog Brain Res. 2011; 191:119-31.
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      16. Strata F, Stoianov IP, de Villers-Sidani E, Bonham B, Martone T, Kenet T, Chang EF, Vincenti V, Merzenich MM. Perinatal asphyxia affects rat auditory processing: implications for auditory perceptual impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders. PLoS One. 2010; 5(12):e15326.
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      17. Popov T, Jordanov T, Rockstroh B, Elbert T, Merzenich MM, Miller GA. Specific cognitive training normalizes auditory sensory gating in schizophrenia: a randomized trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Mar 1; 69(5):465-71.
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      18. Zhou X, de Villers-Sidani E, Panizzutti R, Merzenich MM. Successive-signal biasing for a learned sound sequence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 17; 107(33):14839-44.
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      19. de Villers-Sidani E, Alzghoul L, Zhou X, Simpson KL, Lin RC, Merzenich MM. Recovery of functional and structural age-related changes in the rat primary auditory cortex with operant training. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 3; 107(31):13900-5.
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      20. Coq JO, Barr AE, Strata F, Russier M, Kietrys DM, Merzenich MM, Byl NN, Barbe MF. Peripheral and central changes combine to induce motor behavioral deficits in a moderate repetition task. Exp Neurol. 2009 Dec; 220(2):234-45.
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      21. Guic E, Carrasco X, Rodríguez E, Robles I, Merzenich MM. Plasticity in primary somatosensory cortex resulting from environmentally enriched stimulation and sensory discrimination training. Biol Res. 2008; 41(4):425-37.
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      22. Guic E, Carrasco X, Rodríguez E, Robles I, Merzenich MM. Non-homogeneous spatial configuration of vibrissae cortical representation in layer IV of the barrel somatosensory cortex. Biol Res. 2008; 41(4):461-71.
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      23. Belmonte MK, Bonneh YS, Adini Y, Iversen PE, Akshoomoff NA, Kenet T, Moore CI, Simon HJ, Houde JF, Merzenich MM. Autism overflows with syntheses. Neuropsychol Rev. 2009 Jun; 19(2):273-4.
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      24. Fisher M, Holland C, Merzenich MM, Vinogradov S. Using neuroplasticity-based auditory training to improve verbal memory in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2009 Jul; 166(7):805-11.
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      25. Zhou X, Merzenich MM. Developmentally degraded cortical temporal processing restored by training. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Jan; 12(1):26-8.
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      26. Bonneh YS, Belmonte MK, Pei F, Iversen PE, Kenet T, Akshoomoff N, Adini Y, Simon HJ, Moore CI, Houde JF, Merzenich MM. Cross-modal extinction in a boy with severely autistic behaviour and high verbal intelligence. Cogn Neuropsychol. 2008 Jul; 25(5):635-52.
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      27. de Villers-Sidani E, Simpson KL, Lu YF, Lin RC, Merzenich MM. Manipulating critical period closure across different sectors of the primary auditory cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2008 Aug; 11(8):957-65.
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      28. Zhou X, Merzenich MM. Enduring effects of early structured noise exposure on temporal modulation in the primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 18; 105(11):4423-8.
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      29. Zhou X, Nagarajan N, Mossop BJ, Merzenich MM. Influences of un-modulated acoustic inputs on functional maturation and critical-period plasticity of the primary auditory cortex. Neuroscience. 2008 Jun 12; 154(1):390-6.
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      30. Froemke RC, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE. A synaptic memory trace for cortical receptive field plasticity. Nature. 2007 Nov 15; 450(7168):425-9.
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      31. Coq JO, Strata F, Russier M, Safadi FF, Merzenich MM, Byl NN, Barbe MF. Impact of neonatal asphyxia and hind limb immobilization on musculoskeletal tissues and S1 map organization: implications for cerebral palsy. Exp Neurol. 2008 Mar; 210(1):95-108.
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      32. Zhou X, Merzenich MM. Intensive training in adults refines A1 representations degraded in an early postnatal critical period. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 2; 104(40):15935-40.
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      33. Atencio CA, Blake DT, Strata F, Cheung SW, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE. Frequency-modulation encoding in the primary auditory cortex of the awake owl monkey. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Oct; 98(4):2182-95.
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      34. Kenet T, Froemke RC, Schreiner CE, Pessah IN, Merzenich MM. Perinatal exposure to a noncoplanar polychlorinated biphenyl alters tonotopy, receptive fields, and plasticity in rat primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 May 1; 104(18):7646-51.
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      35. Polley DB, Read HL, Storace DA, Merzenich MM. Multiparametric auditory receptive field organization across five cortical fields in the albino rat. J Neurophysiol. 2007 May; 97(5):3621-38.
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      36. Tan AY, Atencio CA, Polley DB, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE. Unbalanced synaptic inhibition can create intensity-tuned auditory cortex neurons. Neuroscience. 2007 Apr 25; 146(1):449-62.
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      37. de Villers-Sidani E, Chang EF, Bao S, Merzenich MM. Critical period window for spectral tuning defined in the primary auditory cortex (A1) in the rat. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 3; 27(1):180-9.
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      38. Blake DT, Heiser MA, Caywood M, Merzenich MM. Experience-dependent adult cortical plasticity requires cognitive association between sensation and reward. Neuron. 2006 Oct 19; 52(2):371-81.
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      39. Mahncke HW, Connor BB, Appelman J, Ahsanuddin ON, Hardy JL, Wood RA, Joyce NM, Boniske T, Atkins SM, Merzenich MM. Memory enhancement in healthy older adults using a brain plasticity-based training program: a randomized, controlled study. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Aug 15; 103(33):12523-8.
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      40. Polley DB, Steinberg EE, Merzenich MM. Perceptual learning directs auditory cortical map reorganization through top-down influences. J Neurosci. 2006 May 3; 26(18):4970-82.
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      41. Polley DB, Cobos I, Merzenich MM, Rubenstein JL. Severe hearing loss in Dlxl mutant mice. Hear Res. 2006 Apr; 214(1-2):84-8.
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      42. Mahncke HW, Bronstone A, Merzenich MM. Brain plasticity and functional losses in the aged: scientific bases for a novel intervention. Prog Brain Res. 2006; 157:81-109.
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      43. Strata F, deIpolyi AR, Bonham BH, Chang EF, Liu RC, Nakahara H, Merzenich MM. Perinatal anoxia degrades auditory system function in rats. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Dec 27; 102(52):19156-61.
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      44. Chang EF, Bao S, Imaizumi K, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Development of spectral and temporal response selectivity in the auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 8; 102(45):16460-5.
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      45. Blake DT, Strata F, Kempter R, Merzenich MM. Experience-dependent plasticity in S1 caused by noncoincident inputs. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Sep; 94(3):2239-50.
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      46. Kalatsky VA, Polley DB, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE, Stryker MP. Fine functional organization of auditory cortex revealed by Fourier optical imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 13; 102(37):13325-30.
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      47. Orduña I, Mercado E, Gluck MA, Merzenich MM. Cortical responses in rats predict perceptual sensitivities to complex sounds. Behav Neurosci. 2005 Feb; 119(1):256-64.
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      48. Polley DB, Heiser MA, Blake DT, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Associative learning shapes the neural code for stimulus magnitude in primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 16; 101(46):16351-6.
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      49. Bao S, Chang EF, Woods J, Merzenich MM. Temporal plasticity in the primary auditory cortex induced by operant perceptual learning. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Sep; 7(9):974-81.
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      50. Nakahara H, Zhang LI, Merzenich MM. Specialization of primary auditory cortex processing by sound exposure in the "critical period". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 May 4; 101(18):7170-4.
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      51. Tan AY, Zhang LI, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE. Tone-evoked excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances of primary auditory cortex neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2004 Jul; 92(1):630-43.
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      52. Strata F, Coq JO, Byl N, Merzenich MM. Effects of sensorimotor restriction and anoxia on gait and motor cortex organization: implications for a rodent model of cerebral palsy. Neuroscience. 2004; 129(1):141-56.
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      53. Liu RC, Miller KD, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE. Acoustic variability and distinguishability among mouse ultrasound vocalizations. J Acoust Soc Am. 2003 Dec; 114(6 Pt 1):3412-22.
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      54. Bao S, Chang EF, Davis JD, Gobeske KT, Merzenich MM. Progressive degradation and subsequent refinement of acoustic representations in the adult auditory cortex. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 26; 23(34):10765-75.
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      55. McKenzie AL, Nagarajan SS, Roberts TP, Merzenich MM, Byl NN. Somatosensory representation of the digits and clinical performance in patients with focal hand dystonia. Am J Phys Med Rehabil. 2003 Oct; 82(10):737-49.
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      56. Rubenstein JL, Merzenich MM. Model of autism: increased ratio of excitation/inhibition in key neural systems. Genes Brain Behav. 2003 Oct; 2(5):255-67.
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      57. Beitel RE, Schreiner CE, Cheung SW, Wang X, Merzenich MM. Reward-dependent plasticity in the primary auditory cortex of adult monkeys trained to discriminate temporally modulated signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Sep 16; 100(19):11070-5.
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      58. Zhang LI, Tan AY, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Topography and synaptic shaping of direction selectivity in primary auditory cortex. Nature. 2003 Jul 10; 424(6945):201-5.
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      59. Linden JF, Liu RC, Sahani M, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Spectrotemporal structure of receptive fields in areas AI and AAF of mouse auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2003 Oct; 90(4):2660-75.
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      60. Garabedian CE, Jones SR, Merzenich MM, Dale A, Moore CI. Band-pass response properties of rat SI neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2003 Sep; 90(3):1379-91.
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      61. Chang EF, Merzenich MM. Environmental noise retards auditory cortical development. Science. 2003 Apr 18; 300(5618):498-502.
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      62. Temple E, Deutsch GK, Poldrack RA, Miller SL, Tallal P, Merzenich MM, Gabrieli JD. Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: evidence from functional MRI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Mar 4; 100(5):2860-5.
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      63. Bao S, Chan VT, Zhang LI, Merzenich MM. Suppression of cortical representation through backward conditioning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Feb 4; 100(3):1405-8.
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      64. Blake DT, Merzenich MM. Changes of AI receptive fields with sound density. J Neurophysiol. 2002 Dec; 88(6):3409-20.
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      65. Houde JF, Nagarajan SS, Sekihara K, Merzenich MM. Modulation of the auditory cortex during speech: an MEG study. J Cogn Neurosci. 2002 Nov 15; 14(8):1125-38.
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      66. Blake DT, Byl NN, Merzenich MM. Representation of the hand in the cerebral cortex. Behav Brain Res. 2002 Sep 20; 135(1-2):179-84.
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      67. Hickmott PW, Merzenich MM. Local circuit properties underlying cortical reorganization. J Neurophysiol. 2002 Sep; 88(3):1288-301.
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      68. Blake DT, Strata F, Churchland AK, Merzenich MM. Neural correlates of instrumental learning in primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 23; 99(15):10114-9.
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      69. Nagarajan SS, Cheung SW, Bedenbaugh P, Beitel RE, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Representation of spectral and temporal envelope of twitter vocalizations in common marmoset primary auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2002 Apr; 87(4):1723-37.
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      70. Kilgard MP, Merzenich MM. Order-sensitive plasticity in adult primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Mar 5; 99(5):3205-9.
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      71. Zhang LI, Bao S, Merzenich MM. Disruption of primary auditory cortex by synchronous auditory inputs during a critical period. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19; 99(4):2309-14.
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      72. Byl NN, Nagarajan SS, Merzenich MM, Roberts T, McKenzie A. Correlation of clinical neuromusculoskeletal and central somatosensory performance: variability in controls and patients with severe and mild focal hand dystonia. Neural Plast. 2002; 9(3):177-203.
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      73. Blake DT, Byl NN, Cheung S, Bedenbaugh P, Nagarajan S, Lamb M, Merzenich M. Sensory representation abnormalities that parallel focal hand dystonia in a primate model. Somatosens Mot Res. 2002; 19(4):347-57.
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      74. Ahissar E, Nagarajan S, Ahissar M, Protopapas A, Mahncke H, Merzenich MM. Speech comprehension is correlated with temporal response patterns recorded from auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Nov 6; 98(23):13367-72.
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      75. Zhang LI, Bao S, Merzenich MM. Persistent and specific influences of early acoustic environments on primary auditory cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2001 Nov; 4(11):1123-30.
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      76. Orduña I, Mercado E, Gluck MA, Merzenich MM. Spectrotemporal sensitivities in rat auditory cortical neurons. Hear Res. 2001 Oct; 160(1-2):47-57.
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      77. Mercado E, Bao S, Orduña I, Gluck MA, Merzenich MM. Basal forebrain stimulation changes cortical sensitivities to complex sound. Neuroreport. 2001 Jul 20; 12(10):2283-7.
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      78. Bao S, Chan VT, Merzenich MM. Cortical remodelling induced by activity of ventral tegmental dopamine neurons. Nature. 2001 Jul 5; 412(6842):79-83.
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      79. Kilgard MP, Pandya PK, Vazquez J, Gehi A, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Sensory input directs spatial and temporal plasticity in primary auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2001 Jul; 86(1):326-38.
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      80. Poldrack RA, Temple E, Protopapas A, Nagarajan S, Tallal P, Merzenich M, Gabrieli JD. Relations between the neural bases of dynamic auditory processing and phonological processing: evidence from fMRI. J Cogn Neurosci. 2001 Jul 1; 13(5):687-97.
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      81. Temple E, Poldrack RA, Salidis J, Deutsch GK, Tallal P, Merzenich MM, Gabrieli JD. Disrupted neural responses to phonological and orthographic processing in dyslexic children: an fMRI study. Neuroreport. 2001 Feb 12; 12(2):299-307.
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      82. Temple E, Poldrack RA, Protopapas A, Nagarajan S, Salz T, Tallal P, Merzenich MM, Gabrieli JD. Disruption of the neural response to rapid acoustic stimuli in dyslexia: evidence from functional MRI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Dec 5; 97(25):13907-12.
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      83. Sanger TD, Merzenich MM. Computational model of the role of sensory disorganization in focal task-specific dystonia. J Neurophysiol. 2000 Nov; 84(5):2458-64.
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      84. Ahissar M, Protopapas A, Reid M, Merzenich MM. Auditory processing parallels reading abilities in adults. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 6; 97(12):6832-7.
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      85. Merzenich M. Cognitive neuroscience. Seeing in the sound zone. Nature. 2000 Apr 20; 404(6780):820-1.
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      86. Recanzone GH, Schreiner CE, Sutter ML, Beitel RE, Merzenich MM. Functional organization of spectral receptive fields in the primary auditory cortex of the owl monkey. J Comp Neurol. 1999 Dec 27; 415(4):460-81.
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      87. deCharms RC, Blake DT, Merzenich MM. A multielectrode implant device for the cerebral cortex. J Neurosci Methods. 1999 Oct 30; 93(1):27-35.
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      88. Kilgard MP, Merzenich MM. Distributed representation of spectral and temporal information in rat primary auditory cortex. Hear Res. 1999 Aug; 134(1-2):16-28.
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      89. Hickmott PW, Merzenich MM. Dendritic bias of neurons in rat somatosensory cortex associated with a functional boundary. J Comp Neurol. 1999 Jul 5; 409(3):385-99.
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      90. Nagarajan S, Mahncke H, Salz T, Tallal P, Roberts T, Merzenich MM. Cortical auditory signal processing in poor readers. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 May 25; 96(11):6483-8.
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      91. Xerri C, Merzenich MM, Jenkins W, Santucci S. Representational plasticity in cortical area 3b paralleling tactual-motor skill acquisition in adult monkeys. Cereb Cortex. 1999 Apr-May; 9(3):264-76.
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      92. Rebscher SJ, Heilmann M, Bruszewski W, Talbot NH, Snyder RL, Merzenich MM. Strategies to improve electrode positioning and safety in cochlear implants. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1999 Mar; 46(3):340-52.
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      93. Buonomano DV, Merzenich M. A neural network model of temporal code generation and position-invariant pattern recognition. Neural Comput. 1999 Jan 1; 11(1):103-16.
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      94. Kilgard MP, Merzenich MM. Plasticity of temporal information processing in the primary auditory cortex. Nat Neurosci. 1998 Dec; 1(8):727-31.
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      95. Merzenich M. Long-term change of mind. Science. 1998 Nov 6; 282(5391):1062-3.
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      96. Tallal P, Merzenich MM, Miller S, Jenkins W. Language learning impairments: integrating basic science, technology, and remediation. Exp Brain Res. 1998 Nov; 123(1-2):210-9.
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      97. Buonomano DV, Merzenich MM. Net interaction between different forms of short-term synaptic plasticity and slow-IPSPs in the hippocampus and auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol. 1998 Oct; 80(4):1765-74.
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      98. Tallal P, Merzenich M, Miller S, Jenkins W. Language learning impairment: integrating research and remediation. Scand J Psychol. 1998 Sep; 39(3):197-9.
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      99. Nagarajan SS, Wang X, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE, Johnston P, Jenkins WM, Miller S, Tallal P. Speech modifications algorithms used for training language learning-impaired children. IEEE Trans Rehabil Eng. 1998 Sep; 6(3):257-68.
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      100. Hickmott PW, Merzenich MM. Single-cell correlates of a representational boundary in rat somatosensory cortex. J Neurosci. 1998 Jun 1; 18(11):4403-16.
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      101. deCharms RC, Blake DT, Merzenich MM. Optimizing sound features for cortical neurons. Science. 1998 May 29; 280(5368):1439-43.
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      102. Xerri C, Merzenich MM, Peterson BE, Jenkins W. Plasticity of primary somatosensory cortex paralleling sensorimotor skill recovery from stroke in adult monkeys. J Neurophysiol. 1998 Apr; 79(4):2119-48.
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      103. Kilgard MP, Merzenich MM. Cortical map reorganization enabled by nucleus basalis activity. Science. 1998 Mar 13; 279(5357):1714-8.
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      104. Peterson BE, Goldreich D, Merzenich MM. Optical imaging and electrophysiology of rat barrel cortex. I. Responses to small single-vibrissa deflections. Cereb Cortex. 1998 Mar; 8(2):173-83.
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      105. Goldreich D, Peterson BE, Merzenich MM. Optical imaging and electrophysiology of rat barrel cortex. II. Responses to paired-vibrissa deflections. Cereb Cortex. 1998 Mar; 8(2):184-92.
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      106. Nagarajan SS, Blake DT, Wright BA, Byl N, Merzenich MM. Practice-related improvements in somatosensory interval discrimination are temporally specific but generalize across skin location, hemisphere, and modality. J Neurosci. 1998 Feb 15; 18(4):1559-70.
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      107. Buonomano DV, Merzenich MM. Cortical plasticity: from synapses to maps. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1998; 21:149-86.
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      108. Buonomano DV, Hickmott PW, Merzenich MM. Context-sensitive synaptic plasticity and temporal-to-spatial transformations in hippocampal slices. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Sep 16; 94(19):10403-8.
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      109. Spengler F, Roberts TP, Poeppel D, Byl N, Wang X, Rowley HA, Merzenich MM. Learning transfer and neuronal plasticity in humans trained in tactile discrimination. Neurosci Lett. 1997 Sep 5; 232(3):151-4.
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      110. Wright BA, Buonomano DV, Mahncke HW, Merzenich MM. Learning and generalization of auditory temporal-interval discrimination in humans. J Neurosci. 1997 May 15; 17(10):3956-63.
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      111. Wright BA, Lombardino LJ, King WM, Puranik CS, Leonard CM, Merzenich MM. Deficits in auditory temporal and spectral resolution in language-impaired children. Nature. 1997 May 8; 387(6629):176-8.
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      112. Brecht M, Preilowski B, Merzenich MM. Functional architecture of the mystacial vibrissae. Behav Brain Res. 1997 Mar; 84(1-2):81-97.
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      113. Byl NN, Merzenich MM, Cheung S, Bedenbaugh P, Nagarajan SS, Jenkins WM. A primate model for studying focal dystonia and repetitive strain injury: effects on the primary somatosensory cortex. Phys Ther. 1997 Mar; 77(3):269-84.
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      114. Byl NN, Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM. A primate genesis model of focal dystonia and repetitive strain injury: I. Learning-induced dedifferentiation of the representation of the hand in the primary somatosensory cortex in adult monkeys. Neurology. 1996 Aug; 47(2):508-20.
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      115. Buonomano DV, Merzenich MM. Associative synaptic plasticity in hippocampal CA1 neurons is not sensitive to unpaired presynaptic activity. J Neurophysiol. 1996 Jul; 76(1):631-6.
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      116. deCharms RC, Merzenich MM. Primary cortical representation of sounds by the coordination of action-potential timing. Nature. 1996 Jun 13; 381(6583):610-3.
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      117. Byl N, Wilson F, Merzenich M, Melnick M, Scott P, Oakes A, McKenzie A. Sensory dysfunction associated with repetitive strain injuries of tendinitis and focal hand dystonia: a comparative study. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1996 Apr; 23(4):234-44.
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      118. Nudo RJ, Milliken GW, Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM. Use-dependent alterations of movement representations in primary motor cortex of adult squirrel monkeys. J Neurosci. 1996 Jan 15; 16(2):785-807.
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      119. Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM, Johnston P, Schreiner C, Miller SL, Tallal P. Temporal processing deficits of language-learning impaired children ameliorated by training. Science. 1996 Jan 5; 271(5245):77-81.
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      120. Tallal P, Miller SL, Bedi G, Byma G, Wang X, Nagarajan SS, Schreiner C, Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM. Language comprehension in language-learning impaired children improved with acoustically modified speech. Science. 1996 Jan 5; 271(5245):81-4.
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      121. Merzenich M, Wright B, Jenkins W, Xerri C, Byl N, Miller S, Tallal P. Cortical plasticity underlying perceptual, motor, and cognitive skill development: implications for neurorehabilitation. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1996; 61:1-8.
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      122. Xerri C, Coq JO, Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM. Experience-induced plasticity of cutaneous maps in the primary somatosensory cortex of adult monkeys and rats. J Physiol Paris. 1996; 90(3-4):277-87.
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      123. Rebscher SJ, Talbot N, Bruszewski W, Heilmann M, Brasell J, Merzenich MM. A transparent model of the human scala tympani cavity. J Neurosci Methods. 1996 Jan; 64(1):105-14.
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      124. Wang X, Merzenich MM, Beitel R, Schreiner CE. Representation of a species-specific vocalization in the primary auditory cortex of the common marmoset: temporal and spectral characteristics. J Neurophysiol. 1995 Dec; 74(6):2685-706.
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      125. Wang X, Merzenich MM, Sameshima K, Jenkins WM. Remodelling of hand representation in adult cortex determined by timing of tactile stimulation. Nature. 1995 Nov 2; 378(6552):71-5.
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      126. Peterson BE, Merzenich MM. EXP: a Macintosh program for automating data acquisition and analysis applied to neurophysiology. J Neurosci Methods. 1995 Apr; 57(2):121-31.
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      127. Peterson BE, Merzenich MM. MAP: a Macintosh program for generating categorical maps applied to cortical mapping. J Neurosci Methods. 1995 Apr; 57(2):133-44.
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      128. Kilgard MP, Merzenich MM. Anticipated stimuli across skin. Nature. 1995 Feb 23; 373(6516):663.
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      129. Buonomano DV, Merzenich MM. Temporal information transformed into a spatial code by a neural network with realistic properties. Science. 1995 Feb 17; 267(5200):1028-30.
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      130. Xerri C, Stern JM, Merzenich MM. Alterations of the cortical representation of the rat ventrum induced by nursing behavior. J Neurosci. 1994 Mar; 14(3 Pt 2):1710-21.
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      131. Dinse HR, Recanzone GH, Merzenich MM. Alterations in correlated activity parallel ICMS-induced representational plasticity. Neuroreport. 1993 Nov 18; 5(2):173-6.
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      132. Merzenich MM, Schreiner C, Jenkins W, Wang X. Neural mechanisms underlying temporal integration, segmentation, and input sequence representation: some implications for the origin of learning disabilities. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1993 Jun 14; 682:1-22.
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      133. Merzenich MM, Sameshima K. Cortical plasticity and memory. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1993 Apr; 3(2):187-96.
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      134. Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM. Reorganization of cortical representations of the hand following alterations of skin inputs induced by nerve injury, skin island transfers, and experience. J Hand Ther. 1993 Apr-Jun; 6(2):89-104.
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      135. Recanzone GH, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Plasticity in the frequency representation of primary auditory cortex following discrimination training in adult owl monkeys. J Neurosci. 1993 Jan; 13(1):87-103.
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      136. Nudo RJ, Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM, Prejean T, Grenda R. Neurophysiological correlates of hand preference in primary motor cortex of adult squirrel monkeys. J Neurosci. 1992 Aug; 12(8):2918-47.
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      137. Leake PA, Snyder RL, Merzenich MM. Topographic organization of the cochlear spiral ganglion demonstrated by restricted lesions of the anteroventral cochlear nucleus. J Comp Neurol. 1992 Jun 22; 320(4):468-78.
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      138. Recanzone GH, Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM, Grajski KA, Dinse HR. Topographic reorganization of the hand representation in cortical area 3b owl monkeys trained in a frequency-discrimination task. J Neurophysiol. 1992 May; 67(5):1031-56.
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      139. Recanzone GH, Merzenich MM, Jenkins WM. Frequency discrimination training engaging a restricted skin surface results in an emergence of a cutaneous response zone in cortical area 3a. J Neurophysiol. 1992 May; 67(5):1057-70.
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      140. Recanzone GH, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE. Changes in the distributed temporal response properties of SI cortical neurons reflect improvements in performance on a temporally based tactile discrimination task. J Neurophysiol. 1992 May; 67(5):1071-91.
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      141. Recanzone GH, Merzenich MM, Dinse HR. Expansion of the cortical representation of a specific skin field in primary somatosensory cortex by intracortical microstimulation. Cereb Cortex. 1992 May-Jun; 2(3):181-96.
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      142. Recanzone GH, Jenkins WM, Hradek GT, Merzenich MM. Progressive improvement in discriminative abilities in adult owl monkeys performing a tactile frequency discrimination task. J Neurophysiol. 1992 May; 67(5):1015-30.
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      143. Allard T, Clark SA, Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM. Reorganization of somatosensory area 3b representations in adult owl monkeys after digital syndactyly. J Neurophysiol. 1991 Sep; 66(3):1048-58.
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      144. McKerrow WS, Schreiner CE, Snyder RL, Merzenich MM, Toner JG. Tinnitus suppression by cochlear implants. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1991 Jul; 100(7):552-8.
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      145. White MW, Ochs MT, Merzenich MM, Schubert ED. Speech recognition in analog multichannel cochlear prostheses: initial experiments in controlling classifications. IEEE Trans Biomed Eng. 1990 Oct; 37(10):1002-10.
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      146. Recanzone GH, Allard TT, Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM. Receptive-field changes induced by peripheral nerve stimulation in SI of adult cats. J Neurophysiol. 1990 May; 63(5):1213-25.
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      147. Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM, Ochs MT, Allard T, Guíc-Robles E. Functional reorganization of primary somatosensory cortex in adult owl monkeys after behaviorally controlled tactile stimulation. J Neurophysiol. 1990 Jan; 63(1):82-104.
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      148. Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM, Recanzone G. Neocortical representational dynamics in adult primates: implications for neuropsychology. Neuropsychologia. 1990; 28(6):573-84.
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      149. Merzenich MM, Recanzone GH, Jenkins WM, Grajski KA. Adaptive mechanisms in cortical networks underlying cortical contributions to learning and nondeclarative memory. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1990; 55:873-87.
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      150. Nudo RJ, Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM. Repetitive microstimulation alters the cortical representation of movements in adult rats. Somatosens Mot Res. 1990; 7(4):463-83.
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      151. Wilson BS, Finley CC, Farmer JC, Lawson DT, Weber BA, Wolford RD, Kenan PD, White MW, Merzenich MM, Schindler RA. Comparative studies of speech processing strategies for cochlear implants. Laryngoscope. 1988 Oct; 98(10):1069-77.
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      152. Ehret G, Merzenich MM. Neuronal discharge rate is unsuitable for encoding sound intensity at the inferior-colliculus level. Hear Res. 1988 Sep 1; 35(1):1-7.
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      153. Ehret G, Merzenich MM. Complex sound analysis (frequency resolution, filtering and spectral integration) by single units of the inferior colliculus of the cat. Brain Res. 1988 Apr-Jun; 472(2):139-63.
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      154. Clark SA, Allard T, Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM. Receptive fields in the body-surface map in adult cortex defined by temporally correlated inputs. Nature. 1988 Mar 31; 332(6163):444-5.
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      155. Snow PJ, Nudo RJ, Rivers W, Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM. Somatotopically inappropriate projections from thalamocortical neurons to the SI cortex of the cat demonstrated by the use of intracortical microstimulation. Somatosens Res. 1988; 5(4):349-72.
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      156. Langner G, Schreiner C, Merzenich MM. Covariation of latency and temporal resolution in the inferior colliculus of the cat. Hear Res. 1987 Dec; 31(2):197-201.
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      157. Stryker MP, Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM. Anesthetic state does not affect the map of the hand representation within area 3b somatosensory cortex in owl monkey. J Comp Neurol. 1987 Apr 8; 258(2):297-303.
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      158. Merzenich MM, Nelson RJ, Kaas JH, Stryker MP, Jenkins WM, Zook JM, Cynader MS, Schoppmann A. Variability in hand surface representations in areas 3b and 1 in adult owl and squirrel monkeys. J Comp Neurol. 1987 Apr 8; 258(2):281-96.
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      159. McKinley PA, Jenkins WM, Smith JL, Merzenich MM. Age-dependent capacity for somatosensory cortex reorganization in chronic spinal cats. Brain Res. 1987 Jan; 428(1):136-9.
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      160. Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM. Reorganization of neocortical representations after brain injury: a neurophysiological model of the bases of recovery from stroke. Prog Brain Res. 1987; 71:249-66.
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      161. Schindler RA, Kessler DK, Rebscher SJ, Jackler RK, Merzenich MM. Surgical considerations and hearing results with the UCSF/Storz cochlear implant. Laryngoscope. 1987 Jan; 97(1):50-6.
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      162. Aitkin LM, Merzenich MM, Irvine DR, Clarey JC, Nelson JE. Frequency representation in auditory cortex of the common marmoset (Callithrix jacchus jacchus). J Comp Neurol. 1986 Oct 8; 252(2):175-85.
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      163. Aitkin LM, Irvine DR, Nelson JE, Merzenich MM, Clarey JC. Frequency representation in the auditory midbrain and forebrain of a marsupial, the northern native cat (Dasyurus hallucatus). Brain Behav Evol. 1986; 29(1-2):17-28.
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      164. Wall JT, Kaas JH, Sur M, Nelson RJ, Felleman DJ, Merzenich MM. Functional reorganization in somatosensory cortical areas 3b and 1 of adult monkeys after median nerve repair: possible relationships to sensory recovery in humans. J Neurosci. 1986 Jan; 6(1):218-33.
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      165. Ehret G, Merzenich MM. Auditory midbrain responses parallel spectral integration phenomena. Science. 1985 Mar 8; 227(4691):1245-7.
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      166. Jenkins WM, Merzenich MM. Role of cat primary auditory cortex for sound-localization behavior. J Neurophysiol. 1984 Nov; 52(5):819-47.
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      167. White MW, Merzenich MM, Gardi JN. Multichannel cochlear implants. Channel interactions and processor design. Arch Otolaryngol. 1984 Aug; 110(8):493-501.
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      168. Kaas JH, Nelson RJ, Sur M, Dykes RW, Merzenich MM. The somatotopic organization of the ventroposterior thalamus of the squirrel monkey, Saimiri sciureus. J Comp Neurol. 1984 Jun 10; 226(1):111-40.
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      169. Merzenich MM, Nelson RJ, Stryker MP, Cynader MS, Schoppmann A, Zook JM. Somatosensory cortical map changes following digit amputation in adult monkeys. J Comp Neurol. 1984 Apr 20; 224(4):591-605.
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      170. Merzenich MM, Kaas JH, Wall JT, Sur M, Nelson RJ, Felleman DJ. Progression of change following median nerve section in the cortical representation of the hand in areas 3b and 1 in adult owl and squirrel monkeys. Neuroscience. 1983 Nov; 10(3):639-65.
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      171. Loeb GE, Byers CL, Rebscher SJ, Casey DE, Fong MM, Schindler RA, Gray RF, Merzenich MM. Design and fabrication of an experimental cochlear prosthesis. Med Biol Eng Comput. 1983 May; 21(3):241-54.
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      172. Kaas JH, Merzenich MM, Killackey HP. The reorganization of somatosensory cortex following peripheral nerve damage in adult and developing mammals. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1983; 6:325-56.
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      173. Merzenich MM, Kaas JH, Wall J, Nelson RJ, Sur M, Felleman D. Topographic reorganization of somatosensory cortical areas 3b and 1 in adult monkeys following restricted deafferentation. Neuroscience. 1983 Jan; 8(1):33-55.
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      174. Merzenich MM. Coding of sound in a cochlear prosthesis: some theoretical and practical considerations. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1983; 405:502-8.
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      175. Loeb GE, White MW, Merzenich MM. Spatial cross-correlation. A proposed mechanism for acoustic pitch perception. Biol Cybern. 1983; 47(3):149-63.
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      176. Leake-Jones PA, Vivion MC, O'Reilly BF, Merzenich MM. Deaf animal models for studies of a multichannel cochlear prosthesis. Hear Res. 1982 Oct; 8(2):225-46.
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      177. Wong-Riley MT, Walsh SM, Leake-Jones PA, Merzenich MM. Maintenance of neuronal activity by electrical stimulation of unilaterally deafened cats demonstrable with cytochrome oxidase technique. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1981 Mar-Apr; 90(2 Pt 3):30-2.
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      178. Vivion MC, Merzenich MM, Leake-Jones PA, White M, Silverman M. Electrode position and excitation patterns for a model cochlear prosthesis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1981 Mar-Apr; 90(2 Pt 3):19-20.
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      179. Walsh SM, Leake-Jones PA, Vurek LS, Merzenich MM. Chronic electrical stimulation with intracochlear electrodes: electrophysiological results. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1981 Mar-Apr; 90(2 Pt 3):27-9.
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      180. Leake-Jones PA, Walsh SM, Merzenich MM. Cochlear pathology following chronic intracochlear electrical stimulation. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1981 Mar-Apr; 90(2 Pt 3):6-8.
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      181. Dykes RW, Sur M, Merzenich MM, Kaas JH, Nelson RJ. Regional segregation of neurons responding to quickly adapting, slowly adapting, deep and Pacinian receptors within thalamic ventroposterior lateral and ventroposterior inferior nuclei in the squirrel monkey (Saimiri sciureus). Neuroscience. 1981; 6(8):1687-92.
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      182. Andersen RA, Roth GL, Aitkin LM, Merzenich MM. The efferent projections of the central nucleus and the pericentral nucleus of the inferior colliculus in the cat. J Comp Neurol. 1980 Dec 1; 194(3):649-62.
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      183. Andersen RA, Knight PL, Merzenich MM. The thalamocortical and corticothalamic connections of AI, AII, and the anterior auditory field (AAF) in the cat: evidence for two largely segregated systems of connections. J Comp Neurol. 1980 Dec 1; 194(3):663-701.
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      184. Merzenich MM, White M. Coding considerations in design of cochlear prostheses. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol Suppl. 1980 Sep-Oct; 89(5 Pt 2):84-7.
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      185. Sur M, Merzenich MM, Kaas JH. Magnification, receptive-field area, and "hypercolumn" size in areas 3b and 1 of somatosensory cortex in owl monkeys. J Neurophysiol. 1980 Aug; 44(2):295-311.
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      186. Andersen RA, Snyder RL, Merzenich MM. The topographic organization of corticocollicular projections from physiologically identified loci in the AI, AII, and anterior auditory cortical fields of the cat. J Comp Neurol. 1980 Jun; 191(3):479-94.
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      187. Middlebrooks JC, Dykes RW, Merzenich MM. Binaural response-specific bands in primary auditory cortex (AI) of the cat: topographical organization orthogonal to isofrequency contours. Brain Res. 1980 Jan 6; 181(1):31-48.
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      188. Merzenich MM, Byers CL, White M, Vivion MC. Cochlear implant prostheses: strategies and progress. Ann Biomed Eng. 1980; 8(4-6):361-8.
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      189. Walsh SM, Merzenich MM, Schindler RA, Leake-Jones PA. Some practical considerations in development of multichannel scala tympani prostheses. Audiology. 1980; 19(2):164-75.
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      190. Lin CS, Merzenich MM, Sur M, Kaas JH. Connections of areas 3b and 1 of the parietal somatosensory strip with the ventroposterior nucleus in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). J Comp Neurol. 1979 May 15; 185(2):355-71.
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      191. Kaas JH, Nelson RJ, Sur M, Lin CS, Merzenich MM. Multiple representations of the body within the primary somatosensory cortex of primates. Science. 1979 May 4; 204(4392):521-3.
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      192. Merzenich MM, White M, Vivion MC, Leake-Jones PA, Walsh S. Some considerations of multichannel electrical stimulation of the auditory nerve in the profoundly deaf; interfacing electrode arrays with the auditory nerve array. Acta Otolaryngol. 1979 Mar-Apr; 87(3-4):196-203.
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      193. Gardi J, Merzenich M, McKean C. Origins of the scalp recorded frequency-following response in the cat. Audiology. 1979; 18(5):358-81.
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      194. Roth GL, Aitkin LM, Andersen RA, Merzenich MM. Some features of the spatial organization of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus of the cat. J Comp Neurol. 1978 Dec 15; 182(4):661-80.
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      195. Merzenich MM, Kaas JH, Sur M, Lin CS. Double representation of the body surface within cytoarchitectonic areas 3b and 1 in "SI" in the owl monkey (Aotus trivirgatus). J Comp Neurol. 1978 Sep 1; 181(1):41-73.
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      196. Weisskopf A, Murphy JT, Merzenich MM. Genesis of the round window rupture syndrome; some experimental observations. Laryngoscope. 1978 Mar; 88(3):389-97.
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      197. Wong-Riley MT, Merzenich MM, Leake PA. Changes in endogenous enzymatic reactivity to DAB induced by neuronal inactivity. Brain Res. 1978 Feb 3; 141(1):185-92.
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      198. Schindler RA, Merzenich MM, White MW, Bjorkroth B. Multielectrode intracochlear implants. Nerve survival and stimulation patterns. Arch Otolaryngol. 1977 Dec; 103(12):691-9.
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      199. Merzenich MM, White MW, Leake PA, Schindler RA, Michelson RP. Further progress in the development of multichannel cochlear implants. Trans Sect Otolaryngol Am Acad Ophthalmol Otolaryngol. 1977 Mar-Apr; 84(2):181-2.
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      200. Merzenich MM, Kaas JH, Roth GL. Auditory cortex in the grey squirrel: tonotopic organization and architectonic fields. J Comp Neurol. 1976 Apr 15; 166(4):387-401.
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      201. Greenwood DD, Merzenich MM, Roth GL. Some preliminary observations on the interrelations between two-tone suppression and combination-tone driving in the anteroventral cochlear nucleus of the cat. J Acoust Soc Am. 1976 Mar; 59(3):607-33.
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      202. Michelson RP, Merzenich MM, Schindler RA, Schindler DN. Present status and future development of the cochlear prosthesis. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1975 Jul-Aug; 84(4 Pt 1):494-8.
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      203. Merzenich MM, Knight PL, Roth GL. Representation of cochlea within primary auditory cortex in the cat. J Neurophysiol. 1975 Mar; 38(2):231-49.
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      204. Merzenich MM, Schindler DN, White MW. Feasibility of multichannel scala tympani stimulation. Laryngoscope. 1974 Nov; 84(11):1887-93.
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      205. Merzenich MM, Reid MD. Representation of the cochlea within the inferior colliculus of the cat. Brain Res. 1974 Sep 13; 77(3):397-415.
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      206. Schindler RA, Merzenich MM. Chronic intracochlear electrode implantation: cochlear pathology and acoustic nerve survival. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1974 Mar-Apr; 83(2):202-15.
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      207. Merzenich MM, Knight PL, Roth GL. Cochleotopic organization of primary auditory cortex in the cat. Brain Res. 1973 Dec 7; 63:343-6.
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      208. Brugge JF, Merzenich MM. Responses of neurons in auditory cortex of the macaque monkey to monaural and binaural stimulation. J Neurophysiol. 1973 Nov; 36(6):1138-58.
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      209. Merzenich MM, Kitzes L, Aitkin L. Anatomical and physiological evidence for auditory specialization in the mountain beaver (Aplodontia rufa). Brain Res. 1973 Aug 30; 58(2):331-44.
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      210. Michelson RP, Merzenich MM, Pettit CR, Schindler RA. A cochlear prosthesis: further clinical observations; preliminary results of physiological studies. Laryngoscope. 1973 Jul; 83(7):1116-22.
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      211. Merzenich MM, Michelson RP, Pettit CR, Schindler RA, Reid M. Neural encoding of sound sensation evoked by electrical stimulation of the acoustic nerve. Ann Otol Rhinol Laryngol. 1973 Jul-Aug; 82(4):486-503.
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      212. Merzenich MM, Brugge JF. Representation of the cochlear partition of the superior temporal plane of the macaque monkey. Brain Res. 1973 Feb 28; 50(2):275-96.
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      213. Paul RL, Goodman H, Merzenich M. Alterations in mechanoreceptor input to Brodmann's areas 1 and 3 of the postcentral hand area of Macaca mulatta after nerve section and regeneration. Brain Res. 1972 Apr 14; 39(1):1-19.
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      214. Paul RL, Merzenich M, Goodman H. Representation of slowly and rapidly adapting cutaneous mechanoreceptors of the hand in Brodmann's areas 3 and 1 of Macaca mulatta. Brain Res. 1972 Jan 28; 36(2):229-49.
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      215. Harrington T, Merzenich MM. Neural coding in the sense of touch: human sensations of skin indentation compared with the responses of slowly adapting mechanoreceptive afferents innvervating the hairy skin of monkeys. Exp Brain Res. 1970; 10(3):251-64.
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      216. Merzenich MM, Harrington TH. The sense of flutter-vibration evoked by stimulation of the hairy skin of primates: comparison of human sensory capacity with the responses of mechanoreceptive afferents innervating the hairy skin of monkeys. Exp Brain Res. 1969; 9(3):236-60.
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