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Edward Chang, MD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentNeurological Surgery
Address513 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-502-7346
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoM.D.2004 Medicine

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    A unique and defining trait of human behavior is our ability to communicate through speech. My laboratory is interested in determining the basic mechanisms that underlie speech perception and production. While much of this processing has been localized to the peri-sylvian cortex, including Broca’s and Wernicke’s areas, the fundamental organizational principles of these neural circuits are completely unknown.

    To address this, my laboratory applies a variety of experimental approaches including psychophysics, local field potential and microelectrode array recordings, electrocortical stimulation, and real-time signal processing. These methods allow us to examine both local circuitry and global network dynamics spanning multiple cortical and sub-cortical regions with unparalleled spatial and temporal resolution in humans.

    Our central goal is to provide a mechanistic account for the major properties of speech behavior in normal speakers and those with language disorders. Our ongoing research is not only deepening understanding of speech and its disorders, but also is leading directly to safer brain mapping methods to preserve language function during awake neurosurgical procedures.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Functional organization of the superior temporal gyrus for speech perception
    NIH/NIDCD R01DC012379Apr 1, 2012 - Mar 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Functional Architecture of Human Speech Motor Cortex
    NIH DP2OD008627Sep 30, 2011 - Jun 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Neocortical Mechanisms of Categorical Speech Perception
    NIH/NINDS R00NS065120Sep 25, 2009 - Aug 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Neocortical Mechanisms of Categorical Speech Perception
    NIH/NINDS K99NS065120Sep 25, 2009 - Aug 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Electrocorticographic Study of Categorical Phoneme Perception in the Human Tempor
    NIH/NINDS F32NS061552Jul 1, 2008 - Jun 30, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Clinical Trials

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Rao VR, Leonard MK, Kleen JK, Lucas BA, Mirro EA, Chang E. Chronic ambulatory electrocorticography from human speech cortex. Neuroimage. 2017 Jun; 153:273-282. PMID: 28396294.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Leonard MK, Baud MO, Sjerps MJ, Chang E. Perceptual restoration of masked speech in human cortex. Nat Commun. 2016 Dec 20; 7:13619. PMID: 27996973.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Rolston JD, Han SJ, Chang E. Systemic inaccuracies in the National Surgical Quality Improvement Program database: Implications for accuracy and validity for neurosurgery outcomes research. J Clin Neurosci. 2016 Nov 15. PMID: 27863971.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Rübel O, Dougherty M, Denes P, Conant D, Chang E, Bouchard K. Methods for Specifying Scientific Data Standards and Modeling Relationships with Applications to Neuroscience. Front Neuroinform. 2016; 10:48. PMID: 27867355.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Godlove J, Gulati T, Dichter B, Chang E, Ganguly K. Muscle synergies after stroke are correlated with perilesional high gamma. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2016 Dec; 3(12):956-961. PMID: 28097208.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Johanns TM, Miller CA, Dorward IG, Tsien C, Chang E, Perry A, Uppaluri R, Ferguson C, Schmidt RE, Dahiya S, Ansstas G, Mardis ER, Dunn GP. Immunogenomics of Hypermutated Glioblastoma: A Patient with Germline POLE Deficiency Treated with Checkpoint Blockade Immunotherapy. Cancer Discov. 2016 Nov; 6(11):1230-1236. PMID: 27683556.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Wright CW, Hassnain KH, Chang E. Rates and Predictors of Seizure Freedom With Vagus Nerve Stimulation for Intractable Epilepsy. Neurosurgery. 2016 Sep; 79(3):345-53. PMID: 26645965.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Muller L, Hamilton LS, Edwards E, Bouchard KE, Chang E. Spatial resolution dependence on spectral frequency in human speech cortex electrocorticography. J Neural Eng. 2016 Oct; 13(5):056013. PMID: 27578414.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Moses DA, Mesgarani N, Leonard MK, Chang E, et al. Neural speech recognition: continuous phoneme decoding using spatiotemporal representations of human cortical activity. J Neural Eng. 2016 Aug 3; 13(5):056004. PMID: 27484713.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Wang DD, Kirsch HE, Nagarajan SS, Chang E. 206 Spikes, Slowing, and Functional Connectivity: Multimodal Magnetoencephalography in Epilepsy Surgery. Neurosurgery. 2016 Aug; 63 Suppl 1:181. PMID: 27399485.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Leonard MK, Cai R, Babiak MC, Ren A, Chang E, et al. The peri-Sylvian cortical network underlying single word repetition revealed by electrocortical stimulation and direct neural recordings. Brain Lang. 2016 Jul 19. PMID: 27450996.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Dichter BK, Bouchard KE, Chang E. Dynamic Structure of Neural Variability in the Cortical Representation of Speech Sounds. J Neurosci. 2016 Jul 13; 36(28):7453-63. PMID: 27413155.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Imber BS, Kanungo I, Braunstein S, Barani IJ, Fogh SE, Nakamura JL, Berger MS, Chang E, Molinaro AM, Cabrera JR, McDermott MW, Sneed PK, Aghi MK. Indications and Efficacy of Gamma Knife Stereotactic Radiosurgery for Recurrent Glioblastoma: 2 Decades of Institutional Experience. Neurosurgery. 2016 Jul 13. PMID: 27428784.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Englot DJ, Birk H, Chang E. Seizure outcomes in nonresective epilepsy surgery: an update. Neurosurg Rev. 2016 May 21. PMID: 27206422.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Knowlton RC, Chang E. Rate and complications of adult epilepsy surgery in North America: Analysis of multiple databases. Epilepsy Res. 2016 Aug; 124:55-62. PMID: 27259069.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Bouchard KE, Conant DF, Anumanchipalli GK, Dichter B, Chaisanguanthum KS, Johnson K, Chang E. High-Resolution, Non-Invasive Imaging of Upper Vocal Tract Articulators Compatible with Human Brain Recordings. PLoS One. 2016; 11(3):e0151327. PMID: 27019106.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Cheung C, Hamiton LS, Johnson K, Chang E. The auditory representation of speech sounds in human motor cortex. Elife. 2016; 5. PMID: 26943778.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Chang E, Breshears JD, Raygor KP, Lau D, Molinaro AM, Berger MS. Stereotactic probability and variability of speech arrest and anomia sites during stimulation mapping of the language dominant hemisphere. J Neurosurg. 2017 Jan; 126(1):114-121. PMID: 26894457.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Bennett ML, Bennett FC, Liddelow SA, Ajami B, Zamanian JL, Fernhoff NB, Mulinyawe SB, Bohlen CJ, Adil A, Tucker A, Weissman IL, Chang E, Li G, Grant GA, Hayden Gephart MG, Barres BA. New tools for studying microglia in the mouse and human CNS. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Mar 22; 113(12):E1738-46. PMID: 26884166.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Cornes S, Chang E. Major and minor complications in extraoperative electrocorticography: A review of a national database. Epilepsy Res. 2016 May; 122:26-9. PMID: 26921853.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Fonken YM, Rieger JW, Tzvi E, Crone NE, Chang E, Parvizi J, Knight RT, Krämer UM. Frontal and motor cortex contributions to response inhibition: evidence from electrocorticography. J Neurophysiol. 2016 Apr 1; 115(4):2224-36. PMID: 26864760.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Hullett PW, Hamilton LS, Mesgarani N, Schreiner CE, Chang E. Human Superior Temporal Gyrus Organization of Spectrotemporal Modulation Tuning Derived from Speech Stimuli. J Neurosci. 2016 Feb 10; 36(6):2014-26. PMID: 26865624.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Englot DJ, Nagarajan SS, Wang DD, Rolston JD, Mizuiri D, Honma SM, Mantle M, Tarapore PE, Knowlton RC, Chang E, Kirsch HE. The sensitivity and significance of lateralized interictal slow activity on magnetoencephalography in focal epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2016 Mar; 121:21-8. PMID: 26871959.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Zaghloul KA, Chang E. Minimally Invasive Epilepsy Surgery. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2016 Jan; 27(1):xiii-xiv. PMID: 26615115.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Englot DJ, Chang E, Vecht CJ. Epilepsy and brain tumors. Handb Clin Neurol. 2016; 134:267-85. PMID: 26948360.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Panov F, Li Y, Chang E, Knowlton R, Cornes SB. Epilepsy with temporal encephalocele: Characteristics of electrocorticography and surgical outcome. Epilepsia. 2016 Feb; 57(2):e33-8. PMID: 26682848.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Zhang Y, Sloan SA, Clarke LE, Caneda C, Plaza CA, Blumenthal PD, Vogel H, Steinberg GK, Edwards MS, Li G, Duncan JA, Cheshier SH, Shuer LM, Chang E, Grant GA, Gephart MG, Barres BA. Purification and Characterization of Progenitor and Mature Human Astrocytes Reveals Transcriptional and Functional Differences with Mouse. Neuron. 2016 Jan 6; 89(1):37-53. PMID: 26687838.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Wang DD, Knox R, Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Barkovich AJ, Tihan T, Auguste KI, Knowlton RC, Cornes SB, Chang E. Surgical management of medically refractory epilepsy in patients with polymicrogyria. Epilepsia. 2016 Jan; 57(1):151-61. PMID: 26647903.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Englot DJ, Magill ST, Han SJ, Chang E, Berger MS, McDermott MW. Seizures in supratentorial meningioma: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurosurg. 2016 Jun; 124(6):1552-61. PMID: 26636386.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Rolston JD, Chang E. Stereotactic Laser Ablation for Hypothalamic Hamartoma. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2016 Jan; 27(1):59-67. PMID: 26615108.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Meng L, Han SJ, Rollins MD, Gelb AW, Chang E. Awake brain tumor resection during pregnancy: Decision making and technical nuances. J Clin Neurosci. 2016 Feb; 24:160-2. PMID: 26498092.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Magaki S, Chang E, Hammond RR, Yang I, Mackenzie IR, Chou BT, Choi SI, Jen JC, Pope WB, Bell DA, Vinters HV. Two cases of rheumatoid meningitis. Neuropathology. 2016 Feb; 36(1):93-102. PMID: 26350538.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Wang DD, Garcia PA, Chang E. Corpus callosotomy versus vagus nerve stimulation for atonic seizures and drop attacks: A systematic review. Epilepsy Behav. 2015 Oct; 51:13-7. PMID: 26247311.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Voytek B, Kayser AS, Badre D, Fegen D, Chang E, Crone NE, Parvizi J, Knight RT, D'Esposito M. Oscillatory dynamics coordinating human frontal networks in support of goal maintenance. Nat Neurosci. 2015 Sep; 18(9):1318-24. PMID: 26214371; PMCID: PMC4551604 [Available on 03/01/16].
    35. Wilson SM, Lam D, Babiak MC, Perry DW, Shih T, Hess CP, Berger MS, Chang E. Transient aphasias after left hemisphere resective surgery. J Neurosurg. 2015 Sep; 123(3):581-93. PMID: 26115463; PMCID: PMC4558229 [Available on 09/01/16].
    36. Cibelli ES, Leonard MK, Johnson K, Chang E. The influence of lexical statistics on temporal lobe cortical dynamics during spoken word listening. Brain Lang. 2015 Aug; 147:66-75. PMID: 26072003; PMCID: PMC4521602 [Available on 08/01/16].
    37. Chang E, Englot DJ, Vadera S. Minimally invasive surgical approaches for temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2015 Jun; 47:24-33. PMID: 26017774.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Englot DJ, Hinkley LB, Kort NS, Imber BS, Mizuiri D, Honma SM, Findlay AM, Garrett C, Cheung PL, Mantle M, Tarapore PE, Knowlton RC, Chang E, Kirsch HE, Nagarajan SS. Global and regional functional connectivity maps of neural oscillations in focal epilepsy. Brain. 2015 Aug; 138(Pt 8):2249-62. PMID: 25981965.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Breshears JD, Molinaro AM, Chang E. A probabilistic map of the human ventral sensorimotor cortex using electrical stimulation. J Neurosurg. 2015 Aug; 123(2):340-9. PMID: 25978714.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Houde JF, Chang E. The cortical computations underlying feedback control in vocal production. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2015 Aug; 33:174-81. PMID: 25989242; PMCID: PMC4628828 [Available on 08/01/16].
    41. Leonard MK, Bouchard KE, Tang C, Chang E. Dynamic encoding of speech sequence probability in human temporal cortex. J Neurosci. 2015 May 6; 35(18):7203-14. PMID: 25948269; PMCID: PMC4420784.
    42. Englot DJ, Nagarajan SS, Imber BS, Raygor KP, Honma SM, Mizuiri D, Mantle M, Knowlton RC, Kirsch HE, Chang E. Epileptogenic zone localization using magnetoencephalography predicts seizure freedom in epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia. 2015 Jun; 56(6):949-58. PMID: 25921215; PMCID: PMC4457690 [Available on 06/01/16].
    43. Chang E. Towards large-scale, human-based, mesoscopic neurotechnologies. Neuron. 2015 Apr 8; 86(1):68-78. PMID: 25856487.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Meng L, Weston SD, Chang E, Gelb AW. Awake craniotomy in a patient with ejection fraction of 10%: considerations of cerebrovascular and cardiovascular physiology. J Clin Anesth. 2015 May; 27(3):256-61. PMID: 25681019.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Rolston JD, Ouyang D, Englot DJ, Wang DD, Chang E. National trends and complication rates for invasive extraoperative electrocorticography in the USA. J Clin Neurosci. 2015 May; 22(5):823-7. PMID: 25669117.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Tempel ZJ, Chivukula S, Monaco EA, Bowden G, Kano H, Niranjan A, Chang E, Sneed PK, Kaufmann AM, Sheehan J, Mathieu D, Lunsford LD. The results of a third Gamma Knife procedure for recurrent trigeminal neuralgia. J Neurosurg. 2015 Jan; 122(1):169-79. PMID: 25361482.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Cheng JS, Salinas R, Molinaro A, Chang E, Kunwar S, Blevins L, Aghi MK. A predictive algorithm for evaluating elevated serum prolactin in patients with a sellar mass. J Clin Neurosci. 2015 Jan; 22(1):155-60. PMID: 25481269.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Englot DJ, Raygor KP, Molinaro AM, Garcia PA, Knowlton RC, Auguste KI, Chang E. Factors associated with failed focal neocortical epilepsy surgery. Neurosurgery. 2014 Dec; 75(6):648-5;discussion 655; quiz 656. PMID: 25181435; PMCID: PMC4393951 [Available on 12/01/15].
    49. Chang E, Raygor KP, Berger MS. Contemporary model of language organization: an overview for neurosurgeons. J Neurosurg. 2015 Feb; 122(2):250-61. PMID: 25423277.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Wang DD, Benkli B, Auguste KI, Garcia PA, Sullivan J, Barkovich AJ, Chang E, Tihan T. Unilateral holohemispheric central nervous system lesions associated with medically refractory epilepsy in the pediatric population: a retrospective series of hemimegalencephaly and Rasmussen's encephalitis. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Dec; 14(6):573-84. PMID: 25303156.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Bouchard KE, Chang E. Control of spoken vowel acoustics and the influence of phonetic context in human speech sensorimotor cortex. J Neurosci. 2014 Sep 17; 34(38):12662-77. PMID: 25232105; PMCID: PMC4166154.
    52. Englot DJ, Han SJ, Rolston JD, Ivan ME, Kuperman RA, Chang E, Gupta N, Sullivan JE, Auguste KI. Epilepsy surgery failure in children: a quantitative and qualitative analysis. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2014 Oct; 14(4):386-95. PMID: 25127098; PMCID: PMC4393949.
    53. Yu JP, Wilson DM, Chang E, Cotter J, Perry A, Mahindra A, Glastonbury CM. Isolated intracerebral light chain deposition disease: novel imaging and pathologic findings. Clin Imaging. 2014 Nov-Dec; 38(6):868-71. PMID: 25084689.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Leonard MK, Chang E. Dynamic speech representations in the human temporal lobe. Trends Cogn Sci. 2014 Sep; 18(9):472-9. PMID: 24906217; PMCID: PMC4149812.
    55. Cheng JS, Lim DA, Chang E, Barbaro NM. A review of percutaneous treatments for trigeminal neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 2014 Mar; 10 Suppl 1:25-33; discussion 33. PMID: 24509496.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Dürschmid S, Quandt F, Krämer UM, Hinrichs H, Heinze HJ, Schulz R, Pannek H, Chang E, Knight RT. Oscillatory dynamics track motor performance improvement in human cortex. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e89576. PMID: 24586885; PMCID: PMC3937444.
    57. Hu JC, Chang E, Natarajan S, Margolis DJ, Macairan M, Lieu P, Huang J, Sonn G, Dorey FJ, Marks LS. Targeted prostate biopsy in select men for active surveillance: do the Epstein criteria still apply? J Urol. 2014 Aug; 192(2):385-90. PMID: 24512956; PMCID: PMC4129939.
    58. Englot DJ, Chang E. Rates and predictors of seizure freedom in resective epilepsy surgery: an update. Neurosurg Rev. 2014 Jul; 37(3):389-404; discussion 404-5. PMID: 24497269.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Mesgarani N, Cheung C, Johnson K, Chang E. Phonetic feature encoding in human superior temporal gyrus. Science. 2014 Feb 28; 343(6174):1006-10. PMID: 24482117; PMCID: PMC4350233.
    60. Bouchard KE, Chang E. Neural decoding of spoken vowels from human sensory-motor cortex with high-density electrocorticography. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2014; 2014:6782-5. PMID: 25571553.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Englot DJ, Lee AT, Tsai C, Halabi C, Barbaro NM, Auguste KI, Garcia PA, Chang E. Seizure types and frequency in patients who "fail" temporal lobectomy for intractable epilepsy. Neurosurgery. 2013 Nov; 73(5):838-44; quiz 844. PMID: 23892416.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Tate MC, Guo L, McEvoy J, Chang E. Safety and efficacy of motor mapping utilizing short pulse train direct cortical stimulation. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2013; 91(6):379-85. PMID: 24108152.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Cheng JS, Lim DA, Chang E, Barbaro NM. A Review of Percutaneous Treatments for Trigeminal Neuralgia. Neurosurgery. 2013 Sep 23. PMID: 24064481.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Wissel T, Pfeiffer T, Frysch R, Knight RT, Chang E, Hinrichs H, Rieger JW, Rose G. Hidden Markov model and support vector machine based decoding of finger movements using electrocorticography. J Neural Eng. 2013 Oct; 10(5):056020. PMID: 24045504; PMCID: PMC3901317.
    65. Edwards E, Chang E. Syllabic (~2-5 Hz) and fluctuation (~1-10 Hz) ranges in speech and auditory processing. Hear Res. 2013 Nov; 305:113-34. PMID: 24035819; PMCID: PMC3830943.
    66. Conant D, Bouchard KE, Chang E. Speech map in the human ventral sensory-motor cortex. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 2014 Feb; 24(1):63-7. PMID: 24492080; PMCID: PMC3913904.
    67. Burneo JG, Sirven JI, Kiesel LW, Vecht CJ, Jehi L, Chung SS, Uhm J, Politsky JM, Chang E, Husain AM, Tatum WO, Meador KJ, Noe K, Hesdorffer DC, Herman ST, Wiebe S, Engel J, Schrader S, Parko KL, Dichter MA, Kwan P, Kossoff E, Sperling MR. Managing common complex symptomatic epilepsies: tumors and trauma: american epilepsy society - 2012 annual course summary. Epilepsy Curr. 2013 Sep; 13(5):232-5. PMID: 24348117; PMCID: PMC3854733.
    68. Wang DD, Ouyang D, Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Molinaro AM, Ward M, Chang E. Trends in surgical treatment for trigeminal neuralgia in the United States of America from 1988 to 2008. J Clin Neurosci. 2013 Nov; 20(11):1538-45. PMID: 23932422.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Jahangiri A, Wagner JR, Pekmezci M, Hiniker A, Chang E, Kunwar S, Blevins L, Aghi MK. A comprehensive long-term retrospective analysis of silent corticotrophic adenomas vs hormone-negative adenomas. Neurosurgery. 2013 Jul; 73(1):8-17; discussion 17-8. PMID: 23685641.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Wang DD, Sun PP, Chang E, Auguste KI. Seizure outcomes after temporal lobectomy in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013 Aug; 12(2):134-41. PMID: 23768202.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Englot DJ, Breshears JD, Sun PP, Chang E, Auguste KI. Seizure outcomes after resective surgery for extra-temporal lobe epilepsy in pediatric patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2013 Aug; 12(2):126-33. PMID: 23768201.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Bao S, Chang E, Teng CL, Heiser MA, Merzenich MM. Emergent categorical representation of natural, complex sounds resulting from the early post-natal sound environment. Neuroscience. 2013 Sep 17; 248:30-42. PMID: 23747304; PMCID: PMC3838508.
    73. Englot DJ, Rutkowski MJ, Ivan ME, Sun PP, Kuperman RA, Chang E, Gupta N, Sullivan JE, Auguste KI. Effects of temporal lobectomy on consciousness-impairing and consciousness-sparing seizures in children. Childs Nerv Syst. 2013 Oct; 29(10):1915-22. PMID: 23723065.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Rowland NC, Breshears J, Chang E. Neurosurgery and the dawning age of Brain-Machine Interfaces. Surg Neurol Int. 2013; 4(Suppl 1):S11-4. PMID: 23653884; PMCID: PMC3642748.
    75. Sonn GA, Chang E, Natarajan S, Margolis DJ, Macairan M, Lieu P, Huang J, Dorey FJ, Reiter RE, Marks LS. Value of targeted prostate biopsy using magnetic resonance-ultrasound fusion in men with prior negative biopsy and elevated prostate-specific antigen. Eur Urol. 2014 Apr; 65(4):809-15. PMID: 23523537; PMCID: PMC3858524.
    76. Bouchard KE, Mesgarani N, Johnson K, Chang E. Functional organization of human sensorimotor cortex for speech articulation. Nature. 2013 Mar 21; 495(7441):327-32. PMID: 23426266; PMCID: PMC3606666.
    77. Chang E, Niziolek CA, Knight RT, Nagarajan SS, Houde JF. Human cortical sensorimotor network underlying feedback control of vocal pitch. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Feb 12; 110(7):2653-8. PMID: 23345447; PMCID: PMC3574939.
    78. Wang DD, Deans AE, Barkovich AJ, Tihan T, Barbaro NM, Garcia PA, Chang E. Transmantle sign in focal cortical dysplasia: a unique radiological entity with excellent prognosis for seizure control. J Neurosurg. 2013 Feb; 118(2):337-44. PMID: 23216463.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Ritaccio A, Beauchamp M, Bosman C, Brunner P, Chang E, Crone N, Gunduz A, Gupta D, Knight R, Leuthardt E, Litt B, Moran D, Ojemann J, Parvizi J, Ramsey N, Rieger J, Viventi J, Voytek B, Williams J, Schalk G. Proceedings of the Third International Workshop on Advances in Electrocorticography. Epilepsy Behav. 2012 Dec; 25(4):605-13. PMID: 23160096; PMCID: PMC4041796.
    80. Englot DJ, Ouyang D, Wang DD, Rolston JD, Garcia PA, Chang E. Relationship between hospital surgical volume, lobectomy rates, and adverse perioperative events at US epilepsy centers. J Neurosurg. 2013 Jan; 118(1):169-74. PMID: 23101453.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Englot DJ, Rolston JD, Wang DD, Hassnain KH, Gordon CM, Chang E. Efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation in posttraumatic versus nontraumatic epilepsy. J Neurosurg. 2012 Nov; 117(5):970-7. PMID: 22978542.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Englot DJ, Young WL, Han SJ, McCulloch CE, Chang E, Lawton MT. Seizure predictors and control after microsurgical resection of supratentorial arteriovenous malformations in 440 patients. Neurosurgery. 2012 Sep; 71(3):572-80; discussion 580. PMID: 22592327.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Cheung C, Chang E. Real-time, time-frequency mapping of event-related cortical activation. J Neural Eng. 2012 Aug; 9(4):046018. PMID: 22814190.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Southwell DG, Garcia PA, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Chang E. Long-term seizure control outcomes after resection of gangliogliomas. Neurosurgery. 2012 Jun; 70(6):1406-13; discussion 1413-4. PMID: 22353798.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Air EL, Ryapolova-Webb E, de Hemptinne C, Ostrem JL, Galifianakis NB, Larson PS, Chang E, Starr PA. Acute effects of thalamic deep brain stimulation and thalamotomy on sensorimotor cortex local field potentials in essential tremor. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012 Nov; 123(11):2232-8. PMID: 22633916; PMCID: PMC3577937.
    86. Mesgarani N, Chang E. Selective cortical representation of attended speaker in multi-talker speech perception. Nature. 2012 May 10; 485(7397):233-6. PMID: 22522927; PMCID: PMC3870007.
    87. Englot DJ, Berger MS, Chang E, Garcia PA. Characteristics and treatment of seizures in patients with high-grade glioma: a review. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2012 Apr; 23(2):227-35, vii-viii. PMID: 22440866.
      View in: PubMed
    88. Englot DJ, Han SJ, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Chang E. Extent of surgical resection predicts seizure freedom in low-grade temporal lobe brain tumors. Neurosurgery. 2012 Apr; 70(4):921-8; discussion 928. PMID: 21997540.
      View in: PubMed
    89. Potts MB, Chang E, Young WL, Lawton MT. Transsylvian-transinsular approaches to the insula and basal ganglia: operative techniques and results with vascular lesions. Neurosurgery. 2012 Apr; 70(4):824-34; discussion 834. PMID: 21937930; PMCID: PMC3303997.
    90. Englot DJ, Ouyang D, Garcia PA, Barbaro NM, Chang E. Epilepsy surgery trends in the United States, 1990-2008. Neurology. 2012 Apr 17; 78(16):1200-6. PMID: 22442428; PMCID: PMC3324320.
    91. Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Wang DD, Shih T, Chang E. Comparison of seizure control outcomes and the safety of vagus nerve, thalamic deep brain, and responsive neurostimulation: evidence from randomized controlled trials. Neurosurg Focus. 2012 Mar; 32(3):E14. PMID: 22380855.
      View in: PubMed
    92. Rowland NC, Englot DJ, Cage TA, Sughrue ME, Barbaro NM, Chang E. A meta-analysis of predictors of seizure freedom in the surgical management of focal cortical dysplasia. J Neurosurg. 2012 May; 116(5):1035-41. PMID: 22324422.
      View in: PubMed
    93. Englot DJ, Wang DD, Rolston JD, Shih TT, Chang E. Rates and predictors of long-term seizure freedom after frontal lobe epilepsy surgery: a systematic review and meta-analysis. J Neurosurg. 2012 May; 116(5):1042-8. PMID: 22304450.
      View in: PubMed
    94. Pasley BN, David SV, Mesgarani N, Flinker A, Shamma SA, Crone NE, Knight RT, Chang E. Reconstructing speech from human auditory cortex. PLoS Biol. 2012 Jan; 10(1):e1001251. PMID: 22303281; PMCID: PMC3269422.
    95. Chang E, Barbaro NM. Epilepsy surgery: the emerging field of neuromodulation. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011 Oct; 22(4):ix-x. PMID: 21939840.
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    96. Englot DJ, Chang E, Auguste KI. Efficacy of vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy by patient age, epilepsy duration, and seizure type. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2011 Oct; 22(4):443-8, v. PMID: 21939842.
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    97. Englot DJ, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Chang E. Factors associated with seizure freedom in the surgical resection of glioneuronal tumors. Epilepsia. 2012 Jan; 53(1):51-7. PMID: 21933181.
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    98. Sughrue ME, Chang E, Gabriel RA, Aghi MK, Blevins LS. Excess mortality for patients with residual disease following resection of pituitary adenomas. Pituitary. 2011 Sep; 14(3):276-83. PMID: 21476061.
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    99. Englot DJ, Chang E, Auguste KI. Vagus nerve stimulation for epilepsy: a meta-analysis of efficacy and predictors of response. J Neurosurg. 2011 Dec; 115(6):1248-55. PMID: 21838505.
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    100. Englot DJ, Han SJ, Lawton MT, Chang E. Predictors of seizure freedom in the surgical treatment of supratentorial cavernous malformations. J Neurosurg. 2011 Dec; 115(6):1169-74. PMID: 21819194.
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    101. Chang E, Wang DD, Barkovich AJ, Tihan T, Auguste KI, Sullivan JE, Garcia PA, Barbaro NM. Predictors of seizure freedom after surgery for malformations of cortical development. Ann Neurol. 2011 Jul; 70(1):151-62. PMID: 21761443.
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    102. Englot DJ, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Chang E. Predictors of seizure freedom after resection of supratentorial low-grade gliomas. A review. J Neurosurg. 2011 Aug; 115(2):240-4. PMID: 21529134.
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    103. Englot DJ, Chang E, Larson PS. Lead cap localization using ultrasound in deep brain stimulation surgery: technical note. Minim Invasive Neurosurg. 2011 Feb; 54(1):48-9. PMID: 21506069.
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    104. Chang E, Cheng JS, Richardson RM, Lee C, Starr PA, Larson PS. Incidence and management of venous air embolisms during awake deep brain stimulation surgery in a large clinical series. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2011; 89(2):76-82. PMID: 21293166.
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    105. Chang E, Wang DD, Perry DW, Barbaro NM, Berger MS. Homotopic organization of essential language sites in right and bilateral cerebral hemispheric dominance. J Neurosurg. 2011 Apr; 114(4):893-902. PMID: 21235314.
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    106. Strata F, Stoianov IP, de Villers-Sidani E, Bonham B, Martone T, Kenet T, Chang E, Vincenti V, Merzenich MM. Perinatal asphyxia affects rat auditory processing: implications for auditory perceptual impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders. PLoS One. 2010; 5(12):e15326. PMID: 21203459; PMCID: PMC3009724.
    107. Flinker A, Chang E, Kirsch HE, Barbaro NM, Crone NE, Knight RT. Single-trial speech suppression of auditory cortex activity in humans. J Neurosci. 2010 Dec 8; 30(49):16643-50. PMID: 21148003; PMCID: PMC3010242.
    108. Flinker A, Chang E, Barbaro NM, Berger MS, Knight RT. Sub-centimeter language organization in the human temporal lobe. Brain Lang. 2011 Jun; 117(3):103-9. PMID: 20961611; PMCID: PMC3025271.
    109. Yang I, Chang E, Han SJ, Barry JJ, Fang S, Tihan T, Barbaro NM, Parsa AT. Early surgical intervention in adult patients with ganglioglioma is associated with improved clinical seizure outcomes. J Clin Neurosci. 2011 Jan; 18(1):29-33. PMID: 20961765.
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    110. Tate MC, Kim CY, Chang E, Polley MY, Berger MS. Assessment of morbidity following resection of cingulate gyrus gliomas. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):640-7. PMID: 20932098.
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    111. Chang E, Rieger JW, Johnson K, Berger MS, Barbaro NM, Knight RT. Categorical speech representation in human superior temporal gyrus. Nat Neurosci. 2010 Nov; 13(11):1428-32. PMID: 20890293; PMCID: PMC2967728.
    112. Chang E, Sughrue ME, Zada G, Wilson CB, Blevins LS, Kunwar S. Long term outcome following repeat transsphenoidal surgery for recurrent endocrine-inactive pituitary adenomas. Pituitary. 2010 Sep; 13(3):223-9. PMID: 20217484; PMCID: PMC2913003.
    113. Chang EF, Clark A, Smith JS, Polley MY, Chang E, Barbaro NM, Parsa AT, McDermott MW, Berger MS. Functional mapping-guided resection of low-grade gliomas in eloquent areas of the brain: improvement of long-term survival. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):566-73. PMID: 20635853; PMCID: PMC3877621.
    114. Chang E, Gabriel RA, Potts MB, Berger MS, Lawton MT. Supratentorial cavernous malformations in eloquent and deep locations: surgical approaches and outcomes. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):814-27. PMID: 20597603.
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    115. Sughrue ME, Rutkowski MJ, Chang E, Shangari G, Kane AJ, McDermott MW, Berger MS, Parsa AT. Postoperative seizures following the resection of convexity meningiomas: are prophylactic anticonvulsants indicated? Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2011 Mar; 114(3):705-9. PMID: 20578801.
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    116. Chang E, Schrock LE, Starr PA, Ostrem JL. Long-term benefit sustained after bilateral pallidal deep brain stimulation in patients with refractory tardive dystonia. Stereotact Funct Neurosurg. 2010; 88(5):304-10. PMID: 20588082.
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    117. Chang E, Edwards E, Nagarajan SS, Fogelson N, Dalal SS, Canolty RT, Kirsch HE, Barbaro NM, Knight RT. Cortical spatio-temporal dynamics underlying phonological target detection in humans. J Cogn Neurosci. 2011 Jun; 23(6):1437-46. PMID: 20465359; PMCID: PMC3895406.
    118. Chang E, Barbaro NM. Nonresective epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia. 2010 Feb; 51 Suppl 1:87-9. PMID: 20331727.
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    119. Chang E, Quigg M, Oh MC, Dillon WP, Ward MM, Laxer KD, Broshek DK, Barbaro NM. Predictors of efficacy after stereotactic radiosurgery for medial temporal lobe epilepsy. Neurology. 2010 Jan 12; 74(2):165-72. PMID: 20065252; PMCID: PMC2809028.
    120. Chang E, Christie C, Sullivan JE, Garcia PA, Tihan T, Gupta N, Berger MS, Barbaro NM. Seizure control outcomes after resection of dysembryoplastic neuroepithelial tumor in 50 patients. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2010 Jan; 5(1):123-30. PMID: 20043747.
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    121. Chang E, Nagarajan SS, Mantle M, Barbaro NM, Kirsch HE. Magnetic source imaging for the surgical evaluation of electroencephalography-confirmed secondary bilateral synchrony in intractable epilepsy. J Neurosurg. 2009 Dec; 111(6):1248-56. PMID: 19575574; PMCID: PMC3151560.
    122. Ganguly K, Secundo L, Ranade G, Orsborn A, Chang E, Dimitrov DF, Wallis JD, Barbaro NM, Knight RT, Carmena JM. Cortical representation of ipsilateral arm movements in monkey and man. J Neurosci. 2009 Oct 14; 29(41):12948-56. PMID: 19828809; PMCID: PMC3376707.
    123. Chang EF, Clark A, Jensen RL, Bernstein M, Guha A, Carrabba G, Mukhopadhyay D, Kim W, Liau LM, Chang E, Smith JS, Berger MS, McDermott MW. Multiinstitutional validation of the University of California at San Francisco Low-Grade Glioma Prognostic Scoring System. Clinical article. J Neurosurg. 2009 Aug; 111(2):203-10. PMID: 19267536.
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    124. Chang E, Gabriel RA, Potts MB, Garcia PA, Barbaro NM, Lawton MT. Seizure characteristics and control after microsurgical resection of supratentorial cerebral cavernous malformations. Neurosurgery. 2009 Jul; 65(1):31-7; discussion 37-8. PMID: 19574823.
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    125. Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Chang E, Chaichana KL, McDermott MW. Surgical considerations in the management of falcotentorial meningiomas: advantages of the bilateral occipital transtentorial/transfalcine craniotomy for large tumors. Neurosurgery. 2009 May; 64(5 Suppl 2):260-8; discussion 268. PMID: 19287325.
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    126. Lim DA, Tarapore P, Chang E, Burt M, Chakalian L, Barbaro N, Chang E, Lamborn KR, McDermott MW. Safety and feasibility of switching from phenytoin to levetiracetam monotherapy for glioma-related seizure control following craniotomy: a randomized phase II pilot study. J Neurooncol. 2009 Jul; 93(3):349-54. PMID: 19169651; PMCID: PMC2687520.
    127. Sughrue ME, Chang E, Tyrell JB, Kunwar S, Wilson CB, Blevins LS. Pre-operative dopamine agonist therapy improves post-operative tumor control following prolactinoma resection. Pituitary. 2009; 12(3):158-64. PMID: 18651225.
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    128. Chang EF, Smith JS, Chang E, Lamborn KR, Prados MD, Butowski N, Barbaro NM, Parsa AT, Berger MS, McDermott MM. Preoperative prognostic classification system for hemispheric low-grade gliomas in adults. J Neurosurg. 2008 Nov; 109(5):817-24. PMID: 18976070.
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    129. Chang E, Zada G, Kim S, Lamborn KR, Quinones-Hinojosa A, Tyrrell JB, Wilson CB, Kunwar S. Long-term recurrence and mortality after surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for nonfunctional pituitary adenomas. J Neurosurg. 2008 Apr; 108(4):736-45. PMID: 18377253.
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    130. Smith JS, Chang EF, Lamborn KR, Chang E, Prados MD, Cha S, Tihan T, Vandenberg S, McDermott MW, Berger MS. Role of extent of resection in the long-term outcome of low-grade hemispheric gliomas. J Clin Oncol. 2008 Mar 10; 26(8):1338-45. PMID: 18323558.
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    131. Chang EF, Potts MB, Keles GE, Lamborn KR, Chang E, Barbaro NM, Berger MS. Seizure characteristics and control following resection in 332 patients with low-grade gliomas. J Neurosurg. 2008 Feb; 108(2):227-35. PMID: 18240916.
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    132. Chang E, Turner RS, Ostrem JL, Davis VR, Starr PA. Neuronal responses to passive movement in the globus pallidus internus in primary dystonia. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Dec; 98(6):3696-707. PMID: 17942626.
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    133. Chang E, Meeker M, Holland MC. Acute traumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage: risk factors for progression in the early post-injury period. Neurosurgery. 2007 Jul; 61(1 Suppl):222-30; discussion 230-1. PMID: 18813167.
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    134. Smith JS, Chang E, Rosenthal G, Meeker M, von Koch C, Manley GT, Holland MC. The role of early follow-up computed tomography imaging in the management of traumatic brain injury patients with intracranial hemorrhage. J Trauma. 2007 Jul; 63(1):75-82. PMID: 17622872.
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    135. de Villers-Sidani E, Chang E, Bao S, Merzenich MM. Critical period window for spectral tuning defined in the primary auditory cortex (A1) in the rat. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 3; 27(1):180-9. PMID: 17202485.
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    136. Keles GE, Chang EF, Lamborn KR, Tihan T, Chang CJ, Chang E, Berger MS. Volumetric extent of resection and residual contrast enhancement on initial surgery as predictors of outcome in adult patients with hemispheric anaplastic astrocytoma. J Neurosurg. 2006 Jul; 105(1):34-40. PMID: 16871879.
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    137. Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Chang E, Lawton MT. The extended retrosigmoid approach: an alternative to radical cranial base approaches for posterior fossa lesions. Neurosurgery. 2006 Apr; 58(4 Suppl 2):ONS-208-14; discussion ONS-214. PMID: 16582642.
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    138. Chang E, Meeker M, Holland MC. Acute traumatic intraparenchymal hemorrhage: risk factors for progression in the early post-injury period. Neurosurgery. 2006 Apr; 58(4):647-56; discussion 647-56. PMID: 16575328.
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    139. Wang VY, Chang E, Barbaro NM. Focal cortical dysplasia: a review of pathological features, genetics, and surgical outcome. Neurosurg Focus. 2006; 20(1):E7. PMID: 16459997.
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    140. Chang E, Bao S, Imaizumi K, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Development of spectral and temporal response selectivity in the auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 8; 102(45):16460-5. PMID: 16263924; PMCID: PMC1283465.
    141. Chang E, Claus CP, Vreman HJ, Wong RJ, Noble-Haeusslein LJ. Heme regulation in traumatic brain injury: relevance to the adult and developing brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005 Nov; 25(11):1401-17. PMID: 15917748.
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    142. Lawton MT, Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Chang E, Yu T. Thrombotic intracranial aneurysms: classification scheme and management strategies in 68 patients. Neurosurgery. 2005 Mar; 56(3):441-54; discussion 441-54. PMID: 15730569.
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    143. Bao S, Chang E, Woods J, Merzenich MM. Temporal plasticity in the primary auditory cortex induced by operant perceptual learning. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Sep; 7(9):974-81. PMID: 15286790.
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    144. Keles GE, Lundin DA, Lamborn KR, Chang E, Ojemann G, Berger MS. Intraoperative subcortical stimulation mapping for hemispherical perirolandic gliomas located within or adjacent to the descending motor pathways: evaluation of morbidity and assessment of functional outcome in 294 patients. J Neurosurg. 2004 Mar; 100(3):369-75. PMID: 15035270.
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    145. Quinones-Hinojosa A, Chang E, Khan SA, Lawton MT, McDermott MW. Renal cell carcinoma metastatic to the choroid mimicking intraventricular meningioma. Can J Neurol Sci. 2004 Feb; 31(1):115-20. PMID: 15038482.
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    146. Bao S, Chang E, Davis JD, Gobeske KT, Merzenich MM. Progressive degradation and subsequent refinement of acoustic representations in the adult auditory cortex. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 26; 23(34):10765-75. PMID: 14645468.
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    147. Quinones-Hinojosa A, Chang E, McDermott MW. Falcotentorial meningiomas: clinical, neuroimaging, and surgical features in six patients. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Jun 15; 14(6):e11. PMID: 15669786.
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    148. Chang E, Wong RJ, Vreman HJ, Igarashi T, Galo E, Sharp FR, Stevenson DK, Noble-Haeusslein LJ. Heme oxygenase-2 protects against lipid peroxidation-mediated cell loss and impaired motor recovery after traumatic brain injury. J Neurosci. 2003 May 1; 23(9):3689-96. PMID: 12736340.
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    149. Chang E, Merzenich MM. Environmental noise retards auditory cortical development. Science. 2003 Apr 18; 300(5618):498-502. PMID: 12702879.
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    150. Quinones-Hinojosa A, Chang E, Khan SA, McDermott MW. Isolated trigeminal nerve sarcoid granuloma mimicking trigeminal schwannoma: case report. Neurosurgery. 2003 Mar; 52(3):700-5 discussion 704-5. PMID: 12590697.
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    151. Chang E, Dellon AL, Dellon ES, Hendrickson ME. Developing a model of colchicine neuropathy. Microsurgery. 2002; 22(2):46-8. PMID: 11921069.
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