Paul Green, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Preventive & Restor Dent Sci
SchoolSchool of Dentistry
Address513 Parnassus Ave, MSB
San Francisco CA 94117
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0001-7648-6826 Additional info
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    My recent research has focused on mechanisms underlying chronic muscle pain, a very common clinical complaint that is extremely difficult to treat, in large part due to the lack of understanding of underlying mechanisms. I have developed two new animals models of ergonomic muscle pain (vibration and eccentric exercise), which together with inflammatory mediator-induced muscle pain will facilitate our investigation into the cellular mechanisms underlying the critical transition from acute to chronic muscle pain. In collaboration with Drs. Dina, Alvarez and Levine, we have found that the inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-6, that is produced during acute muscle inflammation mediates the production of a chronic-latent hyperalgesic state in which a subsequent exposure to inflammatory mediators produce a markedly prolonged mechanical hyperalgesia (i.e. analogous to transition from acute to chronic muscle pain) (Dina et al., Neuroscience 152:521-25, 2008; Alvarez et al, Eur J Neurosci 32:819-25, 2010). Furthermore, we have discovered that chronic-latent hyperalgesia produced by the inflammogen, carrageenan, is dependent on protein kinase Ce, a second messenger implicated in long-lasting plasticity in cutaneous nociceptors (Dina et al., J Pain 9:457-62, 2008). We have also observed that exposure to vibration produces neuropathic-like changes in the nociceptor (Chen et al., Pain 151:460-6, 2010). Vibration or eccentric exercise induced muscle pain appears to be restricted to one nociceptor phenotype, the isolectin B4-positive nociceptor (Alvarez, et al., Exp Neurol 233:859-65, 2012).
    I have also helped develop animal models of fibromyalgia syndrome and other widespread pain conditions, in the rat. Firstly, rats exposed to unpredictable sound stress develop a delayed onset enhancement and prolongation of cytokine-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in muscle and skin. This unpredictable sound stress model in the rat demonstrates several features (cutaneous, musculoskeletal, and visceral hyperalgesia, as well as anxiety) that are found in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome. Thus, this model may be used to test hypotheses about the underlying mechanisms and response to therapy in patients with fibromyalgia (Green et al. J Pain 12:811-8, 2011). Secondly, we evaluated activity in nociceptors innervating the gastrocnemius muscle in rats exposed to water avoidance stress. This stressor, which produces mechanical hyperalgesia in skeletal muscle, decreased mechanical threshold of muscle nociceptors and markedly increased the number of action potentials and conduction velocity in nociceptor. Thirdly, we evaluated cutaneous and muscle nociception and activity in muscle nociceptors in an animal model of neonatal stress, limited bedding (NLB), in the rat. NLB treatment produced both mechanical muscle hyperalgesia (and prolonged hyperalgesia to prostaglandin), as well as lower threshold and increased conduction velocity in muscle nociceptors (Green et al., Pain 152:2549-56, 2011).
    As part of my Tobacco-Related Disease Program funded research, I investigated the sexually dimorphic effects of nicotine on key components of inflammation. I observed that in vivo administration of nicotine increases reactive oxygen species (ROS) production in neutrophils from both males and females. However, there is a sexually dimorphic adrenal medulla-dependence in this effect, since after adrenal medullectomy nicotine increases ROS generation in males but inhibits it in females. Chronic nicotine, inhibits ROS production in neutrophils from females, but has no effect in males. Chronic nicotine inhibited macrophage phagocytosis in females, but not males, an effect abolished by adrenal medullectomy, suggesting a dependence on an adrenal medulla factor. Chronic nicotine also markedly enhanced the ability of the inflammatory agent, bradykinin, to increase plasma extravasation component of inflammation, in females but not in males. These results (manuscripts in preparation) show that nicotine significantly affects several aspects of the inflammatory response, and some of these effects of nicotine exhibit sex differences, that may, at least in part, underlie the sex differences in the effects of smoking on chronic diseases.
    I am also continuing to investigate the influence of sexually dimorphic neuroendocrine pathways on the inflammatory response. Specifically, I have been investigating the effect of sex and sex steroids on role of the sympathoadrenal axis, which is activated by stress, on several components of inflammation viz. plasma protein extravasation, leukocyte recruitment, phagocytosis and reactive oxygen species generation. Since the adrenal medulla is a principal organ of the stress response, I have been assessing the effect of activation of stress axes by different forms of stress stimuli on the inflammatory response. This research has important implications since stress exacerbates signs and symptoms of inflammatory diseases in humans and in animal models. I have shown that both the duration and severity of stress differentially affects the inflammatory response, probably by differential activation of the stress axes. I have shown that there is a striking sexual dimorphism in the effect of stress on plasma extravasation in that non-habituating stress markedly enhances plasma protein extravasation in female rats (Green & Levine, Eur. J. Pharmacol, 2005). In my recent studies on leukocyte recruitment, I have shown that stress markedly enhanced neutrophil recruitment in male rats, but not in females (Barker et al., Br. J. Pharmcol. 2005). This effect is dependent on sex steroids and on an intact sympathoadrenal system. I have also studied the effect of sympathoadrenal modulation on human leukocyte function in has been investigated, in collaboration with colleagues. These studies have shown that there is a marked sexual dimorphism in ß2-adrenergic receptor binding (the receptor that binds the principal adrenal medulla-derived stress hormone, epinephrine) as well as in ß-adrenergic-stimulated non-directed locomotion (chemokinesis) (de Coupade et al., Br. J. Pharmacol. 2004). I have also shown the important role played by ß2-adrenergic receptors in leukocyte migration by employing ß2-adrenergic receptor knock-out mice (de Coupade et al., J. Neuroimmunol. 2005).

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    1. Sexually Dimorphic Role of Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) in High Molecular Weight Hyaluronan (HMWH)-induced Anti-hyperalgesia. J Pain. 2021 Apr 20. Bonet IJM, Araldi D, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 33892155.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Sexual dimorphism in the nociceptive effects of hyaluronan. Pain. 2021 04 01; 162(4):1116-1125. Bonet IJM, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 33065736.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    3. Sexual dimorphism in the contribution of neuroendocrine stress axes to oxaliplatin-induced painful peripheral neuropathy. Pain. 2021 03 01; 162(3):907-918. Staurengo-Ferrari L, Green PG, Araldi D, Ferrari LF, Miaskowski C, Levine JD. PMID: 32947545.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    4. Nociceptor Overexpression of NaV1.7 Contributes to Chronic Muscle Pain Induced by Early-Life Stress. J Pain. 2021 Feb 24. Alvarez P, Bogen O, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 33636374.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    5. Sexual dimorphic role of the glucocorticoid receptor in chronic muscle pain produced by early-life stress. Mol Pain. 2021 Jan-Dec; 17:17448069211011313. Green PG, Alvarez P, Levine JD. PMID: 33882732.
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    6. A role for gut microbiota in early-life stress-induced widespread muscle pain in the adult rat. Mol Pain. 2021 Jan-Dec; 17:17448069211022952. Green PG, Alvarez P, Levine JD. PMID: 34096398.
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    7. Exogenous Application of Proteoglycan to the Cell Surface Microenvironment Facilitates to Chondrogenic Differentiation and Maintenance. Int J Mol Sci. 2020 Oct 19; 21(20). Masutani T, Yamada S, Hara A, Takahashi T, Green PG, Niwa M. PMID: 33086766.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    8. Mechanisms Mediating High-Molecular-Weight Hyaluronan-Induced Antihyperalgesia. J Neurosci. 2020 08 19; 40(34):6477-6488. Bonet IJM, Araldi D, Khomula EV, Bogen O, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 32665406.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    9. Marked sexual dimorphism in neuroendocrine mechanisms for the exacerbation of paclitaxel-induced painful peripheral neuropathy by stress. Pain. 2020 04; 161(4):865-874. Ferrari LF, Araldi D, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 31917777.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    10. Unpredictable stress delays recovery from exercise-induced muscle pain: contribution of the sympathoadrenal axis. Pain Rep. 2019 Sep-Oct; 4(5):e782. Alvarez P, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 31875187.
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    11. Role of Nociceptor Toll-like Receptor 4 (TLR4) in Opioid-Induced Hyperalgesia and Hyperalgesic Priming. J Neurosci. 2019 08 14; 39(33):6414-6424. Araldi D, Bogen O, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 31209174.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. Systemic Morphine Produces Dose-dependent Nociceptor-mediated Biphasic Changes in Nociceptive Threshold and Neuroplasticity. Neuroscience. 2019 02 01; 398:64-75. Ferrari LF, Araldi D, Bogen O, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 30529265.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    13. Neonatal Handling Produces Sex Hormone-Dependent Resilience to Stress-Induced Muscle Hyperalgesia in Rats. J Pain. 2018 06; 19(6):670-677. Alvarez P, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 29432863.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    14. Nociceptor interleukin 10 receptor 1 is critical for muscle analgesia induced by repeated bouts of eccentric exercise in the rat. Pain. 2017 08; 158(8):1481-1488. Alvarez P, Bogen O, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 28628078.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    15. Retinal Cell Degeneration in Animal Models. Int J Mol Sci. 2016 Jan 15; 17(1). Niwa M, Aoki H, Hirata A, Tomita H, Green PG, Hara A. PMID: 26784179.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    16. Topical Tetrodotoxin Attenuates Photophobia Induced by Corneal Injury in the Rat. J Pain. 2015 Sep; 16(9):881-6. Green PG, Alvarez P, Levine JD. PMID: 26086898.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    17. Neonatal handling (resilience) attenuates water-avoidance stress induced enhancement of chronic mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 2015 Mar 30; 591:207-211. Alvarez P, Levine JD, Green PG. PMID: 25637700.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    18. ATP release mechanisms of endothelial cell-mediated stimulus-dependent hyperalgesia. J Pain. 2014 Jul; 15(7):771-7. Joseph EK, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 24793242.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    19. Does the antihyperalgesic disruptor of endothelial cells, octoxynol-9, alter nociceptor function? J Neurophysiol. 2014 Jul 15; 112(2):463-6. Chen X, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 24790171.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    20. Role for monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in the induction of chronic muscle pain in the rat. Pain. 2014 Jun; 155(6):1161-1167. Alvarez P, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 24637038.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    21. Acute inflammation in the joint: its control by the sympathetic nervous system and by neuroendocrine systems. Auton Neurosci. 2014 May; 182:42-54. Jänig W, Green PG. PMID: 24530113.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    22. The fundamental unit of pain is the cell. Pain. 2013 Dec; 154 Suppl 1. Reichling DB, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 24347805.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    23. The fundamental unit of pain is the cell. Pain. 2013 Dec; 154 Suppl 1:S2-9. Reichling DB, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 23711480.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    24. Stress in the adult rat exacerbates muscle pain induced by early-life stress. Biol Psychiatry. 2013 Nov 01; 74(9):688-95. Alvarez P, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 23706525.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    25. Vascular endothelial cells mediate mechanical stimulation-induced enhancement of endothelin hyperalgesia via activation of P2X2/3 receptors on nociceptors. J Neurosci. 2013 Feb 13; 33(7):2849-59. Joseph EK, Green PG, Bogen O, Alvarez P, Levine JD. PMID: 23407944.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    26. IB4(+) nociceptors mediate persistent muscle pain induced by GDNF. J Neurophysiol. 2012 Nov; 108(9):2545-53. Alvarez P, Chen X, Bogen O, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 22914655.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    27. IB4-saporin attenuates acute and eliminates chronic muscle pain in the rat. Exp Neurol. 2012 Feb; 233(2):859-65. Alvarez P, Gear RW, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 22206923.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    28. Early-life stress produces muscle hyperalgesia and nociceptor sensitization in the adult rat. Pain. 2011 Nov; 152(11):2549-2556. Green PG, Chen X, Alvarez P, Ferrari LF, Levine JD. PMID: 21864980.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    29. Abnormal muscle afferent function in a model of Taxol chemotherapy-induced painful neuropathy. J Neurophysiol. 2011 Jul; 106(1):274-9. Chen X, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 21562188.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    30. Further validation of a model of fibromyalgia syndrome in the rat. J Pain. 2011 Jul; 12(7):811-8. Green PG, Alvarez P, Gear RW, Mendoza D, Levine JD. PMID: 21481648.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    31. Enhanced cytokine-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in skeletal muscle produced by a novel mechanism in rats exposed to unpredictable sound stress. Eur J Pain. 2011 Sep; 15(8):796-800. Dina OA, Levine JD, Green PG. PMID: 21419675.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Neuropathic pain-like alterations in muscle nociceptor function associated with vibration-induced muscle pain. Pain. 2010 Nov; 151(2):460-466. Chen X, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 20800357.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Eccentric exercise induces chronic alterations in musculoskeletal nociception in the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2010 Sep; 32(5):819-25. Alvarez P, Levine JD, Green PG. PMID: 20726881.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    34. Mechanisms mediating vibration-induced chronic musculoskeletal pain analyzed in the rat. J Pain. 2010 Apr; 11(4):369-77. Dina OA, Joseph EK, Levine JD, Green PG. PMID: 19962353.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    35. Sound stress-induced long-term enhancement of mechanical hyperalgesia in rats is maintained by sympathoadrenal catecholamines. J Pain. 2009 Oct; 10(10):1073-7. Khasar SG, Dina OA, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 19576859.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Sexual dimorphism in the effect of sound stress on neutrophil function. J Neuroimmunol. 2008 Dec 15; 205(1-2):25-31. Brown AS, Levine JD, Green PG. PMID: 18838177.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Neurotoxic catecholamine metabolite in nociceptors contributes to painful peripheral neuropathy. Eur J Neurosci. 2008 Sep; 28(6):1180-90. Dina OA, Khasar SG, Alessandri-Haber N, Bogen O, Chen X, Green PG, Reichling DB, Messing RO, Levine JD. PMID: 18783367.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    38. Stress induces a switch of intracellular signaling in sensory neurons in a model of generalized pain. J Neurosci. 2008 May 28; 28(22):5721-30. Khasar SG, Burkham J, Dina OA, Brown AS, Bogen O, Alessandri-Haber N, Green PG, Reichling DB, Levine JD. PMID: 18509033.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 65     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. Muscle inflammation induces a protein kinase Cepsilon-dependent chronic-latent muscle pain. J Pain. 2008 May; 9(5):457-62. Dina OA, Levine JD, Green PG. PMID: 18342576.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    40. Alcohol-induced stress in painful alcoholic neuropathy. Eur J Neurosci. 2008 Jan; 27(1):83-92. Dina OA, Khasar SG, Alessandri-Haber N, Green PG, Messing RO, Levine JD. PMID: 18093169.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    41. beta(2)-Adrenergic receptor-dependent sexual dimorphism for murine leukocyte migration. J Neuroimmunol. 2007 May; 186(1-2):54-62. de Coupade C, Brown AS, Dazin PF, Levine JD, Green PG. PMID: 17442405.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Burn injury pain: the continuing challenge. J Pain. 2007 Jul; 8(7):533-48. Summer GJ, Puntillo KA, Miaskowski C, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 17434800.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    43. TrkA and PKC-epsilon in thermal burn-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in the rat. J Pain. 2006 Dec; 7(12):884-91. Summer GJ, Puntillo KA, Miaskowski C, Dina OA, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 17157774.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    44. Neurogenic inflammation and arthritis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2006 Jun; 1069:155-67. Levine JD, Khasar SG, Green PG. PMID: 16855143.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    45. Sympathoadrenal-dependent sexually dimorphic effect of nonhabituating stress on in vivo neutrophil recruitment in the rat. Br J Pharmacol. 2005 Aug; 145(7):872-9. Barker LA, Dazin PF, Levine JD, Green PG. PMID: 15912135.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    46. Repeated sound stress enhances inflammatory pain in the rat. Pain. 2005 Jul; 116(1-2):79-86. Khasar SG, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 15936144.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 36     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    47. Estrogen regulates adrenal medullary function producing sexual dimorphism in nociceptive threshold and beta-adrenergic receptor-mediated hyperalgesia in the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Jun; 21(12):3379-86. Khasar SG, Dina OA, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 16026475.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    48. Gastrin-releasing peptide, substance P and cytokines in rheumatoid arthritis. Arthritis Res Ther. 2005; 7(3):111-3. Green PG. PMID: 15899059.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    49. Sexual dimorphism in the effect of nonhabituating stress on neurogenic plasma extravasation. Eur J Neurosci. 2005 Jan; 21(2):486-92. Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 15673447.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    50. Beta 2-adrenergic receptor regulation of human neutrophil function is sexually dimorphic. Br J Pharmacol. 2004 Dec; 143(8):1033-41. de Coupade C, Gear RW, Dazin PF, Sroussi HY, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 15477226.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    51. Mechanosensitive duodenal afferents contribute to vagal modulation of inflammation in the rat. J Physiol. 2004 Jan 01; 554(Pt 1):227-35. Miao FJ, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 14678504.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Vagal modulation of bradykinin-induced mechanical hyperalgesia in the female rat. J Pain. 2003 Jun; 4(5):278-83. Khasar SG, Miao FJ, Gear RW, Green PG, Levine JD. PMID: 14622697.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Gonadal hormones do not account for sexual dimorphism in vagal modulation of nociception in the rat. J Pain. 2003 May; 4(4):190-6. Khasar SG, Green PG, Gear RW, Isenberg W, Levine JD. PMID: 14622703.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    54. Repeated, non-habituating stress suppresses inflammatory plasma extravasation by a novel, sympathoadrenal dependent mechanism. Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Feb; 17(4):805-12. Strausbaugh HJ, Green PG, Dallman MF, Levine JD. PMID: 12603270.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    55. Vagal modulation of nociception is mediated by adrenomedullary epinephrine in the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2003 Feb; 17(4):909-15. Khasar SG, Green PG, Miao FJ, Levine JD. PMID: 12603283.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    56. Sympathetic-independent bradykinin mechanical hyperalgesia induced by subdiaphragmatic vagotomy in the rat. J Pain. 2002 Oct; 3(5):369-76. Khasar SG, Miao FJ, Gear RW, Green PG, Isenberg WM, Levine JD. PMID: 14622740.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    
    57. The NK1 receptor mediates both the hyperalgesia and the resistance to morphine in mice lacking noradrenaline. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jan 22; 99(2):1029-34. Jasmin L, Tien D, Weinshenker D, Palmiter RD, Green PG, Janni G, Ohara PT. PMID: 11805341.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    58. Interactions between anticholinesterase poisoning and opioid analgesia and locomotion in mice. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1988 Jul-Aug; 10(4):315-9. Green PG, Kitchen I, Crowder M. PMID: 3147363.
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    59. Differential displacement of opioids from plasma protein binding sites by di-isopropylfluorophosphate in the mouse. J Pharm Pharmacol. 1988 Apr; 40(4):292-3. Green PG, Kitchen I. PMID: 2900315.
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    60. Antinociception opioids and the cholinergic system. Prog Neurobiol. 1986; 26(2):119-46. Green PG, Kitchen I. PMID: 3704168.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    61. Differential effects of di-isopropylfluorophosphate poisoning and its treatment on opioid antinociception in the mouse. Life Sci. 1983; 33 Suppl 1:669-72. Kitchen I, Green PG. PMID: 6664242.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
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