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Allan Basbaum, PhD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentAnatomy
Address1550 Fourth St
San Francisco CA 94158
Phone415-476-5270
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    Other Positions
    TitleChair, Anatomy
    InstitutionUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentAnatomy


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    McGill University, Montreal, Quebec, CanadaBScNeuroscience
    University Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, pAPhD172Neuroscien
    University College London, London, UKPostdoc1975Neuroscience
    University California San Francisco, San Francisco, CAPostdoc1977

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Our laboratory examines the mechanisms through which tissue and nerve injury produce changes in the peripheral and central nervous system, resulting in persistent pain. In parallel studies we are examining the circuits through which pruritogens generate itch. These studies follow upon our recent work that defined mechanisms through which opioids that act at different receptor subtypes exert their pain relieving effects. The hallmark of our work is our laboratory’s multidisciplinary approach to the problem, using molecular, neuroanatomical, pharmacological and behavioral analyses in wild type and genetically modified mice. Many of these mice, including knockouts and Cre- or reporter-expressing mice are generated in our laboratory. To expand our analyses using our transgenic mouse in which wheat germ agglutinin transneuronal labeling of complex circuits can be triggered from neurons in any region of the brain or spinal cord, we now incorporate transneuronal anterograde (herpes) and retrograde (rabies) viral tracers in our circuit analyses. By combining these studies with the functional properties of the label neurons, these studies will examine the extent to which pain and itch circuits are segregated or convergent at the level of spinal cord interneurons and projection neurons. Most recently, we turned our attention to the possibility of overcoming the neurological consequences of peripheral nerve damage, by transplanting embryonic cortical GABAergic precursor cells into the spinal cord. We have demonstrated that the cells integrate into the host and can ameliorate the persistent pain and itch associated with nerve damage.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    From the spinal cord to the brain: Neurology of the pain and itch neurons
    NIH/NINDS R35NS097306Dec 1, 2016 - Nov 30, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Influence of drug abuse on neuronal nuclear and chromatin architecture
    NIH/NIDA R01DA036985Jul 1, 2013 - Mar 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Spinal Cord Transplants of GABAergic Precursor Cells to Treat Chronic Pain
    NIH/NINDS R01NS078326Sep 28, 2012 - Jun 30, 2017
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Epigenetic and genetic contributors to chronic neuropathic pain
    NIH/NIDCR R01DE022001Aug 1, 2011 - Jul 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Multiple Opioid Receptors and the Control of Pain
    NIH/NIDA R01DA029204Jul 1, 2011 - Mar 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Receptors and Second Messengers for Pain and Analgesia
    NIH/NINDS P01NS053709Sep 1, 2007 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Co-Investigator
    SPINAL MECHANISMS OF OPIOID ANALGESIA AND TOLERANCE
    NIH/NIDA R01DA008377Aug 1, 1993 - Jun 30, 2003
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Trigeminal Pain, Mechanisms and Control
    NIH/NIDCR P01DE008973Sep 1, 1990 - Aug 31, 2007
    Role: Co-Investigator
    MECHANISMS OF PAIN AND ANALGESIA
    NIH/NINDS P50NS021445Jan 1, 1985 - Dec 31, 2005
    Role: Co-Investigator
    MECHANISMS OF PAIN AND ANALGESIA
    NIH/NINDS P01NS021445Jan 1, 1985 - Dec 31, 1999
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Function and development in the synapse
    NIH P01NS016033Apr 1, 1980 - Jun 30, 2009
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Brainstem control of pain transmission
    NIH/NINDS R37NS014627Jul 15, 1978 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Brainstem control of pain transmission
    NIH/NINDS R01NS014627Jul 1, 1978 - Mar 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Global Health
    Collapse Featured Videos

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Tran M, Kuhn JA, Bráz JM, Basbaum A. Neuronal aromatase expression in pain processing regions of the medullary and spinal cord dorsal horn. J Comp Neurol. 2017 Nov 01; 525(16):3414-3428. PMID: 28649695.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Zhang C, Medzihradszky KF, Sánchez EE, Basbaum A, Julius D. Lys49 myotoxin from the Brazilian lancehead pit viper elicits pain through regulated ATP release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 Mar 21; 114(12):E2524-E2532. PMID: 28265084.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Cevikbas F, Braz JM, Wang X, Solorzano C, Sulk M, Buhl T, Steinhoff M, Basbaum A. Synergistic antipruritic effects of gamma aminobutyric acid A and B agonists in a mouse model of atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2017 Aug; 140(2):454-464.e2. PMID: 28232084.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Braz JM, Etlin A, Juarez-Salinas D, Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Basbaum A. Rebuilding CNS inhibitory circuits to control chronic neuropathic pain and itch. Prog Brain Res. 2017; 231:87-105. PMID: 28554402.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Etlin A, Bráz JM, Kuhn JA, Wang X, Hamel KA, Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Basbaum A. Functional Synaptic Integration of Forebrain GABAergic Precursors into the Adult Spinal Cord. J Neurosci. 2016 Nov 16; 36(46):11634-11645. PMID: 27852772.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Frezel N, Sohet F, Daneman R, Basbaum A, Braz JM. Peripheral and central neuronal ATF3 precedes CD4+ T-cell infiltration in EAE. Exp Neurol. 2016 Sep; 283(Pt A):224-34. PMID: 27343802.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Osteen JD, Herzig V, Gilchrist J, Emrick JJ, Zhang C, Wang X, Castro J, Garcia-Caraballo S, Grundy L, Rychkov GY, Weyer AD, Dekan Z, Undheim EA, Alewood P, Stucky CL, Brierley SM, Basbaum A, Bosmans F, King GF, Julius D. Selective spider toxins reveal a role for the Nav1.1 channel in mechanical pain. Nature. 2016 06 23; 534(7608):494-9. PMID: 27281198; PMCID: PMC4919188 [Available on 12/06/16].
    8. Andrews NA, Latrémolière A, Basbaum A, Mogil JS, Porreca F, Rice AS, Woolf CJ, Currie GL, Dworkin RH, Eisenach JC, Evans S, Gewandter JS, Gover TD, Handwerker H, Huang W, Iyengar S, Jensen MP, Kennedy JD, Lee N, Levine J, Lidster K, Machin I, McDermott MP, McMahon SB, Price TJ, Ross SE, Scherrer G, Seal RP, Sena ES, Silva E, Stone L, Svensson CI, Turk DC, Whiteside G. Ensuring transparency and minimization of methodologic bias in preclinical pain research: PPRECISE considerations. Pain. 2016 Apr; 157(4):901-9. PMID: 26683237; PMCID: PMC4794131.
    9. Basbaum A, Bráz JM. Cell transplants to treat the "disease" of neuropathic pain and itch. Pain. 2016 Feb; 157 Suppl 1:S42-7. PMID: 26780378; PMCID: PMC4942284 [Available on 02/01/17].
    10. Guan Z, Kuhn JA, Wang X, Colquitt B, Solorzano C, Vaman S, Guan AK, Evans-Reinsch Z, Braz J, Devor M, Abboud-Werner SL, Lanier LL, Lomvardas S, Basbaum A. Injured sensory neuron-derived CSF1 induces microglial proliferation and DAP12-dependent pain. Nat Neurosci. 2016 Jan; 19(1):94-101. PMID: 26642091; PMCID: PMC4703328.
    11. Bonasera SJ, Schenk AK, Luxenberg EJ, Wang X, Basbaum A, Tecott LH. Mice Lacking Serotonin 2C Receptors Have increased Affective Responses to Aversive Stimuli. PLoS One. 2015; 10(12):e0142906. PMID: 26630489; PMCID: PMC4667991.
    12. Petitjean H, Pawlowski SA, Fraine SL, Sharif B, Hamad D, Fatima T, Berg J, Brown CM, Jan LY, Ribeiro-da-Silva A, Braz JM, Basbaum A, Sharif-Naeini R. Dorsal Horn Parvalbumin Neurons Are Gate-Keepers of Touch-Evoked Pain after Nerve Injury. Cell Rep. 2015 Nov 10; 13(6):1246-1257. PMID: 26527000.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Bráz JM, Wang F, Basbaum A. Presynaptic Inputs to Any CNS Projection Neuron Identified by Dual Recombinant Virus Infection. PLoS One. 2015; 10(10):e0140681. PMID: 26470056; PMCID: PMC4607402.
    14. Brown JD, Saeed M, Do L, Braz J, Basbaum A, Iadarola MJ, Wilson DM, Dillon WP. CT-guided injection of a TRPV1 agonist around dorsal root ganglia decreases pain transmission in swine. Sci Transl Med. 2015 Sep 16; 7(305):305ra145. PMID: 26378245; PMCID: PMC4854290.
    15. Villanueva L, Bouhassira D, Dickenson T, Basbaum A, Zimmermann M. In Memoriam Jean-Marie Besson 1938-2014. Eur J Pain. 2015 Aug; 19(7):871-6. PMID: 26173566.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Bráz JM, Wang X, Guan Z, Rubenstein JL, Basbaum A. Transplant-mediated enhancement of spinal cord GABAergic inhibition reverses paclitaxel-induced mechanical and heat hypersensitivity. Pain. 2015 Jun; 156(6):1084-91. PMID: 25760475; PMCID: PMC4431911.
    17. Solorzano C, Villafuerte D, Meda K, Cevikbas F, Bráz J, Sharif-Naeini R, Juarez-Salinas D, Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Guan Z, Basbaum A. Primary afferent and spinal cord expression of gastrin-releasing peptide: message, protein, and antibody concerns. J Neurosci. 2015 Jan 14; 35(2):648-57. PMID: 25589759; PMCID: PMC4293415.
    18. Braz JM, Juarez-Salinas D, Ross SE, Basbaum A. Transplant restoration of spinal cord inhibitory controls ameliorates neuropathic itch. J Clin Invest. 2014 Aug; 124(8):3612-6. PMID: 25003193; PMCID: PMC4109547.
    19. Braz J, Solorzano C, Wang X, Basbaum A. Transmitting pain and itch messages: a contemporary view of the spinal cord circuits that generate gate control. Neuron. 2014 May 07; 82(3):522-36. PMID: 24811377; PMCID: PMC4492533.
    20. Southwell DG, Nicholas CR, Basbaum A, Stryker MP, Kriegstein AR, Rubenstein JL, Alvarez-Buylla A. Interneurons from embryonic development to cell-based therapy. Science. 2014 Apr 11; 344(6180):1240622. PMID: 24723614; PMCID: PMC4056344.
    21. Bardoni R, Tawfik VL, Wang D, François A, Solorzano C, Shuster SA, Choudhury P, Betelli C, Cassidy C, Smith K, de Nooij JC, Mennicken F, O'Donnell D, Kieffer BL, Woodbury CJ, Basbaum A, MacDermott AB, Scherrer G. Delta Opioid Receptors Presynaptically Regulate Cutaneous Mechanosensory Neuron Input to the Spinal Cord Dorsal Horn. Neuron. 2014 Mar 19; 81(6):1443. PMID: 28898633.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Bardoni R, Tawfik VL, Wang D, François A, Solorzano C, Shuster SA, Choudhury P, Betelli C, Cassidy C, Smith K, de Nooij JC, Mennicken F, O'Donnell D, Kieffer BL, Woodbury CJ, Basbaum A, MacDermott AB, Scherrer G. Delta opioid receptors presynaptically regulate cutaneous mechanosensory neuron input to the spinal cord dorsal horn. Neuron. 2014 Mar 19; 81(6):1312-1327. PMID: 24583022; PMCID: PMC4072501.
    23. Cevikbas F, Wang X, Akiyama T, Kempkes C, Savinko T, Antal A, Kukova G, Buhl T, Ikoma A, Buddenkotte J, Soumelis V, Feld M, Alenius H, Dillon SR, Carstens E, Homey B, Basbaum A, Steinhoff M. A sensory neuron-expressed IL-31 receptor mediates T helper cell-dependent itch: Involvement of TRPV1 and TRPA1. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Feb; 133(2):448-60. PMID: 24373353; PMCID: PMC3960328.
    24. Mandadi S, Hong P, Tran MA, Bráz JM, Colarusso P, Basbaum A, Whelan PJ. Identification of multisegmental nociceptive afferents that modulate locomotor circuits in the neonatal mouse spinal cord. J Comp Neurol. 2013 Aug 15; 521(12):2870-87. PMID: 23436436.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Huang F, Wang X, Ostertag EM, Nuwal T, Huang B, Jan YN, Basbaum A, Jan LY. TMEM16C facilitates Na(+)-activated K+ currents in rat sensory neurons and regulates pain processing. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Sep; 16(9):1284-90. PMID: 23872594; PMCID: PMC4034143.
    26. Wang X, Zhang J, Eberhart D, Urban R, Meda K, Solorzano C, Yamanaka H, Rice D, Basbaum A. Excitatory superficial dorsal horn interneurons are functionally heterogeneous and required for the full behavioral expression of pain and itch. Neuron. 2013 Apr 24; 78(2):312-24. PMID: 23622066; PMCID: PMC3700415.
    27. Gibbs JL, Urban R, Basbaum A. Paradoxical surrogate markers of dental injury-induced pain in the mouse. Pain. 2013 Aug; 154(8):1358-67. PMID: 23719574; PMCID: PMC3743260.
    28. Zhang J, Cavanaugh DJ, Nemenov MI, Basbaum A. The modality-specific contribution of peptidergic and non-peptidergic nociceptors is manifest at the level of dorsal horn nociresponsive neurons. J Physiol. 2013 Feb 15; 591(4):1097-110. PMID: 23266932; PMCID: PMC3591717.
    29. Wang X, Babayan AH, Basbaum A, Phelps PE. Loss of the Reelin-signaling pathway differentially disrupts heat, mechanical and chemical nociceptive processing. Neuroscience. 2012 Dec 13; 226:441-50. PMID: 22999972; PMCID: PMC4409863.
    30. Bráz JM, Sharif-Naeini R, Vogt D, Kriegstein A, Alvarez-Buylla A, Rubenstein JL, Basbaum A. Forebrain GABAergic neuron precursors integrate into adult spinal cord and reduce injury-induced neuropathic pain. Neuron. 2012 May 24; 74(4):663-75. PMID: 22632725; PMCID: PMC3361692.
    31. Bohlen CJ, Chesler AT, Sharif-Naeini R, Medzihradszky KF, Zhou S, King D, Sánchez EE, Burlingame AL, Basbaum A, Julius D. A heteromeric Texas coral snake toxin targets acid-sensing ion channels to produce pain. Nature. 2011 Nov 16; 479(7373):410-4. PMID: 22094702; PMCID: PMC3226747.
    32. Bráz JM, Ackerman L, Basbaum A. Sciatic nerve transection triggers release and intercellular transfer of a genetically expressed macromolecular tracer in dorsal root ganglia. J Comp Neurol. 2011 Sep 01; 519(13):2648-57. PMID: 21484801; PMCID: PMC3864657.
    33. Cavanaugh DJ, Chesler AT, Bráz JM, Shah NM, Julius D, Basbaum A. Restriction of transient receptor potential vanilloid-1 to the peptidergic subset of primary afferent neurons follows its developmental downregulation in nonpeptidergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2011 Jul 13; 31(28):10119-27. PMID: 21752988; PMCID: PMC3147010.
    34. Cavanaugh DJ, Chesler AT, Jackson AC, Sigal YM, Yamanaka H, Grant R, O'Donnell D, Nicoll RA, Shah NM, Julius D, Basbaum A. Trpv1 reporter mice reveal highly restricted brain distribution and functional expression in arteriolar smooth muscle cells. J Neurosci. 2011 Mar 30; 31(13):5067-77. PMID: 21451044; PMCID: PMC3087977.
    35. Gibbs JL, Melnyk JL, Basbaum A. Differential TRPV1 and TRPV2 channel expression in dental pulp. J Dent Res. 2011 Jun; 90(6):765-70. PMID: 21406609; PMCID: PMC3144115.
    36. Urban R, Scherrer G, Goulding EH, Tecott LH, Basbaum A. Behavioral indices of ongoing pain are largely unchanged in male mice with tissue or nerve injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity. Pain. 2011 May; 152(5):990-1000. PMID: 21256675; PMCID: PMC3079194.
    37. Sharif-Naeini R, Basbaum A. Targeting pain where it resides ... In the brain. Sci Transl Med. 2011 Jan 12; 3(65):65ps1. PMID: 21228395.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Mogil JS, Basbaum A. Introducing the Biennial review of pain. Pain. 2011 Mar; 152(3 Suppl):S1. PMID: 21144660.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Scherrer G, Low SA, Wang X, Zhang J, Yamanaka H, Urban R, Solorzano C, Harper B, Hnasko TS, Edwards RH, Basbaum A. VGLUT2 expression in primary afferent neurons is essential for normal acute pain and injury-induced heat hypersensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 21; 107(51):22296-301. PMID: 21135246; PMCID: PMC3009833.
    40. Shields SD, Moore KD, Phelps PE, Basbaum A. Olfactory ensheathing glia express aquaporin 1. J Comp Neurol. 2010 Nov 01; 518(21):4329-41. PMID: 20853510; PMCID: PMC2949966.
    41. Shields SD, Cavanaugh DJ, Lee H, Anderson DJ, Basbaum A. Pain behavior in the formalin test persists after ablation of the great majority of C-fiber nociceptors. Pain. 2010 Nov; 151(2):422-9. PMID: 20832171; PMCID: PMC2955806.
    42. Bráz JM, Basbaum A. Differential ATF3 expression in dorsal root ganglion neurons reveals the profile of primary afferents engaged by diverse noxious chemical stimuli. Pain. 2010 Aug; 150(2):290-301. PMID: 20605331; PMCID: PMC2922479.
    43. Faktorovich EG, Basbaum A. Effect of topical 0.5% morphine on postoperative pain after photorefractive keratectomy. J Refract Surg. 2010 Dec; 26(12):934-41. PMID: 20166624.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Bates EA, Nikai T, Brennan KC, Fu YH, Charles AC, Basbaum A, Ptácek LJ, Ahn AH. Sumatriptan alleviates nitroglycerin-induced mechanical and thermal allodynia in mice. Cephalalgia. 2010 Feb; 30(2):170-8. PMID: 19489890; PMCID: PMC4854191.
    45. Seal RP, Wang X, Guan Y, Raja SN, Woodbury CJ, Basbaum A, Edwards RH. Injury-induced mechanical hypersensitivity requires C-low threshold mechanoreceptors. Nature. 2009 Dec 03; 462(7273):651-5. PMID: 19915548; PMCID: PMC2810205.
    46. Basbaum A, Bautista DM, Scherrer G, Julius D. Cellular and molecular mechanisms of pain. Cell. 2009 Oct 16; 139(2):267-84. PMID: 19837031; PMCID: PMC2852643.
    47. Bráz JM, Basbaum A. Triggering genetically-expressed transneuronal tracers by peripheral axotomy reveals convergent and segregated sensory neuron-spinal cord connectivity. Neuroscience. 2009 Nov 10; 163(4):1220-32. PMID: 19647044; PMCID: PMC2760676.
    48. Imamachi N, Park GH, Lee H, Anderson DJ, Simon MI, Basbaum A, Han SK. TRPV1-expressing primary afferents generate behavioral responses to pruritogens via multiple mechanisms. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jul 07; 106(27):11330-5. PMID: 19564617; PMCID: PMC2708751.
    49. Scherrer G, Imamachi N, Cao YQ, Contet C, Mennicken F, O'Donnell D, Kieffer BL, Basbaum A. Dissociation of the opioid receptor mechanisms that control mechanical and heat pain. Cell. 2009 Jun 12; 137(6):1148-59. PMID: 19524516; PMCID: PMC3683597.
    50. Cavanaugh DJ, Lee H, Lo L, Shields SD, Zylka MJ, Basbaum A, Anderson DJ. Distinct subsets of unmyelinated primary sensory fibers mediate behavioral responses to noxious thermal and mechanical stimuli. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2009 Jun 02; 106(22):9075-80. PMID: 19451647; PMCID: PMC2683885.
    51. Braz JM, Enquist LW, Basbaum A. Inputs to serotonergic neurons revealed by conditional viral transneuronal tracing. J Comp Neurol. 2009 May 10; 514(2):145-60. PMID: 19274668; PMCID: PMC2696271.
    52. Wang X, Ratnam J, Zou B, England PM, Basbaum A. TrkB signaling is required for both the induction and maintenance of tissue and nerve injury-induced persistent pain. J Neurosci. 2009 Apr 29; 29(17):5508-15. PMID: 19403818; PMCID: PMC2720992.
    53. Basbaum A. Change is coming! Pain. 2009 Jan; 141(1-2):1. PMID: 19100687.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Ossovskaya VS, Dolganov G, Basbaum A. Loss of function genetic screens reveal MTGR1 as an intracellular repressor of beta1 integrin-dependent neurite outgrowth. J Neurosci Methods. 2009 Mar 15; 177(2):322-33. PMID: 19026687.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Nikai T, Basbaum A, Ahn AH. Profound reduction of somatic and visceral pain in mice by intrathecal administration of the anti-migraine drug, sumatriptan. Pain. 2008 Oct 31; 139(3):533-40. PMID: 18723285; PMCID: PMC2869302.
    56. Neumann S, Braz JM, Skinner K, Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Basbaum A. Innocuous, not noxious, input activates PKCgamma interneurons of the spinal dorsal horn via myelinated afferent fibers. J Neurosci. 2008 Aug 06; 28(32):7936-44. PMID: 18685019; PMCID: PMC3844752.
    57. Braz JM, Basbaum A. Genetically expressed transneuronal tracer reveals direct and indirect serotonergic descending control circuits. J Comp Neurol. 2008 Apr 20; 507(6):1990-2003. PMID: 18273889; PMCID: PMC4947410.
    58. Akopians AL, Babayan AH, Beffert U, Herz J, Basbaum A, Phelps PE. Contribution of the Reelin signaling pathways to nociceptive processing. Eur J Neurosci. 2008 Feb; 27(3):523-37. PMID: 18279306.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Lewinter RD, Scherrer G, Basbaum A. Dense transient receptor potential cation channel, vanilloid family, type 2 (TRPV2) immunoreactivity defines a subset of motoneurons in the dorsal lateral nucleus of the spinal cord, the nucleus ambiguus and the trigeminal motor nucleus in rat. Neuroscience. 2008 Jan 02; 151(1):164-73. PMID: 18063314; PMCID: PMC2276458.
    60. Trevisani M, Siemens J, Materazzi S, Bautista DM, Nassini R, Campi B, Imamachi N, Andrè E, Patacchini R, Cottrell GS, Gatti R, Basbaum A, Bunnett NW, Julius D, Geppetti P. 4-Hydroxynonenal, an endogenous aldehyde, causes pain and neurogenic inflammation through activation of the irritant receptor TRPA1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Aug 14; 104(33):13519-24. PMID: 17684094; PMCID: PMC1948902.
    61. Bautista DM, Siemens J, Glazer JM, Tsuruda PR, Basbaum A, Stucky CL, Jordt SE, Julius D. The menthol receptor TRPM8 is the principal detector of environmental cold. Nature. 2007 Jul 12; 448(7150):204-8. PMID: 17538622.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Shields SD, Mazario J, Skinner K, Basbaum A. Anatomical and functional analysis of aquaporin 1, a water channel in primary afferent neurons. Pain. 2007 Sep; 131(1-2):8-20. PMID: 17257750.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Mazarío J, Basbaum A. Contribution of substance P and neurokinin A to the differential injury-induced thermal and mechanical responsiveness of lamina I and V neurons. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 24; 27(4):762-70. PMID: 17251415.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Siemens J, Zhou S, Piskorowski R, Nikai T, Lumpkin EA, Basbaum A, King D, Julius D. Spider toxins activate the capsaicin receptor to produce inflammatory pain. Nature. 2006 Nov 09; 444(7116):208-12. PMID: 17093448.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Eckert WA, Julius D, Basbaum A. Differential contribution of TRPV1 to thermal responses and tissue injury-induced sensitization of dorsal horn neurons in laminae I and V in the mouse. Pain. 2006 Dec 15; 126(1-3):184-97. PMID: 16945484.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Basbaum A. Reviews: topical, systematic and once again, comprehensive. Pain. 2006 Oct; 124(3):237. PMID: 16934404.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Ahn AH, Basbaum A. Tissue injury regulates serotonin 1D receptor expression: implications for the control of migraine and inflammatory pain. J Neurosci. 2006 Aug 09; 26(32):8332-8. PMID: 16899728; PMCID: PMC1851888.
    68. Scherrer G, Tryoen-Tóth P, Filliol D, Matifas A, Laustriat D, Cao YQ, Basbaum A, Dierich A, Vonesh JL, Gavériaux-Ruff C, Kieffer BL. Knockin mice expressing fluorescent delta-opioid receptors uncover G protein-coupled receptor dynamics in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 20; 103(25):9691-6. PMID: 16766653; PMCID: PMC1480468.
    69. Basbaum A, Julius D. Toward better pain control. Sci Am. 2006 Jun; 294(6):60-7. PMID: 16711361.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Villeda SA, Akopians AL, Babayan AH, Basbaum A, Phelps PE. Absence of Reelin results in altered nociception and aberrant neuronal positioning in the dorsal spinal cord. Neuroscience. 2006; 139(4):1385-96. PMID: 16580148.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Bautista DM, Jordt SE, Nikai T, Tsuruda PR, Read AJ, Poblete J, Yamoah EN, Basbaum A, Julius D. TRPA1 mediates the inflammatory actions of environmental irritants and proalgesic agents. Cell. 2006 Mar 24; 124(6):1269-82. PMID: 16564016.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Neumann S, Skinner K, Basbaum A. Sustaining intrinsic growth capacity of adult neurons promotes spinal cord regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 15; 102(46):16848-52. PMID: 16275900; PMCID: PMC1283855.
    73. Braz JM, Nassar MA, Wood JN, Basbaum A. Parallel "pain" pathways arise from subpopulations of primary afferent nociceptor. Neuron. 2005 Sep 15; 47(6):787-93. PMID: 16157274.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Julius D, Basbaum A. A neuropeptide courier for delta-opioid receptors? Cell. 2005 Aug 26; 122(4):496-8. PMID: 16122418.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Högestätt ED, Jönsson BA, Ermund A, Andersson DA, Björk H, Alexander JP, Cravatt BF, Basbaum A, Zygmunt PM. Conversion of acetaminophen to the bioactive N-acylphenolamine AM404 via fatty acid amide hydrolase-dependent arachidonic acid conjugation in the nervous system. J Biol Chem. 2005 Sep 09; 280(36):31405-12. PMID: 15987694.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Ahn AH, Basbaum A. Where do triptans act in the treatment of migraine? Pain. 2005 May; 115(1-2):1-4. PMID: 15836963; PMCID: PMC1850935.
    77. Basbaum A. A new way to lose your nerve. Sci Aging Knowledge Environ. 2004 Apr 14; 2004(15):pe15. PMID: 15084736.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Sanderson Nydahl K, Skinner K, Julius D, Basbaum A. Co-localization of endomorphin-2 and substance P in primary afferent nociceptors and effects of injury: a light and electron microscopic study in the rat. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Apr; 19(7):1789-99. PMID: 15078552.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Lewinter RD, Skinner K, Julius D, Basbaum A. Immunoreactive TRPV-2 (VRL-1), a capsaicin receptor homolog, in the spinal cord of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 2004 Mar 15; 470(4):400-8. PMID: 14961565.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Martin WJ, Cao Y, Basbaum A. Characterization of wide dynamic range neurons in the deep dorsal horn of the spinal cord in preprotachykinin-a null mice in vivo. J Neurophysiol. 2004 May; 91(5):1945-54. PMID: 14711972.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Trafton JA, Basbaum A. [d-Ala2,N-MePhe4,Gly-ol5]enkephalin-induced internalization of the micro opioid receptor in the spinal cord of morphine tolerant rats. Neuroscience. 2004; 125(3):541-3. PMID: 15099667.
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    82. Zeitz KP, Giese KP, Silva AJ, Basbaum A. The contribution of autophosphorylated alpha-calcium-calmodulin kinase II to injury-induced persistent pain. Neuroscience. 2004; 128(4):889-98. PMID: 15464294.
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    83. Potrebic S, Ahn AH, Skinner K, Fields HL, Basbaum A. Peptidergic nociceptors of both trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia express serotonin 1D receptors: implications for the selective antimigraine action of triptans. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 26; 23(34):10988-97. PMID: 14645495.
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    84. Shields SD, Eckert WA, Basbaum A. Spared nerve injury model of neuropathic pain in the mouse: a behavioral and anatomic analysis. J Pain. 2003 Oct; 4(8):465-70. PMID: 14622667.
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    86. Bhatia M, Slavin J, Cao Y, Basbaum A, Neoptolemos JP. Preprotachykinin-A gene deletion protects mice against acute pancreatitis and associated lung injury. Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. 2003 May; 284(5):G830-6. PMID: 12684214.
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    87. Malmberg AB, Gilbert H, McCabe RT, Basbaum A. Powerful antinociceptive effects of the cone snail venom-derived subtype-selective NMDA receptor antagonists conantokins G and T. Pain. 2003 Jan; 101(1-2):109-16. PMID: 12507705.
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    88. Mitrovic I, Margeta-Mitrovic M, Bader S, Stoffel M, Jan LY, Basbaum A. Contribution of GIRK2-mediated postsynaptic signaling to opiate and alpha 2-adrenergic analgesia and analgesic sex differences. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jan 07; 100(1):271-6. PMID: 12496346; PMCID: PMC140949.
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    90. Telgkamp P, Cao YQ, Basbaum A, Ramirez JM. Long-term deprivation of substance P in PPT-A mutant mice alters the anoxic response of the isolated respiratory network. J Neurophysiol. 2002 Jul; 88(1):206-13. PMID: 12091546.
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    91. Neumann S, Bradke F, Tessier-Lavigne M, Basbaum A. Regeneration of sensory axons within the injured spinal cord induced by intraganglionic cAMP elevation. Neuron. 2002 Jun 13; 34(6):885-93. PMID: 12086637.
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    92. Abbadie C, Lombard MC, Besson JM, Trafton JA, Basbaum A. Mu and delta opioid receptor-like immunoreactivity in the cervical spinal cord of the rat after dorsal rhizotomy or neonatal capsaicin: an analysis of pre- and postsynaptic receptor distributions. Brain Res. 2002 Mar 15; 930(1-2):150-62. PMID: 11879805.
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    97. Chen ZF, Rebelo S, White F, Malmberg AB, Baba H, Lima D, Woolf CJ, Basbaum A, Anderson DJ. The paired homeodomain protein DRG11 is required for the projection of cutaneous sensory afferent fibers to the dorsal spinal cord. Neuron. 2001 Jul 19; 31(1):59-73. PMID: 11498051.
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    98. Martin WJ, Malmberg AB, Basbaum A. PKCgamma contributes to a subset of the NMDA-dependent spinal circuits that underlie injury-induced persistent pain. J Neurosci. 2001 Jul 15; 21(14):5321-7. PMID: 11438608.
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    102. Malmberg AB, Hedley LR, Jasper JR, Hunter JC, Basbaum A. Contribution of alpha(2) receptor subtypes to nerve injury-induced pain and its regulation by dexmedetomidine. Br J Pharmacol. 2001 Apr; 132(8):1827-36. PMID: 11309255; PMCID: PMC1572746.
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    105. Trafton JA, Abbadie C, Marek K, Basbaum A. Postsynaptic signaling via the [mu]-opioid receptor: responses of dorsal horn neurons to exogenous opioids and noxious stimulation. J Neurosci. 2000 Dec 01; 20(23):8578-84. PMID: 11102461.
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    110. Taylor BK, Basbaum A. Early antinociception delays edema but does not reduce the magnitude of persistent pain in the formalin test. J Pain. 2000; 1(3):218-28. PMID: 14622621.
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    114. Stryker MP, Basbaum A, DeFranco T, Herskowitz I, Yamamoto K. Hospital merger leaves clinical science intact. Nature. 1999 Oct 28; 401(6756):842. PMID: 10553895.
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    118. Martin WJ, Loo CM, Basbaum A. Spinal cannabinoids are anti-allodynic in rats with persistent inflammation. Pain. 1999 Aug; 82(2):199-205. PMID: 10467924.
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    122. Martin WJ, Gupta NK, Loo CM, Rohde DS, Basbaum A. Differential effects of neurotoxic destruction of descending noradrenergic pathways on acute and persistent nociceptive processing. Pain. 1999 Mar; 80(1-2):57-65. PMID: 10204718.
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    123. Abbadie C, Skinner K, Mitrovic I, Basbaum A. Neurons in the dorsal column white matter of the spinal cord: complex neuropil in an unexpected location. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Jan 05; 96(1):260-5. PMID: 9874806; PMCID: PMC15127.
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    125. Basbaum A. Spinal mechanisms of acute and persistent pain. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 1999 Jan-Feb; 24(1):59-67. PMID: 9952097.
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    126. Abbadie C, Basbaum A. The contribution of capsaicin-sensitive afferents to the dorsal root ganglion sprouting of sympathetic axons after peripheral nerve injury in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1998 Sep 11; 253(3):143-6. PMID: 9792231.
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    127. Tominaga M, Caterina MJ, Malmberg AB, Rosen TA, Gilbert H, Skinner K, Raumann BE, Basbaum A, Julius D. The cloned capsaicin receptor integrates multiple pain-producing stimuli. Neuron. 1998 Sep; 21(3):531-43. PMID: 9768840.
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    128. Martin WJ, Malmberg AB, Basbaum A. Pain: nocistatin spells relief. Curr Biol. 1998 Jul 16; 8(15):R525-7. PMID: 9705926.
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    129. Bhatnagar S, Dallman MF, Roderick RE, Basbaum A, Taylor BK. The effects of prior chronic stress on cardiovascular responses to acute restraint and formalin injection. Brain Res. 1998 Jun 29; 797(2):313-20. PMID: 9666156.
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    130. Rohde DS, Basbaum A. Activation of coeruleospinal noradrenergic inhibitory controls during withdrawal from morphine in the rat. J Neurosci. 1998 Jun 01; 18(11):4393-402. PMID: 9592116.
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    131. Malmberg AB, Basbaum A. Partial sciatic nerve injury in the mouse as a model of neuropathic pain: behavioral and neuroanatomical correlates. Pain. 1998 May; 76(1-2):215-22. PMID: 9696476.
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    132. Taylor BK, Akana SF, Peterson MA, Dallman MF, Basbaum A. Pituitary-adrenocortical responses to persistent noxious stimuli in the awake rat: endogenous corticosterone does not reduce nociception in the formalin test. Endocrinology. 1998 May; 139(5):2407-13. PMID: 9564852.
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    134. Hammond DL, Wang H, Nakashima N, Basbaum A. Differential effects of intrathecally administered delta and mu opioid receptor agonists on formalin-evoked nociception and on the expression of Fos-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1998 Jan; 284(1):378-87. PMID: 9435201.
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    135. Abbadie C, Trafton J, Liu H, Mantyh PW, Basbaum A. Inflammation increases the distribution of dorsal horn neurons that internalize the neurokinin-1 receptor in response to noxious and non-noxious stimulation. J Neurosci. 1997 Oct 15; 17(20):8049-60. PMID: 9315923.
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    136. Malmberg AB, Chen C, Tonegawa S, Basbaum A. Preserved acute pain and reduced neuropathic pain in mice lacking PKCgamma. Science. 1997 Oct 10; 278(5336):279-83. PMID: 9323205.
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    137. Malmberg AB, Brandon EP, Idzerda RL, Liu H, McKnight GS, Basbaum A. Diminished inflammation and nociceptive pain with preservation of neuropathic pain in mice with a targeted mutation of the type I regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Neurosci. 1997 Oct 01; 17(19):7462-70. PMID: 9295392.
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    138. Skinner K, Basbaum A, Fields HL. Cholecystokinin and enkephalin in brain stem pain modulating circuits. Neuroreport. 1997 Sep 29; 8(14):2995-8. PMID: 9331904.
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    139. Rohde DS, McKay WR, Chang DS, Abbadie C, Basbaum A. The contribution of supraspinal, peripheral and intrinsic spinal circuits to the pattern and magnitude of Fos-like immunoreactivity in the lumbar spinal cord of the rat withdrawing from morphine. Neuroscience. 1997 Sep; 80(2):599-612. PMID: 9284361.
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    140. Rohde DS, Detweiler DJ, Basbaum A. Formalin-evoked Fos expression in spinal cord is enhanced in morphine-tolerant rats. Brain Res. 1997 Aug 22; 766(1-2):93-100. PMID: 9359591.
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    141. Allen BJ, Rogers SD, Ghilardi JR, Menning PM, Kuskowski MA, Basbaum A, Simone DA, Mantyh PW. Noxious cutaneous thermal stimuli induce a graded release of endogenous substance P in the spinal cord: imaging peptide action in vivo. J Neurosci. 1997 Aug 01; 17(15):5921-7. PMID: 9221788.
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    142. Jasmin L, Burkey AR, Card JP, Basbaum A. Transneuronal labeling of a nociceptive pathway, the spino-(trigemino-)parabrachio-amygdaloid, in the rat. J Neurosci. 1997 May 15; 17(10):3751-65. PMID: 9133395.
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    144. Liu H, Mantyh PW, Basbaum A. NMDA-receptor regulation of substance P release from primary afferent nociceptors. Nature. 1997 Apr 17; 386(6626):721-4. PMID: 9109489.
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    145. Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Martin CL, Minson JB, Pilowsky PM, Arnolda LF, Basbaum A, Chalmers JP. Neurokinin-1 receptor-immunoreactive sympathetic preganglionic neurons: target specificity and ultrastructure. Neuroscience. 1997 Apr; 77(4):1137-49. PMID: 9130793.
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    146. Skinner K, Fields HL, Basbaum A, Mason P. GABA-immunoreactive boutons contact identified OFF and ON cells in the nucleus raphe magnus. J Comp Neurol. 1997 Feb 10; 378(2):196-204. PMID: 9120060.
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    147. Taylor BK, Peterson MA, Basbaum A. Early nociceptive events influence the temporal profile, but not the magnitude, of the tonic response to subcutaneous formalin: effects with remifentanil. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1997 Feb; 280(2):876-83. PMID: 9023302.
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    148. Jasmin L, Carstens E, Basbaum A. Interneurons presynaptic to rat tail-flick motoneurons as mapped by transneuronal transport of pseudorabies virus: few have long ascending collaterals. Neuroscience. 1997 Feb; 76(3):859-76. PMID: 9135057.
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    150. Taylor BK, Peterson MA, Basbaum A. Continuous intravenous infusion of naloxone does not change behavioral, cardiovascular, or inflammatory responses to subcutaneous formalin in the rat. Pain. 1997 Jan; 69(1-2):171-7. PMID: 9060028.
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    151. Abbadie C, Taylor BK, Peterson MA, Basbaum A. Differential contribution of the two phases of the formalin test to the pattern of c-fos expression in the rat spinal cord: studies with remifentanil and lidocaine. Pain. 1997 Jan; 69(1-2):101-10. PMID: 9060019.
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    153. Gogas KR, Cho HJ, Botchkina GI, Levine JD, Basbaum A. Inhibition of noxious stimulus-evoked pain behaviors and neuronal fos-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the rat by supraspinal morphine. Pain. 1996 Apr; 65(1):9-15. PMID: 8826484.
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    154. Gogas KR, Levine JD, Basbaum A. Differential contribution of descending controls to the antinociceptive actions of kappa and mu opioids: an analysis of formalin-evoked C-fos expression. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1996 Feb; 276(2):801-9. PMID: 8632353.
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    155. Abbadie C, Brown JL, Mantyh PW, Basbaum A. Spinal cord substance P receptor immunoreactivity increases in both inflammatory and nerve injury models of persistent pain. Neuroscience. 1996 Jan; 70(1):201-9. PMID: 8848125.
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    158. Taylor BK, Peterson MA, Basbaum A. Persistent cardiovascular and behavioral nociceptive responses to subcutaneous formalin require peripheral nerve input. J Neurosci. 1995 Nov; 15(11):7575-84. PMID: 7472508.
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    159. Matos FF, Rollema H, Taiwo YO, Levine JD, Basbaum A. Relationship between analgesia and extracellular morphine in brain and spinal cord in awake rats. Brain Res. 1995 Sep 25; 693(1-2):187-95. PMID: 8653407.
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    160. Taylor BK, Basbaum A. Neurochemical characterization of extracellular serotonin in the rostral ventromedial medulla and its modulation by noxious stimuli. J Neurochem. 1995 Aug; 65(2):578-89. PMID: 7616212.
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    161. Mantyh PW, DeMaster E, Malhotra A, Ghilardi JR, Rogers SD, Mantyh CR, Liu H, Basbaum A, Vigna SR, Maggio JE. Receptor endocytosis and dendrite reshaping in spinal neurons after somatosensory stimulation. Science. 1995 Jun 16; 268(5217):1629-32. PMID: 7539937.
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    162. Brown JL, Liu H, Maggio JE, Vigna SR, Mantyh PW, Basbaum A. Morphological characterization of substance P receptor-immunoreactive neurons in the rat spinal cord and trigeminal nucleus caudalis. J Comp Neurol. 1995 Jun 05; 356(3):327-44. PMID: 7642798.
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    163. Basbaum A. Insights into the development of opioid tolerance. Pain. 1995 Jun; 61(3):349-52. PMID: 7478677.
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    164. Liu H, Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Basbaum A. Co-injection of wheat germ agglutinin-HRP and choleragenoid-HRP into the sciatic nerve of the rat blocks transganglionic transport. J Histochem Cytochem. 1995 May; 43(5):489-95. PMID: 7730587.
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    165. Mantyh PW, Allen CJ, Ghilardi JR, Rogers SD, Mantyh CR, Liu H, Basbaum A, Vigna SR, Maggio JE. Rapid endocytosis of a G protein-coupled receptor: substance P evoked internalization of its receptor in the rat striatum in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Mar 28; 92(7):2622-6. PMID: 7535928; PMCID: PMC42270.
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    167. Miao FJ, Jänig W, Dallman MF, Benowitz NL, Heller PH, Basbaum A, Levine JD. Role of vagal afferents and spinal pathways modulating inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation by intrathecal nicotine. J Neurophysiol. 1994 Sep; 72(3):1199-207. PMID: 7807204.
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    172. Jasmin L, Tarczy-Hornoch K, Wang H, Levine JD, Basbaum A. Transneuronal spread of the pseudorabies virus after injection into the central nucleus of the amygdala in the rat. Gene Ther. 1994; 1 Suppl 1:S74. PMID: 8542420.
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    173. Chi SI, Levine JD, Basbaum A. Peripheral and central contributions to the persistent expression of spinal cord fos-like immunoreactivity produced by sciatic nerve transection in the rat. Brain Res. 1993 Jul 23; 617(2):225-37. PMID: 8402151.
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    174. Chi SI, Levine JD, Basbaum A. Effects of injury discharge on the persistent expression of spinal cord fos-like immunoreactivity produced by sciatic nerve transection in the rat. Brain Res. 1993 Jul 23; 617(2):220-4. PMID: 8402150.
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    175. Levine JD, Fields HL, Basbaum A. Peptides and the primary afferent nociceptor. J Neurosci. 1993 Jun; 13(6):2273-86. PMID: 8501507.
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    176. Kwiat GC, Liu H, Williamson AM, Basbaum A. GABAergic regulation of noradrenergic spinal projection neurons of the A5 cell group in the rat: an electron microscopic analysis. J Comp Neurol. 1993 Apr 22; 330(4):557-70. PMID: 8320344.
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    177. Miao FJ, Dallman MF, Benowitz NL, Basbaum A, Levine JD. Adrenal medullary modulation of the inhibition of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation by intrathecal nicotine. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1993 Feb; 264(2):839-44. PMID: 8094755.
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    179. Miao FJ, Helms C, Benowitz NL, Basbaum A, Heller PH, Levine JD. Chronically administered nicotine attenuates bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation and aggravates arthritis-induced joint injury in the rat. Neuroscience. 1992 Dec; 51(3):649-55. PMID: 1362599.
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    180. Green PG, Basbaum A, Levine JD. Sensory neuropeptide interactions in the production of plasma extravasation in the rat. Neuroscience. 1992 Oct; 50(3):745-9. PMID: 1279466.
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    181. Miao FJ, Benowitz NL, Basbaum A, Levine JD. Sympathoadrenal contribution to nicotinic and muscarinic modulation of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in the knee joint of the rat. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1992 Sep; 262(3):889-95. PMID: 1527731.
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    182. Sato M, Severinghaus JW, Basbaum A. Medullary CO2 chemoreceptor neuron identification by c-fos immunocytochemistry. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1992 Jul; 73(1):96-100. PMID: 1506406.
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    183. Frothingham EP, Basbaum A. Construction of a microdialysis probe with attached microinjection catheter. J Neurosci Methods. 1992 Jul; 43(2-3):181-8. PMID: 1405742.
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    184. Matos FF, Rollema H, Basbaum A. Simultaneous measurement of extracellular morphine and serotonin in brain tissue and CSF by microdialysis in awake rats. J Neurochem. 1992 May; 58(5):1773-81. PMID: 1560232.
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    185. Liu H, Llewellyn-Smith IJ, Pilowsky P, Basbaum A. Ultrastructural evidence for GABA-mediated disinhibitory circuits in the spinal cord of the cat. Neurosci Lett. 1992 Apr 13; 138(1):183-7. PMID: 1407660.
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    186. Matos FF, Rollema H, Brown JL, Basbaum A. Do opioids evoke the release of serotonin in the spinal cord? An in vivo microdialysis study of the regulation of extracellular serotonin in the rat. Pain. 1992 Mar; 48(3):439-47. PMID: 1375724.
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    187. Hammond DL, Presley R, Gogas KR, Basbaum A. Morphine or U-50,488 suppresses Fos protein-like immunoreactivity in the spinal cord and nucleus tractus solitarii evoked by a noxious visceral stimulus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1992 Jan 08; 315(2):244-53. PMID: 1545011.
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    188. Basbaum A. Opioid regulation of nociceptive and neuropathic pain. Clin Neuropharmacol. 1992; 15 Suppl 1 Pt A:372A. PMID: 1498878.
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    189. Kwiat GC, Basbaum A. The origin of brainstem noradrenergic and serotonergic projections to the spinal cord dorsal horn in the rat. Somatosens Mot Res. 1992; 9(2):157-73. PMID: 1354402.
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    190. Basbaum A, Gautron M, Jazat F, Mayes M, Guilbaud G. The spectrum of fiber loss in a model of neuropathic pain in the rat: an electron microscopic study. Pain. 1991 Dec; 47(3):359-67. PMID: 1664510.
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    191. Basbaum A, Levine JD. Opiate analgesia. How central is a peripheral target? N Engl J Med. 1991 Oct 17; 325(16):1168-9. PMID: 1653902.
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    192. Lee A, Coderre TJ, Basbaum A, Levine JD. Sympathetic neuron factors involved in bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation in the rat. Brain Res. 1991 Aug 23; 557(1-2):146-8. PMID: 1747748.
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    193. Green PG, Basbaum A, Helms C, Levine JD. Purinergic regulation of bradykinin-induced plasma extravasation and adjuvant-induced arthritis in the rat. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 May 15; 88(10):4162-5. PMID: 2034661; PMCID: PMC51618.
    194. Basbaum A, Levine JD. The contribution of the nervous system to inflammation and inflammatory disease. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1991 May; 69(5):647-51. PMID: 1863915.
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    195. Coderre TJ, Basbaum A, Helms C, Levine JD. High-dose epinephrine acts at alpha 2-adrenoceptors to suppress experimental arthritis. Brain Res. 1991 Mar 29; 544(2):325-8. PMID: 1674896.
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    196. Cho HJ, Basbaum A. GABAergic circuitry in the rostral ventral medulla of the rat and its relationship to descending antinociceptive controls. J Comp Neurol. 1991 Jan 08; 303(2):316-28. PMID: 2013643.
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    197. Gogas KR, Presley RW, Levine JD, Basbaum A. The antinociceptive action of supraspinal opioids results from an increase in descending inhibitory control: correlation of nociceptive behavior and c-fos expression. Neuroscience. 1991; 42(3):617-28. PMID: 1659673.
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    198. Bjerknes L, Coderre TJ, Green PG, Basbaum A, Levine JD. Neutrophils contribute to sympathetic nerve terminal-dependent plasma extravasation in the knee joint of the rat. Neuroscience. 1991; 43(2-3):679-85. PMID: 1922788.
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    199. Coderre TJ, Chan AK, Helms C, Basbaum A, Levine JD. Increasing sympathetic nerve terminal-dependent plasma extravasation correlates with decreased arthritic joint injury in rats. Neuroscience. 1991; 40(1):185-9. PMID: 2052150.
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    200. Reichling DB, Basbaum A. Collateralization of periaqueductal gray neurons to forebrain or diencephalon and to the medullary nucleus raphe magnus in the rat. Neuroscience. 1991; 42(1):183-200. PMID: 1713655.
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    201. Reichling DB, Basbaum A. Contribution of brainstem GABAergic circuitry to descending antinociceptive controls: I. GABA-immunoreactive projection neurons in the periaqueductal gray and nucleus raphe magnus. J Comp Neurol. 1990 Dec 08; 302(2):370-7. PMID: 2289975.
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    202. Reichling DB, Basbaum A. Contribution of brainstem GABAergic circuitry to descending antinociceptive controls: II. Electron microscopic immunocytochemical evidence of GABAergic control over the projection from the periaqueductal gray to the nucleus raphe magnus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1990 Dec 08; 302(2):378-93. PMID: 2289976.
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    203. Levine JD, Coderre TJ, White DM, Finkbeiner WE, Basbaum A. Denervation-induced inflammation in the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1990 Oct 30; 119(1):37-40. PMID: 2097582.
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    204. Matos FF, Rollema H, Basbaum A. Characterization of monoamine release in the lateral hypothalamus of awake, freely moving rats using in vivo microdialysis. Brain Res. 1990 Sep 24; 528(1):39-47. PMID: 1978794.
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    205. Kwiat GC, Basbaum A. Organization of tyrosine hydroxylase- and serotonin-immunoreactive brainstem neurons with axon collaterals to the periaqueductal gray and the spinal cord in the rat. Brain Res. 1990 Sep 24; 528(1):83-94. PMID: 1978796.
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    206. Levine JD, Coderre TJ, Covinsky K, Basbaum A. Neural influences on synovial mast cell density in rat. J Neurosci Res. 1990 Jul; 26(3):301-7. PMID: 2398510.
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    207. White DM, Basbaum A, Goetzl EJ, Levine JD. The 15-lipoxygenase product, 8R,15S-diHETE, stereospecifically sensitizes C-fiber mechanoheat nociceptors in hairy skin of rat. J Neurophysiol. 1990 May; 63(5):966-70. PMID: 2162922.
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    208. Levine JD, Basbaum A. Neurogenic mechanism for symmetrical arthritis. Lancet. 1990 Mar 31; 335(8692):795. PMID: 1969540.
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    209. Kayser V, Basbaum A, Guilbaud G. Deafferentation in the rat increases mechanical nociceptive threshold in the innervated limbs. Brain Res. 1990 Feb 05; 508(2):329-32. PMID: 2306625.
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    210. Coderre TJ, Basbaum A, Dallman MF, Helms C, Levine JD. Epinephrine exacerbates arthritis by an action at presynaptic B2-adrenoceptors. Neuroscience. 1990; 34(2):521-3. PMID: 2159131.
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    211. Presley RW, Menétrey D, Levine JD, Basbaum A. Systemic morphine suppresses noxious stimulus-evoked Fos protein-like immunoreactivity in the rat spinal cord. J Neurosci. 1990 Jan; 10(1):323-35. PMID: 1688935.
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    212. Basbaum A. A rapid and simple silver enhancement procedure for ultrastructural localization of the retrograde tracer WGAapoHRP-Au and its use in double-label studies with post-embedding immunocytochemistry. J Histochem Cytochem. 1989 Dec; 37(12):1811-5. PMID: 2479673.
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    213. Menétrey D, Gannon A, Levine JD, Basbaum A. Expression of c-fos protein in interneurons and projection neurons of the rat spinal cord in response to noxious somatic, articular, and visceral stimulation. J Comp Neurol. 1989 Jul 08; 285(2):177-95. PMID: 2503547.
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    214. Coderre TJ, Basbaum A, Levine JD. Neural control of vascular permeability: interactions between primary afferents, mast cells, and sympathetic efferents. J Neurophysiol. 1989 Jul; 62(1):48-58. PMID: 2502607.
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    215. Weil-Fugazza J, Godefroy F, Basbaum A. Effect of deafferentation on the levels of uric acid in the spinal cord of the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1989 Apr 24; 99(1-2):181-6. PMID: 2748011.
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    216. Taiwo YO, Basbaum A, Perry F, Levine JD. Paradoxical analgesia produced by low doses of the opiate-antagonist naloxone is mediated by interaction at a site with characteristics of the delta opioid receptor. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1989 Apr; 249(1):97-100. PMID: 2540325.
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    217. Cho HJ, Basbaum A. Ultrastructural analysis of dynorphin B-immunoreactive cells and terminals in the superficial dorsal horn of the deafferented spinal cord of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1989 Mar 08; 281(2):193-205. PMID: 2565349.
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    218. Cho HJ, Basbaum A. Arborization of single axons of the spinal dorsolateral funiculus to the contralateral superficial dorsal horn. Brain Res. 1989 Jan 16; 477(1-2):344-9. PMID: 2467725.
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    219. Basbaum A. Distribution of glycine receptor immunoreactivity in the spinal cord of the rat: cytochemical evidence for a differential glycinergic control of lamina I and V nociceptive neurons. J Comp Neurol. 1988 Dec 15; 278(3):330-6. PMID: 2851018.
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    220. Martin HA, Basbaum A, Goetzl EJ, Levine JD. Leukotriene B4 decreases the mechanical and thermal thresholds of C-fiber nociceptors in the hairy skin of the rat. J Neurophysiol. 1988 Aug; 60(2):438-45. PMID: 2845013.
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    221. Levine JD, Coderre TJ, Helms C, Basbaum A. Beta 2-adrenergic mechanisms in experimental arthritis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Jun; 85(12):4553-6. PMID: 2837769; PMCID: PMC280469.
    222. Faden AI, Gannon A, Basbaum A. Use of serotonin immunocytochemistry as a marker of injury severity after experimental spinal trauma in rats. Brain Res. 1988 May 31; 450(1-2):94-100. PMID: 3401725.
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    223. Levine JD, Moskowitz MA, Basbaum A. The effect of gold, an antirheumatic therapy, on substance P levels in rat peripheral nerve. Neurosci Lett. 1988 Apr 22; 87(1-2):200-2. PMID: 2454428.
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    224. Lakos S, Basbaum A. An ultrastructural study of the projections from the midbrain periaqueductal gray to spinally projecting, serotonin-immunoreactive neurons of the medullary nucleus raphe magnus in the rat. Brain Res. 1988 Mar 08; 443(1-2):383-8. PMID: 3282614.
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    225. Cho HJ, Basbaum A. Increased staining of immunoreactive dynorphin cell bodies in the deafferented spinal cord of the rat. Neurosci Lett. 1988 Jan 22; 84(2):125-30. PMID: 2448707.
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    226. Basbaum A. Anatomical introduction to analgesia: correlation of activity of neurons of the superficial dorsal horn with pain and analgesia. Acta Anaesthesiol Belg. 1988; 39(3 Suppl 2):45-6. PMID: 3176867.
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    227. Reichling DB, Kwiat GC, Basbaum A. Anatomy, physiology and pharmacology of the periaqueductal gray contribution to antinociceptive controls. Prog Brain Res. 1988; 77:31-46. PMID: 3064173.
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    228. Basbaum A, Zahs K, Lord B, Lakos S. The fiber caliber of 5-HT immunoreactive axons in the dorsolateral funiculus of the spinal cord of the rat and cat. Somatosens Res. 1988; 5(3):177-85. PMID: 3358043.
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    229. Daval G, Vergé D, Basbaum A, Bourgoin S, Hamon M. Autoradiographic evidence of serotonin1 binding sites on primary afferent fibres in the dorsal horn of the rat spinal cord. Neurosci Lett. 1987 Dec 16; 83(1-2):71-6. PMID: 3441302.
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    230. Menetrey D, Basbaum A. The distribution of substance P-, enkephalin- and dynorphin-immunoreactive neurons in the medulla of the rat and their contribution to bulbospinal pathways. Neuroscience. 1987 Oct; 23(1):173-87. PMID: 2446203.
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    231. Basbaum A, Godefroy F, Weil-Fugazza J. A new microdissection technique for regional biochemical analysis of the rat spinal cord: serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine and uric acid. Brain Res. 1987 Sep 01; 419(1-2):229-38. PMID: 2445422.
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    232. Martin HA, Basbaum A, Kwiat GC, Goetzl EJ, Levine JD. Leukotriene and prostaglandin sensitization of cutaneous high-threshold C- and A-delta mechanonociceptors in the hairy skin of rat hindlimbs. Neuroscience. 1987 Aug; 22(2):651-9. PMID: 2823177.
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    233. Levine JD, Goetzl EJ, Basbaum A. Contribution of the nervous system to the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis and other polyarthritides. Rheum Dis Clin North Am. 1987 Aug; 13(2):369-83. PMID: 2447613.
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    234. Basbaum A, Menetrey D. Wheat germ agglutinin-apoHRP gold: a new retrograde tracer for light- and electron-microscopic single- and double-label studies. J Comp Neurol. 1987 Jul 08; 261(2):306-18. PMID: 2442205.
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    235. Mochly-Rosen D, Basbaum A, Koshland DE. Distinct cellular and regional localization of immunoreactive protein kinase C in rat brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Jul; 84(13):4660-4. PMID: 3299372; PMCID: PMC305150.
    236. Menétrey D, Basbaum A. Spinal and trigeminal projections to the nucleus of the solitary tract: a possible substrate for somatovisceral and viscerovisceral reflex activation. J Comp Neurol. 1987 Jan 15; 255(3):439-50. PMID: 3819024.
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    237. Doble A, Malgouris C, Daniel M, Daniel N, Imbault F, Basbaum A, Uzan A, Guérémy C, Le Fur G. Labelling of peripheral-type benzodiazepine binding sites in human brain with [3H]PK 11195: anatomical and subcellular distribution. Brain Res Bull. 1987 Jan; 18(1):49-61. PMID: 3030512.
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    238. Basbaum A. Cytochemical studies of the neural circuitry underlying pain and pain control. Acta Neurochir Suppl (Wien). 1987; 38:5-15. PMID: 2888266.
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    239. Levine JD, Dardick SJ, Roizen MF, Helms C, Basbaum A. Contribution of sensory afferents and sympathetic efferents to joint injury in experimental arthritis. J Neurosci. 1986 Dec; 6(12):3423-9. PMID: 3794780.
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    240. Levine JD, Fye K, Heller P, Basbaum A, Whiting-O'Keefe Q. Clinical response to regional intravenous guanethidine in patients with rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 1986 Dec; 13(6):1040-3. PMID: 3550071.
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    241. Basbaum A, Ralston DD, Ralston HJ. Bulbospinal projections in the primate: a light and electron microscopic study of a pain modulating system. J Comp Neurol. 1986 Aug 15; 250(3):311-23. PMID: 3745518.
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    242. Lakos S, Basbaum A. Benzidine dihydrochloride as a chromogen for single- and double-label light and electron microscopic immunocytochemical studies. J Histochem Cytochem. 1986 Aug; 34(8):1047-56. PMID: 2426333.
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    243. Dardick SJ, Basbaum A, Levine JD. The contribution of pain to disability in experimentally induced arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 1986 Aug; 29(8):1017-22. PMID: 3741511.
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    244. Levine JD, Goldstine J, Mayes M, Moskowitz MA, Basbaum A. The neurotoxic effect of gold sodium thiomalate on the peripheral nerves of the rat. Insights into the antiinflammatory actions of gold therapy. Arthritis Rheum. 1986 Jul; 29(7):897-901. PMID: 3091040.
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    245. Basbaum A, Glazer EJ, Oertel W. Immunoreactive glutamic acid decarboxylase in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis of the cat: a light- and electron-microscopic analysis. Somatosens Res. 1986; 4(1):77-94. PMID: 3541116.
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    246. Basbaum A, Cruz L, Weber E. Immunoreactive dynorphin B in sacral primary afferent fibers of the cat. J Neurosci. 1986 Jan; 6(1):127-33. PMID: 2418172.
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    247. Brown RO, Gusman D, Basbaum A, Mayeri E. Identification of Aplysia neurons containing immunoreactive FMRFamide. Neuropeptides. 1985 Dec; 6(6):517-26. PMID: 4080111.
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    248. Cruz L, Basbaum A. Multiple opioid peptides and the modulation of pain: immunohistochemical analysis of dynorphin and enkephalin in the trigeminal nucleus caudalis and spinal cord of the cat. J Comp Neurol. 1985 Oct 22; 240(4):331-48. PMID: 2907522.
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    249. Levine JD, Moskowitz MA, Basbaum A. The contribution of neurogenic inflammation in experimental arthritis. J Immunol. 1985 Aug; 135(2 Suppl):843s-847s. PMID: 2409171.
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    250. Levine JD, Collier DH, Basbaum A, Moskowitz MA, Helms CA. Hypothesis: the nervous system may contribute to the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis. J Rheumatol. 1985 Jun; 12(3):406-11. PMID: 2413204.
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    251. Levine JD, Dardick SJ, Basbaum A, Scipio E. Reflex neurogenic inflammation. I. Contribution of the peripheral nervous system to spatially remote inflammatory responses that follow injury. J Neurosci. 1985 May; 5(5):1380-6. PMID: 3998827.
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    252. Lee HS, Basbaum A. Immunoreactive pro-enkephalin and prodynorphin products are differentially distributed within the nucleus of the solitary tract of the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1984 Dec 20; 230(4):614-9. PMID: 6151570.
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    253. Levine JD, Clark R, Devor M, Helms C, Moskowitz MA, Basbaum A. Intraneuronal substance P contributes to the severity of experimental arthritis. Science. 1984 Nov 02; 226(4674):547-9. PMID: 6208609.
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    254. Guthrie J, Basbaum A. Colocalization of immunoreactive proenkephalin and prodynorphin products in medullary neurons of the rat. Neuropeptides. 1984 Nov; 4(6):437-45. PMID: 6392921.
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    255. Glazer EJ, Ramachandran J, Basbaum A. Radioimmunocytochemistry using a tritiated goat anti-rabbit second antibody. J Histochem Cytochem. 1984 Jul; 32(7):778-82. PMID: 6203962.
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    256. Glazer EJ, Basbaum A. Axons which take up [3H]serotonin are presynaptic to enkephalin immunoreactive neurons in cat dorsal horn. Brain Res. 1984 Apr 30; 298(2):386-91. PMID: 6202371.
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    257. Basbaum A, Fields HL. Endogenous pain control systems: brainstem spinal pathways and endorphin circuitry. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1984; 7:309-38. PMID: 6143527.
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    258. Moss MS, Basbaum A. The fine structure of the caudal periaqueductal gray of the cat: morphology and synaptic organization of normal and immunoreactive enkephalin-labeled profiles. Brain Res. 1983 Dec 19; 289(1-2):27-43. PMID: 6362775.
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    259. Glazer EJ, Basbaum A. Opioid neurons and pain modulation: an ultrastructural analysis of enkephalin in cat superficial dorsal horn. Neuroscience. 1983 Oct; 10(2):357-76. PMID: 6355893.
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    260. Moss MS, Basbaum A. The peptidergic organization of the cat periaqueductal gray. II. The distribution of immunoreactive substance P and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide. J Neurosci. 1983 Jul; 3(7):1437-49. PMID: 6191012.
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    261. Moss MS, Glazer EJ, Basbaum A. The peptidergic organization of the cat periaqueductal gray. I. The distribution of immunoreactive enkephalin-containing neurons and terminals. J Neurosci. 1983 Mar; 3(3):603-16. PMID: 6827311.
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    262. Basbaum A, Glazer EJ. Immunoreactive vasoactive intestinal polypeptide is concentrated in the sacral spinal cord: a possible marker for pelvic visceral afferent fibers. Somatosens Res. 1983; 1(1):69-82. PMID: 6679914.
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    263. Basbaum A, Glazer EJ, Lord BA. Simultaneous ultrastructural localization of tritiated serotonin and immunoreactive peptides. J Histochem Cytochem. 1982 Aug; 30(8):780-4. PMID: 7119422.
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    264. Grossman ML, Basbaum A, Fields HL. Afferent and efferent connections of the rat tail flick reflex (a model used to analyze pain control mechanisms). J Comp Neurol. 1982 Mar 20; 206(1):9-16. PMID: 7096630.
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    265. Abols IA, Basbaum A. Afferent connections of the rostral medulla of the cat: a neural substrate for midbrain-medullary interactions in the modulation of pain. J Comp Neurol. 1981 Sep 10; 201(2):285-97. PMID: 7287930.
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    266. Glazer EJ, Basbaum A. Immunohistochemical localization of leucine-enkephalin in the spinal cord of the cat: enkephalin-containing marginal neurons and pain modulation. J Comp Neurol. 1981 Mar 01; 196(3):377-89. PMID: 7012195.
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    267. Moss MS, Glazer EJ, Basbaum A. Enkephalin-immunoreactive perikarya in the cat raphe dorsalis. Neurosci Lett. 1981 Jan 01; 21(1):33-7. PMID: 7207868.
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    268. Glazer EJ, Steinbusch H, Verhofstad A, Basbaum A. Serotonin neurons in nucleus raphe dorsalis and paragigantocellularis of the cat contain enkephalin. J Physiol (Paris). 1981; 77(2-3):241-5. PMID: 7026770.
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    269. Basbaum A. Descending control of pain transmission: possible serotonergic-enkephalinergic interactions. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1981; 133:177-89. PMID: 6172014.
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    270. Glazer EJ, Basbaum A. Leucine enkephalin: localization in and axoplasmic transport by sacral parasympathetic preganglionic neurons. Science. 1980 Jun 27; 208(4451):1479-81. PMID: 6155697.
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    271. Barton C, Basbaum A, Fields HL. Dissociation of supraspinal and spinal actions of morphine: a quantitative evaluation. Brain Res. 1980 Apr 28; 188(2):487-98. PMID: 6245758.
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    272. Basbaum A, Fields HL. The origin of descending pathways in the dorsolateral funiculus of the spinal cord of the cat and rat: further studies on the anatomy of pain modulation. J Comp Neurol. 1979 Oct 01; 187(3):513-31. PMID: 489790.
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    273. Abols IA, Basbaum A. The posterior pretectal nucleus: evidence for a direct projection to the inferior olive of the cat. Neurosci Lett. 1979 Jul; 13(2):111-6. PMID: 530460.
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    274. Giesler GJ, Menétrey D, Basbaum A. Differential origins of spinothalamic tract projections to medial and lateral thalamus in the rat. J Comp Neurol. 1979 Mar 01; 184(1):107-26. PMID: 84002.
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    275. Wong RK, Prince DA, Basbaum A. Intradendritic recordings from hippocampal neurons. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1979 Feb; 76(2):986-90. PMID: 284423; PMCID: PMC383115.
    276. Basbaum A, Fields HL. Endogenous pain control mechanisms: review and hypothesis. Ann Neurol. 1978 Nov; 4(5):451-62. PMID: 216303.
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    277. Basbaum A, Clanton CH, Fields HL. Three bulbospinal pathways from the rostral medulla of the cat: an autoradiographic study of pain modulating systems. J Comp Neurol. 1978 Mar 15; 178(2):209-24. PMID: 627624.
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    278. Fields HL, Basbaum A. Brainstem control of spinal pain-transmission neurons. Annu Rev Physiol. 1978; 40:217-48. PMID: 205165.
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    279. Fields HL, Basbaum A, Clanton CH, Anderson SD. Nucleus raphe magnus inhibition of spinal cord dorsal horn neurons. Brain Res. 1977 May 13; 126(3):441-53. PMID: 861731.
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    280. Anderson SD, Basbaum A, Fields HL. Response of medullary raphe neurons to peripheral stimulation and to systemic opiates. Brain Res. 1977 Mar 11; 123(2):363-8. PMID: 843930.
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    281. Basbaum A, Marley NJ, O'Keefe J, Clanton CH. Reversal of morphine and stimulus-produced analgesia by subtotal spinal cord lesions. Pain. 1977 Feb; 3(1):43-56. PMID: 876666.
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    282. Basbaum A, Clanton CH, Fields HL. Opiate and stimulus-produced analgesia: functional anatomy of a medullospinal pathway. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1976 Dec; 73(12):4685-8. PMID: 1070018; PMCID: PMC431597.
    283. Basbaum A, Wall PD. Chronic changes in the response of cells in adult cat dorsal horn following partial deafferentation: the appearance of responding cells in a previously non-responsive region. Brain Res. 1976 Nov 05; 116(2):181-204. PMID: 974771.
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    284. Millar J, Basbaum A, Wall PD. Restructuring of the somatotopic map and appearance of abnormal neuronal activity in the gracile nucleus after partial deafferentation. Exp Neurol. 1976 Mar; 50(3):658-72. PMID: 1253869.
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    285. Fields HL, Anderson SD, Clanton CH, Basbaum A. Nucleus raphe magnus: a common mediator of opiate- and stimulus-produced analgesia. Trans Am Neurol Assoc. 1976; 101:208-10. PMID: 195380.
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    286. Millar J, Basbaum A. Topography of the projection of the body surface of the cat to cuneate and gracile nuclei. Exp Neurol. 1975 Oct; 49(1 Pt 1):281-90. PMID: 1183527.
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    287. Wall PD, Waxman S, Basbaum A. Ongoing activity in peripheral nerve: injury discharge. Exp Neurol. 1974 Dec; 45(3):576-89. PMID: 4435078.
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    288. Basbaum A. Effects of central lesions on disorders produced by multiple dorsal rhizotomy in rats. Exp Neurol. 1974 Mar; 42(3):490-501. PMID: 4857237.
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    289. Basbaum A. Conduction of the effects of noxious stimulation by short-fiber multisynaptic systems of the spinal cord in the rat. Exp Neurol. 1973 Sep; 40(3):699-716. PMID: 4723852.
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    290. Basbaum A, Hand PJ. Projections of cervicothoracic dorsal roots to the cuneate nucleus of the rat, with observations on cellular "bricks". J Comp Neurol. 1973 Apr 01; 148(3):347-59. PMID: 4697813.
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