David Copenhagen, PhD

SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
Address675 Nelson Rising Lane
San Francisco CA 94158
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    Melanopsin-mediated light responses in the embryonic retina
    NIH/NEI R21EY025435Apr 1, 2015 - Mar 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Light regulated vascular development of the eye
    NIH/NEI R01EY023179Jan 1, 2013 - Dec 31, 2016
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Training Program for the Visual Sciences
    NIH/NEI T32EY007120Sep 30, 1990 - Sep 29, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Function and development in the synapse
    NIH P01NS016033Apr 1, 1980 - Jun 30, 2009
    Role: Co-Investigator
    NIH/NEI P30EY002162Dec 1, 1977 - Jun 30, 2019
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Synaptic Interactions and Mechanisms in the Retina
    NIH/NEI R01EY001869Feb 1, 1977 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH/NEI R37EY001869Feb 1, 1977 - Jan 31, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse In The News

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Delwig A, Larsen DD, Yasumura D, Yang CF, Shah NM, Copenhagen DR. Retinofugal Projections from Melanopsin-Expressing Retinal Ganglion Cells Revealed by Intraocular Injections of Cre-Dependent Virus. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0149501. PMID: 26895233; PMCID: PMC4764510.
    2. Delwig A, Majumdar S, Ahern K, LaVail MM, Edwards R, Hnasko TS, Copenhagen DR. Glutamatergic neurotransmission from melanopsin retinal ganglion cells is required for neonatal photoaversion but not adult pupillary light reflex. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e83974. PMID: 24391855; PMCID: PMC3877098.
    3. Yang MB, Rao S, Copenhagen DR, Lang RA. Length of day during early gestation as a predictor of risk for severe retinopathy of prematurity. Ophthalmology. 2013 Dec; 120(12):2706-13. PMID: 24139125; PMCID: PMC4164223.
    4. Rao S, Chun C, Fan J, Kofron JM, Yang MB, Hegde RS, Ferrara N, Copenhagen DR, Lang RA. A direct and melanopsin-dependent fetal light response regulates mouse eye development. Nature. 2013 Feb 14; 494(7436):243-6. PMID: 23334418; PMCID: PMC3746810.
    5. Delwig A, Logan AM, Copenhagen DR, Ahn AH. Light evokes melanopsin-dependent vocalization and neural activation associated with aversive experience in neonatal mice. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e43787. PMID: 23028470; PMCID: PMC3441538.
    6. Yoshida M, Feng L, Grimbert F, Rangarajan KV, Buggele W, Copenhagen DR, Cang J, Liu X. Overexpression of neurotrophin-3 stimulates a second wave of dopaminergic amacrine cell genesis after birth in the mouse retina. J Neurosci. 2011 Aug 31; 31(35):12663-73. PMID: 21880927; PMCID: PMC3184017.
    7. Chen AI, Nguyen CN, Copenhagen DR, Badurek S, Minichiello L, Ranscht B, Reichardt LF. TrkB (tropomyosin-related kinase B) controls the assembly and maintenance of GABAergic synapses in the cerebellar cortex. J Neurosci. 2011 Feb 23; 31(8):2769-80. PMID: 21414899; PMCID: PMC3154015.
    8. Johnson J, Wu V, Donovan M, Majumdar S, Rentería RC, Porco T, Van Gelder RN, Copenhagen DR. Melanopsin-dependent light avoidance in neonatal mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Oct 05; 107(40):17374-8. PMID: 20855606; PMCID: PMC2951438.
    9. Liu X, Robinson ML, Schreiber AM, Wu V, Lavail MM, Cang J, Copenhagen DR. Regulation of neonatal development of retinal ganglion cell dendrites by neurotrophin-3 overexpression. J Comp Neurol. 2009 Jun 10; 514(5):449-58. PMID: 19350645; PMCID: PMC2691146.
    10. Blankenship AG, Ford KJ, Johnson J, Seal RP, Edwards RH, Copenhagen DR, Feller MB. Synaptic and extrasynaptic factors governing glutamatergic retinal waves. Neuron. 2009 Apr 30; 62(2):230-41. PMID: 19409268; PMCID: PMC2807181.
    11. Grishanin RN, Yang H, Liu X, Donohue-Rolfe K, Nune GC, Zang K, Xu B, Duncan JL, Lavail MM, Copenhagen DR, Reichardt LF. Retinal TrkB receptors regulate neural development in the inner, but not outer, retina. Mol Cell Neurosci. 2008 Jul; 38(3):431-43. PMID: 18511296; PMCID: PMC2849660.
    12. Liu X, Grishanin RN, Tolwani RJ, Rentería RC, Xu B, Reichardt LF, Copenhagen DR. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor and TrkB modulate visual experience-dependent refinement of neuronal pathways in retina. J Neurosci. 2007 Jul 04; 27(27):7256-67. PMID: 17611278; PMCID: PMC2579893.
    13. Johnson J, Fremeau RT, Duncan JL, Rentería RC, Yang H, Hua Z, Liu X, LaVail MM, Edwards RH, Copenhagen DR. Vesicular glutamate transporter 1 is required for photoreceptor synaptic signaling but not for intrinsic visual functions. J Neurosci. 2007 Jul 04; 27(27):7245-55. PMID: 17611277; PMCID: PMC2443709.
    14. Rentería RC, Tian N, Cang J, Nakanishi S, Stryker MP, Copenhagen DR. Intrinsic ON responses of the retinal OFF pathway are suppressed by the ON pathway. J Neurosci. 2006 Nov 15; 26(46):11857-69. PMID: 17108159; PMCID: PMC2553694.
    15. Duncan JL, Yang H, Doan T, Silverstein RS, Murphy GJ, Nune G, Liu X, Copenhagen D, Tempel BL, Rieke F, Krizaj D. Scotopic visual signaling in the mouse retina is modulated by high-affinity plasma membrane calcium extrusion. J Neurosci. 2006 Jul 05; 26(27):7201-11. PMID: 16822977; PMCID: PMC1987386.
    16. Bjartmar L, Huberman AD, Ullian EM, Rentería RC, Liu X, Xu W, Prezioso J, Susman MW, Stellwagen D, Stokes CC, Cho R, Worley P, Malenka RC, Ball S, Peachey NS, Copenhagen D, Chapman B, Nakamoto M, Barres BA, Perin MS. Neuronal pentraxins mediate synaptic refinement in the developing visual system. J Neurosci. 2006 Jun 07; 26(23):6269-81. PMID: 16763034; PMCID: PMC2579897.
    17. Cang J, Rentería RC, Kaneko M, Liu X, Copenhagen DR, Stryker MP. Development of precise maps in visual cortex requires patterned spontaneous activity in the retina. Neuron. 2005 Dec 08; 48(5):797-809. PMID: 16337917; PMCID: PMC2562716.
    18. Pfeiffenberger C, Cutforth T, Woods G, Yamada J, Rentería RC, Copenhagen DR, Flanagan JG, Feldheim DA. Ephrin-As and neural activity are required for eye-specific patterning during retinogeniculate mapping. Nat Neurosci. 2005 Aug; 8(8):1022-7. PMID: 16025107; PMCID: PMC1352169.
    19. Rentería RC, Strehler EE, Copenhagen DR, Krizaj D. Ontogeny of plasma membrane Ca2+ ATPase isoforms in the neural retina of the postnatal rat. Vis Neurosci. 2005 May-Jun; 22(3):263-74. PMID: 16079002; PMCID: PMC1975396.
    20. Johnson J, Sherry DM, Liu X, Fremeau RT, Seal RP, Edwards RH, Copenhagen DR. Vesicular glutamate transporter 3 expression identifies glutamatergic amacrine cells in the rodent retina. J Comp Neurol. 2004 Sep 27; 477(4):386-98. PMID: 15329888; PMCID: PMC2586940.
    21. Krizaj D, Liu X, Copenhagen DR. Expression of calcium transporters in the retina of the tiger salamander (Ambystoma tigrinum). J Comp Neurol. 2004 Aug 02; 475(4):463-80. PMID: 15236230; PMCID: PMC2579895.
    22. Bieda MC, Copenhagen DR. N-type and L-type calcium channels mediate glycinergic synaptic inputs to retinal ganglion cells of tiger salamanders. Vis Neurosci. 2004 Jul-Aug; 21(4):545-50. PMID: 15579220; PMCID: PMC2579891.
    23. Fremeau RT, Kam K, Qureshi T, Johnson J, Copenhagen DR, Storm-Mathisen J, Chaudhry FA, Nicoll RA, Edwards RH. Vesicular glutamate transporters 1 and 2 target to functionally distinct synaptic release sites. Science. 2004 Jun 18; 304(5678):1815-9. PMID: 15118123.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Rentería RC, Johnson J, Copenhagen DR. Need rods? Get glycine receptors and taurine. Neuron. 2004 Mar 25; 41(6):839-41. PMID: 15046714.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Tian N, Copenhagen DR. Visual stimulation is required for refinement of ON and OFF pathways in postnatal retina. Neuron. 2003 Jul 03; 39(1):85-96. PMID: 12848934.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Wreden CC, Johnson J, Tran C, Seal RP, Copenhagen DR, Reimer RJ, Edwards RH. The H+-coupled electrogenic lysosomal amino acid transporter LYAAT1 localizes to the axon and plasma membrane of hippocampal neurons. J Neurosci. 2003 Feb 15; 23(4):1265-75. PMID: 12598615.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Krizaj D, Lai FA, Copenhagen DR. Ryanodine stores and calcium regulation in the inner segments of salamander rods and cones. J Physiol. 2003 Mar 15; 547(Pt 3):761-74. PMID: 12562925; PMCID: PMC2342740.
    28. Johnson J, Tian N, Caywood MS, Reimer RJ, Edwards RH, Copenhagen DR. Vesicular neurotransmitter transporter expression in developing postnatal rodent retina: GABA and glycine precede glutamate. J Neurosci. 2003 Jan 15; 23(2):518-29. PMID: 12533612.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Fremeau RT, Burman J, Qureshi T, Tran CH, Proctor J, Johnson J, Zhang H, Sulzer D, Copenhagen DR, Storm-Mathisen J, Reimer RJ, Chaudhry FA, Edwards RH. The identification of vesicular glutamate transporter 3 suggests novel modes of signaling by glutamate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Oct 29; 99(22):14488-93. PMID: 12388773; PMCID: PMC137910.
    30. Krizaj D, Demarco SJ, Johnson J, Strehler EE, Copenhagen DR. Cell-specific expression of plasma membrane calcium ATPase isoforms in retinal neurons. J Comp Neurol. 2002 Sep 09; 451(1):1-21. PMID: 12209837; PMCID: PMC1987379.
    31. Krizaj D, Copenhagen DR. Calcium regulation in photoreceptors. Front Biosci. 2002 Sep 01; 7:d2023-44. PMID: 12161344; PMCID: PMC1995662.
    32. Chaudhry FA, Krizaj D, Larsson P, Reimer RJ, Wreden C, Storm-Mathisen J, Copenhagen D, Kavanaugh M, Edwards RH. Coupled and uncoupled proton movement by amino acid transport system N. EMBO J. 2001 Dec 17; 20(24):7041-51. PMID: 11742981; PMCID: PMC125789.
    33. Tian N, Copenhagen DR. Visual deprivation alters development of synaptic function in inner retina after eye opening. Neuron. 2001 Nov 08; 32(3):439-49. PMID: 11709155.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Copenhagen D. Is the retina going digital? Neuron. 2001 May; 30(2):303-5. PMID: 11394991.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Kleiman RJ, Tian N, Krizaj D, Hwang TN, Copenhagen DR, Reichardt LF. BDNF-Induced potentiation of spontaneous twitching in innervated myocytes requires calcium release from intracellular stores. J Neurophysiol. 2000 Jul; 84(1):472-83. PMID: 10899220; PMCID: PMC2710114.
    36. Baier H, Copenhagen D. Combining physiology and genetics in the zebrafish retina. J Physiol. 2000 Apr 01; 524 Pt 1:1. PMID: 10747178; PMCID: PMC2269857.
    37. Bieda MC, Copenhagen DR. Inhibition is not required for the production of transient spiking responses from retinal ganglion cells. Vis Neurosci. 2000 Mar-Apr; 17(2):243-54. PMID: 10824678.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Vu TQ, Payne JA, Copenhagen DR. Localization and developmental expression patterns of the neuronal K-Cl cotransporter (KCC2) in the rat retina. J Neurosci. 2000 Feb 15; 20(4):1414-23. PMID: 10662832.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Chaudhry FA, Reimer RJ, Krizaj D, Barber D, Storm-Mathisen J, Copenhagen DR, Edwards RH. Molecular analysis of system N suggests novel physiological roles in nitrogen metabolism and synaptic transmission. Cell. 1999 Dec 23; 99(7):769-80. PMID: 10619430.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Tian N, Petersen C, Kash S, Baekkeskov S, Copenhagen D, Nicoll R. The role of the synthetic enzyme GAD65 in the control of neuronal gamma-aminobutyric acid release. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Oct 26; 96(22):12911-6. PMID: 10536022; PMCID: PMC23160.
    41. Hwang TN, Copenhagen DR. Automatic detection, characterization, and discrimination of kinetically distinct spontaneous synaptic events. J Neurosci Methods. 1999 Oct 15; 92(1-2):65-73. PMID: 10595704.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Krizaj D, Bao JX, Schmitz Y, Witkovsky P, Copenhagen DR. Caffeine-sensitive calcium stores regulate synaptic transmission from retinal rod photoreceptors. J Neurosci. 1999 Sep 01; 19(17):7249-61. PMID: 10460231.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Bieda MC, Copenhagen DR. Sodium action potentials are not required for light-evoked release of GABA or glycine from retinal amacrine cells. J Neurophysiol. 1999 Jun; 81(6):3092-5. PMID: 10368424.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Tian N, Hwang TN, Copenhagen DR. Analysis of excitatory and inhibitory spontaneous synaptic activity in mouse retinal ganglion cells. J Neurophysiol. 1998 Sep; 80(3):1327-40. PMID: 9744942.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Krizaj D, Copenhagen DR. Compartmentalization of calcium extrusion mechanisms in the outer and inner segments of photoreceptors. Neuron. 1998 Jul; 21(1):249-56. PMID: 9697868; PMCID: PMC2954769.
    46. Dixon DB, Copenhagen DR. Metabotropic glutamate receptor-mediated suppression of an inward rectifier current is linked via a cGMP cascade. J Neurosci. 1997 Dec 01; 17(23):8945-54. PMID: 9364042.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Dixon DB, Takahashi K, Bieda M, Copenhagen DR. Quinine, intracellular pH and modulation of hemi-gap junctions in catfish horizontal cells. Vision Res. 1996 Dec; 36(24):3925-31. PMID: 9068845.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Copenhagen DR. Retinal development: on the crest of an exciting wave. Curr Biol. 1996 Nov 01; 6(11):1368-70. PMID: 8939594.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Taylor WR, Mittman S, Copenhagen DR. Passive electrical cable properties and synaptic excitation of tiger salamander retinal ganglion cells. Vis Neurosci. 1996 Sep-Oct; 13(5):979-90. PMID: 8903038.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Takahashi KI, Copenhagen DR. Modulation of neuronal function by intracellular pH. Neurosci Res. 1996 Jan; 24(2):109-16. PMID: 8929916.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Diamond JS, Copenhagen DR. The relationship between light-evoked synaptic excitation and spiking behaviour of salamander retinal ganglion cells. J Physiol. 1995 Sep 15; 487 ( Pt 3):711-25. PMID: 8544133; PMCID: PMC1156657.
    52. Taylor WR, Chen E, Copenhagen DR. Characterization of spontaneous excitatory synaptic currents in salamander retinal ganglion cells. J Physiol. 1995 Jul 01; 486 ( Pt 1):207-21. PMID: 7562636; PMCID: PMC1156509.
    53. Takahashi K, Copenhagen DR. Intracellular alkalinization enhances inward rectifier K+ current in retinal horizontal cells of catfish. Zoolog Sci. 1995 Feb; 12(1):29-34. PMID: 7795489.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Takahashi K, Miyoshi S, Kaneko A, Copenhagen DR. Actions of nipecotic acid and SKF89976A on GABA transporter in cone-driven horizontal cells dissociated from the catfish retina. Jpn J Physiol. 1995; 45(3):457-73. PMID: 7474528.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Liepe BA, Stone C, Koistinaho J, Copenhagen DR. Nitric oxide synthase in Müller cells and neurons of salamander and fish retina. J Neurosci. 1994 Dec; 14(12):7641-54. PMID: 7527846.
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    56. Diamond JS, Copenhagen DR. The contribution of NMDA and non-NMDA receptors to the light-evoked input-output characteristics of retinal ganglion cells. Neuron. 1993 Oct; 11(4):725-38. PMID: 8104431.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Dixon DB, Takahashi K, Copenhagen DR. L-glutamate suppresses HVA calcium current in catfish horizontal cells by raising intracellular proton concentration. Neuron. 1993 Aug; 11(2):267-77. PMID: 8102533.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Takahashi K, Dixon DB, Copenhagen DR. Modulation of a sustained calcium current by intracellular pH in horizontal cells of fish retina. J Gen Physiol. 1993 May; 101(5):695-714. PMID: 7687644; PMCID: PMC2216781.
    59. Dixon DB, Copenhagen DR. Suppression of a calcium current by CNQX and kynurenate. Neurosci Lett. 1992 Dec 07; 147(2):147-50. PMID: 1283454.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Takahashi K, Copenhagen DR. APB suppresses synaptic input to retinal horizontal cells in fish: a direct action on horizontal cells modulated by intracellular pH. J Neurophysiol. 1992 Jun; 67(6):1633-42. PMID: 1352805.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Dixon DB, Copenhagen DR. Two types of glutamate receptors differentially excite amacrine cells in the tiger salamander retina. J Physiol. 1992 Apr; 449:589-606. PMID: 1355793; PMCID: PMC1176096.
    62. Copenhagen DR. Synaptic transmission in the retina. Curr Opin Neurobiol. 1991 Aug; 1(2):258-62. PMID: 1687958.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Ayoub GS, Copenhagen DR. Application of a fluorometric method to measure glutamate release from single retinal photoreceptors. J Neurosci Methods. 1991 Mar; 37(1):7-14. PMID: 1677056.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Mittman S, Taylor WR, Copenhagen DR. Concomitant activation of two types of glutamate receptor mediates excitation of salamander retinal ganglion cells. J Physiol. 1990 Sep; 428:175-97. PMID: 2172521; PMCID: PMC1181641.
    65. Copenhagen DR, Hemilä S, Reuter T. Signal transmission through the dark-adapted retina of the toad (Bufo marinus). Gain, convergence, and signal/noise. J Gen Physiol. 1990 Apr; 95(4):717-32. PMID: 2110968; PMCID: PMC2216331.
    66. Donner K, Copenhagen DR, Reuter T. Weber and noise adaptation in the retina of the toad Bufo marinus. J Gen Physiol. 1990 Apr; 95(4):733-53. PMID: 2110969; PMCID: PMC2216330.
    67. Copenhagen DR, Jahr CE. Release of endogenous excitatory amino acids from turtle photoreceptors. Nature. 1989 Oct 12; 341(6242):536-9. PMID: 2477707.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Nawy S, Sie A, Copenhagen DR. The glutamate analog 2-amino-4-phosphonobutyrate antagonizes synaptic transmission from cones to horizontal cells in the goldfish retina. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Mar; 86(5):1726-30. PMID: 2537984; PMCID: PMC286774.
    69. Ayoub GS, Korenbrot JI, Copenhagen DR. Release of endogenous glutamate from isolated cone photoreceptors of the lizard. Neurosci Res Suppl. 1989; 10:S47-55. PMID: 2574433.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Belgum JH, Copenhagen DR. Synaptic transfer of rod signals to horizontal and bipolar cells in the retina of the toad (Bufo marinus). J Physiol. 1988 Feb; 396:225-45. PMID: 3137327; PMCID: PMC1192043.
    71. Copenhagen DR, Donner K, Reuter T. Ganglion cell performance at absolute threshold in toad retina: effects of dark events in rods. J Physiol. 1987 Dec; 393:667-80. PMID: 3128660; PMCID: PMC1192417.
    72. Copenhagen DR, Green DG. Spatial spread of adaptation within the cone network of turtle retina. J Physiol. 1987 Dec; 393:763-76. PMID: 3446810; PMCID: PMC1192422.
    73. Mittman S, Flaming DG, Copenhagen DR, Belgum JH. Bubble pressure measurement of micropipet tip outer diameter. J Neurosci Methods. 1987 Dec; 22(2):161-6. PMID: 3437778.
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    74. Korenbrot JI, Perry R, Copenhagen DR. Development and characterization of a polymer gel with an immobilized enzyme to measure L-glutamate. Anal Biochem. 1987 Feb 15; 161(1):187-99. PMID: 2883910.
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    75. Nawy S, Copenhagen DR. Multiple classes of glutamate receptor on depolarizing bipolar cells in retina. Nature. 1987 Jan 1-7; 325(6099):56-8. PMID: 3025746.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Reuter T, Donner K, Copenhagen DR. Does the random distribution of discrete photoreceptor events limit the sensitivity of the retina? Neurosci Res Suppl. 1986; 4:S163-80. PMID: 3022204.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Copenhagen DR, Green DG. The absence of spread of adaptation between rod photoreceptors in turtle retina. J Physiol. 1985 Dec; 369:161-81. PMID: 4093878; PMCID: PMC1192642.
    78. Irvine AR, Copenhagen DR. The focal nature of retinal illumination from the operating microscope. Arch Ophthalmol. 1985 Apr; 103(4):549-50. PMID: 3985837.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Ashmore JF, Copenhagen DR. An analysis of transmission from cones to hyperpolarizing bipolar cells in the retina of the turtle. J Physiol. 1983 Jul; 340:569-97. PMID: 6310101; PMCID: PMC1199228.
    80. Copenhagen DR, Ashmore JF, Schnapf JK. Kinetics of synaptic transmission from photoreceptors to horizontal and bipolar cells in turtle retina. Vision Res. 1983; 23(4):363-9. PMID: 6308900.
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    81. Schnapf JL, Copenhagen DR. Differences in the kinetics of rod and cone synaptic transmission. Nature. 1982 Apr 29; 296(5860):862-4. PMID: 6280070.
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    82. Leeper HF, Copenhagen DR. Horizontal cells in turtle retina: structure, synaptic connections, and visual processing. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1982; 113:77-104. PMID: 6762566.
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    83. Ashmore JF, Copenhagen DR. Different postsynaptic events in two types of retinal bipolar cell. Nature. 1980 Nov 06; 288(5786):84-6. PMID: 6253819.
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    84. Copenhagen DR, Owen WG. Current-voltage relations in the rod photoreceptor network of the turtle retina. J Physiol. 1980 Nov; 308:159-84. PMID: 7230014; PMCID: PMC1274543.
    85. Leeper HF, Normann RA, Copenhagen DR. Evidence for passive electrotonic interactions in red rods of toad retina. Nature. 1978 Sep 21; 275(5677):234-6. PMID: 99667.
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    86. Copenhagen DR, Owen WG. Functional characteristics of lateral interactions between rods in the retina of the snapping turtle. J Physiol. 1976 Jul; 259(2):251-82. PMID: 986460; PMCID: PMC1309028.
    87. Copenhagen DR, Owen WG. Coupling between rod photoreceptors in a vertebrate retina. Nature. 1976 Mar 04; 260(5546):57-9. PMID: 1264196.
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    88. Copenhagen DR. Time course of threshold elevation in on-off ganglion cells of Necturus retina: effects of lateral interactions. Vision Res. 1975 May; 15(5):573-81. PMID: 1136170.
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    89. Werblin FS, Copenhagen DR. Control of retinal sensitivity. 3. Lateral interactions at the inner plexiform layer. J Gen Physiol. 1974 Jan; 63(1):88-110. PMID: 4359065; PMCID: PMC2203538.
    90. Copenhagen D, Vogelhut P. Study of valveless, nonocclusive pump. J Assoc Adv Med Instrum. 1969 Mar; 3(2):87-90. PMID: 5293843.
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