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Joanne Spetz, PhD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentInstitute for Health Policy Studies
Address3333 Calif. St,Laurel Heights
San Francisco CA 94118
Phone415-502-4443
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyS.B.1990Economics
    Stanford UniversityM.A.1993Economics
    Stanford UniversityPh.D.1996Economics
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    American Academy of Nursing2011Fellow
    Interdisciplinary Research Group on Nursing Issues, AcademyHealth2016Mentorship Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Joanne Spetz, Ph.D., is a Professor at the Institute for Health Policy Studies and in the Department of Family and Community Medicine and the School of Nursing at the University of California, San Francisco. She is the Associate Director for Research at the Healthforce Center at UCSF and the Director of the UCSF Health Workforce Research Center. Her fields of specialty are labor economics, public finance, and econometrics. She has led research on the health care workforce, organization of the hospital industry, impact of health information technology, effect of medical marijuana policy on youth substance use, and quality of patient care. Joanne's teaching is in the areas of quantitative research methods, health care financial management, and health economics.

    Joanne was a member of the Institute of Medicine Standing Committee on Credentialing Research in Nursing and a consultant to the Institute of Medicine Committee on the Future of Nursing. She frequently provides testimony and technical assistance to state and federal agencies and policymakers. Joanne received her Ph.D. in economics from Stanford University after studying economics at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology. She is an Honorary Fellow of the American Academy of Nursing.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Testing Medical Marijuana's Unintended Consequences for Youth and Young Adults
    NIH R01DA034091Sep 15, 2012 - May 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Hospital Unions, Staffing, Wages, and Patient Safety
    NIH R01HS014207Jul 1, 2007 - Jun 30, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
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    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Global Health
    Collapse Twitter
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    Collapse Featured Publications

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Schmidt LA, Jacobs LM, Spetz J. Schmidt et al. Respond. Am J Public Health. 2016 Dec; 106(12):e8-e9. PMID: 27831766.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Spetz J, Dudley N, Trupin L, Rogers M, Meier DE, Dumanovsky T. Few Hospital Palliative Care Programs Meet National Staffing Recommendations. Health Aff (Millwood). 2016 Sep 1; 35(9):1690-7. PMID: 27605652.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Yoo BK, Kim M, Lin TC, Sasaki T, Ward D, Spetz J. The effect of prior healthcare employment on the wages of registered nurses. BMC Health Serv Res. 2016; 16(1):412. PMID: 27542375; PMCID: PMC4992246.
    4. Hooker RS, Spetz J, Archambault ME. Commentaries on health services research. JAAPA. 2016 Jul; 29(7):1-2. PMID: 27351642.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Schmidt LA, Jacobs LM, Spetz J. Young People's More Permissive Views About Marijuana: Local Impact of State Laws or National Trend? Am J Public Health. 2016 Aug; 106(8):1498-503. PMID: 27196657.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Chapman SA, Spetz J, Lin J, Chan K, Schmidt LA. Capturing Heterogeneity in Medical Marijuana Policies: A Taxonomy of Regulatory Regimes Across the United States. Subst Use Misuse. 2016 Jul 28; 51(9):1174-84. PMID: 27191472.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Parente ST, Feldman R, Spetz J, Dowd B, Baggett EE, et al. Wage Growth for the Health Care Workforce: Projecting the Affordable Care Act Impact. Health Serv Res. 2016 May 3. PMID: 27140174.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Spetz J, Cimiotti JP, Brunell ML. Improving collection and use of interprofessional health workforce data: Progress and peril. Nurs Outlook. 2016 Jul-Aug; 64(4):377-84. PMID: 27417691.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Spetz J. The Nursing Profession, Diversity, and Wages. Health Serv Res. 2016 Apr; 51(2):505-10. PMID: 26932595.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Dy Bunpin JJ, Chapman S, Blegen M, Spetz J. Differences in Innovative Behavior Among Hospital-Based Registered Nurses. J Nurs Adm. 2016 Mar; 46(3):122-7. PMID: 26866324.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Spetz J, Skillman SM, Andrilla CH, et al. Nurse Practitioner Autonomy and Satisfaction in Rural Settings. Med Care Res Rev. 2016 Jan 29. PMID: 26825943.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Yoo BK, Lin TC, Kim M, Sasaki T, Spetz J. Effect of Prior Health-Related Employment on the Registered Nurse Workforce Supply. Nurs Econ. 2016 Jan-Feb; 34(1):25-34. PMID: 27055308.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Platt M, Kwasky A, Spetz J. Filling the gap: Developing health economics competencies for baccalaureate nursing programs. Nurs Outlook. 2016 Jan-Feb; 64(1):49-60. PMID: 26602817.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Xue Y, Ye Z, Brewer C, Spetz J. Impact of state nurse practitioner scope-of-practice regulation on health care delivery: Systematic review. Nurs Outlook. 2016 Jan-Feb; 64(1):71-85. PMID: 26475528.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Spetz J, Brown DS, Aydin CS. Ongoing Attention to Injurious Inpatient Falls and Pressure Ulcers. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Sep; 175(9):1580-1. PMID: 26348514.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Spetz J, Trupin L, Bates T, Coffman JM. Future Demand For Long-Term Care Workers Will Be Influenced By Demographic And Utilization Changes. Health Aff (Millwood). 2015 Jun; 34(6):936-45. PMID: 26056198.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Spetz J. Too Many, Too Few, or Just Right? Making Sense Of Conflicting RN Supply and Demand Forecasts. Nurs Econ. 2015 May-Jun; 33(3):176-8, 185. PMID: 26259342.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Spetz J, Fraher E, Li Y, Bates T. How many nurse practitioners provide primary care? It depends on how you count them. Med Care Res Rev. 2015 Jun; 72(3):359-75. PMID: 25854959.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Moriates C, Dohan D, Spetz J, Sawaya GF. Defining competencies for education in health care value: recommendations from the University of California, San Francisco Center for Healthcare Value Training Initiative. Acad Med. 2015 Apr; 90(4):421-4. PMID: 25354077.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Martsolf GR, Auerbach DI, Spetz J, Pearson ML, Muchow AN. Doctor of nursing practice by 2015: an examination of nursing schools' decisions to offer a doctor of nursing practice degree. Nurs Outlook. 2015 Mar-Apr; 63(2):219-26. PMID: 25771195.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Spetz J, Brown DS, Aydin C. The economics of preventing hospital falls: demonstrating ROI through a simple model. J Nurs Adm. 2015 Jan; 45(1):50-7. PMID: 25479175.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Park SH, Blegen MA, Spetz J, Chapman SA, De Groot HA. Comparison of Nurse Staffing Measurements in Staffing-Outcomes Research. Med Care. 2015 Jan; 53(1):e1-8. PMID: 23222530.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Coffman JM, Spetz J, Grumbach K, Fix M, Bindman AB. Electronic health record availability among advanced practice registered nurses and physicians. Am J Manag Care. 2014 Nov; 20(11 Spec No. 17):eSP31-8. PMID: 25811817.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Spetz J. Nurse Credentials: What Is the Economic Value? Nurs Econ. 2014 Sep-Oct; 32(5):268-9. PMID: 26267971.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Fairman J, Spetz J. Using the lens of history to understand nursing practice and policy: an interview with Julie Fairman. Nurs Econ. 2014 May-Jun; 32(3):166-9. PMID: 25137817.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Ash M, Seago JA, Spetz J. What do health care unions do?: A response to Manthous. Med Care. 2014 May; 52(5):393-7. PMID: 24638116.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Spetz J, Burgess JF, Phibbs CS. The effect of health information technology implementation in Veterans Health Administration hospitals on patient outcomes. Healthc (Amst). 2014 Mar; 2(1):40-7. PMID: 26250088.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Spetz J, Bates T, Chu L, Lin J, Fishman NW, Melichar L. Creating a dashboard to track progress toward IOM recommendations for the future of nursing. Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2013 Aug-Nov; 14(3-4):117-24. PMID: 24486925.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Spetz J. How will health reform affect demand for RNs? Nurs Econ. 2014 Jan-Feb; 32(1):42-4. PMID: 24689158.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Spetz J, Parente ST, Town RJ, Bazarko D. Scope-of-practice laws for nurse practitioners limit cost savings that can be achieved in retail clinics. Health Aff (Millwood). 2013 Nov; 32(11):1977-84. PMID: 24191089.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Michtalik HJ, Pronovost PJ, Marsteller JA, Spetz J, Brotman DJ. Identifying potential predictors of a safe attending physician workload: a survey of hospitalists. J Hosp Med. 2013 Nov; 8(11):644-6. PMID: 24124053; PMCID: PMC4087042.
    32. Spetz J, Bates T. Is a baccalaureate in nursing worth it? The return to education, 2000-2008. Health Serv Res. 2013 Dec; 48(6 Pt 1):1859-78. PMID: 24102422; PMCID: PMC3876405.
    33. Seo S, Spetz J. Demand for temporary agency nurses and nursing shortages. Inquiry. 2013 Aug; 50(3):216-28. PMID: 25117086.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Spetz J, Kovner CT. How can we obtain data on the demand for nurses? Nurs Econ. 2013 Jul-Aug; 31(4):203-7. PMID: 24069723.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Spetz J, Gates M, Jones CB. Internationally educated nurses in the United States: Their origins and roles. Nurs Outlook. 2014 Jan-Feb; 62(1):8-15. PMID: 23809601.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Spetz J. The research and policy importance of nursing sample surveys and minimum data sets. Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2013 Feb; 14(1):33-40. PMID: 23780668.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Michtalik HJ, Pronovost PJ, Marsteller JA, Spetz J, Brotman DJ. Developing a model for attending physician workload and outcomes. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 Jun 10; 173(11):1026-8. PMID: 23609943.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Spetz J, Brown DS, Aydin C, Donaldson N. The value of reducing hospital-acquired pressure ulcer prevalence: an illustrative analysis. J Nurs Adm. 2013 Apr; 43(4):235-41. PMID: 23528690.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Spetz J, Harless DW, Herrera CN, Mark BA. Using minimum nurse staffing regulations to measure the relationship between nursing and hospital quality of care. Med Care Res Rev. 2013 Aug; 70(4):380-99. PMID: 23401064.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Blegen MA, Goode CJ, Park SH, Vaughn T, Spetz J. Baccalaureate education in nursing and patient outcomes. J Nurs Adm. 2013 Feb; 43(2):89-94. PMID: 23314788.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Serratt T, Spetz J, Harrington C. Are staffing changes in California's hospitals sensitive to individual hospital characteristics? Nurs Econ. 2012 Nov-Dec; 30(6):339-46. PMID: 23346732.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Mark BA, Harless DW, Spetz J, Reiter KL, Pink GH. California's minimum nurse staffing legislation: results from a natural experiment. Health Serv Res. 2013 Apr; 48(2 Pt 1):435-54. PMID: 22998231; PMCID: PMC3626342.
    43. Seago JA, Keane D, Chen E, Spetz J, Grumbach K. Predictors of students' success in community college nursing programs. J Nurs Educ. 2012 Sep; 51(9):489-95. PMID: 22849766.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Park SH, Blegen MA, Spetz J, Chapman SA, De Groot H. Patient turnover and the relationship between nurse staffing and patient outcomes. Res Nurs Health. 2012 Jun; 35(3):277-88. PMID: 22457013.
      View in: PubMed
    45. White MC, Tulsky JP, Lee JR, Chen L, Goldenson J, Spetz J, Kawamura LM. Isoniazid vs. rifampin for latent tuberculosis infection in jail inmates: toxicity and adherence. J Correct Health Care. 2012 Apr; 18(2):131-42. PMID: 22419641; PMCID: PMC3350603.
    46. Spetz J, Burgess JF, Phibbs CS. What determines successful implementation of inpatient information technology systems? Am J Manag Care. 2012 Mar; 18(3):157-62. PMID: 22435909.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Pittman P, Herrera C, Spetz J, Davis CR. Immigration and contract problems experienced by foreign-educated nurses. Med Care Res Rev. 2012 Jun; 69(3):351-65. PMID: 22311956.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Goode CJ, Blegen MA, Park SH, Vaughn T, Spetz J. Comparison of patient outcomes in Magnet® and non-Magnet hospitals. J Nurs Adm. 2011 Dec; 41(12):517-23. PMID: 22094616.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Serratt T, Harrington C, Spetz J, Blegen M. Staffing changes before and after mandated nurse-to-patient ratios in California's hospitals. Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2011 Aug; 12(3):133-40. PMID: 21917761.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Blegen MA, Goode CJ, Spetz J, Vaughn T, Park SH. Nurse staffing effects on patient outcomes: safety-net and non-safety-net hospitals. Med Care. 2011 Apr; 49(4):406-14. PMID: 21407034.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Spetz J, Kovner CT. How should we collect data on the nursing workforce? Nurs Econ. 2011 Mar-Apr; 29(2):97-100. PMID: 21667678.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Seago JA, Spetz J, Ash M, Herrera CN, Keane D. Hospital RN job satisfaction and nurse unions. J Nurs Adm. 2011 Mar; 41(3):109-14. PMID: 21336038.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Reiter KL, Harless DW, Pink GH, Spetz J, Mark B. The effect of minimum nurse staffing legislation on uncompensated care provided by California hospitals. Med Care Res Rev. 2011 Jun; 68(3):332-51. PMID: 21156707; PMCID: PMC3088770.
    54. Waneka R, Spetz J. Hospital information technology systems' impact on nurses and nursing care. J Nurs Adm. 2010 Dec; 40(12):509-14. PMID: 21084885.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Spetz J, Ash M, Konstantinidis C, Herrera C. The effect of unions on the distribution of wages of hospital-employed registered nurses in the United States. J Clin Nurs. 2011 Jan; 20(1-2):60-7. PMID: 21054601.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Chapman SA, Wides CD, Spetz J. Payment regulations for advanced practice nurses: implications for primary care. Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2010 May; 11(2):89-98. PMID: 20834022.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Spetz J, Herrera C. Changes in nurse satisfaction in California, 2004 to 2008. J Nurs Manag. 2010 Jul; 18(5):564-72. PMID: 20636505.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Black L, Spetz J, Harrington C. Nurses who do not nurse: factors that predict non-nursing work in the U.S. registered nursing labor market. Nurs Econ. 2010 Jul-Aug; 28(4):245-54. PMID: 21761609.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Aiken LH, Sloane DM, Cimiotti JP, Clarke SP, Flynn L, Seago JA, Spetz J, Smith HL. Implications of the California nurse staffing mandate for other states. Health Serv Res. 2010 Aug; 45(4):904-21. PMID: 20403061; PMCID: PMC2908200.
    60. Spetz J. The importance of good data: how The National Sample Survey of Registered Nurses has been used to improve knowledge and policy. Annu Rev Nurs Res. 2010; 28:1-18. PMID: 21639021.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Tellez M, Spetz J, Seago JA, Harrington CM, Kitchener M. Do wages matter?: a backward bend in the 2004 California RN labor supply. Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2009 Aug; 10(3):195-203. PMID: 20022915.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Spetz J. An interview with health economist and labor expert Joanne Spetz, PhD. Interview by Peter I Buerhaus. Nurs Econ. 2009 Nov-Dec; 27(6):412-5. PMID: 20050493.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Spetz J, Keane D. Information technology implementation in a rural hospital: a cautionary tale. J Healthc Manag. 2009 Sep-Oct; 54(5):337-47; discussion 348. PMID: 19831118.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Chapman SA, Spetz J, Seago JA, Kaiser J, Dower C, Herrera C. How have mandated nurse staffing ratios affected hospitals? Perspectives from California hospital leaders. J Healthc Manag. 2009 Sep-Oct; 54(5):321-33; discussion 334-5. PMID: 19831117.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Donaldson N, Shapiro S, Scott M, Foley M, Spetz J. Leading successful rapid response teams: A multisite implementation evaluation. J Nurs Adm. 2009 Apr; 39(4):176-81. PMID: 19359889.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Mark B, Harless DW, Spetz J. California's minimum-nurse-staffing legislation and nurses' wages. Health Aff (Millwood). 2009 Mar-Apr; 28(2):w326-34. PMID: 19208658.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Spetz J, Keane D. Evaluating success. Strategies and challenges for understanding IT implementation in a rural hospital. J Healthc Inf Manag. 2009; 23(1):62-7. PMID: 19181204.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Spetz J, Rickles J, Chapman S, Ong PM. Job and industry turnover for registered and licensed vocational nurses. J Nurs Adm. 2008 Sep; 38(9):372-8. PMID: 18791420.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Black L, Spetz J, Harrington C. Nurses working outside of nursing: societal trend or workplace crisis? Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2008 Aug; 9(3):143-57. PMID: 18577598.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Spetz J, Donaldson N, Aydin C, Brown DS. How many nurses per patient? Measurements of nurse staffing in health services research. Health Serv Res. 2008 Oct; 43(5 Pt 1):1674-92. PMID: 18459953.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Spetz J. Nurse satisfaction and the implementation of minimum nurse staffing regulations. Policy Polit Nurs Pract. 2008 Feb; 9(1):15-21. PMID: 18390479.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Seago JA, Spetz J. Minority nurses' experiences on the job. J Cult Divers. 2008; 15(1):16-23. PMID: 19172975.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Spetz J, Jacobs J, Hatler C. Cost effectiveness of a medical vigilance system to reduce patient falls. Nurs Econ. 2007 Nov-Dec; 25(6):333-8, 352. PMID: 18240834.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Spetz J, Dyer WT, Chapman S, Seago JA. Hospital demand for licensed practical nurses. West J Nurs Res. 2006 Oct; 28(6):726-39. PMID: 16946112.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Seago JA, Spetz J, Chapman S, Dyer W. Can the use of LPNs alleviate the nursing shortage? Yes, the authors say, but the issues--involving recruitment, education, and scope of practice--are complex. Am J Nurs. 2006 Jul; 106(7):40-9; quiz 50. PMID: 16801785.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Seago JA, Spetz J, Keane D, Grumbach K. College students' perceptions of nursing: a GEE approach. Nurs Leadersh (Tor Ont). 2006 May; 19(2):56-74. PMID: 16761802.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Seago JA, Spetz J, Alvarado A, Keane D, Grumbach K. The nursing shortage: is it really about image? J Healthc Manag. 2006 Mar-Apr; 51(2):96-108; discussion 109-10. PMID: 16605220.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Spetz J, Adams S. How can employment-based benefits help the nurse shortage? Health Aff (Millwood). 2006 Jan-Feb; 25(1):212-8. PMID: 16403756.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Kirby PB, Spetz J, Maiuro L, Scheffler RM. Changes in service availability in california hospitals, 1995 to 2002. J Healthc Manag. 2006 Jan-Feb; 51(1):26-38; discussion 38-9. PMID: 16479748.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Seago JA, Spetz J. California's minority majority and the White face of nursing. J Nurs Educ. 2005 Dec; 44(12):555-62. PMID: 16402738.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Spetz J. The cost and cost-effectiveness of nursing services in health care. Nurs Outlook. 2005 Nov-Dec; 53(6):305-9. PMID: 16360702.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Spetz J. Public policy and nurse staffing: what approach is best? J Nurs Adm. 2005 Jan; 35(1):14-6. PMID: 15647662.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Spetz J. California's minimum nurse-to-patient ratios: the first few months. J Nurs Adm. 2004 Dec; 34(12):571-8. PMID: 15632753.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Spetz J. Hospital nurse wages and staffing, 1977 to 2002: cycles of shortage and surplus. J Nurs Adm. 2004 Sep; 34(9):415-22. PMID: 15367905.
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    85. Seago JA, Spetz J, Mitchell S. Nurse staffing and hospital ownership in California. J Nurs Adm. 2004 May; 34(5):228-37. PMID: 15167419.
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    86. Phillips KA, Haas JS, Liang SY, Baker LC, Tye S, Kerlikowske K, Sakowski J, Spetz J. Are gatekeeper requirements associated with cancer screening utilization? Health Serv Res. 2004 Feb; 39(1):153-78. PMID: 14965082; PMCID: PMC1360999.
    87. Phillips KA, Stotland NE, Liang SY, Spetz J, Haas JS, Oren E. Out-of-pocket expenditures for oral contraceptives and number of packs per purchase. J Am Med Womens Assoc. 2004; 59(1):36-42. PMID: 14768985.
      View in: PubMed
    88. Seago JA, Spetz J, Chapman S, Dyer W, Grumbach K. NAPNES board of directors position paper regarding supply, demand, and use of licensed practical nurses. J Pract Nurs. 2004; 54(2):4. PMID: 15460340.
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    89. Spetz J, Given R. The future of the nurse shortage: will wage increases close the gap? Health Aff (Millwood). 2003 Nov-Dec; 22(6):199-206. PMID: 14649447.
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    90. Seago JA, Spetz J, Coffman J, Rosenoff E, O'Neil E. Minimum staffing ratios: the California workforce initiative survey. Nurs Econ. 2003 Mar-Apr; 21(2):65-70. PMID: 12739194.
      View in: PubMed
    91. Coffman JM, Seago JA, Spetz J. Minimum nurse-to-patient ratios in acute care hospitals in California. Health Aff (Millwood). 2002 Sep-Oct; 21(5):53-64. PMID: 12224909.
      View in: PubMed
    92. Seago JA, Spetz J. Registered nurse pre-licensure education in California. Nurs Econ. 2002 May-Jun; 20(3):113-7, 125. PMID: 12077961.
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    93. Grumbach K, Ash M, Seago JA, Spetz J, Coffman J. Measuring shortages of hospital nurses: how do you know a hospital with a nursing shortage when you see one? Med Care Res Rev. 2001 Dec; 58(4):387-403. PMID: 11759196.
      View in: PubMed
    94. Seago JA, Ash M, Spetz J, Coffman J, Grumbach K. Hospital registered nurse shortages: environmental, patient, and institutional predictors. Health Serv Res. 2001 Oct; 36(5):831-52. PMID: 11666106; PMCID: PMC1089263.
    95. Spetz J, Smith MW, Ennis SF. Physician incentives and the timing of cesarean sections: evidence from California. Med Care. 2001 Jun; 39(6):536-50. PMID: 11404639.
      View in: PubMed
    96. Spetz J. What should we expect from California's minimum nurse staffing legislation? J Nurs Adm. 2001 Mar; 31(3):132-40. PMID: 11263062.
      View in: PubMed
    97. Spetz J, Baker L, Phibbs C, Pedersen R, Tafoya S. The effect of passing an "anti-immigrant" ballot proposition on the use of prenatal care by foreign-born mothers in California. J Immigr Health. 2000 Oct; 2(4):203-12. PMID: 16228741.
      View in: PubMed
    98. Coffman J, Spetz J. Maintaining an adequate supply of RNs in California. Image J Nurs Sch. 1999; 31(4):389-93. PMID: 10628107.
      View in: PubMed
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