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    Roberta Ballard

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentPediatrics
    Address3333 Calif. St,Laurel Heights
    San Francisco CA 94118
    Phone415-514-8139
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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Wu YW, Mathur AM, Chang T, McKinstry RC, Mulkey SB, Mayock DE, Van Meurs KP, Rogers EE, Gonzalez FF, Comstock BA, Juul SE, Msall ME, Bonifacio SL, Glass HC, Massaro AN, Dong L, Tan KW, Heagerty PJ, Ballard RA. High-Dose Erythropoietin and Hypothermia for Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Phase II Trial. Pediatrics. 2016 Jun; 137(6). PMID: 27244862.
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      2. Poindexter BB, Feng R, Schmidt B, Aschner JL, Ballard RA, Hamvas A, Reynolds AM, Shaw PA, Jobe AH. Comparisons and Limitations of Current Definitions of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia for the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015 Dec; 12(12):1822-30. PMID: 26397992; PMCID: PMC4722827 [Available on 12/01/16].
      3. Ballard RA, Keller RL, Black DM, Ballard PL, Merrill JD, Eichenwald EC, Truog WE, Mammel MC, Steinhorn RH, Rogers EE, Ryan RM, Durand DJ, Asselin JM, Bendel CM, Bendel-Stenzel EM, Courtney SE, Dhanireddy R, Hudak ML, Koch FR, Mayock DE, McKay VJ, O'Shea TM, Porta NF, Wadhawan R, Palermo L. Randomized Trial of Late Surfactant Treatment in Ventilated Preterm Infants Receiving Inhaled Nitric Oxide. J Pediatr. 2016 Jan; 168:23-29.e4. PMID: 26500107.
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      4. Pryhuber GS, Maitre NL, Ballard RA, Cifelli D, Davis SD, Ellenberg JH, Greenberg JM, Kemp J, Mariani TJ, Panitch H, Ren C, Shaw P, Taussig LM, Hamvas A. Prematurity and respiratory outcomes program (PROP): study protocol of a prospective multicenter study of respiratory outcomes of preterm infants in the United States. BMC Pediatr. 2015; 15:37. PMID: 25886363; PMCID: PMC4407843.
      5. Maitre NL, Ballard RA, Ellenberg JH, Davis SD, Greenberg JM, Hamvas A, Pryhuber GS. Respiratory consequences of prematurity: evolution of a diagnosis and development of a comprehensive approach. J Perinatol. 2015 May; 35(5):313-21. PMID: 25811285; PMCID: PMC4414744.
      6. Rogers EE, Bonifacio SL, Glass HC, Juul SE, Chang T, Mayock DE, Durand DJ, Song D, Barkovich AJ, Ballard RA, Wu YW. Erythropoietin and hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatr Neurol. 2014 Nov; 51(5):657-62. PMID: 25439577; PMCID: PMC4402201.
      7. Ballard PL, Keller RL, Black DM, Durand DJ, Merrill JD, Eichenwald EC, Truog WE, Mammel MC, Steinhorn R, Ryan RM, Courtney SE, Horneman H, Ballard RA. Inhaled nitric oxide increases urinary nitric oxide metabolites and cyclic guanosine monophosphate in premature infants: relationship to pulmonary outcome. Am J Perinatol. 2015 Feb; 32(3):225-32. PMID: 24968129.
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      8. Keller RL, Merrill JD, Black DM, Steinhorn RH, Eichenwald EC, Durand DJ, Ryan RM, Truog WE, Courtney SE, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Late administration of surfactant replacement therapy increases surfactant protein-B content: a randomized pilot study. Pediatr Res. 2012 Dec; 72(6):613-9. PMID: 23037875; PMCID: PMC3548137.
      9. Wu YW, Bauer LA, Ballard RA, Ferriero DM, Glidden DV, Mayock DE, Chang T, Durand DJ, Song D, Bonifacio SL, Gonzalez FF, Glass HC, Juul SE. Erythropoietin for neuroprotection in neonatal encephalopathy: safety and pharmacokinetics. Pediatrics. 2012 Oct; 130(4):683-91. PMID: 23008465; PMCID: PMC3457622.
      10. Askie LM, Ballard RA, Cutter GR, Dani C, Elbourne D, Field D, Hascoet JM, Hibbs AM, Kinsella JP, Mercier JC, Rich W, Schreiber MD, Wongsiridej PS, Subhedar NV, Van Meurs KP, Voysey M, Barrington K, Ehrenkranz RA, Finer NN. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants: an individual-patient data meta-analysis of randomized trials. Pediatrics. 2011 Oct; 128(4):729-39. PMID: 21930540; PMCID: PMC3387905.
      11. Merrill JD, Ballard PL, Courtney SE, Durand DJ, Hamvas A, Hibbs AM, Lu KW, Ryan RM, Reynolds AM, Spence K, Steinhorn RH, Truog WE, Eichenwald EC, Ballard RA. Pilot trial of late booster doses of surfactant for ventilated premature infants. J Perinatol. 2011 Sep; 31(9):599-606. PMID: 21311500.
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      12. Golombek SG, Truog WE, Ballard RA, Ballard PL. Re: 'The use of iNO in the newborn period: results from the European iNO registry'. Acta Paediatr. 2010 Sep; 99(9):1283. PMID: 20456263.
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      13. Askie LM, Ballard RA, Cutter G, Dani C, Elbourne D, Field D, Hascoet JM, Hibbs AM, Kinsella JP, Mercier JC, Rich W, Schreiber MD, Srisuparp P, Subhedar NV, Van Meurs KP, Voysey M, Barrington K, Ehrenkranz RA, Finer N. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis. BMC Pediatr. 2010; 10:15. PMID: 20331899; PMCID: PMC2860486.
      14. Walsh MC, Hibbs AM, Martin CR, Cnaan A, Keller RL, Vittinghoff E, Martin RJ, Truog WE, Ballard PL, Zadell A, Wadlinger SR, Coburn CE, Ballard RA. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of ventilated preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2010 Apr; 156(4):556-61.e1. PMID: 20138299; PMCID: PMC2843768.
      15. Hibbs AM, Black D, Palermo L, Cnaan A, Luan X, Truog WE, Walsh MC, Ballard RA. Accounting for multiple births in neonatal and perinatal trials: systematic review and case study. J Pediatr. 2010 Feb; 156(2):202-8. PMID: 19969305; PMCID: PMC2844328.
      16. Zupancic JA, Hibbs AM, Palermo L, Truog WE, Cnaan A, Black DM, Ballard PL, Wadlinger SR, Ballard RA. Economic evaluation of inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. Pediatrics. 2009 Nov; 124(5):1325-32. PMID: 19841125.
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      17. Posencheg MA, Gow AJ, Truog WE, Ballard RA, Cnaan A, Golombek SG, Ballard PL. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature infants: effect on tracheal aspirate and plasma nitric oxide metabolites. J Perinatol. 2010 Apr; 30(4):275-80. PMID: 19812581; PMCID: PMC2834364.
      18. Davis CW, Gonzales LW, Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Guo C, Gow AJ. Expression of nitric oxide synthases and endogenous NO metabolism in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008 Jul; 43(7):703-9. PMID: 18500734; PMCID: PMC4015107.
      19. Hibbs AM, Walsh MC, Martin RJ, Truog WE, Lorch SA, Alessandrini E, Cnaan A, Palermo L, Wadlinger SR, Coburn CE, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. One-year respiratory outcomes of preterm infants enrolled in the Nitric Oxide (to prevent) Chronic Lung Disease trial. J Pediatr. 2008 Oct; 153(4):525-9. PMID: 18534620; PMCID: PMC2745607.
      20. Truog WE, Martin RJ, Ballard RA, Black D, Cnaan A. Inhaled nitric oxide for preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2008 Jun; 121(6):1287-8; author reply 1288-9. PMID: 18519502.
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      21. Ballard PL, Truog WE, Merrill JD, Gow A, Posencheg M, Golombek SG, Parton LA, Luan X, Cnaan A, Ballard RA. Plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress: relationship to lung disease and inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature infants. Pediatrics. 2008 Mar; 121(3):555-61. PMID: 18310205.
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      22. Gunn AJ, Wyatt JS, Whitelaw A, Barks J, Azzopardi D, Ballard R, Edwards AD, Ferriero DM, Gluckman PD, Polin RA, Robertson CM, Thoresen M. Therapeutic hypothermia changes the prognostic value of clinical evaluation of neonatal encephalopathy. J Pediatr. 2008 Jan; 152(1):55-8, 58.e1. PMID: 18154900.
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      23. Ballard RA. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants--correction. N Engl J Med. 2007 Oct 4; 357(14):1444-5. PMID: 17914048.
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      24. Di Fiore JM, Hibbs AM, Zadell AE, Merrill JD, Eichenwald EC, Puri AR, Mayock DE, Courtney SE, Ballard RA, Martin RJ. The effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary function in preterm infants. J Perinatol. 2007 Dec; 27(12):766-71. PMID: 17805339.
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      25. Ballard PL, Merrill JD, Truog WE, Godinez RI, Godinez MH, McDevitt TM, Ning Y, Golombek SG, Parton LA, Luan X, Cnaan A, Ballard RA. Surfactant function and composition in premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. Pediatrics. 2007 Aug; 120(2):346-53. PMID: 17671061.
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      26. Wyatt JS, Gluckman PD, Liu PY, Azzopardi D, Ballard R, Edwards AD, Ferriero DM, Polin RA, Robertson CM, Thoresen M, Whitelaw A, Gunn AJ. Determinants of outcomes after head cooling for neonatal encephalopathy. Pediatrics. 2007 May; 119(5):912-21. PMID: 17473091.
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      27. Truog WE, Ballard PL, Norberg M, Golombek S, Savani RC, Merrill JD, Parton LA, Cnaan A, Luan X, Ballard RA. Inflammatory markers and mediators in tracheal fluid of premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. Pediatrics. 2007 Apr; 119(4):670-8. PMID: 17403837.
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      28. Ballard RA, Truog WE, Cnaan A, Martin RJ, Ballard PL, Merrill JD, Walsh MC, Durand DJ, Mayock DE, Eichenwald EC, Null DR, Hudak ML, Puri AR, Golombek SG, Courtney SE, Stewart DL, Welty SE, Phibbs RH, Hibbs AM, Luan X, Wadlinger SR, Asselin JM, Coburn CE. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jul 27; 355(4):343-53. PMID: 16870913.
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      29. Farkouh CR, Merrill JD, Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Ischiropoulos H, Lorch SA. Urinary metabolites of oxidative stress and nitric oxide in preterm and term infants. Biol Neonate. 2006; 90(4):233-42. PMID: 16735789.
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      30. Deregnier RA, Ballard R, O'shea TM, Piecuch R, Walsh M, Aschner JL. Neonatal - perinatal medicine fellowship training in long-term outcomes of neonatal intensive care unit graduates. J Perinatol. 2005 Jun; 25(6):423-5. PMID: 15858604.
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      31. Gluckman PD, Wyatt JS, Azzopardi D, Ballard R, Edwards AD, Ferriero DM, Polin RA, Robertson CM, Thoresen M, Whitelaw A, Gunn AJ. Selective head cooling with mild systemic hypothermia after neonatal encephalopathy: multicentre randomised trial. Lancet. 2005 Feb 19-25; 365(9460):663-70. PMID: 15721471.
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      32. Merrill JD, Ballard RA, Cnaan A, Hibbs AM, Godinez RI, Godinez MH, Truog WE, Ballard PL. Dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant in chronically ventilated premature infants. Pediatr Res. 2004 Dec; 56(6):918-26. PMID: 15496605.
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      33. Ekekezie II, Thibeault DW, Simon SD, Norberg M, Merrill JD, Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Truog WE. Low levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases with a high matrix metalloproteinase-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 ratio are present in tracheal aspirate fluids of infants who develop chronic lung disease. Pediatrics. 2004 Jun; 113(6):1709-14. PMID: 15173495.
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      34. Ballard PL, Merrill JD, Godinez RI, Godinez MH, Truog WE, Ballard RA. Surfactant protein profile of pulmonary surfactant in premature infants. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Nov 1; 168(9):1123-8. PMID: 12904326.
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      35. Lorch SA, Banks BA, Christie J, Merrill JD, Althaus J, Schmidt K, Ballard PL, Ischiropoulos H, Ballard RA. Plasma 3-nitrotyrosine and outcome in neonates with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia after inhaled nitric oxide. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003 May 1; 34(9):1146-52. PMID: 12706495.
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      36. Merrill JD, Ballard RA. Pulmonary surfactant for neonatal respiratory disorders. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2003 Apr; 15(2):149-54. PMID: 12640270.
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      37. Truog WE, Pallotto E, Clark P, Banks B, Kaftan HA, Ekekezie II, Norberg M, Ballard RA. Interaction of endogenous endothelin-1 and inhaled nitric oxide in term and preterm infants. Clin Sci (Lond). 2002 Aug; 103 Suppl 48:294S-297S. PMID: 12193107.
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      38. Ballard DW, Li Y, Evans J, Ballard RA, Ubel PA. Fear of litigation may increase resuscitation of infants born near the limits of viability. J Pediatr. 2002 Jun; 140(6):713-8. PMID: 12072875.
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      39. Banks BA, Macones G, Cnaan A, Merrill JD, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids are associated with early severe lung disease in preterm neonates. J Perinatol. 2002 Mar; 22(2):101-7. PMID: 11896513.
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      40. Banks BA, Stouffer N, Cnaan A, Ning Y, Merrill JD, Ballard RA, Ballard PL. Association of plasma cortisol and chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2001 Mar; 107(3):494-8. PMID: 11230588.
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      41. Merrill JD, Ballard RA. Clinical use of antenatal corticosteroids: benefits and risks. Pediatr Rev. 2000 May; 1(5):E91-8. PMID: 10790438.
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      42. Banks BA, Cnaan A, Morgan MA, Parer JT, Merrill JD, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids and outcome of premature neonates. North American Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Sep; 181(3):709-17. PMID: 10486488.
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      43. Banks BA, Seri I, Ischiropoulos H, Merrill J, Rychik J, Ballard RA. Changes in oxygenation with inhaled nitric oxide in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 1999 Mar; 103(3):610-8. PMID: 10049965.
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      44. Merrill JD, Ballard RA. Antenatal hormone therapy for fetal lung maturation. Clin Perinatol. 1998 Dec; 25(4):983-97. PMID: 9891625.
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      45. Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Ning Y, Cnann A, Boardman C, Pinto-Martin J, Polk D, Phibbs RH, Davis DJ, Mannino FL, Hart M. Plasma thyroid hormones in premature infants: effect of gestational age and antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone treatment. TRH Collaborative Trial Participants. Pediatr Res. 1998 Nov; 44(5):642-9. PMID: 9803444.
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      46. Banks BA, Ischiropoulos H, McClelland M, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Plasma 3-nitrotyrosine is elevated in premature infants who develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 1998 May; 101(5):870-4. PMID: 9565417.
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      47. Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Cnaan A, Pinto-Martin J, Davis DJ, Padbury JF, Phibbs RH, Parer JT, Hart MC, Mannino FL, Sawai SK. Antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone to prevent lung disease in preterm infants. North American Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1998 Feb 19; 338(8):493-8. PMID: 9468465.
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      48. Ballard RA, Ballard PL. Antenatal hormone therapy for improving the outcome of the preterm infant. J Perinatol. 1996 Sep-Oct; 16(5):390-6. PMID: 8915940.
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      49. Ballard PL, Nogee LM, Beers MF, Ballard RA, Planer BC, Polk L, deMello DE, Moxley MA, Longmore WJ. Partial deficiency of surfactant protein B in an infant with chronic lung disease. Pediatrics. 1995 Dec; 96(6):1046-52. PMID: 7491219.
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      50. Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Scientific basis and therapeutic regimens for use of antenatal glucocorticoids. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1995 Jul; 173(1):254-62. PMID: 7631700.
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      51. Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Cnaan A, Pinto-Martin J. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone for prevention of neonatal respiratory disease. Lancet. 1995 Jun 17; 345(8964):1572. PMID: 7791458.
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      52. Leonard CH, Piecuch RE, Ballard RA, Cooper BA. Outcome of very low birth weight infants: multiple gestation versus singletons. Pediatrics. 1994 Apr; 93(4):611-5. PMID: 7510875.
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      53. Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Creasy RK, Padbury J, Polk DH, Bracken M, Moya FR, Gross I. Plasma thyroid hormones and prolactin in premature infants and their mothers after prenatal treatment with thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Pediatr Res. 1992 Dec; 32(6):673-8. PMID: 1287557.
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      54. Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Creasy RK, Padbury J, Polk DH, Bracken M, Moya FR, Gross I. Respiratory disease in very-low-birthweight infants after prenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone and glucocorticoid. TRH Study Group. Lancet. 1992 Feb 29; 339(8792):510-5. PMID: 1346877.
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      55. Phibbs RH, Ballard RA, Clements JA, Heilbron DC, Phibbs CS, Schlueter MA, Sniderman SH, Tooley WH, Wakeley A. Initial clinical trial of EXOSURF, a protein-free synthetic surfactant, for the prophylaxis and early treatment of hyaline membrane disease. Pediatrics. 1991 Jul; 88(1):1-9. PMID: 2057244.
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      56. Shannon KM, Mentzer WC, Abels RI, Freeman P, Newton N, Thompson D, Sniderman S, Ballard R, Phibbs RH. Recombinant human erythropoietin in the anemia of prematurity: results of a placebo-controlled pilot study. J Pediatr. 1991 Jun; 118(6):949-55. PMID: 2040933.
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      57. Leonard CH, Clyman RI, Piecuch RE, Juster RP, Ballard RA, Behle MB. Effect of medical and social risk factors on outcome of prematurity and very low birth weight. J Pediatr. 1990 Apr; 116(4):620-6. PMID: 2319409.
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      58. Durand DJ, Goodman A, Ray P, Ballard RA, Clyman RI. Theophylline treatment in the extubation of infants weighing less than 1,250 grams: a controlled trial. Pediatrics. 1987 Nov; 80(5):684-8. PMID: 3313257.
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      59. Maher P, Lane B, Ballard R, Piecuch R, Clyman RI. Does indomethacin cause extension of intracranial hemorrhages: a preliminary study. Pediatrics. 1985 Mar; 75(3):497-500. PMID: 3883305.
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      60. Ballard RA, Leonard CH. Developmental follow-up of infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Clin Perinatol. 1984 Oct; 11(3):737-44. PMID: 6488676.
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      61. Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Gonzales LK, Huemmelink R, Wilson CM, Gross I. Corticosteroid binding by fetal rat and rabbit lung in organ culture. J Steroid Biochem. 1984 Aug; 21(2):117-26. PMID: 6482426.
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      62. Piecuch RE, Roth RS, Clyman RI, Sniderman SH, Riedel PA, Ballard RA. Videophone use improves maternal interest in transported infants. Crit Care Med. 1983 Aug; 11(8):655-6. PMID: 6872554.
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      63. Gross I, Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Jones CT, Wilson CM. Corticosteroid stimulation of phosphatidylcholine synthesis in cultured fetal rabbit lung: evidence for de novo protein synthesis mediated by glucocorticoid receptors. Endocrinology. 1983 Mar; 112(3):829-37. PMID: 6822213.
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      64. Clark CE, Clyman RI, Roth RS, Sniderman SH, Lane B, Ballard RA. Risk factor analysis of intraventricular hemorrhage in low-birth-weight infants. J Pediatr. 1981 Oct; 99(4):625-8. PMID: 7277108.
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      65. Brett C, Dekle M, Leonard CH, Clark C, Sniderman S, Roth R, Ballard R, Clyman R. Developmental follow-up of hyperventilated neonates: preliminary observations. Pediatrics. 1981 Oct; 68(4):588-91. PMID: 7322695.
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      66. Bert MD, Friedman MW, Ballard R. Combined cryosurgery and scleral buckling in acute proliferative retrolental fibroplasia. J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus. 1981 May-Jun; 18(3):9-12. PMID: 6894941.
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      67. Clyman RI, Ballard PL, Sniderman S, Ballard RA, Roth R, Heymann MA, Granberg JP. Prenatal administration of betamethasone for prevention of patient ductus arteriosus. J Pediatr. 1981 Jan; 98(1):123-6. PMID: 7452388.
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      68. Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Granberg JP, Sniderman S, Gluckman PD, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM. Fetal sex and prenatal betamethasone therapy. J Pediatr. 1980 Sep; 97(3):451-4. PMID: 7411310.
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      69. Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Glucocorticoids in prevention of respiratory distress syndrome. Hosp Pract. 1980 Sep; 15(9):81-7. PMID: 6997179.
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      70. Miller C, Clyman RI, Roth RS, Sniderman SH, Ballard RA, Henning D, Riedel P, Rosen A, Burden L. Control of oxygenation during the transport of sick neonates. Pediatrics. 1980 Jul; 66(1):117-9. PMID: 7402772.
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      71. Leonard CH, Irwin N, Ballard RA, Ferris C, Clyman R. Preliminary observations on the behavior of children present at the birth of a sibling. Pediatrics. 1979 Dec; 64(6):949-51. PMID: 514723.
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      72. Mintz L, Ballard RA, Sniderman SH, Roth RS, Drew WL. Nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections in an intensive care nursery: rapid diagnosis by direct immunofluorescence. Pediatrics. 1979 Aug; 64(2):149-53. PMID: 382079.
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      73. Ballard RA, Drew WL, Hufnagle KG, Riedel PA. Acquired cytomegalovirus infection in preterm infants. Am J Dis Child. 1979 May; 133(5):482-5. PMID: 219685.
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      74. Clyman RI, Sniderman SH, Ballard RA, Roth RS. What pediatricians say to mothers of sick newborns: an indirect evaluation of the counseling process. Pediatrics. 1979 May; 63(5):719-23. PMID: 440892.
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      75. Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Corticosteroids and respiratory distress syndrome: status 1979. Pediatrics. 1979 Jan; 63(1):163-5. PMID: 440794.
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      76. Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Granberg JP, Sniderman S. Prenatal administration of betamethasone for prevention of respiratory distress syndrome. J Pediatr. 1979 Jan; 94(1):97-101. PMID: 758436.
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      77. Ballard RA, Ballard PL. Use of prenatal glucocorticoid therapy to prevent respiratory distress syndrome. A supporting view. Am J Dis Child. 1976 Sep; 130(9):982-7. PMID: 961661.
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      78. Ballard PL, Granberg P, Ballard RA. Glucocorticoid levels in maternal and cord serum after prenatal betamethasone therapy to prevent respiratory distress syndrome. J Clin Invest. 1975 Dec; 56(6):1548-54. PMID: 1202085; PMCID: PMC333133.
      79. Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Cytoplasmic receptor for glucocorticoids in lung of the human fetus and neonate. J Clin Invest. 1974 Feb; 53(2):477-86. PMID: 11344561; PMCID: PMC301490.
      80. Ballard RA, Kraybill EN, Hernandez J, Renfield ML, Blankenship WJ. Idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome. Treatment with continuous negative-pressure ventilation. Am J Dis Child. 1973 May; 125(5):676-81. PMID: 4633512.
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      81. Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Glucocorticoid receptors and the role of glucocorticoids in fetal lung development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1972 Sep; 69(9):2668-72. PMID: 4506789; PMCID: PMC427012.
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