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Roberta Ballard

Title(s)Professor, Pediatrics
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Phone415-476-4193
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    Trial of Late SURFactant (TOLSURF) to Prevent BPD - Clinical Coord Ctr
    NIH/NHLBI U01HL094338Sep 15, 2009 - Jul 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    INHALED NO IN PREVENTION OF CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE
    NIH/NHLBI U01HL062514Mar 1, 2000 - Feb 29, 2008
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    SCOR in Pathobiology of Lung Development
    NIH/NHLBI P50HL056401Sep 1, 1996 - Jul 31, 2007
    Role: Co-Investigator
    TRH AND THE PREVENTION OF CHRONIC LUNG DISEASE
    NIH/NICHD R01HD029201Aug 10, 1993 - Nov 30, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    General Clinical Research Center
    NIH M01RR000240Dec 1, 1976 - Sep 29, 2006
    Role: Co-Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Torgerson DG, Ballard PL, Keller RL, Oh SS, Huntsman S, Hu D, Eng C, Burchard EG, Ballard RA. Ancestry and genetic associations with bronchopulmonary dysplasia in preterm infants. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol. 2018 Nov 01; 315(5):L858-L869. PMID: 30113228.
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    2. Ballard PL, Keller RL, Truog WE, Chapin C, Horneman H, Segal MR, Ballard RA. Surfactant status and respiratory outcome in premature infants receiving late surfactant treatment. Pediatr Res. 2019 Feb; 85(3):305-311. PMID: 30140069.
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    3. Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Askie LM, Schreiber MD, Hibbs AM, Torgerson DG, Keller RL. Reply. J Pediatr. 2018 10; 201:300-301. PMID: 30029868.
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    4. Wai KC, Hibbs AM, Steurer MA, Black DM, Asselin JM, Eichenwald EC, Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Keller RL. Maternal Black Race and Persistent Wheezing Illness in Former Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns: Secondary Analysis of a Randomized Trial. J Pediatr. 2018 07; 198:201-208.e3. PMID: 29627188.
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    5. Askie LM, Davies LC, Schreiber MD, Hibbs AM, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Race Effects of Inhaled Nitric Oxide in Preterm Infants: An Individual Participant Data Meta-Analysis. J Pediatr. 2018 02; 193:34-39.e2. PMID: 29241680.
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    6. Steinhorn R, Davis JM, Göpel W, Jobe A, Abman S, Laughon M, Bancalari E, Aschner J, Ballard R, Greenough A, Storari L, Thomson M, Ariagno RL, Fabbri L, Turner MA. Chronic Pulmonary Insufficiency of Prematurity: Developing Optimal Endpoints for Drug Development. J Pediatr. 2017 12; 191:15-21.e1. PMID: 29173299.
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    7. Keller RL, Ballard RA. Reply. J Pediatr. 2017 10; 189:241-242. PMID: 28625499.
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    8. Keller RL, Eichenwald EC, Hibbs AM, Rogers EE, Wai KC, Black DM, Ballard PL, Asselin JM, Truog WE, Merrill JD, Mammel MC, Steinhorn RH, Ryan RM, Durand DJ, Bendel CM, Bendel-Stenzel EM, Courtney SE, Dhanireddy R, Hudak ML, Koch FR, Mayock DE, McKay VJ, Helderman J, Porta NF, Wadhawan R, Palermo L, Ballard RA. The Randomized, Controlled Trial of Late Surfactant: Effects on Respiratory Outcomes at 1-Year Corrected Age. J Pediatr. 2017 04; 183:19-25.e2. PMID: 28100402.
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    9. Wai KC, Keller RL, Lusk LA, Ballard RA, Chan DK. Characteristics of Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns Undergoing Tracheotomy: A Secondary Analysis of the Trial of Late Surfactant Randomized Clinical Trial. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2017 01 01; 143(1):13-19. PMID: 27583380.
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    10. Wai KC, Kohn MA, Ballard RA, Truog WE, Black DM, Asselin JM, Ballard PL, Rogers EE, Keller RL. Early Cumulative Supplemental Oxygen Predicts Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia in High Risk Extremely Low Gestational Age Newborns. J Pediatr. 2016 Oct; 177:97-102.e2. PMID: 27470692; PMCID: PMC5037007 [Available on 10/01/17].
    11. Wu YW, Mathur AM, Chang T, McKinstry RC, Mulkey SB, Mayock DE, Van Meurs KP, Rogers EE, Gonzalez FF, Comstock BA, Juul SE, Msall ME, Bonifacio SL, Glass HC, Massaro AN, Dong L, Tan KW, Heagerty PJ, Ballard RA. High-Dose Erythropoietin and Hypothermia for Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy: A Phase II Trial. Pediatrics. 2016 06; 137(6). PMID: 27244862.
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    12. Roberts JK, Stockmann C, Dahl MJ, Albertine KH, Egan E, Lin Z, Reilly CA, Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Ward RM. Pharmacokinetics of Budesonide Administered with Surfactant in Premature Lambs: Implications for Neonatal Clinical Trials. Curr Clin Pharmacol. 2016; 11(1):53-61. PMID: 26416605.
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    13. Poindexter BB, Feng R, Schmidt B, Aschner JL, Ballard RA, Hamvas A, Reynolds AM, Shaw PA, Jobe AH. Comparisons and Limitations of Current Definitions of Bronchopulmonary Dysplasia for the Prematurity and Respiratory Outcomes Program. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2015 Dec; 12(12):1822-30. PMID: 26397992.
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    14. Ballard RA, Keller RL, Black DM, Ballard PL, Merrill JD, Eichenwald EC, Truog WE, Mammel MC, Steinhorn RH, Rogers EE, Ryan RM, Durand DJ, Asselin JM, Bendel CM, Bendel-Stenzel EM, Courtney SE, Dhanireddy R, Hudak ML, Koch FR, Mayock DE, McKay VJ, O'Shea TM, Porta NF, Wadhawan R, Palermo L. Randomized Trial of Late Surfactant Treatment in Ventilated Preterm Infants Receiving Inhaled Nitric Oxide. J Pediatr. 2016 Jan; 168:23-9.e4. PMID: 26500107; PMCID: PMC4698022 [Available on 01/01/17].
    15. Pryhuber GS, Maitre NL, Ballard RA, Cifelli D, Davis SD, Ellenberg JH, Greenberg JM, Kemp J, Mariani TJ, Panitch H, Ren C, Shaw P, Taussig LM, Hamvas A. Prematurity and respiratory outcomes program (PROP): study protocol of a prospective multicenter study of respiratory outcomes of preterm infants in the United States. BMC Pediatr. 2015 Apr 10; 15:37. PMID: 25886363.
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    16. Maitre NL, Ballard RA, Ellenberg JH, Davis SD, Greenberg JM, Hamvas A, Pryhuber GS. Respiratory consequences of prematurity: evolution of a diagnosis and development of a comprehensive approach. J Perinatol. 2015 May; 35(5):313-321. PMID: 25811285; PMCID: PMC4414744.
    17. Rogers EE, Bonifacio SL, Glass HC, Juul SE, Chang T, Mayock DE, Durand DJ, Song D, Barkovich AJ, Ballard RA, Wu YW. Erythropoietin and hypothermia for hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy. Pediatr Neurol. 2014 Nov; 51(5):657-62. PMID: 25439577; PMCID: PMC4402201.
    18. Ballard PL, Keller RL, Black DM, Durand DJ, Merrill JD, Eichenwald EC, Truog WE, Mammel MC, Steinhorn R, Ryan RM, Courtney SE, Horneman H, Ballard RA. Inhaled nitric oxide increases urinary nitric oxide metabolites and cyclic guanosine monophosphate in premature infants: relationship to pulmonary outcome. Am J Perinatol. 2015 Feb; 32(3):225-32. PMID: 24968129; PMCID: PMC5032843.
    19. Keller RL, Merrill JD, Black DM, Steinhorn RH, Eichenwald EC, Durand DJ, Ryan RM, Truog WE, Courtney SE, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Late administration of surfactant replacement therapy increases surfactant protein-B content: a randomized pilot study. Pediatr Res. 2012 Dec; 72(6):613-9. PMID: 23037875; PMCID: PMC3548137.
    20. Wu YW, Bauer LA, Ballard RA, Ferriero DM, Glidden DV, Mayock DE, Chang T, Durand DJ, Song D, Bonifacio SL, Gonzalez FF, Glass HC, Juul SE. Erythropoietin for neuroprotection in neonatal encephalopathy: safety and pharmacokinetics. Pediatrics. 2012 Oct; 130(4):683-91. PMID: 23008465; PMCID: PMC3457622.
    21. Askie LM, Ballard RA, Cutter GR, Dani C, Elbourne D, Field D, Hascoet JM, Hibbs AM, Kinsella JP, Mercier JC, Rich W, Schreiber MD, Wongsiridej PS, Subhedar NV, Van Meurs KP, Voysey M, Barrington K, Ehrenkranz RA, Finer NN. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants: an individual-patient data meta-analysis of randomized trials. Pediatrics. 2011 Oct; 128(4):729-39. PMID: 21930540; PMCID: PMC3387905.
    22. Merrill JD, Ballard PL, Courtney SE, Durand DJ, Hamvas A, Hibbs AM, Lu KW, Ryan RM, Reynolds AM, Spence K, Steinhorn RH, Truog WE, Eichenwald EC, Ballard RA. Pilot trial of late booster doses of surfactant for ventilated premature infants. J Perinatol. 2011 Sep; 31(9):599-606. PMID: 21311500.
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    23. Golombek SG, Truog WE, Ballard RA, Ballard PL. Re: 'The use of iNO in the newborn period: results from the European iNO registry'. Acta Paediatr. 2010 Sep; 99(9):1283. PMID: 20456263.
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    24. Askie LM, Ballard RA, Cutter G, Dani C, Elbourne D, Field D, Hascoet JM, Hibbs AM, Kinsella JP, Mercier JC, Rich W, Schreiber MD, Srisuparp P, Subhedar NV, Van Meurs KP, Voysey M, Barrington K, Ehrenkranz RA, Finer N. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants: a systematic review and individual patient data meta-analysis. BMC Pediatr. 2010 Mar 23; 10:15. PMID: 20331899; PMCID: PMC2860486.
    25. Walsh MC, Hibbs AM, Martin CR, Cnaan A, Keller RL, Vittinghoff E, Martin RJ, Truog WE, Ballard PL, Zadell A, Wadlinger SR, Coburn CE, Ballard RA. Two-year neurodevelopmental outcomes of ventilated preterm infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. J Pediatr. 2010 Apr; 156(4):556-61.e1. PMID: 20138299; PMCID: PMC2843768.
    26. Hibbs AM, Black D, Palermo L, Cnaan A, Luan X, Truog WE, Walsh MC, Ballard RA. Accounting for multiple births in neonatal and perinatal trials: systematic review and case study. J Pediatr. 2010 Feb; 156(2):202-8. PMID: 19969305; PMCID: PMC2844328.
    27. Zupancic JA, Hibbs AM, Palermo L, Truog WE, Cnaan A, Black DM, Ballard PL, Wadlinger SR, Ballard RA. Economic evaluation of inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. Pediatrics. 2009 Nov; 124(5):1325-32. PMID: 19841125.
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    28. Posencheg MA, Gow AJ, Truog WE, Ballard RA, Cnaan A, Golombek SG, Ballard PL. Inhaled nitric oxide in premature infants: effect on tracheal aspirate and plasma nitric oxide metabolites. J Perinatol. 2010 Apr; 30(4):275-80. PMID: 19812581.
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    29. Davis CW, Gonzales LW, Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Guo C, Gow AJ. Expression of nitric oxide synthases and endogenous NO metabolism in bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatr Pulmonol. 2008 Jul; 43(7):703-9. PMID: 18500734; PMCID: PMC4015107.
    30. Hibbs AM, Walsh MC, Martin RJ, Truog WE, Lorch SA, Alessandrini E, Cnaan A, Palermo L, Wadlinger SR, Coburn CE, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. One-year respiratory outcomes of preterm infants enrolled in the Nitric Oxide (to prevent) Chronic Lung Disease trial. J Pediatr. 2008 Oct; 153(4):525-9. PMID: 18534620; PMCID: PMC2745607.
    31. Truog WE, Martin RJ, Ballard RA, Black D, Cnaan A. Inhaled nitric oxide for preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2008 Jun; 121(6):1287-8; author reply 1288-9. PMID: 18519502.
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    32. Ballard PL, Truog WE, Merrill JD, Gow A, Posencheg M, Golombek SG, Parton LA, Luan X, Cnaan A, Ballard RA. Plasma biomarkers of oxidative stress: relationship to lung disease and inhaled nitric oxide therapy in premature infants. Pediatrics. 2008 Mar; 121(3):555-61. PMID: 18310205.
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    33. Gunn AJ, Wyatt JS, Whitelaw A, Barks J, Azzopardi D, Ballard R, Edwards AD, Ferriero DM, Gluckman PD, Polin RA, Robertson CM, Thoresen M. Therapeutic hypothermia changes the prognostic value of clinical evaluation of neonatal encephalopathy. J Pediatr. 2008 Jan; 152(1):55-8, 58.e1. PMID: 18154900.
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    34. Ballard RA. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants--correction. N Engl J Med. 2007 Oct 04; 357(14):1444-5. PMID: 17914048.
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    35. Di Fiore JM, Hibbs AM, Zadell AE, Merrill JD, Eichenwald EC, Puri AR, Mayock DE, Courtney SE, Ballard RA, Martin RJ. The effect of inhaled nitric oxide on pulmonary function in preterm infants. J Perinatol. 2007 Dec; 27(12):766-71. PMID: 17805339.
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    36. Ballard PL, Merrill JD, Truog WE, Godinez RI, Godinez MH, McDevitt TM, Ning Y, Golombek SG, Parton LA, Luan X, Cnaan A, Ballard RA. Surfactant function and composition in premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. Pediatrics. 2007 Aug; 120(2):346-53. PMID: 17671061.
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    37. Wyatt JS, Gluckman PD, Liu PY, Azzopardi D, Ballard R, Edwards AD, Ferriero DM, Polin RA, Robertson CM, Thoresen M, Whitelaw A, Gunn AJ. Determinants of outcomes after head cooling for neonatal encephalopathy. Pediatrics. 2007 May; 119(5):912-21. PMID: 17473091.
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    38. Truog WE, Ballard PL, Norberg M, Golombek S, Savani RC, Merrill JD, Parton LA, Cnaan A, Luan X, Ballard RA. Inflammatory markers and mediators in tracheal fluid of premature infants treated with inhaled nitric oxide. Pediatrics. 2007 Apr; 119(4):670-8. PMID: 17403837.
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    39. Ballard RA, Truog WE, Cnaan A, Martin RJ, Ballard PL, Merrill JD, Walsh MC, Durand DJ, Mayock DE, Eichenwald EC, Null DR, Hudak ML, Puri AR, Golombek SG, Courtney SE, Stewart DL, Welty SE, Phibbs RH, Hibbs AM, Luan X, Wadlinger SR, Asselin JM, Coburn CE. Inhaled nitric oxide in preterm infants undergoing mechanical ventilation. N Engl J Med. 2006 Jul 27; 355(4):343-53. PMID: 16870913.
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    40. Farkouh CR, Merrill JD, Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Ischiropoulos H, Lorch SA. Urinary metabolites of oxidative stress and nitric oxide in preterm and term infants. Biol Neonate. 2006; 90(4):233-42. PMID: 16735789.
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    41. Deregnier RA, Ballard R, O'shea TM, Piecuch R, Walsh M, Aschner JL. Neonatal - perinatal medicine fellowship training in long-term outcomes of neonatal intensive care unit graduates. J Perinatol. 2005 Jun; 25(6):423-5. PMID: 15858604.
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    42. Gluckman PD, Wyatt JS, Azzopardi D, Ballard R, Edwards AD, Ferriero DM, Polin RA, Robertson CM, Thoresen M, Whitelaw A, Gunn AJ. Selective head cooling with mild systemic hypothermia after neonatal encephalopathy: multicentre randomised trial. Lancet. 2005 Feb 19-25; 365(9460):663-70. PMID: 15721471.
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    43. Merrill JD, Ballard RA, Cnaan A, Hibbs AM, Godinez RI, Godinez MH, Truog WE, Ballard PL. Dysfunction of pulmonary surfactant in chronically ventilated premature infants. Pediatr Res. 2004 Dec; 56(6):918-26. PMID: 15496605.
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    44. Ekekezie II, Thibeault DW, Simon SD, Norberg M, Merrill JD, Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Truog WE. Low levels of tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases with a high matrix metalloproteinase-9/tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 ratio are present in tracheal aspirate fluids of infants who develop chronic lung disease. Pediatrics. 2004 Jun; 113(6):1709-14. PMID: 15173495.
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    45. Ballard PL, Merrill JD, Godinez RI, Godinez MH, Truog WE, Ballard RA. Surfactant protein profile of pulmonary surfactant in premature infants. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2003 Nov 01; 168(9):1123-8. PMID: 12904326.
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    46. Lorch SA, Banks BA, Christie J, Merrill JD, Althaus J, Schmidt K, Ballard PL, Ischiropoulos H, Ballard RA. Plasma 3-nitrotyrosine and outcome in neonates with severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia after inhaled nitric oxide. Free Radic Biol Med. 2003 May 01; 34(9):1146-52. PMID: 12706495.
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    47. Merrill JD, Ballard RA. Pulmonary surfactant for neonatal respiratory disorders. Curr Opin Pediatr. 2003 Apr; 15(2):149-54. PMID: 12640270.
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    48. Truog WE, Pallotto E, Clark P, Banks B, Kaftan HA, Ekekezie II, Norberg M, Ballard RA. Interaction of endogenous endothelin-1 and inhaled nitric oxide in term and preterm infants. Clin Sci (Lond). 2002 Aug; 103 Suppl 48:294S-297S. PMID: 12193107.
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    49. Ballard DW, Li Y, Evans J, Ballard RA, Ubel PA. Fear of litigation may increase resuscitation of infants born near the limits of viability. J Pediatr. 2002 Jun; 140(6):713-8. PMID: 12072875.
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    50. Banks BA, Macones G, Cnaan A, Merrill JD, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids are associated with early severe lung disease in preterm neonates. J Perinatol. 2002 Mar; 22(2):101-7. PMID: 11896513.
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    51. Banks BA, Stouffer N, Cnaan A, Ning Y, Merrill JD, Ballard RA, Ballard PL. Association of plasma cortisol and chronic lung disease in preterm infants. Pediatrics. 2001 Mar; 107(3):494-8. PMID: 11230588.
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    52. Merrill JD, Ballard RA. Clinical use of antenatal corticosteroids: benefits and risks. Pediatr Rev. 2000 May; 1(5):E91-8. PMID: 10790438.
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    53. Banks BA, Cnaan A, Morgan MA, Parer JT, Merrill JD, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Multiple courses of antenatal corticosteroids and outcome of premature neonates. North American Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Study Group. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Sep; 181(3):709-17. PMID: 10486488.
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    54. Banks BA, Seri I, Ischiropoulos H, Merrill J, Rychik J, Ballard RA. Changes in oxygenation with inhaled nitric oxide in severe bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 1999 Mar; 103(3):610-8. PMID: 10049965.
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    55. Merrill JD, Ballard RA. Antenatal hormone therapy for fetal lung maturation. Clin Perinatol. 1998 Dec; 25(4):983-97. PMID: 9891625.
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    56. Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Ning Y, Cnann A, Boardman C, Pinto-Martin J, Polk D, Phibbs RH, Davis DJ, Mannino FL, Hart M. Plasma thyroid hormones in premature infants: effect of gestational age and antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone treatment. TRH Collaborative Trial Participants. Pediatr Res. 1998 Nov; 44(5):642-9. PMID: 9803444.
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    57. Banks BA, Ischiropoulos H, McClelland M, Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Plasma 3-nitrotyrosine is elevated in premature infants who develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia. Pediatrics. 1998 May; 101(5):870-4. PMID: 9565417.
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    58. Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Cnaan A, Pinto-Martin J, Davis DJ, Padbury JF, Phibbs RH, Parer JT, Hart MC, Mannino FL, Sawai SK. Antenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone to prevent lung disease in preterm infants. North American Thyrotropin-Releasing Hormone Study Group. N Engl J Med. 1998 Feb 19; 338(8):493-8. PMID: 9468465.
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    59. Ballard RA, Ballard PL. Antenatal hormone therapy for improving the outcome of the preterm infant. J Perinatol. 1996 Sep-Oct; 16(5):390-6. PMID: 8915940.
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    60. Ballard PL, Nogee LM, Beers MF, Ballard RA, Planer BC, Polk L, deMello DE, Moxley MA, Longmore WJ. Partial deficiency of surfactant protein B in an infant with chronic lung disease. Pediatrics. 1995 Dec; 96(6):1046-52. PMID: 7491219.
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    61. Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Cnaan A, Pinto-Martin J. Thyrotropin-releasing hormone for prevention of neonatal respiratory disease. Lancet. 1995 Jun 17; 345(8964):1572. PMID: 7791458.
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    62. Leonard CH, Piecuch RE, Ballard RA, Cooper BA. Outcome of very low birth weight infants: multiple gestation versus singletons. Pediatrics. 1994 Apr; 93(4):611-5. PMID: 7510875.
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    63. Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Creasy RK, Padbury J, Polk DH, Bracken M, Moya FR, Gross I. Plasma thyroid hormones and prolactin in premature infants and their mothers after prenatal treatment with thyrotropin-releasing hormone. Pediatr Res. 1992 Dec; 32(6):673-8. PMID: 1287557.
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    64. Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Creasy RK, Padbury J, Polk DH, Bracken M, Moya FR, Gross I. Respiratory disease in very-low-birthweight infants after prenatal thyrotropin-releasing hormone and glucocorticoid. TRH Study Group. Lancet. 1992 Feb 29; 339(8792):510-5. PMID: 1346877.
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    65. Phibbs RH, Ballard RA, Clements JA, Heilbron DC, Phibbs CS, Schlueter MA, Sniderman SH, Tooley WH, Wakeley A. Initial clinical trial of EXOSURF, a protein-free synthetic surfactant, for the prophylaxis and early treatment of hyaline membrane disease. Pediatrics. 1991 Jul; 88(1):1-9. PMID: 2057244.
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    66. Shannon KM, Mentzer WC, Abels RI, Freeman P, Newton N, Thompson D, Sniderman S, Ballard R, Phibbs RH. Recombinant human erythropoietin in the anemia of prematurity: results of a placebo-controlled pilot study. J Pediatr. 1991 Jun; 118(6):949-55. PMID: 2040933.
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    67. Leonard CH, Clyman RI, Piecuch RE, Juster RP, Ballard RA, Behle MB. Effect of medical and social risk factors on outcome of prematurity and very low birth weight. J Pediatr. 1990 Apr; 116(4):620-6. PMID: 2319409.
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    68. Durand DJ, Goodman A, Ray P, Ballard RA, Clyman RI. Theophylline treatment in the extubation of infants weighing less than 1,250 grams: a controlled trial. Pediatrics. 1987 Nov; 80(5):684-8. PMID: 3313257.
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    69. Ballard RA, Leonard CH. Developmental follow-up of infants with persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn. Clin Perinatol. 1984 Oct; 11(3):737-44. PMID: 6488676.
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    70. Clark CE, Clyman RI, Roth RS, Sniderman SH, Lane B, Ballard RA. Risk factor analysis of intraventricular hemorrhage in low-birth-weight infants. J Pediatr. 1981 Oct; 99(4):625-8. PMID: 7277108.
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    71. Clyman RI, Ballard PL, Sniderman S, Ballard RA, Roth R, Heymann MA, Granberg JP. Prenatal administration of betamethasone for prevention of patient ductus arteriosus. J Pediatr. 1981 Jan; 98(1):123-6. PMID: 7452388.
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    72. Ballard PL, Ballard RA, Granberg JP, Sniderman S, Gluckman PD, Kaplan SL, Grumbach MM. Fetal sex and prenatal betamethasone therapy. J Pediatr. 1980 Sep; 97(3):451-4. PMID: 7411310.
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    73. Miller C, Clyman RI, Roth RS, Sniderman SH, Ballard RA, Henning D, Riedel P, Rosen A, Burden L. Control of oxygenation during the transport of sick neonates. Pediatrics. 1980 Jul; 66(1):117-9. PMID: 7402772.
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    74. Leonard CH, Irwin N, Ballard RA, Ferris C, Clyman R. Preliminary observations on the behavior of children present at the birth of a sibling. Pediatrics. 1979 Dec; 64(6):949-51. PMID: 514723.
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    75. Mintz L, Ballard RA, Sniderman SH, Roth RS, Drew WL. Nosocomial respiratory syncytial virus infections in an intensive care nursery: rapid diagnosis by direct immunofluorescence. Pediatrics. 1979 Aug; 64(2):149-53. PMID: 382079.
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    76. Ballard RA, Drew WL, Hufnagle KG, Riedel PA. Acquired cytomegalovirus infection in preterm infants. Am J Dis Child. 1979 May; 133(5):482-5. PMID: 219685.
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    77. Clyman RI, Sniderman SH, Ballard RA, Roth RS. What pediatricians say to mothers of sick newborns: an indirect evaluation of the counseling process. Pediatrics. 1979 May; 63(5):719-23. PMID: 440892.
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    78. Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Corticosteroids and respiratory distress syndrome: status 1979. Pediatrics. 1979 Jan; 63(1):163-5. PMID: 440794.
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    79. Ballard RA, Ballard PL, Granberg JP, Sniderman S. Prenatal administration of betamethasone for prevention of respiratory distress syndrome. J Pediatr. 1979 Jan; 94(1):97-101. PMID: 758436.
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    80. Wise BL, Ballard R. Hydrocephalus secondary to intracranial hemorrhage in premature infants. Childs Brain. 1976; 2(4):234-41. PMID: 991666.
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    81. Ballard PL, Granberg P, Ballard RA. Glucocorticoid levels in maternal and cord serum after prenatal betamethasone therapy to prevent respiratory distress syndrome. J Clin Invest. 1975 Dec; 56(6):1548-54. PMID: 1202085.
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    82. Ballard PL, Ballard RA. Cytoplasmic receptor for glucocorticoids in lung of the human fetus and neonate. J Clin Invest. 1974 Feb; 53(2):477-86. PMID: 11344561.
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    83. Ballard RA, Kraybill EN, Hernandez J, Renfield ML, Blankenship WJ. Idiopathic respiratory distress syndrome. Treatment with continuous negative-pressure ventilation. Am J Dis Child. 1973 May; 125(5):676-81. PMID: 4633512.
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