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Michael Merzenich, PhD

TitleProfessor Emeritus
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentOtolaryngology
Address513 Parnassus Ave
San Francisco CA 94143
Phone415-476-0490
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Our laboratory is principally interested in 1) defining the neural bases of learning, recognition and memory; 2) defining mechanisms underlying the origins of functional brain illnesses and disabilities; and 3) developing training strategies for remediating learning-disabled and movement-disabled adults and children.

    Cortical plasticity studies are conducted within somatosensory, auditory, and motor forebrain systems in rodent, primate and human models. Electrophysiological studies employ the derivation of highly detailed microelectrode neuron response maps in sensory cortical areas and subcortical nuclei, and detailed microstimulation maps in motor cortex. Acute and chronic quantitative single and multiple-unit recording experiments are conducted. Many studies are undertaken in behaviorally trained animals. Human learning experiments are conducted using psychophysical procedures and magnetoencephalographic (MSI) and functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging). Pragmatic human studies involve computer engineering and AV development, as well as electrophysiological and psychophysical experiments conducted in patient models.

    Cortical representations have been shown to be substantially functionally remodeled following new behavioral experiences or training in animal models in which limited sectors of the sensory epithelium and/or specific movements are differentially engaged in new behavioral tasks. Studies of this "representational plasticity" in the adult nervous system have revealed many facets of the self-organizing processes of the brain that account for the progressive differentiation of behavior in child development, and that account for adult learning. In current experiments: 1) We are relating specific experience-driven changes in neuronal responses in the cortex to behaviorally measured gains in skills acquired with practice in the same animal(s). 2) We are constructing computational models of the dynamic, self-organizing cortical machinery. 3) We are studying developmental plasticity in the auditory system relevant to understanding the development of fundamental human capacities. 4) We are modelling the contributions of learning to the genesis of learning disabilities, and to the emergence of occupationally-induced movement disabilities and pain syndromes. 5) We are studying some practical implications of cortical representational plasticity mechanisms for designing remedial therapies for brain injury patients, and for learning-disabled and movement-disabled human populations.


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    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Variation as a Neural Code
    NIH/NIMH P50MH077970Sep 8, 2006 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Brain Plasticity Rehabilitation of Visual Cognition
    NIH/NEI R43EY016273Sep 30, 2005 - Aug 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Brain-Plasticity Based Training for Schizophrenia
    NIH/NIMH R42MH073358Sep 26, 2005 - Jan 31, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Brain Plasticity Based Training for Focal Dystonia
    NIH/NICHD R43HD049251Sep 15, 2005 - Apr 30, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Cortical Plasticity Systems
    NIH P01NS034835May 1, 1997 - Apr 30, 2008
    Role: Co-Investigator
    DESIGN OF PEDIATRIC COCHLEAR IMPLANTS
    NIH/NIDCD N01DC002401Sep 30, 1990 - Sep 29, 1995
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PEDIATRIC AUDITORY PROSTHESIS IMPLANTS
    NIH/NIDCD N01DC072391Jun 30, 1987 - Jun 29, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PEDIATRIC AUDITORY PROSTHESIS IMPLANTS
    NIH/NINDS N01NS072391Jun 30, 1987 - Jun 29, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SENSORY DISORDERS AND LANGUAGE STUDY SECTION
    NIH/CSR U09RG010905Jul 1, 1985 - Jun 30, 1991
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    SCALA TYMPANI ELECTRODE ARRAYS
    NIH/NINDS N01NS032353Sep 1, 1983 - Dec 31, 1986
    Role: Principal Investigator
    AUDITORY AND SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
    NIH/NINDS R01NS010414Jul 1, 1978 - Mar 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
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    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Attarha M, Bigelow J, Merzenich MM. Unintended Consequences of White Noise Therapy for Tinnitus-Otolaryngology's Cobra Effect: A Review. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2018 Aug 30. PMID: 30178067.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Liu X, Wei F, Cheng Y, Zhang Y, Jia G, Zhou J, Zhu M, Shan Y, Sun X, Yu L, Merzenich MM, Lurie DI, Zheng Q, Zhou X. Auditory Training Reverses Lead (Pb)-Toxicity-Induced Changes in Sound-Azimuth Selectivity of Cortical Neurons. Cereb Cortex. 2018 Aug 23. PMID: 30137254.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Wilson JE, Collar EM, Kiehl AL, Lee H, Merzenich M, Ely EW, Jackson J. Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation in Intensive Care Unit Survivors: Returning to Everyday Tasks Using Rehabilitation Networks-Computerized Cognitive Rehabilitation Pilot Investigation. Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2018 Jul; 15(7):887-891. PMID: 29911883.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Cheng Y, Jia G, Zhang Y, Hao H, Shan Y, Yu L, Sun X, Zheng Q, Kraus N, Merzenich MM, Zhou X. Positive impacts of early auditory training on cortical processing at an older age. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 06 13; 114(24):6364-6369. PMID: 28559351.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Nahum M, Van Vleet TM, Sohal VS, Mirzabekov JJ, Rao VR, Wallace DL, Lee MB, Dawes H, Stark-Inbar A, Jordan JT, Biagianti B, Merzenich M, Chang EF. Immediate Mood Scaler: Tracking Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety Using a Novel Mobile Mood Scale. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2017 Apr 12; 5(4):e44. PMID: 28404542.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Van Vleet TM, DeGutis JM, Merzenich MM, Simpson GV, Zomet A, Dabit S. Targeting alertness to improve cognition in older adults: A preliminary report of benefits in executive function and skill acquisition. Cortex. 2016 09; 82:100-118. PMID: 27372902; PMCID: PMC4969201 [Available on 09/01/17].
    7. Rose A, Vinogradov S, Fisher M, Green MF, Ventura J, Hooker C, Merzenich M, Nahum M. Randomized controlled trial of computer-based treatment of social cognition in schizophrenia: the TRuSST trial protocol. BMC Psychiatry. 2015 Jul 03; 15:142. PMID: 26138715; PMCID: PMC4489025.
    8. Zhou X, Lu JY, Darling RD, Simpson KL, Zhu X, Wang F, Yu L, Sun X, Merzenich MM, Lin RC. Behavioral training reverses global cortical network dysfunction induced by perinatal antidepressant exposure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Feb 17; 112(7):2233-8. PMID: 25646455; PMCID: PMC4343129.
    9. Merzenich MM. Early UCSF contributions to the development of multiple-channel cochlear implants. Hear Res. 2015 Apr; 322:39-46. PMID: 25560478.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Mishra J, de Villers-Sidani E, Merzenich M, Gazzaley A. Adaptive training diminishes distractibility in aging across species. Neuron. 2014 Dec 03; 84(5):1091-103. PMID: 25467987; PMCID: PMC4264379.
    11. Zhu X, Liu X, Wei F, Wang F, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE, Sun X, Zhou X. Perceptual Training Restores Impaired Cortical Temporal Processing Due to Lead Exposure. Cereb Cortex. 2016 Jan; 26(1):334-345. PMID: 25405943.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Merzenich MM, Van Vleet TM, Nahum M. Brain plasticity-based therapeutics. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014; 8:385. PMID: 25018719; PMCID: PMC4072971.
    13. Zhu X, Wang F, Hu H, Sun X, Kilgard MP, Merzenich MM, Zhou X. Environmental acoustic enrichment promotes recovery from developmentally degraded auditory cortical processing. J Neurosci. 2014 Apr 16; 34(16):5406-15. PMID: 24741032; PMCID: PMC4104291.
    14. Mishra J, Merzenich MM, Sagar R. Accessible online neuroplasticity-targeted training for children with ADHD. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2013 Nov 14; 7(1):38. PMID: 24225015; PMCID: PMC3828475.
    15. Anomal R, de Villers-Sidani E, Merzenich MM, Panizzutti R. Manipulation of BDNF signaling modifies the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e64208. PMID: 23700463; PMCID: PMC3660256.
    16. Merzenich MM, Nahum M, Van Vleet TM. Neuroplasticity: introduction. Prog Brain Res. 2013; 207:xxi-xxvi. PMID: 24309266.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Moore CI, Crosier E, Greve DN, Savoy R, Merzenich MM, Dale AM. Neocortical correlates of vibrotactile detection in humans. J Cogn Neurosci. 2013 Jan; 25(1):49-61. PMID: 23198890.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Nahum M, Lee H, Merzenich MM. Principles of neuroplasticity-based rehabilitation. Prog Brain Res. 2013; 207:141-71. PMID: 24309254.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Froemke RC, Carcea I, Barker AJ, Yuan K, Seybold BA, Martins AR, Zaika N, Bernstein H, Wachs M, Levis PA, Polley DB, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE. Long-term modification of cortical synapses improves sensory perception. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Jan; 16(1):79-88. PMID: 23178974; PMCID: PMC3711827.
    20. Miyakawa N, Katsumata N, Blake DT, Merzenich MM, Tanifuji M. High-density multielectrode array with independently maneuverable electrodes and silicone oil fluid isolation system for chronic recording from macaque monkey. J Neurosci Methods. 2012 Oct 15; 211(1):114-24. PMID: 22939944.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Zhou X, Merzenich MM. Environmental noise exposure degrades normal listening processes. Nat Commun. 2012 May 15; 3:843. PMID: 22588305.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Bruno R, Merzenich M, Nudo R. The fantastic plastic brain. Adv Mind Body Med. 2012; 26(2):30-5. PMID: 23469367.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Bavelier D, Green CS, Han DH, Renshaw PF, Merzenich MM, Gentile DA. Brains on video games. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2011 11 18; 12(12):763-8. PMID: 22095065; PMCID: PMC4633025.
    24. Simpson KL, Weaver KJ, de Villers-Sidani E, Lu JY, Cai Z, Pang Y, Rodriguez-Porcel F, Paul IA, Merzenich M, Lin RC. Perinatal antidepressant exposure alters cortical network function in rodents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Nov 08; 108(45):18465-70. PMID: 22025710; PMCID: PMC3215047.
    25. Zhou X, Panizzutti R, de Villers-Sidani E, Madeira C, Merzenich MM. Natural restoration of critical period plasticity in the juvenile and adult primary auditory cortex. J Neurosci. 2011 Apr 13; 31(15):5625-34. PMID: 21490203; PMCID: PMC3758576.
    26. de Villers-Sidani E, Merzenich MM. Lifelong plasticity in the rat auditory cortex: basic mechanisms and role of sensory experience. Prog Brain Res. 2011; 191:119-31. PMID: 21741548.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Strata F, Stoianov IP, de Villers-Sidani E, Bonham B, Martone T, Kenet T, Chang EF, Vincenti V, Merzenich MM. Perinatal asphyxia affects rat auditory processing: implications for auditory perceptual impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 23; 5(12):e15326. PMID: 21203459; PMCID: PMC3009724.
    28. Popov T, Jordanov T, Rockstroh B, Elbert T, Merzenich MM, Miller GA. Specific cognitive training normalizes auditory sensory gating in schizophrenia: a randomized trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Mar 01; 69(5):465-71. PMID: 21092939.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Zhou X, de Villers-Sidani E, Panizzutti R, Merzenich MM. Successive-signal biasing for a learned sound sequence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 17; 107(33):14839-44. PMID: 20679210; PMCID: PMC2930458.
    30. de Villers-Sidani E, Alzghoul L, Zhou X, Simpson KL, Lin RC, Merzenich MM. Recovery of functional and structural age-related changes in the rat primary auditory cortex with operant training. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 03; 107(31):13900-5. PMID: 20643928; PMCID: PMC2922281.
    31. Coq JO, Barr AE, Strata F, Russier M, Kietrys DM, Merzenich MM, Byl NN, Barbe MF. Peripheral and central changes combine to induce motor behavioral deficits in a moderate repetition task. Exp Neurol. 2009 Dec; 220(2):234-45. PMID: 19686738; PMCID: PMC2783426.
    32. Guic E, Carrasco X, Rodríguez E, Robles I, Merzenich MM. Plasticity in primary somatosensory cortex resulting from environmentally enriched stimulation and sensory discrimination training. Biol Res. 2008; 41(4):425-37. PMID: 19621123.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Guic E, Carrasco X, Rodríguez E, Robles I, Merzenich MM. Non-homogeneous spatial configuration of vibrissae cortical representation in layer IV of the barrel somatosensory cortex. Biol Res. 2008; 41(4):461-71. PMID: 19621126.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Belmonte MK, Bonneh YS, Adini Y, Iversen PE, Akshoomoff NA, Kenet T, Moore CI, Simon HJ, Houde JF, Merzenich MM. Autism overflows with syntheses. Neuropsychol Rev. 2009 Jun; 19(2):273-4. PMID: 19449104.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Fisher M, Holland C, Merzenich MM, Vinogradov S. Using neuroplasticity-based auditory training to improve verbal memory in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2009 Jul; 166(7):805-11. PMID: 19448187; PMCID: PMC2720319.
    36. Zhou X, Merzenich MM. Developmentally degraded cortical temporal processing restored by training. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Jan; 12(1):26-8. PMID: 19079250; PMCID: PMC2709597.
    37. Bonneh YS, Belmonte MK, Pei F, Iversen PE, Kenet T, Akshoomoff N, Adini Y, Simon HJ, Moore CI, Houde JF, Merzenich MM. Cross-modal extinction in a boy with severely autistic behaviour and high verbal intelligence. Cogn Neuropsychol. 2008 Jul; 25(5):635-52. PMID: 18651259.
      View in: PubMed
    38. de Villers-Sidani E, Simpson KL, Lu YF, Lin RC, Merzenich MM. Manipulating critical period closure across different sectors of the primary auditory cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2008 Aug; 11(8):957-65. PMID: 18604205; PMCID: PMC2755097.
    39. Zhou X, Merzenich MM. Enduring effects of early structured noise exposure on temporal modulation in the primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 18; 105(11):4423-8. PMID: 18332439; PMCID: PMC2393777.
    40. Froemke RC, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE. A synaptic memory trace for cortical receptive field plasticity. Nature. 2007 Nov 15; 450(7168):425-9. PMID: 18004384.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Coq JO, Strata F, Russier M, Safadi FF, Merzenich MM, Byl NN, Barbe MF. Impact of neonatal asphyxia and hind limb immobilization on musculoskeletal tissues and S1 map organization: implications for cerebral palsy. Exp Neurol. 2008 Mar; 210(1):95-108. PMID: 18061167.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Zhou X, Merzenich MM. Intensive training in adults refines A1 representations degraded in an early postnatal critical period. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 02; 104(40):15935-40. PMID: 17895375; PMCID: PMC1994137.
    43. Atencio CA, Blake DT, Strata F, Cheung SW, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE. Frequency-modulation encoding in the primary auditory cortex of the awake owl monkey. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Oct; 98(4):2182-95. PMID: 17699695.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Polley DB, Read HL, Storace DA, Merzenich MM. Multiparametric auditory receptive field organization across five cortical fields in the albino rat. J Neurophysiol. 2007 May; 97(5):3621-38. PMID: 17376842.
      View in: PubMed
    45. de Villers-Sidani E, Chang EF, Bao S, Merzenich MM. Critical period window for spectral tuning defined in the primary auditory cortex (A1) in the rat. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 03; 27(1):180-9. PMID: 17202485.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Blake DT, Heiser MA, Caywood M, Merzenich MM. Experience-dependent adult cortical plasticity requires cognitive association between sensation and reward. Neuron. 2006 Oct 19; 52(2):371-81. PMID: 17046698; PMCID: PMC2826987.
    47. Mahncke HW, Connor BB, Appelman J, Ahsanuddin ON, Hardy JL, Wood RA, Joyce NM, Boniske T, Atkins SM, Merzenich MM. Memory enhancement in healthy older adults using a brain plasticity-based training program: a randomized, controlled study. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Aug 15; 103(33):12523-8. PMID: 16888038; PMCID: PMC1526649.
    48. Polley DB, Steinberg EE, Merzenich MM. Perceptual learning directs auditory cortical map reorganization through top-down influences. J Neurosci. 2006 May 03; 26(18):4970-82. PMID: 16672673.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Polley DB, Cobos I, Merzenich MM, Rubenstein JL. Severe hearing loss in Dlxl mutant mice. Hear Res. 2006 Apr; 214(1-2):84-8. PMID: 16632068.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Mahncke HW, Bronstone A, Merzenich MM. Brain plasticity and functional losses in the aged: scientific bases for a novel intervention. Prog Brain Res. 2006; 157:81-109. PMID: 17046669.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Chang EF, Bao S, Imaizumi K, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Development of spectral and temporal response selectivity in the auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 08; 102(45):16460-5. PMID: 16263924; PMCID: PMC1283465.
    52. Blake DT, Strata F, Kempter R, Merzenich MM. Experience-dependent plasticity in S1 caused by noncoincident inputs. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Sep; 94(3):2239-50. PMID: 16105958; PMCID: PMC2826984.
    53. Kalatsky VA, Polley DB, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE, Stryker MP. Fine functional organization of auditory cortex revealed by Fourier optical imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 13; 102(37):13325-30. PMID: 16141342; PMCID: PMC1201601.
    54. Orduña I, Mercado E, Gluck MA, Merzenich MM. Cortical responses in rats predict perceptual sensitivities to complex sounds. Behav Neurosci. 2005 Feb; 119(1):256-64. PMID: 15727530.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Polley DB, Heiser MA, Blake DT, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Associative learning shapes the neural code for stimulus magnitude in primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 16; 101(46):16351-6. PMID: 15534214; PMCID: PMC528983.
    56. Bao S, Chang EF, Woods J, Merzenich MM. Temporal plasticity in the primary auditory cortex induced by operant perceptual learning. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Sep; 7(9):974-81. PMID: 15286790.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Nakahara H, Zhang LI, Merzenich MM. Specialization of primary auditory cortex processing by sound exposure in the "critical period". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 May 04; 101(18):7170-4. PMID: 15118079; PMCID: PMC406484.
    58. Tan AY, Zhang LI, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE. Tone-evoked excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances of primary auditory cortex neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2004 Jul; 92(1):630-43. PMID: 14999047.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Liu RC, Miller KD, Merzenich MM, Schreiner CE. Acoustic variability and distinguishability among mouse ultrasound vocalizations. J Acoust Soc Am. 2003 Dec; 114(6 Pt 1):3412-22. PMID: 14714820.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Bao S, Chang EF, Davis JD, Gobeske KT, Merzenich MM. Progressive degradation and subsequent refinement of acoustic representations in the adult auditory cortex. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 26; 23(34):10765-75. PMID: 14645468.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Beitel RE, Schreiner CE, Cheung SW, Wang X, Merzenich MM. Reward-dependent plasticity in the primary auditory cortex of adult monkeys trained to discriminate temporally modulated signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Sep 16; 100(19):11070-5. PMID: 12941865; PMCID: PMC196928.
    62. Zhang LI, Tan AY, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Topography and synaptic shaping of direction selectivity in primary auditory cortex. Nature. 2003 Jul 10; 424(6945):201-5. PMID: 12853959.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Linden JF, Liu RC, Sahani M, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Spectrotemporal structure of receptive fields in areas AI and AAF of mouse auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2003 Oct; 90(4):2660-75. PMID: 12815016.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Garabedian CE, Jones SR, Merzenich MM, Dale A, Moore CI. Band-pass response properties of rat SI neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2003 Sep; 90(3):1379-91. PMID: 12750410.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Chang EF, Merzenich MM. Environmental noise retards auditory cortical development. Science. 2003 Apr 18; 300(5618):498-502. PMID: 12702879.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Temple E, Deutsch GK, Poldrack RA, Miller SL, Tallal P, Merzenich MM, Gabrieli JD. Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: evidence from functional MRI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Mar 04; 100(5):2860-5. PMID: 12604786; PMCID: PMC151431.
    67. Bao S, Chan VT, Zhang LI, Merzenich MM. Suppression of cortical representation through backward conditioning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Feb 04; 100(3):1405-8. PMID: 12538854; PMCID: PMC298785.
    68. Blake DT, Merzenich MM. Changes of AI receptive fields with sound density. J Neurophysiol. 2002 Dec; 88(6):3409-20. PMID: 12466457.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Houde JF, Nagarajan SS, Sekihara K, Merzenich MM. Modulation of the auditory cortex during speech: an MEG study. J Cogn Neurosci. 2002 Nov 15; 14(8):1125-38. PMID: 12495520.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Blake DT, Byl NN, Merzenich MM. Representation of the hand in the cerebral cortex. Behav Brain Res. 2002 Sep 20; 135(1-2):179-84. PMID: 12356448.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Hickmott PW, Merzenich MM. Local circuit properties underlying cortical reorganization. J Neurophysiol. 2002 Sep; 88(3):1288-301. PMID: 12205150.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Blake DT, Strata F, Churchland AK, Merzenich MM. Neural correlates of instrumental learning in primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 23; 99(15):10114-9. PMID: 12119383; PMCID: PMC126633.
    73. Nagarajan SS, Cheung SW, Bedenbaugh P, Beitel RE, Schreiner CE, Merzenich MM. Representation of spectral and temporal envelope of twitter vocalizations in common marmoset primary auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2002 Apr; 87(4):1723-37. PMID: 11929894.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Kilgard MP, Merzenich MM. Order-sensitive plasticity in adult primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Mar 05; 99(5):3205-9. PMID: 11880653; PMCID: PMC122497.
    75. Zhang LI, Bao S, Merzenich MM. Disruption of primary auditory cortex by synchronous auditory inputs during a critical period. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19; 99(4):2309-14. PMID: 11842227; PMCID: PMC122361.
    76. Byl NN, Nagarajan SS, Merzenich MM, Roberts T, McKenzie A. Correlation of clinical neuromusculoskeletal and central somatosensory performance: variability in controls and patients with severe and mild focal hand dystonia. Neural Plast. 2002; 9(3):177-203. PMID: 12757370; PMCID: PMC2565401.
    77. Blake DT, Byl NN, Cheung S, Bedenbaugh P, Nagarajan S, Lamb M, Merzenich M. Sensory representation abnormalities that parallel focal hand dystonia in a primate model. Somatosens Mot Res. 2002; 19(4):347-57. PMID: 12590836; PMCID: PMC2826977.
    78. Ahissar M, Protopapas A, Reid M, Merzenich MM. Auditory processing parallels reading abilities in adults. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 06; 97(12):6832-7. PMID: 10841578; PMCID: PMC18757.
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