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Michael Merzenich, PhD

TitleProfessor Emeritus
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentOtolaryngology
Address513 Parnassus Ave
San Francisco CA 94143
Phone415-476-0490
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Our laboratory is principally interested in 1) defining the neural bases of learning, recognition and memory; 2) defining mechanisms underlying the origins of functional brain illnesses and disabilities; and 3) developing training strategies for remediating learning-disabled and movement-disabled adults and children.

    Cortical plasticity studies are conducted within somatosensory, auditory, and motor forebrain systems in rodent, primate and human models. Electrophysiological studies employ the derivation of highly detailed microelectrode neuron response maps in sensory cortical areas and subcortical nuclei, and detailed microstimulation maps in motor cortex. Acute and chronic quantitative single and multiple-unit recording experiments are conducted. Many studies are undertaken in behaviorally trained animals. Human learning experiments are conducted using psychophysical procedures and magnetoencephalographic (MSI) and functional magnetic resonance (fMRI) imaging). Pragmatic human studies involve computer engineering and AV development, as well as electrophysiological and psychophysical experiments conducted in patient models.

    Cortical representations have been shown to be substantially functionally remodeled following new behavioral experiences or training in animal models in which limited sectors of the sensory epithelium and/or specific movements are differentially engaged in new behavioral tasks. Studies of this "representational plasticity" in the adult nervous system have revealed many facets of the self-organizing processes of the brain that account for the progressive differentiation of behavior in child development, and that account for adult learning. In current experiments: 1) We are relating specific experience-driven changes in neuronal responses in the cortex to behaviorally measured gains in skills acquired with practice in the same animal(s). 2) We are constructing computational models of the dynamic, self-organizing cortical machinery. 3) We are studying developmental plasticity in the auditory system relevant to understanding the development of fundamental human capacities. 4) We are modelling the contributions of learning to the genesis of learning disabilities, and to the emergence of occupationally-induced movement disabilities and pain syndromes. 5) We are studying some practical implications of cortical representational plasticity mechanisms for designing remedial therapies for brain injury patients, and for learning-disabled and movement-disabled human populations.


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    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Variation as a Neural Code
    NIH/NIMH P50MH077970Sep 8, 2006 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Brain Plasticity Rehabilitation of Visual Cognition
    NIH/NEI R43EY016273Sep 30, 2005 - Aug 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Brain-Plasticity Based Training for Schizophrenia
    NIH/NIMH R42MH073358Sep 26, 2005 - Jan 31, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Brain Plasticity Based Training for Focal Dystonia
    NIH/NICHD R43HD049251Sep 15, 2005 - Apr 30, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Cortical Plasticity Systems
    NIH P01NS034835May 1, 1997 - Apr 30, 2008
    Role: Co-Investigator
    DESIGN OF PEDIATRIC COCHLEAR IMPLANTS
    NIH/NIDCD N01DC002401Sep 30, 1990 - Sep 29, 1995
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PEDIATRIC AUDITORY PROSTHESIS IMPLANTS
    NIH/NIDCD N01DC072391Jun 30, 1987 - Jun 29, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PEDIATRIC AUDITORY PROSTHESIS IMPLANTS
    NIH/NINDS N01NS072391Jun 30, 1987 - Jun 29, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SENSORY DISORDERS AND LANGUAGE STUDY SECTION
    NIH/CSR U09RG010905Jul 1, 1985 - Jun 30, 1991
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    SCALA TYMPANI ELECTRODE ARRAYS
    NIH/NINDS N01NS032353Sep 1, 1983 - Dec 31, 1986
    Role: Principal Investigator
    AUDITORY AND SOMATOSENSORY CORTEX
    NIH/NINDS R01NS010414Jul 1, 1978 - Mar 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Cheng Y, Jia G, Zhang Y, Hao H, Shan Y, Yu L, Sun X, Zheng Q, Kraus N, Merzenich M, Zhou X. Positive impacts of early auditory training on cortical processing at an older age. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2017 06 13; 114(24):6364-6369. PMID: 28559351.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Nahum M, Van Vleet TM, Sohal VS, Mirzabekov JJ, Rao VR, Wallace DL, Lee MB, Dawes H, Stark-Inbar A, Jordan JT, Biagianti B, Merzenich M, Chang EF. Immediate Mood Scaler: Tracking Symptoms of Depression and Anxiety Using a Novel Mobile Mood Scale. JMIR Mhealth Uhealth. 2017 Apr 12; 5(4):e44. PMID: 28404542.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Van Vleet TM, DeGutis JM, Merzenich M, Simpson GV, Zomet A, Dabit S. Targeting alertness to improve cognition in older adults: A preliminary report of benefits in executive function and skill acquisition. Cortex. 2016 09; 82:100-118. PMID: 27372902; PMCID: PMC4969201 [Available on 09/01/17].
    4. Rose A, Vinogradov S, Fisher M, Green MF, Ventura J, Hooker C, Merzenich M, Nahum M. Randomized controlled trial of computer-based treatment of social cognition in schizophrenia: the TRuSST trial protocol. BMC Psychiatry. 2015 Jul 03; 15:142. PMID: 26138715; PMCID: PMC4489025.
    5. Zhou X, Lu JY, Darling RD, Simpson KL, Zhu X, Wang F, Yu L, Sun X, Merzenich M, Lin RC. Behavioral training reverses global cortical network dysfunction induced by perinatal antidepressant exposure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Feb 17; 112(7):2233-8. PMID: 25646455; PMCID: PMC4343129.
    6. Merzenich M. Early UCSF contributions to the development of multiple-channel cochlear implants. Hear Res. 2015 Apr; 322:39-46. PMID: 25560478.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Mishra J, de Villers-Sidani E, Merzenich M, Gazzaley A. Adaptive training diminishes distractibility in aging across species. Neuron. 2014 Dec 03; 84(5):1091-103. PMID: 25467987; PMCID: PMC4264379.
    8. Zhu X, Liu X, Wei F, Wang F, Merzenich M, Schreiner CE, Sun X, Zhou X. Perceptual Training Restores Impaired Cortical Temporal Processing Due to Lead Exposure. Cereb Cortex. 2016 Jan; 26(1):334-345. PMID: 25405943.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Merzenich M, Van Vleet TM, Nahum M. Brain plasticity-based therapeutics. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014; 8:385. PMID: 25018719; PMCID: PMC4072971.
    10. Zhu X, Wang F, Hu H, Sun X, Kilgard MP, Merzenich M, Zhou X. Environmental acoustic enrichment promotes recovery from developmentally degraded auditory cortical processing. J Neurosci. 2014 Apr 16; 34(16):5406-15. PMID: 24741032; PMCID: PMC4104291.
    11. Mishra J, Merzenich M, Sagar R. Accessible online neuroplasticity-targeted training for children with ADHD. Child Adolesc Psychiatry Ment Health. 2013 Nov 14; 7(1):38. PMID: 24225015; PMCID: PMC3828475.
    12. Anomal R, de Villers-Sidani E, Merzenich M, Panizzutti R. Manipulation of BDNF signaling modifies the experience-dependent plasticity induced by pure tone exposure during the critical period in the primary auditory cortex. PLoS One. 2013; 8(5):e64208. PMID: 23700463; PMCID: PMC3660256.
    13. Merzenich M, Nahum M, Van Vleet TM. Neuroplasticity: introduction. Prog Brain Res. 2013; 207:xxi-xxvi. PMID: 24309266.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Moore CI, Crosier E, Greve DN, Savoy R, Merzenich M, Dale AM. Neocortical correlates of vibrotactile detection in humans. J Cogn Neurosci. 2013 Jan; 25(1):49-61. PMID: 23198890.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Nahum M, Lee H, Merzenich M. Principles of neuroplasticity-based rehabilitation. Prog Brain Res. 2013; 207:141-71. PMID: 24309254.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Froemke RC, Carcea I, Barker AJ, Yuan K, Seybold BA, Martins AR, Zaika N, Bernstein H, Wachs M, Levis PA, Polley DB, Merzenich M, Schreiner CE. Long-term modification of cortical synapses improves sensory perception. Nat Neurosci. 2013 Jan; 16(1):79-88. PMID: 23178974; PMCID: PMC3711827.
    17. Miyakawa N, Katsumata N, Blake DT, Merzenich M, Tanifuji M. High-density multielectrode array with independently maneuverable electrodes and silicone oil fluid isolation system for chronic recording from macaque monkey. J Neurosci Methods. 2012 Oct 15; 211(1):114-24. PMID: 22939944.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Zhou X, Merzenich M. Environmental noise exposure degrades normal listening processes. Nat Commun. 2012 May 15; 3:843. PMID: 22588305.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Bruno R, Merzenich M, Nudo R. The fantastic plastic brain. Adv Mind Body Med. 2012; 26(2):30-5. PMID: 23469367.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Bavelier D, Green CS, Han DH, Renshaw PF, Merzenich M, Gentile DA. Brains on video games. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2011 11 18; 12(12):763-8. PMID: 22095065; PMCID: PMC4633025.
    21. Simpson KL, Weaver KJ, de Villers-Sidani E, Lu JY, Cai Z, Pang Y, Rodriguez-Porcel F, Paul IA, Merzenich M, Lin RC. Perinatal antidepressant exposure alters cortical network function in rodents. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Nov 08; 108(45):18465-70. PMID: 22025710; PMCID: PMC3215047.
    22. Zhou X, Panizzutti R, de Villers-Sidani E, Madeira C, Merzenich M. Natural restoration of critical period plasticity in the juvenile and adult primary auditory cortex. J Neurosci. 2011 Apr 13; 31(15):5625-34. PMID: 21490203; PMCID: PMC3758576.
    23. de Villers-Sidani E, Merzenich M. Lifelong plasticity in the rat auditory cortex: basic mechanisms and role of sensory experience. Prog Brain Res. 2011; 191:119-31. PMID: 21741548.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Strata F, Stoianov IP, de Villers-Sidani E, Bonham B, Martone T, Kenet T, Chang EF, Vincenti V, Merzenich M. Perinatal asphyxia affects rat auditory processing: implications for auditory perceptual impairments in neurodevelopmental disorders. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 23; 5(12):e15326. PMID: 21203459; PMCID: PMC3009724.
    25. Popov T, Jordanov T, Rockstroh B, Elbert T, Merzenich M, Miller GA. Specific cognitive training normalizes auditory sensory gating in schizophrenia: a randomized trial. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Mar 01; 69(5):465-71. PMID: 21092939.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Zhou X, de Villers-Sidani E, Panizzutti R, Merzenich M. Successive-signal biasing for a learned sound sequence. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 17; 107(33):14839-44. PMID: 20679210; PMCID: PMC2930458.
    27. de Villers-Sidani E, Alzghoul L, Zhou X, Simpson KL, Lin RC, Merzenich M. Recovery of functional and structural age-related changes in the rat primary auditory cortex with operant training. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Aug 03; 107(31):13900-5. PMID: 20643928; PMCID: PMC2922281.
    28. Coq JO, Barr AE, Strata F, Russier M, Kietrys DM, Merzenich M, Byl NN, Barbe MF. Peripheral and central changes combine to induce motor behavioral deficits in a moderate repetition task. Exp Neurol. 2009 Dec; 220(2):234-45. PMID: 19686738; PMCID: PMC2783426.
    29. Guic E, Carrasco X, Rodríguez E, Robles I, Merzenich M. Plasticity in primary somatosensory cortex resulting from environmentally enriched stimulation and sensory discrimination training. Biol Res. 2008; 41(4):425-37. PMID: 19621123.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Guic E, Carrasco X, Rodríguez E, Robles I, Merzenich M. Non-homogeneous spatial configuration of vibrissae cortical representation in layer IV of the barrel somatosensory cortex. Biol Res. 2008; 41(4):461-71. PMID: 19621126.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Belmonte MK, Bonneh YS, Adini Y, Iversen PE, Akshoomoff NA, Kenet T, Moore CI, Simon HJ, Houde JF, Merzenich M. Autism overflows with syntheses. Neuropsychol Rev. 2009 Jun; 19(2):273-4. PMID: 19449104.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Fisher M, Holland C, Merzenich M, Vinogradov S. Using neuroplasticity-based auditory training to improve verbal memory in schizophrenia. Am J Psychiatry. 2009 Jul; 166(7):805-11. PMID: 19448187; PMCID: PMC2720319.
    33. Zhou X, Merzenich M. Developmentally degraded cortical temporal processing restored by training. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Jan; 12(1):26-8. PMID: 19079250; PMCID: PMC2709597.
    34. Bonneh YS, Belmonte MK, Pei F, Iversen PE, Kenet T, Akshoomoff N, Adini Y, Simon HJ, Moore CI, Houde JF, Merzenich M. Cross-modal extinction in a boy with severely autistic behaviour and high verbal intelligence. Cogn Neuropsychol. 2008 Jul; 25(5):635-52. PMID: 18651259.
      View in: PubMed
    35. de Villers-Sidani E, Simpson KL, Lu YF, Lin RC, Merzenich M. Manipulating critical period closure across different sectors of the primary auditory cortex. Nat Neurosci. 2008 Aug; 11(8):957-65. PMID: 18604205; PMCID: PMC2755097.
    36. Zhou X, Merzenich M. Enduring effects of early structured noise exposure on temporal modulation in the primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Mar 18; 105(11):4423-8. PMID: 18332439; PMCID: PMC2393777.
    37. Froemke RC, Merzenich M, Schreiner CE. A synaptic memory trace for cortical receptive field plasticity. Nature. 2007 Nov 15; 450(7168):425-9. PMID: 18004384.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Coq JO, Strata F, Russier M, Safadi FF, Merzenich M, Byl NN, Barbe MF. Impact of neonatal asphyxia and hind limb immobilization on musculoskeletal tissues and S1 map organization: implications for cerebral palsy. Exp Neurol. 2008 Mar; 210(1):95-108. PMID: 18061167.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Zhou X, Merzenich M. Intensive training in adults refines A1 representations degraded in an early postnatal critical period. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Oct 02; 104(40):15935-40. PMID: 17895375; PMCID: PMC1994137.
    40. Atencio CA, Blake DT, Strata F, Cheung SW, Merzenich M, Schreiner CE. Frequency-modulation encoding in the primary auditory cortex of the awake owl monkey. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Oct; 98(4):2182-95. PMID: 17699695.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Polley DB, Read HL, Storace DA, Merzenich M. Multiparametric auditory receptive field organization across five cortical fields in the albino rat. J Neurophysiol. 2007 May; 97(5):3621-38. PMID: 17376842.
      View in: PubMed
    42. de Villers-Sidani E, Chang EF, Bao S, Merzenich M. Critical period window for spectral tuning defined in the primary auditory cortex (A1) in the rat. J Neurosci. 2007 Jan 03; 27(1):180-9. PMID: 17202485.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Blake DT, Heiser MA, Caywood M, Merzenich M. Experience-dependent adult cortical plasticity requires cognitive association between sensation and reward. Neuron. 2006 Oct 19; 52(2):371-81. PMID: 17046698; PMCID: PMC2826987.
    44. Mahncke HW, Connor BB, Appelman J, Ahsanuddin ON, Hardy JL, Wood RA, Joyce NM, Boniske T, Atkins SM, Merzenich M. Memory enhancement in healthy older adults using a brain plasticity-based training program: a randomized, controlled study. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Aug 15; 103(33):12523-8. PMID: 16888038; PMCID: PMC1526649.
    45. Polley DB, Steinberg EE, Merzenich M. Perceptual learning directs auditory cortical map reorganization through top-down influences. J Neurosci. 2006 May 03; 26(18):4970-82. PMID: 16672673.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Polley DB, Cobos I, Merzenich M, Rubenstein JL. Severe hearing loss in Dlxl mutant mice. Hear Res. 2006 Apr; 214(1-2):84-8. PMID: 16632068.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Mahncke HW, Bronstone A, Merzenich M. Brain plasticity and functional losses in the aged: scientific bases for a novel intervention. Prog Brain Res. 2006; 157:81-109. PMID: 17046669.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Chang EF, Bao S, Imaizumi K, Schreiner CE, Merzenich M. Development of spectral and temporal response selectivity in the auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Nov 08; 102(45):16460-5. PMID: 16263924; PMCID: PMC1283465.
    49. Blake DT, Strata F, Kempter R, Merzenich M. Experience-dependent plasticity in S1 caused by noncoincident inputs. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Sep; 94(3):2239-50. PMID: 16105958; PMCID: PMC2826984.
    50. Kalatsky VA, Polley DB, Merzenich M, Schreiner CE, Stryker MP. Fine functional organization of auditory cortex revealed by Fourier optical imaging. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Sep 13; 102(37):13325-30. PMID: 16141342; PMCID: PMC1201601.
    51. Orduña I, Mercado E, Gluck MA, Merzenich M. Cortical responses in rats predict perceptual sensitivities to complex sounds. Behav Neurosci. 2005 Feb; 119(1):256-64. PMID: 15727530.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Polley DB, Heiser MA, Blake DT, Schreiner CE, Merzenich M. Associative learning shapes the neural code for stimulus magnitude in primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Nov 16; 101(46):16351-6. PMID: 15534214; PMCID: PMC528983.
    53. Bao S, Chang EF, Woods J, Merzenich M. Temporal plasticity in the primary auditory cortex induced by operant perceptual learning. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Sep; 7(9):974-81. PMID: 15286790.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Nakahara H, Zhang LI, Merzenich M. Specialization of primary auditory cortex processing by sound exposure in the "critical period". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 May 04; 101(18):7170-4. PMID: 15118079; PMCID: PMC406484.
    55. Tan AY, Zhang LI, Merzenich M, Schreiner CE. Tone-evoked excitatory and inhibitory synaptic conductances of primary auditory cortex neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2004 Jul; 92(1):630-43. PMID: 14999047.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Liu RC, Miller KD, Merzenich M, Schreiner CE. Acoustic variability and distinguishability among mouse ultrasound vocalizations. J Acoust Soc Am. 2003 Dec; 114(6 Pt 1):3412-22. PMID: 14714820.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Bao S, Chang EF, Davis JD, Gobeske KT, Merzenich M. Progressive degradation and subsequent refinement of acoustic representations in the adult auditory cortex. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 26; 23(34):10765-75. PMID: 14645468.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Beitel RE, Schreiner CE, Cheung SW, Wang X, Merzenich M. Reward-dependent plasticity in the primary auditory cortex of adult monkeys trained to discriminate temporally modulated signals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Sep 16; 100(19):11070-5. PMID: 12941865; PMCID: PMC196928.
    59. Zhang LI, Tan AY, Schreiner CE, Merzenich M. Topography and synaptic shaping of direction selectivity in primary auditory cortex. Nature. 2003 Jul 10; 424(6945):201-5. PMID: 12853959.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Linden JF, Liu RC, Sahani M, Schreiner CE, Merzenich M. Spectrotemporal structure of receptive fields in areas AI and AAF of mouse auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2003 Oct; 90(4):2660-75. PMID: 12815016.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Garabedian CE, Jones SR, Merzenich M, Dale A, Moore CI. Band-pass response properties of rat SI neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2003 Sep; 90(3):1379-91. PMID: 12750410.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Chang EF, Merzenich M. Environmental noise retards auditory cortical development. Science. 2003 Apr 18; 300(5618):498-502. PMID: 12702879.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Temple E, Deutsch GK, Poldrack RA, Miller SL, Tallal P, Merzenich M, Gabrieli JD. Neural deficits in children with dyslexia ameliorated by behavioral remediation: evidence from functional MRI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Mar 04; 100(5):2860-5. PMID: 12604786; PMCID: PMC151431.
    64. Bao S, Chan VT, Zhang LI, Merzenich M. Suppression of cortical representation through backward conditioning. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Feb 04; 100(3):1405-8. PMID: 12538854; PMCID: PMC298785.
    65. Blake DT, Merzenich M. Changes of AI receptive fields with sound density. J Neurophysiol. 2002 Dec; 88(6):3409-20. PMID: 12466457.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Houde JF, Nagarajan SS, Sekihara K, Merzenich M. Modulation of the auditory cortex during speech: an MEG study. J Cogn Neurosci. 2002 Nov 15; 14(8):1125-38. PMID: 12495520.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Blake DT, Byl NN, Merzenich M. Representation of the hand in the cerebral cortex. Behav Brain Res. 2002 Sep 20; 135(1-2):179-84. PMID: 12356448.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Hickmott PW, Merzenich M. Local circuit properties underlying cortical reorganization. J Neurophysiol. 2002 Sep; 88(3):1288-301. PMID: 12205150.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Blake DT, Strata F, Churchland AK, Merzenich M. Neural correlates of instrumental learning in primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 23; 99(15):10114-9. PMID: 12119383; PMCID: PMC126633.
    70. Nagarajan SS, Cheung SW, Bedenbaugh P, Beitel RE, Schreiner CE, Merzenich M. Representation of spectral and temporal envelope of twitter vocalizations in common marmoset primary auditory cortex. J Neurophysiol. 2002 Apr; 87(4):1723-37. PMID: 11929894.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Kilgard MP, Merzenich M. Order-sensitive plasticity in adult primary auditory cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Mar 05; 99(5):3205-9. PMID: 11880653; PMCID: PMC122497.
    72. Zhang LI, Bao S, Merzenich M. Disruption of primary auditory cortex by synchronous auditory inputs during a critical period. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Feb 19; 99(4):2309-14. PMID: 11842227; PMCID: PMC122361.
    73. Byl NN, Nagarajan SS, Merzenich M, Roberts T, McKenzie A. Correlation of clinical neuromusculoskeletal and central somatosensory performance: variability in controls and patients with severe and mild focal hand dystonia. Neural Plast. 2002; 9(3):177-203. PMID: 12757370; PMCID: PMC2565401.
    74. Blake DT, Byl NN, Cheung S, Bedenbaugh P, Nagarajan S, Lamb M, Merzenich M. Sensory representation abnormalities that parallel focal hand dystonia in a primate model. Somatosens Mot Res. 2002; 19(4):347-57. PMID: 12590836; PMCID: PMC2826977.
    75. Ahissar M, Protopapas A, Reid M, Merzenich M. Auditory processing parallels reading abilities in adults. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 06; 97(12):6832-7. PMID: 10841578; PMCID: PMC18757.
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