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    George Sawaya, MD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentObGyn, Reproductive Sciences
    Address3333 Calif. St,Laurel Heights
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-502-4090

       Biography 
       Education and Training
      University of California, San FranciscoResidency School of Medicine

       Overview 
       Overview
      Dr George Sawaya is an obstetrician-gynecologist and a professor in Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences and Epidemiology & Biostatistics at UCSF. His main research interest is in cervical cancer screening with particular interest in screening older women, cost-effectiveness and cost-utility as well as new approaches to population-based screening. He is the director of the Colposcopy and Cervical Dysplasia Clinic at San Francisco General Hospital. He teaches the core curriculum in clinical decision making and evidence-based medicine at the UCSF School of Medicine.

      Dr Sawaya earned a medical degree at the Vanderbilt University School of Medicine. He completed his internship and residency at UCSF and a fellowship in UCSF's Department of Epidemiology & Biostatistics. He is a former member of the US Preventive Services Task Force.

       Interests
      Implementation Science, Older adults, Policy-making institute or agency, Decision aids, Practice guidelines, cervical cancer screening, Interdisciplinary research collaboration, Works-in-progress seminars

       ORNG Applications 
       Websites
       In The News
       NIH Awarded Grants
       Global Health
       More Info

       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Stormo AR, Saraiya M, Hing E, Henderson JT, Sawaya GF. Women's Clinical Preventive Services in the United States: Who Is Doing What? JAMA Intern Med. 2014 Sep 1; 174(9):1512-4.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Sawaya GF, Jacoby V. Screening pelvic examinations: right, wrong, or rite? Ann Intern Med. 2014 Jul 1; 161(1):78-9.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Yu JM, Henderson JT, Harper CC, Sawaya GF. Obstetrician-gynecologists' beliefs on the importance of pelvic examinations in assessing hormonal contraception eligibility. Contraception. 2014 Dec; 90(6):612-4.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Huchko MJ, Sneden J, Sawaya G, Smith-McCune K, Maloba M, Abdulrahim N, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid to detect cervical cancer precursors among HIV-infected women in Kenya. Int J Cancer. 2015 Jan 15; 136(2):392-8.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Saraiya M, Benard VB, Greek AA, Steinau M, Patel S, Massad LS, Sawaya GF, Unger ER. Type-specific HPV and Pap test results among low-income, underserved women: providing insights into management strategies. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2014 Oct; 211(4):354.e1-6.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Henderson JT, Yu JM, Harper CC, Sawaya GF. U.S. clinicians' perspectives on less frequent routine gynecologic examinations. Prev Med. 2014 May; 62:49-53.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Huchko MJ, Woo V, Liegler T, Leddy A, Smith-McCune K, Sawaya GF, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Is there an association between HIV-1 genital shedding and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 among women on antiretroviral therapy? J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2013 Jul; 17(3):354-60.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Berkowitz Z, Saraiya M, Sawaya GF. Cervical cancer screening intervals, 2006 to 2009: moving beyond annual testing. JAMA Intern Med. 2013 May 27; 173(10):922-4.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Woo VG, Liegler T, Cohen CR, Sawaya GF, Smith-McCune K, Bukusi EA, Huchko MJ. Association of cervical biopsy with HIV type 1 genital shedding among women on highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Jul; 29(7):1000-5.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Huchko MJ, Woo VG, Liegler T, Leslie H, Smith-McCune K, Sawaya GF, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Impact of loop electrosurgical excision procedure for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia on HIV-1 genital shedding: a prospective cohort study. BJOG. 2013 Sep; 120(10):1233-9.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Weitlauf JC, Jones S, Xu X, Finney JW, Moos RH, Sawaya GF, Frayne SM. Receipt of cervical cancer screening in female veterans: impact of posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. Womens Health Issues. 2013 May-Jun; 23(3):e153-9.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Sawaya GF. New guidelines: it's complicated. Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Apr; 121(4):703-4.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Vandorsten JP, Dodson WC, Espeland MA, Grobman WA, Guise JM, Mercer BM, Minkoff HL, Poindexter B, Prosser LA, Sawaya GF, Scott JR, Silver RM, Smith L, Thomas A, Tita AT. NIH consensus development conference: diagnosing gestational diabetes mellitus. NIH Consens State Sci Statements. 2013 Mar 4-6; 29(1):1-31.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Patel DA, Saraiya M, Copeland G, Cote ML, Datta SD, Sawaya GF. Treatment patterns for cervical carcinoma in situ in michigan, 1998-2003. J Registry Manag. 2013; 40(2):84-92.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Henderson JT, Harper CC, Gutin S, Saraiya M, Chapman J, Sawaya GF. Routine bimanual pelvic examinations: practices and beliefs of US obstetrician-gynecologists. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Feb; 208(2):109.e1-7.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Henderson JT, Saraiya M, Martinez G, Harper CC, Sawaya GF. Changes to cervical cancer prevention guidelines: effects on screening among U.S. women ages 15-29. Prev Med. 2013 Jan; 56(1):25-9.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Sawaya GF, Tice JA. Evidence at the point of practice change: lung cancer screening. Arch Intern Med. 2012 Oct 8; 172(18):1415-7.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Walsh JM, Kim SE, Sawaya G, Kaplan CP, Wong ST, Gregorich SE, Pérez-Stable EJ. Colorectal cancer screening: what do women from diverse ethnic groups want? J Gen Intern Med. 2013 Feb; 28(2):239-46.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Kaplan CP, Kim SE, Wong ST, Sawaya GF, Walsh JM, Pérez-Stable EJ. Willingness to use tamoxifen to prevent breast cancer among diverse women. Breast Cancer Res Treat. 2012 May; 133(1):357-66.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Wong ST, Pérez-Stable EJ, Kim SE, Gregorich SE, Sawaya GF, Walsh JM, Washington AE, Kaplan CP. Using visual displays to communicate risk of cancer to women from diverse race/ethnic backgrounds. Patient Educ Couns. 2012 Jun; 87(3):327-35.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Sawaya GF. Pelvic examinations in asymptomatic women: tipping a sacred cow. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Dec 12; 171(22):2054-5.
        View in: PubMed
      22. Diouf K, Sawaya GF, Shiboski S, Magure T, Makunike-Mutasa R, Darragh TM, Tuveson J, Chipato T, Palefsky JM, Moscicki AB, Chirenje M, Smith-McCune K. Investigating Potential Associations between Cervical Procedures and HIV Acquisition. ISRN Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 2011:789106.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Sawaya GF, Jacoby V. Performance of the American College of Obstetricians and Gynecologists' ovarian tumor referral guidelines with a multivariate index assay. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Nov; 118(5):1178; author reply 1178-9.
        View in: PubMed
      24. Harris R, Sawaya GF, Moyer VA, Calonge N. Reconsidering the criteria for evaluating proposed screening programs: reflections from 4 current and former members of the U.S. Preventive services task force. Epidemiol Rev. 2011 Jul; 33(1):20-35.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Henderson JT, Sawaya GF, Blum M, Stratton L, Harper CC. Pelvic examinations and access to oral hormonal contraception. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Dec; 116(6):1257-64.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Gregory KD, Sawaya GF. Updated recommendations for breast cancer screening. Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Dec; 22(6):498-505.
        View in: PubMed
      27. Sawaya GF, Gregory KD. The new mammographic screening guidelines: what were they thinking? Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Nov; 116(5):1216; author reply 1216-7.
        View in: PubMed
      28. Melnikow J, Kulasingam S, Slee C, Helms LJ, Kuppermann M, Birch S, McGahan CE, Coldman A, Chan BK, Sawaya GF. Surveillance after treatment for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: outcomes, costs, and cost-effectiveness. Obstet Gynecol. 2010 Nov; 116(5):1158-70.
        View in: PubMed
      29. Kuppermann M, Melnikow J, Slee C, Tancredi DJ, Kulasingam S, Birch S, Helms LJ, Bayoumi AM, Sawaya GF. Preferences for surveillance strategies for women treated for high-grade precancerous cervical lesions. Gynecol Oncol. 2010 Aug 1; 118(2):108-15.
        View in: PubMed
      30. Sawaya GF. Rightsizing cervical cancer screening: comment on "Cervical cancer screening with both human papillomavirus and Papanicolaou testing vs Papanicolaou testing alone". Arch Intern Med. 2010 Jun 14; 170(11):985-6.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Smith-McCune KK, Shiboski S, Chirenje MZ, Magure T, Tuveson J, Ma Y, Da Costa M, Moscicki AB, Palefsky JM, Makunike-Mutasa R, Chipato T, van der Straten A, Sawaya GF. Type-specific cervico-vaginal human papillomavirus infection increases risk of HIV acquisition independent of other sexually transmitted infections. PLoS One. 2010; 5(4):e10094.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Smith-McCune K, Sawaya GF. Update on quadrivalent human papillomavirus vaccination and pregnancy outcomes: is contraception advisable? Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Dec; 114(6):1168-9.
        View in: PubMed
      33. Sawaya GF. Cervical-cancer screening--new guidelines and the balance between benefits and harms. N Engl J Med. 2009 Dec 24; 361(26):2503-5.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Huang AJ, Sawaya GF, Vittinghoff E, Lin F, Grady D. Hot flushes, coronary heart disease, and hormone therapy in postmenopausal women. Menopause. 2009 Jul-Aug; 16(4):639-43.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Melnikow J, McGahan C, Sawaya GF, Ehlen T, Coldman A. Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia outcomes after treatment: long-term follow-up from the British Columbia Cohort Study. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2009 May 20; 101(10):721-8.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Fukuchi E, Sawaya GF, Chirenje M, Magure T, Tuveson J, Ma Y, Shiboski S, Da Costa M, Palefsky J, Moscicki AB, Makunike-Mutasa R, Chipato T, Smith-McCune KK. Cervical human papillomavirus incidence and persistence in a cohort of HIV-negative women in Zimbabwe. Sex Transm Dis. 2009 May; 36(5):305-11.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Grady D, Sawaya GF, Johnson KC, Koltun W, Hess R, Vittinghoff E, Kristof M, Tagliaferri M, Cohen I, Ensrud KE. MF101, a selective estrogen receptor beta modulator for the treatment of menopausal hot flushes: a phase II clinical trial. Menopause. 2009 May-Jun; 16(3):458-65.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Ensrud KE, Stone KL, Blackwell TL, Sawaya GF, Tagliaferri M, Diem SJ, Grady D. Frequency and severity of hot flashes and sleep disturbance in postmenopausal women with hot flashes. Menopause. 2009 Mar-Apr; 16(2):286-92.
        View in: PubMed
      39. Petitti DB, Teutsch SM, Barton MB, Sawaya GF, Ockene JK, DeWitt T. Update on the methods of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: insufficient evidence. Ann Intern Med. 2009 Feb 3; 150(3):199-205.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Chan BK, Melnikow J, Slee CA, Arellanes R, Sawaya GF. Posttreatment human papillomavirus testing for recurrent cervical intraepithelial neoplasia: a systematic review. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Apr; 200(4):422.e1-9.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Jacoby VL, Grady D, Sawaya GF. Oophorectomy as a risk factor for coronary heart disease. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Feb; 200(2):140.e1-9.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Sawaya GF, Chirenje MZ, Magure MT, Tuveson JL, Ma Y, Shiboski SC, Da Costa MM, Palefsky JM, Moscicki AB, Mutasa RM, Chipato T, Smith-McCune KK. Effect of diaphragm and lubricant gel provision on human papillomavirus infection among women provided with condoms: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Nov; 112(5):990-7.
        View in: PubMed
      43. Sawaya GF, Iwaoka-Scott AY, Kim S, Wong ST, Huang AJ, Washington AE, Pérez-Stable EJ. Ending cervical cancer screening: attitudes and beliefs from ethnically diverse older women. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2009 Jan; 200(1):40.e1-7.
        View in: PubMed
      44. Huang AJ, Pérez-Stable EJ, Kim SE, Wong ST, Kaplan CP, Walsh JM, Iwaoka-Scott AY, Sawaya GF. Preferences for human papillomavirus testing with routine cervical cancer screening in diverse older women. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Sep; 23(9):1324-9.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Huang AJ, Grady D, Jacoby VL, Blackwell TL, Bauer DC, Sawaya GF. Persistent hot flushes in older postmenopausal women. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Apr 28; 168(8):840-6.
        View in: PubMed
      46. Kim SE, Pérez-Stable EJ, Wong S, Gregorich S, Sawaya GF, Walsh JM, Kaplan CP. Association between cancer risk perception and screening behavior among diverse women. Arch Intern Med. 2008 Apr 14; 168(7):728-34.
        View in: PubMed
      47. Sawaya GF. Adding human papillomavirus testing to cytology for primary cervical cancer screening: shooting first and asking questions later. Ann Intern Med. 2008 Apr 1; 148(7):557-9.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Meyers D, Wolff T, Gregory K, Marion L, Moyer V, Nelson H, Petitti D, Sawaya GF. USPSTF recommendations for STI screening. Am Fam Physician. 2008 Mar 15; 77(6):819-24.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Sawaya GF. Evidence-based medicine versus liquid-based cytology. Obstet Gynecol. 2008 Jan; 111(1):2-3.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Sawaya GF, Guirguis-Blake J, LeFevre M, Harris R, Petitti D. Update on the methods of the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force: estimating certainty and magnitude of net benefit. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Dec 18; 147(12):871-5.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Sawaya GF, Sox HC. Trials that matter: liquid-based cervical cytology: disadvantages seem to outweigh advantages. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Nov 6; 147(9):668-9.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Barton MB, Miller T, Wolff T, Petitti D, LeFevre M, Sawaya G, Yawn B, Guirguis-Blake J, Calonge N, Harris R. How to read the new recommendation statement: methods update from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force. Ann Intern Med. 2007 Jul 17; 147(2):123-7.
        View in: PubMed
      53. Sawaya GF, Smith-McCune K. HPV vaccination--more answers, more questions. N Engl J Med. 2007 May 10; 356(19):1991-3.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Grady D, Cohen B, Tice J, Kristof M, Olyaie A, Sawaya GF. Ineffectiveness of sertraline for treatment of menopausal hot flushes: a randomized controlled trial. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Apr; 109(4):823-30.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Hopkins LM, Esakoff T, Noah MS, Moore DH, Sawaya GF, Laros RK. Outcomes associated with cesarean section versus vaginal breech delivery at a university hospital. J Perinatol. 2007 Mar; 27(3):141-6.
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      56. Smith-McCune KK, Tuveson JL, Rubin MM, Da Costa MM, Darragh TM, Shiboski SC, Van Der Pol B, Moscicki AB, Palefsky JM, Sawaya GF. Effect of Replens gel used with a diaphragm on tests for human papillomavirus and other lower genital tract infections. J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2006 Oct; 10(4):213-8.
        View in: PubMed
      57. Kulasingam SL, Myers ER, Lawson HW, McConnell KJ, Kerlikowske K, Melnikow J, Washington AE, Sawaya GF. Cost-effectiveness of extending cervical cancer screening intervals among women with prior normal pap tests. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Feb; 107(2 Pt 1):321-8.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Grady D, Sawaya GF. Discontinuation of postmenopausal hormone therapy. Am J Med. 2005 Dec 19; 118 Suppl 12B:163-5.
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      59. Sawaya GF. A 21-year-old woman with atypical squamous cells of undetermined significance. JAMA. 2005 Nov 2; 294(17):2210-8.
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      60. Schwarz EB, Saint M, Gildengorin G, Weitz TA, Stewart FH, Sawaya GF. Cervical cancer screening continues to limit provision of contraception. Contraception. 2005 Sep; 72(3):179-81.
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      61. Sawaya GF, Sung HY, Kinney W, Kearney KA, Miller MG, Hiatt RA. Cervical cancer after multiple negative cytologic tests in long-term members of a prepaid health plan. Acta Cytol. 2005 Jul-Aug; 49(4):391-7.
        View in: PubMed
      62. Sawaya GF. Papanicolaou testing: when does more become less? Am J Med. 2005 Feb; 118(2):159-60.
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      63. Saint M, Gildengorin G, Sawaya GF. Current cervical neoplasia screening practices of obstetrician/gynecologists in the US. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2005 Feb; 192(2):414-21.
        View in: PubMed
      64. Saraiya M, Sawaya GF. Cervical cancer screening among women without a cervix. JAMA. 2004 Oct 6; 292(13):1551; author reply 1551-2.
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      65. Sawaya GF. Should routine screening Papanicolaou smears be done for women older than 65 years? Arch Intern Med. 2004 Feb 9; 164(3):243-5; discussion 247-8.
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      66. Sawaya GF, McConnell KJ, Kulasingam SL, Lawson HW, Kerlikowske K, Melnikow J, Lee NC, Gildengorin G, Myers ER, Washington AE. Risk of cervical cancer associated with extending the interval between cervical-cancer screenings. N Engl J Med. 2003 Oct 16; 349(16):1501-9.
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      67. Chan PG, Sung HY, Sawaya GF. Changes in cervical cancer incidence after three decades of screening US women less than 30 years old. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Oct; 102(4):765-73.
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      68. Kinney W, Sawaya GF, Sung HY, Kearney KA, Miller M, Hiatt RA. Stage at diagnosis and mortality in patients with adenocarcinoma and adenosquamous carcinoma of the uterine cervix diagnosed as a consequence of cytologic screening. Acta Cytol. 2003 Mar-Apr; 47(2):167-71.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Miller MG, Sung HY, Sawaya GF, Kearney KA, Kinney W, Hiatt RA. Screening interval and risk of invasive squamous cell cervical cancer. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Jan; 101(1):29-37.
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      70. Sawaya GF, Smith-McCune K. Testing for human papillomavirus in women with abnormal pap smear results. JAMA. 2002 Sep 18; 288(11):1350-1; author reply 1351-2.
        View in: PubMed
      71. Sawaya GF, Sung HY, Kearney KA, Miller M, Kinney W, Hiatt RA, Mandelblatt J. Advancing age and cervical cancer screening and prognosis. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001 Nov; 49(11):1499-504.
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      72. Sawaya GF, Brown AD, Washington AE, Garber AM. Clinical practice. Current approaches to cervical-cancer screening. N Engl J Med. 2001 May 24; 344(21):1603-7.
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      73. Stewart FH, Harper CC, Ellertson CE, Grimes DA, Sawaya GF, Trussell J. Clinical breast and pelvic examination requirements for hormonal contraception: Current practice vs evidence. JAMA. 2001 May 2; 285(17):2232-9.
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      74. Sawaya GF, Harper C, Balistreri E, Boggess J, Darney P. Cervical neoplasia risk in women provided hormonal contraception without a Pap smear. Contraception. 2001 Feb; 63(2):57-60.
        View in: PubMed
      75. Sawaya GF, Grady D, Kerlikowske K, Valleur JL, Barnabei VM, Bass K, Snyder TE, Pickar JH, Agarwal SK, Mandelblatt J. The positive predictive value of cervical smears in previously screened postmenopausal women: the Heart and Estrogen/progestin Replacement Study (HERS). Ann Intern Med. 2000 Dec 19; 133(12):942-50.
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      76. Brown JS, Sawaya G, Thom DH, Grady D. Hysterectomy and urinary incontinence: a systematic review. Lancet. 2000 Aug 12; 356(9229):535-9.
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      77. Sawaya GF, Kerlikowske K, Lee NC, Gildengorin G, Washington AE. Frequency of cervical smear abnormalities within 3 years of normal cytology. Obstet Gynecol. 2000 Aug; 96(2):219-23.
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      78. Sung HY, Kearney KA, Miller M, Kinney W, Sawaya GF, Hiatt RA. Papanicolaou smear history and diagnosis of invasive cervical carcinoma among members of a large prepaid health plan. Cancer. 2000 May 15; 88(10):2283-9.
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      79. Sawaya GF, Washington AE. Cervical cancer screening: which techniques should be used and why? Clin Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Dec; 42(4):922-38.
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      80. Sawaya GF, Grimes DA. New technologies in cervical cytology screening: a word of caution. Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Aug; 94(2):307-10.
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      81. Kinney W, Sung HY, Kearney KA, Miller M, Sawaya G, Hiatt RA. Missed opportunities for cervical cancer screening of HMO members developing invasive cervical cancer (ICC). Gynecol Oncol. 1998 Dec; 71(3):428-30.
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      82. Grady D, Sawaya G. Postmenopausal hormone therapy increases risk of deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism. Am J Med. 1998 Jul; 105(1):41-3.
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      83. Yaffe K, Sawaya G, Lieberburg I, Grady D. Estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women: effects on cognitive function and dementia. JAMA. 1998 Mar 4; 279(9):688-95.
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      84. Sawaya GF, Grady D, Kerlikowske K, Grimes DA. Antibiotics at the time of induced abortion: the case for universal prophylaxis based on a meta-analysis. Obstet Gynecol. 1996 May; 87(5 Pt 2):884-90.
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      85. Sawaya GF, Robertson PA. Hepatotoxicity with the administration of nifedipine for treatment of preterm labor. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1992 Aug; 167(2):512-3.
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