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    Howard Fields, MD, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentNeurology
    Address675 Nelson Rising Lane
    San Francisco CA 94143
    Phone415-502-7621
      Other Positions
      TitleDirector, Wheeler Center for the Neurobiology of Addiction


       Biography 
       Awards and Honors
      American Academy of Pain Medicine2012Founder's Award
      American Academy of Neurology2012Mitchell Max Award for Neuropathic Pain Research
      2010American Academy of Arts and Sciences
      American Neurological Association2006Raymond D. Adams Lecture
      American Academy of Neurology2000Cotzias Lecture
      1997Institute of Medicine
      American Pain Society1997Kerr Award
      1988 - 1993Bristol Myers Award for Pain Research

       Overview 
       Overview
      Howard Fields received his MD and PhD in Neuroscience at Stanford in 1965-66. After Internal Medicine training at Bellevue Hospital in New York, he spent three years as a research neurologist at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Following clinical training in neurology at the Boston City Hospital Service of Harvard Medical School in 1972, he joined the faculty of the University of California San Francisco. Fields major interests are in nervous system mechanisms of pain and substance abuse with a focus on how endogenous opioids contribute to these mechanisms. He was a founder of the UCSF pain management center and has made major contributions to understanding and treating neuropathic pain. His group was the first to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of opioids for neuropathic pain and of topical lidocaine for post-herpetic neuralgia. In laboratory studies he discovered and elucidated a pain modulating neural circuit that is required for opioids to produce analgesia. He also discovered that placebo analgesia is blocked by an opioid antagonist. Recently, his laboratory has discovered nerve cells in the striatum that selectively encode the magnitude of a reward. They have also shown how the neurotransmitter dopamine contributes to motivation and reward based choice. Fields has received numerous research awards and has given many named lectureships including a Merit Award from NIH. He also gave the Beecher Lecture (in anesthesiology) and the Adams Lecture (in neurology) at Harvard.


       ORNG Applications 
       Websites
       In The News
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       Bibliographic 
       Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Baliki MN, Mansour A, Baria AT, Huang L, Berger SE, Fields HL, Apkarian AV. Parceling human accumbens into putative core and shell dissociates encoding of values for reward and pain. J Neurosci. 2013 Oct 9; 33(41):16383-93.
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      2. Mitchell JM, O'Neil JP, Jagust WJ, Fields HL. Catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype modulates opioid release in decision circuitry. Clin Transl Sci. 2013 Oct; 6(5):400-3.
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      3. Hjelmstad GO, Xia Y, Margolis EB, Fields HL. Opioid modulation of ventral pallidal afferents to ventral tegmental area neurons. J Neurosci. 2013 Apr 10; 33(15):6454-9.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Navratilova E, Xie JY, Okun A, Qu C, Eyde N, Ci S, Ossipov MH, King T, Fields HL, Porreca F. Pain relief produces negative reinforcement through activation of mesolimbic reward-valuation circuitry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Dec 11; 109(50):20709-13.
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      5. Hnasko TS, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL, Edwards RH. Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections. J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 24; 32(43):15076-85.
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      6. Margolis EB, Toy B, Himmels P, Morales M, Fields HL. Identification of rat ventral tegmental area GABAergic neurons. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e42365.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Kayser AS, Allen DC, Navarro-Cebrian A, Mitchell JM, Fields HL. Dopamine, corticostriatal connectivity, and intertemporal choice. J Neurosci. 2012 Jul 4; 32(27):9402-9.
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      8. Baliki MN, Petre B, Torbey S, Herrmann KM, Huang L, Schnitzer TJ, Fields HL, Apkarian AV. Corticostriatal functional connectivity predicts transition to chronic back pain. Nat Neurosci. 2012 Aug; 15(8):1117-9.
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      9. Mitchell JM, Margolis EB, Coker AR, Fields HL. Alcohol self-administration, anxiety, and cortisol levels predict changes in delta opioid receptor function in the ventral tegmental area. Behav Neurosci. 2012 Aug; 126(4):515-22.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Mitchell JM, Teague CH, Kayser AS, Bartlett SE, Fields HL. Varenicline decreases alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Oct; 223(3):299-306.
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      11. Fields HL. Pain and the primary somatosensory cortex. Pain. 2012 Apr; 153(4):742-3.
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      12. Mitchell JM, O'Neil JP, Janabi M, Marks SM, Jagust WJ, Fields HL. Alcohol consumption induces endogenous opioid release in the human orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Sci Transl Med. 2012 Jan 11; 4(116):116ra6.
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      13. Ghazizadeh A, Ambroggi F, Odean N, Fields HL. Prefrontal cortex mediates extinction of responding by two distinct neural mechanisms in accumbens shell. J Neurosci. 2012 Jan 11; 32(2):726-37.
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      14. De Felice M, Sanoja R, Wang R, Vera-Portocarrero L, Oyarzo J, King T, Ossipov MH, Vanderah TW, Lai J, Dussor GO, Fields HL, Price TJ, Porreca F. Engagement of descending inhibition from the rostral ventromedial medulla protects against chronic neuropathic pain. Pain. 2011 Dec; 152(12):2701-9.
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      15. Margolis EB, Mitchell JM, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. A novel opioid receptor-mediated enhancement of GABAA receptor function induced by stress in ventral tegmental area neurons. J Physiol. 2011 Sep 1; 589(Pt 17):4229-42.
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      16. Xia Y, Driscoll JR, Wilbrecht L, Margolis EB, Fields HL, Hjelmstad GO. Nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons target non-dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area. J Neurosci. 2011 May 25; 31(21):7811-6.
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      17. Altamirano LJ, Fields HL, D'Esposito M, Boettiger CA. Interaction between family history of alcoholism and Locus of Control in the opioid regulation of impulsive responding under the influence of alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Nov; 35(11):1905-14.
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      18. Ambroggi F, Ghazizadeh A, Nicola SM, Fields HL. Roles of nucleus accumbens core and shell in incentive-cue responding and behavioral inhibition. J Neurosci. 2011 May 4; 31(18):6820-30.
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      19. Qu C, King T, Okun A, Lai J, Fields HL, Porreca F. Lesion of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex eliminates the aversiveness of spontaneous neuropathic pain following partial or complete axotomy. Pain. 2011 Jul; 152(7):1641-8.
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      20. Fields HL. The doctor's dilemma: opiate analgesics and chronic pain. Neuron. 2011 Feb 24; 69(4):591-4.
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      21. Margolis EB, Coker AR, Driscoll JR, Lemaître AI, Fields HL. Reliability in the identification of midbrain dopamine neurons. PLoS One. 2010; 5(12):e15222.
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      22. Ghazizadeh A, Fields HL, Ambroggi F. Isolating event-related neuronal responses by deconvolution. J Neurophysiol. 2010 Sep; 104(3):1790-802.
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      23. Oaklander AL, Fields HL. Reply: Is reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome type I a small-fiber neuropathy? Ann Neurol. 2010 Jul; 68(1):116-7.
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      24. Baliki MN, Geha PY, Fields HL, Apkarian AV. Predicting value of pain and analgesia: nucleus accumbens response to noxious stimuli changes in the presence of chronic pain. Neuron. 2010 Apr 15; 66(1):149-60.
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      25. Krause M, German PW, Taha SA, Fields HL. A pause in nucleus accumbens neuron firing is required to initiate and maintain feeding. J Neurosci. 2010 Mar 31; 30(13):4746-56.
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      26. King T, Vera-Portocarrero L, Gutierrez T, Vanderah TW, Dussor G, Lai J, Fields HL, Porreca F. Unmasking the tonic-aversive state in neuropathic pain. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Nov; 12(11):1364-6.
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      27. Oaklander AL, Fields HL. Is reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome type I a small-fiber neuropathy? Ann Neurol. 2009 Jun; 65(6):629-38.
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      28. Jhou TC, Fields HL, Baxter MG, Saper CB, Holland PC. The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a GABAergic afferent to midbrain dopamine neurons, encodes aversive stimuli and inhibits motor responses. Neuron. 2009 Mar 12; 61(5):786-800.
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      29. Boettiger CA, Kelley EA, Mitchell JM, D'Esposito M, Fields HL. Now or Later? An fMRI study of the effects of endogenous opioid blockade on a decision-making network. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Sep; 93(3):291-9.
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      30. Margolis EB, Fields HL, Hjelmstad GO, Mitchell JM. Delta-opioid receptor expression in the ventral tegmental area protects against elevated alcohol consumption. J Neurosci. 2008 Nov 26; 28(48):12672-81.
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      31. Mitchell JM, Bergren LJ, Chen KS, Rowbotham MC, Fields HL. Naltrexone aversion and treatment efficacy are greatest in humans and rats that actively consume high levels of alcohol. Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Jan; 33(1):72-80.
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      32. Margolis EB, Mitchell JM, Ishikawa J, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. Midbrain dopamine neurons: projection target determines action potential duration and dopamine D(2) receptor inhibition. J Neurosci. 2008 Sep 3; 28(36):8908-13.
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      33. Ambroggi F, Ishikawa A, Fields HL, Nicola SM. Basolateral amygdala neurons facilitate reward-seeking behavior by exciting nucleus accumbens neurons. Neuron. 2008 Aug 28; 59(4):648-61.
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      34. Ishikawa A, Ambroggi F, Nicola SM, Fields HL. Contributions of the amygdala and medial prefrontal cortex to incentive cue responding. Neuroscience. 2008 Aug 26; 155(3):573-84.
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      35. Ishikawa A, Ambroggi F, Nicola SM, Fields HL. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex contribution to behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal responses to incentive cues. J Neurosci. 2008 May 7; 28(19):5088-98.
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      36. Boettiger CA, Mitchell JM, Tavares VC, Robertson M, Joslyn G, D'Esposito M, Fields HL. Immediate reward bias in humans: fronto-parietal networks and a role for the catechol-O-methyltransferase 158(Val/Val) genotype. J Neurosci. 2007 Dec 26; 27(52):14383-91.
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      37. Taha SA, Nicola SM, Fields HL. Cue-evoked encoding of movement planning and execution in the rat nucleus accumbens. J Physiol. 2007 Nov 1; 584(Pt 3):801-18.
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      38. Fields HL. Understanding how opioids contribute to reward and analgesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007 May-Jun; 32(3):242-6.
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      39. Fields HL. Should we be reluctant to prescribe opioids for chronic non-malignant pain? Pain. 2007 Jun; 129(3):233-4.
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      40. Woolley JD, Lee BS, Kim B, Fields HL. Opposing effects of intra-nucleus accumbens mu and kappa opioid agonists on sensory specific satiety. Neuroscience. 2007 Jun 8; 146(4):1445-52.
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      41. Woolley JD, Lee BS, Taha SA, Fields HL. Nucleus accumbens opioid signaling conditions short-term flavor preferences. Neuroscience. 2007 Apr 25; 146(1):19-30.
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      42. Mitchell JM, Fields HL, White RL, Meadoff TM, Joslyn G, Rowbotham MC. The Asp40 mu-opioid receptor allele does not predict naltrexone treatment efficacy in heavy drinkers. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007 Feb; 27(1):112-5.
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      43. Fields HL, Hjelmstad GO, Margolis EB, Nicola SM. Ventral tegmental area neurons in learned appetitive behavior and positive reinforcement. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2007; 30:289-316.
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      44. Mitchell JM, Bergren LJ, Chen KS, Fields HL. Cholecystokinin is necessary for the expression of morphine conditioned place preference. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Dec; 85(4):787-95.
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      45. Woolley JD, Lee BS, Fields HL. Nucleus accumbens opioids regulate flavor-based preferences in food consumption. Neuroscience. 2006 Nov 17; 143(1):309-17.
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      46. German PW, Fields HL. Rat nucleus accumbens neurons persistently encode locations associated with morphine reward. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Mar; 97(3):2094-106.
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      47. German PW, Fields HL. How prior reward experience biases exploratory movements: a probabilistic model. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Mar; 97(3):2083-93.
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      48. Mitchell JM, Tavares VC, Fields HL, D'Esposito M, Boettiger CA. Endogenous opioid blockade and impulsive responding in alcoholics and healthy controls. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Feb; 32(2):439-49.
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      49. Margolis EB, Lock H, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. The ventral tegmental area revisited: is there an electrophysiological marker for dopaminergic neurons? J Physiol. 2006 Dec 15; 577(Pt 3):907-24.
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      50. Taha SA, Norsted E, Lee LS, Lang PD, Lee BS, Woolley JD, Fields HL. Endogenous opioids encode relative taste preference. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Aug; 24(4):1220-6.
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      51. Keltner JR, Furst A, Fan C, Redfern R, Inglis B, Fields HL. Isolating the modulatory effect of expectation on pain transmission: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurosci. 2006 Apr 19; 26(16):4437-43.
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      52. Borgland SL, Taha SA, Sarti F, Fields HL, Bonci A. Orexin A in the VTA is critical for the induction of synaptic plasticity and behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Neuron. 2006 Feb 16; 49(4):589-601.
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      53. Margolis EB, Lock H, Chefer VI, Shippenberg TS, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. Kappa opioids selectively control dopaminergic neurons projecting to the prefrontal cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 21; 103(8):2938-42.
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      54. Taha SA, Fields HL. Inhibitions of nucleus accumbens neurons encode a gating signal for reward-directed behavior. J Neurosci. 2006 Jan 4; 26(1):217-22.
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      55. Mitchell JM, Fields HL, D'Esposito M, Boettiger CA. Impulsive responding in alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Dec; 29(12):2158-69.
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      56. Rowbotham MC, Reisner LA, Davies PS, Fields HL. Treatment response in antidepressant-naïve postherpetic neuralgia patients: double-blind, randomized trial. J Pain. 2005 Nov; 6(11):741-6.
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      57. Mitchell JM, Liang MT, Fields HL. A single injection of the kappa opioid antagonist norbinaltorphimine increases ethanol consumption in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Nov; 182(3):384-92.
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      58. Nicola SM, Taha SA, Kim SW, Fields HL. Nucleus accumbens dopamine release is necessary and sufficient to promote the behavioral response to reward-predictive cues. Neuroscience. 2005; 135(4):1025-33.
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      59. Taha SA, Fields HL. Encoding of palatability and appetitive behaviors by distinct neuronal populations in the nucleus accumbens. J Neurosci. 2005 Feb 2; 25(5):1193-202.
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      60. Hoffman GA, Harrington A, Fields HL. Pain and the placebo: what we have learned. Perspect Biol Med. 2005; 48(2):248-65.
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      61. Margolis EB, Hjelmstad GO, Bonci A, Fields HL. Both kappa and mu opioid agonists inhibit glutamatergic input to ventral tegmental area neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Jun; 93(6):3086-93.
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      62. Meng ID, Johansen JP, Harasawa I, Fields HL. Kappa opioids inhibit physiologically identified medullary pain modulating neurons and reduce morphine antinociception. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Mar; 93(3):1138-44.
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      63. Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL, Nicola SM. Dissociation of the role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in responding to reward-predictive cues and waiting for reward. Behav Brain Res. 2004 Sep 23; 154(1):19-30.
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      64. Fields H. State-dependent opioid control of pain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2004 Jul; 5(7):565-75.
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      65. Yun IA, Nicola SM, Fields HL. Contrasting effects of dopamine and glutamate receptor antagonist injection in the nucleus accumbens suggest a neural mechanism underlying cue-evoked goal-directed behavior. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Jul; 20(1):249-63.
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      66. Kim JA, Pollak KA, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. A single cocaine exposure enhances both opioid reward and aversion through a ventral tegmental area-dependent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 13; 101(15):5664-9.
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      67. Yun IA, Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL, Nicola SM. The ventral tegmental area is required for the behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal firing responses to incentive cues. J Neurosci. 2004 Mar 24; 24(12):2923-33.
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      68. Johansen JP, Fields HL. Glutamatergic activation of anterior cingulate cortex produces an aversive teaching signal. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Apr; 7(4):398-403.
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      69. Papanastassiou AM, Fields HL, Meng ID. Local application of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, to spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis differentially affects nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons. Pain. 2004 Feb; 107(3):267-75.
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      70. Nicola SM, Yun IA, Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL. Cue-evoked firing of nucleus accumbens neurons encodes motivational significance during a discriminative stimulus task. J Neurophysiol. 2004 Apr; 91(4):1840-65.
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      71. Potrebic S, Ahn AH, Skinner K, Fields HL, Basbaum AI. Peptidergic nociceptors of both trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia express serotonin 1D receptors: implications for the selective antimigraine action of triptans. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 26; 23(34):10988-97.
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      72. Nicola SM, Yun IA, Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL. Firing of nucleus accumbens neurons during the consummatory phase of a discriminative stimulus task depends on previous reward predictive cues. J Neurophysiol. 2004 Apr; 91(4):1866-82.
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      73. Margolis EB, Hjelmstad GO, Bonci A, Fields HL. Kappa-opioid agonists directly inhibit midbrain dopaminergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 5; 23(31):9981-6.
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      74. Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. Kappa opioid receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens inhibits glutamate and GABA release through different mechanisms. J Neurophysiol. 2003 May; 89(5):2389-95.
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      75. Yun IA, Fields HL. Basolateral amygdala lesions impair both cue- and cocaine-induced reinstatement in animals trained on a discriminative stimulus task. Neuroscience. 2003; 121(3):747-57.
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      76. Baron R, Fields HL, Jänig W, Kitt C, Levine JD. National Institutes of Health Workshop: reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndromes--state-of-the-science. Anesth Analg. 2002 Dec; 95(6):1812-6.
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      77. Johansen JP, Fields HL, Manning BH. The affective component of pain in rodents: direct evidence for a contribution of the anterior cingulate cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jul 3; 98(14):8077-82.
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      78. Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. Kappa opioid receptor inhibition of glutamatergic transmission in the nucleus accumbens shell. J Neurophysiol. 2001 Mar; 85(3):1153-8.
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      79. Petersen KL, Fields HL, Brennum J, Sandroni P, Rowbotham MC. Capsaicin evoked pain and allodynia in post-herpetic neuralgia. Pain. 2000 Nov; 88(2):125-33.
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      80. Pan Z, Hirakawa N, Fields HL. A cellular mechanism for the bidirectional pain-modulating actions of orphanin FQ/nociceptin. Neuron. 2000 May; 26(2):515-22.
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      81. Harasawa I, Fields HL, Meng ID. Delta opioid receptor mediated actions in the rostral ventromedial medulla on tail flick latency and nociceptive modulatory neurons. Pain. 2000 Mar; 85(1-2):255-62.
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      82. Fields HL. Pain modulation: expectation, opioid analgesia and virtual pain. Prog Brain Res. 2000; 122:245-53.
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      83. Hirakawa N, Tershner SA, Fields HL, Manning BH. Bi-directional changes in affective state elicited by manipulation of medullary pain-modulatory circuitry. Neuroscience. 2000; 100(4):861-71.
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      84. Mitchell JM, Basbaum AI, Fields HL. A locus and mechanism of action for associative morphine tolerance. Nat Neurosci. 2000 Jan; 3(1):47-53.
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      85. Hirakawa N, Tershner SA, Fields HL. Highly delta selective antagonists in the RVM attenuate the antinociceptive effect of PAG DAMGO. Neuroreport. 1999 Oct 19; 10(15):3125-9.
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      86. Fields HL. Pain: an unpleasant topic. Pain. 1999 Aug; Suppl 6:S61-9.
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      87. Baron R, Levine JD, Fields HL. Causalgia and reflex sympathetic dystrophy: does the sympathetic nervous system contribute to the generation of pain? Muscle Nerve. 1999 Jun; 22(6):678-95.
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      88. Mitchell JM, Lowe D, Fields HL. The contribution of the rostral ventromedial medulla to the antinociceptive effects of systemic morphine in restrained and unrestrained rats. Neuroscience. 1998 Nov; 87(1):123-33.
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      89. Budai D, Harasawa I, Fields HL. Midbrain periaqueductal gray (PAG) inhibits nociceptive inputs to sacral dorsal horn nociceptive neurons through alpha2-adrenergic receptors. J Neurophysiol. 1998 Nov; 80(5):2244-54.
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      90. Schwartz DM, Duncan KG, Fields HL, Jones MR. Tetrodotoxin: anesthetic activity in the de-epithelialized cornea. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol. 1998 Oct; 236(10):790-4.
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      91. Fields HL, Rowbotham M, Baron R. Postherpetic neuralgia: irritable nociceptors and deafferentation. Neurobiol Dis. 1998 Oct; 5(4):209-27.
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      92. Meng ID, Manning BH, Martin WJ, Fields HL. An analgesia circuit activated by cannabinoids. Nature. 1998 Sep 24; 395(6700):381-3.
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      93. Schwartz DM, Fields HL, Duncan KG, Duncan JL, Jones MR. Experimental study of tetrodotoxin, a long-acting topical anesthetic. Am J Ophthalmol. 1998 Apr; 125(4):481-7.
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      94. Robbins WR, Staats PS, Levine J, Fields HL, Allen RW, Campbell JN, Pappagallo M. Treatment of intractable pain with topical large-dose capsaicin: preliminary report. Anesth Analg. 1998 Mar; 86(3):579-83.
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      95. Budai D, Fields HL. Endogenous opioid peptides acting at mu-opioid receptors in the dorsal horn contribute to midbrain modulation of spinal nociceptive neurons. J Neurophysiol. 1998 Feb; 79(2):677-87.
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      96. Zagon A, Meng X, Fields HL. Intrinsic membrane characteristics distinguish two subsets of nociceptive modulatory neurons in rat RVM. J Neurophysiol. 1997 Dec; 78(6):2848-58.
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      97. Skinner K, Basbaum AI, Fields HL. Cholecystokinin and enkephalin in brain stem pain modulating circuits. Neuroreport. 1997 Sep 29; 8(14):2995-8.
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      98. Pan ZZ, Tershner SA, Fields HL. Cellular mechanism for anti-analgesic action of agonists of the kappa-opioid receptor. Nature. 1997 Sep 25; 389(6649):382-5.
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      99. Skinner K, Fields HL, Basbaum AI, Mason P. GABA-immunoreactive boutons contact identified OFF and ON cells in the nucleus raphe magnus. J Comp Neurol. 1997 Feb 10; 378(2):196-204.
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      100. Meng XW, Budra B, Skinner K, Ohara PT, Fields HL. Noradrenergic input to nociceptive modulatory neurons in the rat rostral ventromedial medulla. J Comp Neurol. 1997 Jan 20; 377(3):381-91.
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      101. Pan ZZ, Fields HL. Endogenous opioid-mediated inhibition of putative pain-modulating neurons in rat rostral ventromedial medulla. Neuroscience. 1996 Oct; 74(3):855-62.
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      102. Roychowdhury SM, Fields HL. Endogenous opioids acting at a medullary mu-opioid receptor contribute to the behavioral antinociception produced by GABA antagonism in the midbrain periaqueductal gray. Neuroscience. 1996 Oct; 74(3):863-72.
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      103. Rowbotham MC, Fields HL. The relationship of pain, allodynia and thermal sensation in post-herpetic neuralgia. Brain. 1996 Apr; 119 ( Pt 2):347-54.
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      104. Rowbotham MC, Yosipovitch G, Connolly MK, Finlay D, Forde G, Fields HL. Cutaneous innervation density in the allodynic form of postherpetic neuralgia. Neurobiol Dis. 1996; 3(3):205-14.
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      105. Rowbotham MC, Davies PS, Fields HL. Topical lidocaine gel relieves postherpetic neuralgia. Ann Neurol. 1995 Feb; 37(2):246-53.
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      106. Heinricher MM, Morgan MM, Tortorici V, Fields HL. Disinhibition of off-cells and antinociception produced by an opioid action within the rostral ventromedial medulla. Neuroscience. 1994 Nov; 63(1):279-88.
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      107. Dellemijn PL, Fields HL. Do benzodiazepines have a role in chronic pain management? Pain. 1994 May; 57(2):137-52.
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      108. Fields H. Pain modulation and the action of analgesic medications. Ann Neurol. 1994; 35 Suppl:S42-5.
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      109. Levine JD, Fields HL, Basbaum AI. Peptides and the primary afferent nociceptor. J Neurosci. 1993 Jun; 13(6):2273-86.
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      110. Morgan MM, Fields HL. Activity of nociceptive modulatory neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla associated with volume expansion-induced antinociception. Pain. 1993 Jan; 52(1):1-9.
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      111. Mason P, Back SA, Fields HL. A confocal laser microscopic study of enkephalin-immunoreactive appositions onto physiologically identified neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla. J Neurosci. 1992 Oct; 12(10):4023-36.
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      112. Galer BS, Rowbotham MC, Von Miller K, Walton A, Fields HL. Treatment of inflammatory, neuropathic and sympathetically maintained pain in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome. Pain. 1992 Aug; 50(2):205-8.
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      113. Heinricher MM, Morgan MM, Fields HL. Direct and indirect actions of morphine on medullary neurons that modulate nociception. Neuroscience. 1992; 48(3):533-43.
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      114. Morgan MM, Heinricher MM, Fields HL. Circuitry linking opioid-sensitive nociceptive modulatory systems in periaqueductal gray and spinal cord with rostral ventromedial medulla. Neuroscience. 1992; 47(4):863-71.
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      115. Rowbotham MC, Reisner-Keller LA, Fields HL. Both intravenous lidocaine and morphine reduce the pain of postherpetic neuralgia. Neurology. 1991 Jul; 41(7):1024-8.
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      116. Kaplan H, Fields HL. Hyperalgesia during acute opioid abstinence: evidence for a nociceptive facilitating function of the rostral ventromedial medulla. J Neurosci. 1991 May; 11(5):1433-9.
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      117. Floeter MK, Fields HL. Evidence that inhibition of a nociceptive flexion reflex by stimulation in the rostroventromedial medulla in rats occurs at a premotoneuronal level. Brain Res. 1991 Jan 11; 538(2):340-2.
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      118. Fields HL, Heinricher MM, Mason P. Neurotransmitters in nociceptive modulatory circuits. Annu Rev Neurosci. 1991; 14:219-45.
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      119. Heinricher MM, Haws CM, Fields HL. Evidence for GABA-mediated control of putative nociceptive modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla: iontophoresis of bicuculline eliminates the off-cell pause. Somatosens Mot Res. 1991; 8(3):215-25.
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      120. Haws CM, Heinricher MM, Fields HL. Alpha-adrenergic receptor agonists, but not antagonists, alter the tail-flick latency when microinjected into the rostral ventromedial medulla of the lightly anesthetized rat. Brain Res. 1990 Nov 19; 533(2):192-5.
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      121. Mason P, Floeter MK, Fields HL. Somatodendritic morphology of on- and off-cells in the rostral ventromedial medulla. J Comp Neurol. 1990 Nov 1; 301(1):23-43.
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      122. Kim DH, Fields HL, Barbaro NM. Morphine analgesia and acute physical dependence: rapid onset of two opposing, dose-related processes. Brain Res. 1990 May 14; 516(1):37-40.
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      123. Bederson JB, Fields HL, Barbaro NM. Hyperalgesia during naloxone-precipitated withdrawal from morphine is associated with increased on-cell activity in the rostral ventromedial medulla. Somatosens Mot Res. 1990; 7(2):185-203.
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      124. Rowbotham MC, Fields HL. Post-herpetic neuralgia: the relation of pain complaint, sensory disturbance, and skin temperature. Pain. 1989 Nov; 39(2):129-44.
        View in: PubMed
      125. Fang FG, Haws CM, Drasner K, Williamson A, Fields HL. Opioid peptides (DAGO-enkephalin, dynorphin A(1-13), BAM 22P) microinjected into the rat brainstem: comparison of their antinociceptive effect and their effect on neuronal firing in the rostral ventromedial medulla. Brain Res. 1989 Oct 30; 501(1):116-28.
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      126. Mason P, Fields HL. Axonal trajectories and terminations of on- and off-cells in the cat lower brainstem. J Comp Neurol. 1989 Oct 8; 288(2):185-207.
        View in: PubMed
      127. Rowbotham MC, Fields HL. Topical lidocaine reduces pain in post-herpetic neuralgia. Pain. 1989 Sep; 38(3):297-301.
        View in: PubMed
      128. Haws CM, Williamson AM, Fields HL. Putative nociceptive modulatory neurons in the dorsolateral pontomesencephalic reticular formation. Brain Res. 1989 Apr 3; 483(2):272-82.
        View in: PubMed
      129. Fields HL, Heinricher MM. Brainstem modulation of nociceptor-driven withdrawal reflexes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1989; 563:34-44.
        View in: PubMed
      130. Barbaro NM, Heinricher MM, Fields HL. Putative nociceptive modulatory neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla of the rat display highly correlated firing patterns. Somatosens Mot Res. 1989; 6(4):413-25.
        View in: PubMed
      131. Heinricher MM, Barbaro NM, Fields HL. Putative nociceptive modulating neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla of the rat: firing of on- and off-cells is related to nociceptive responsiveness. Somatosens Mot Res. 1989; 6(4):427-39.
        View in: PubMed
      132. Fields HL. Pain modulation: opiates and chronic pain. NIDA Res Monogr. 1989; 95:92-101.
        View in: PubMed
      133. Fields HL. Sources of variability in the sensation of pain. Pain. 1988 May; 33(2):195-200.
        View in: PubMed
      134. Drasner K, Fields HL. Synergy between the antinociceptive effects of intrathecal clonidine and systemic morphine in the rat. Pain. 1988 Mar; 32(3):309-12.
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      135. Fang FG, Moreau JL, Fields HL. Dose-dependent antinociceptive action of neurotensin microinjected into the rostroventromedial medulla of the rat. Brain Res. 1987 Sep 8; 420(1):171-4.
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