Loading...

Howard Fields, MD, PhD

TitleProfessor Emeritus
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentNeurology
Address675 Nelson Rising Lane
San Francisco CA 94158
Phone415-502-7621
vCardDownload vCard

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Stanford UniversityMD1965Medicine
    Stanford UniversityPhD1966Neuroscience
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    American Academy of Pain Medicine2012Founder's Award
    American Academy of Neurology2012Mitchell Max Award for Neuropathic Pain Research
    2010American Academy of Arts and Sciences
    American Neurological Association2006Raymond D. Adams Lecture
    American Academy of Neurology2000Cotzias Lecture
    1997Institute of Medicine
    American Pain Society1997Kerr Award
    1988  - 1993Bristol Myers Award for Pain Research

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Howard Fields received his MD and PhD in Neuroscience at Stanford in 1965-66. After Internal Medicine training at Bellevue Hospital in New York, he spent three years as a research neurologist at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Following clinical training in neurology at the Boston City Hospital Service of Harvard Medical School in 1972, he joined the faculty of the University of California San Francisco. Fields major interests are in nervous system mechanisms of pain and substance abuse with a focus on how endogenous opioids contribute to these mechanisms. He was a founder of the UCSF pain management center and has made major contributions to understanding and treating neuropathic pain. His group was the first to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of opioids for neuropathic pain and of topical lidocaine for post-herpetic neuralgia. In laboratory studies he discovered and elucidated a pain modulating neural circuit that is required for opioids to produce analgesia. He also discovered that placebo analgesia is blocked by an opioid antagonist. Recently, his laboratory has discovered nerve cells in the striatum that selectively encode the magnitude of a reward. They have also shown how the neurotransmitter dopamine contributes to motivation and reward based choice. Current work is focused on the neurobiology of opioid reward.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    MECHANISMS OF PAIN AND ANALGESIA
    NIH/NINDS P50NS021445Jan 1, 1985 - Dec 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MECHANISMS OF PAIN AND ANALGESIA
    NIH/NINDS P01NS021445Jan 1, 1985 - Dec 31, 1999
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NEURAL SUBSTRATE OF OPIATE ANALGESIA
    NIH/NIDA R01DA001949Feb 1, 1978 - Mar 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NEURAL SUBSTRATE OF OPIATE ANALGESIA
    NIH/NIDA R37DA001949Feb 1, 1978 - Mar 31, 1999
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Fields HL. How expectations influence pain. Pain. 2018 Sep; 159 Suppl 1:S3-S10. PMID: 30113941.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Margolis EB, Fujita W, Devi LA, Fields HL. Two delta opioid receptor subtypes are functional in single ventral tegmental area neurons, and can interact with the mu opioid receptor. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Sep 01; 123:420-432. PMID: 28645621.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Schwartz N, Miller C, Fields HL. Cortico-Accumbens Regulation of Approach-Avoidance Behavior Is Modified by Experience and Chronic Pain. Cell Rep. 2017 05 23; 19(8):1522-1531. PMID: 28538173.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Margolis EB, Fields HL. Mu Opioid Receptor Actions in the Lateral Habenula. PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0159097. PMID: 27427945; PMCID: PMC4948872.
    5. Richard JM, Ambroggi F, Janak PH, Fields HL. Ventral Pallidum Neurons Encode Incentive Value and Promote Cue-Elicited Instrumental Actions. Neuron. 2016 06 15; 90(6):1165-1173. PMID: 27238868; PMCID: PMC4911300 [Available on 06/15/17].
    6. Richard JM, Fields HL. Mu-opioid receptor activation in the medial shell of nucleus accumbens promotes alcohol consumption, self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement. Neuropharmacology. 2016 09; 108:14-23. PMID: 27089981; PMCID: PMC4912898 [Available on 09/01/17].
    7. Harasawa I, Johansen JP, Fields HL, Porreca F, Meng ID. Alterations in the rostral ventromedial medulla after the selective ablation of µ-opioid receptor expressing neurons. Pain. 2016 Jan; 157(1):166-73. PMID: 26335909; PMCID: PMC4829402 [Available on 01/01/17].
    8. Navratilova E, Xie JY, Meske D, Qu C, Morimura K, Okun A, Arakawa N, Ossipov M, Fields HL, Porreca F. Endogenous opioid activity in the anterior cingulate cortex is required for relief of pain. J Neurosci. 2015 May 06; 35(18):7264-71. PMID: 25948274; PMCID: PMC4420787.
    9. Fields HL, Margolis EB. Understanding opioid reward. Trends Neurosci. 2015 Apr; 38(4):217-25. PMID: 25637939; PMCID: PMC4385443.
    10. Margolis EB, Hjelmstad GO, Fujita W, Fields HL. Direct bidirectional µ-opioid control of midbrain dopamine neurons. J Neurosci. 2014 Oct 29; 34(44):14707-16. PMID: 25355223; PMCID: PMC4212068.
    11. Fields HL. Neuroscience. More pain; less gain. Science. 2014 Aug 01; 345(6196):513-4. PMID: 25082685.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Baliki MN, Mansour A, Baria AT, Huang L, Berger SE, Fields HL, Apkarian AV. Parceling human accumbens into putative core and shell dissociates encoding of values for reward and pain. J Neurosci. 2013 Oct 09; 33(41):16383-93. PMID: 24107968; PMCID: PMC3792469.
    13. De Felice M, Eyde N, Dodick D, Dussor GO, Ossipov MH, Fields HL, Porreca F. Capturing the aversive state of cephalic pain preclinically. Ann Neurol. 2013 Aug; 74(2):257-65. PMID: 23686557; PMCID: PMC3830648.
    14. Mitchell JM, Margolis EB, Coker AR, Allen DC, Fields HL. Intra-VTA deltorphin, but not DPDPE, induces place preference in ethanol-drinking rats: distinct DOR-1 and DOR-2 mechanisms control ethanol consumption and reward. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Jan; 38(1):195-203. PMID: 24033469.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Mitchell JM, O'Neil JP, Jagust WJ, Fields HL. Catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype modulates opioid release in decision circuitry. Clin Transl Sci. 2013 Oct; 6(5):400-3. PMID: 24127930.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Hjelmstad GO, Xia Y, Margolis EB, Fields HL. Opioid modulation of ventral pallidal afferents to ventral tegmental area neurons. J Neurosci. 2013 Apr 10; 33(15):6454-9. PMID: 23575843; PMCID: PMC3865539.
    17. Navratilova E, Xie JY, Okun A, Qu C, Eyde N, Ci S, Ossipov MH, King T, Fields HL, Porreca F. Pain relief produces negative reinforcement through activation of mesolimbic reward-valuation circuitry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Dec 11; 109(50):20709-13. PMID: 23184995; PMCID: PMC3528534.
    18. Hnasko TS, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL, Edwards RH. Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections. J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 24; 32(43):15076-85. PMID: 23100428; PMCID: PMC3685320.
    19. Margolis EB, Toy B, Himmels P, Morales M, Fields HL. Identification of rat ventral tegmental area GABAergic neurons. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e42365. PMID: 22860119; PMCID: PMC3409171.
    20. Kayser AS, Allen DC, Navarro-Cebrian A, Mitchell JM, Fields HL. Dopamine, corticostriatal connectivity, and intertemporal choice. J Neurosci. 2012 Jul 04; 32(27):9402-9. PMID: 22764248.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Baliki MN, Petre B, Torbey S, Herrmann KM, Huang L, Schnitzer TJ, Fields HL, Apkarian AV. Corticostriatal functional connectivity predicts transition to chronic back pain. Nat Neurosci. 2012 Jul 01; 15(8):1117-9. PMID: 22751038; PMCID: PMC3411898.
    22. Mitchell JM, Margolis EB, Coker AR, Fields HL. Alcohol self-administration, anxiety, and cortisol levels predict changes in delta opioid receptor function in the ventral tegmental area. Behav Neurosci. 2012 Aug; 126(4):515-22. PMID: 22708955; PMCID: PMC3669671.
    23. Mitchell JM, Teague CH, Kayser AS, Bartlett SE, Fields HL. Varenicline decreases alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Oct; 223(3):299-306. PMID: 22547331; PMCID: PMC3438402.
    24. Fields HL. Pain and the primary somatosensory cortex. Pain. 2012 Apr; 153(4):742-3. PMID: 22365311.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Mitchell JM, O'Neil JP, Janabi M, Marks SM, Jagust WJ, Fields HL. Alcohol consumption induces endogenous opioid release in the human orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Sci Transl Med. 2012 Jan 11; 4(116):116ra6. PMID: 22238334.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Ghazizadeh A, Ambroggi F, Odean N, Fields HL. Prefrontal cortex mediates extinction of responding by two distinct neural mechanisms in accumbens shell. J Neurosci. 2012 Jan 11; 32(2):726-37. PMID: 22238108.
      View in: PubMed
    27. De Felice M, Sanoja R, Wang R, Vera-Portocarrero L, Oyarzo J, King T, Ossipov MH, Vanderah TW, Lai J, Dussor GO, Fields HL, Price TJ, Porreca F. Engagement of descending inhibition from the rostral ventromedial medulla protects against chronic neuropathic pain. Pain. 2011 Dec; 152(12):2701-9. PMID: 21745713; PMCID: PMC3222148.
    28. Margolis EB, Mitchell JM, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. A novel opioid receptor-mediated enhancement of GABAA receptor function induced by stress in ventral tegmental area neurons. J Physiol. 2011 Sep 01; 589(17):4229-42. PMID: 21690191; PMCID: PMC3180580.
    29. Xia Y, Driscoll JR, Wilbrecht L, Margolis EB, Fields HL, Hjelmstad GO. Nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons target non-dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area. J Neurosci. 2011 May 25; 31(21):7811-6. PMID: 21613494.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Altamirano LJ, Fields HL, D'Esposito M, Boettiger CA. Interaction between family history of alcoholism and Locus of Control in the opioid regulation of impulsive responding under the influence of alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Nov; 35(11):1905-14. PMID: 21569055; PMCID: PMC3158828.
    31. Ambroggi F, Ghazizadeh A, Nicola SM, Fields HL. Roles of nucleus accumbens core and shell in incentive-cue responding and behavioral inhibition. J Neurosci. 2011 May 04; 31(18):6820-30. PMID: 21543612; PMCID: PMC3145462.
    32. Qu C, King T, Okun A, Lai J, Fields HL, Porreca F. Lesion of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex eliminates the aversiveness of spontaneous neuropathic pain following partial or complete axotomy. Pain. 2011 Jul; 152(7):1641-8. PMID: 21474245; PMCID: PMC3389793.
    33. Fields HL. The doctor's dilemma: opiate analgesics and chronic pain. Neuron. 2011 Feb 24; 69(4):591-4. PMID: 21338871; PMCID: PMC3073133.
    34. Fields HL. Ask the experts: What has the establishment of multidisciplinary pain centers done to improve the management of chronic pain conditions? Pain Manag. 2011 Jan; 1(1):23-4. PMID: 24654581.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Margolis EB, Coker AR, Driscoll JR, Lemaître AI, Fields HL. Reliability in the identification of midbrain dopamine neurons. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 09; 5(12):e15222. PMID: 21151605; PMCID: PMC3000317.
    36. Ghazizadeh A, Fields HL, Ambroggi F. Isolating event-related neuronal responses by deconvolution. J Neurophysiol. 2010 Sep; 104(3):1790-802. PMID: 20631219.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Baliki MN, Geha PY, Fields HL, Apkarian AV. Predicting value of pain and analgesia: nucleus accumbens response to noxious stimuli changes in the presence of chronic pain. Neuron. 2010 Apr 15; 66(1):149-60. PMID: 20399736; PMCID: PMC2873199.
    38. Krause M, German PW, Taha SA, Fields HL. A pause in nucleus accumbens neuron firing is required to initiate and maintain feeding. J Neurosci. 2010 Mar 31; 30(13):4746-56. PMID: 20357125; PMCID: PMC2878763.
    39. King T, Vera-Portocarrero L, Gutierrez T, Vanderah TW, Dussor G, Lai J, Fields HL, Porreca F. Unmasking the tonic-aversive state in neuropathic pain. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Nov; 12(11):1364-6. PMID: 19783992; PMCID: PMC3427725.
    40. Jhou TC, Fields HL, Baxter MG, Saper CB, Holland PC. The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a GABAergic afferent to midbrain dopamine neurons, encodes aversive stimuli and inhibits motor responses. Neuron. 2009 Mar 12; 61(5):786-800. PMID: 19285474.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Boettiger CA, Kelley EA, Mitchell JM, D'Esposito M, Fields HL. Now or Later? An fMRI study of the effects of endogenous opioid blockade on a decision-making network. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Sep; 93(3):291-9. PMID: 19258022; PMCID: PMC2729462.
    42. Margolis EB, Fields HL, Hjelmstad GO, Mitchell JM. Delta-opioid receptor expression in the ventral tegmental area protects against elevated alcohol consumption. J Neurosci. 2008 Nov 26; 28(48):12672-81. PMID: 19036960.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Mitchell JM, Bergren LJ, Chen KS, Rowbotham MC, Fields HL. Naltrexone aversion and treatment efficacy are greatest in humans and rats that actively consume high levels of alcohol. Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Jan; 33(1):72-80. PMID: 18955144.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Margolis EB, Mitchell JM, Ishikawa J, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. Midbrain dopamine neurons: projection target determines action potential duration and dopamine D(2) receptor inhibition. J Neurosci. 2008 Sep 03; 28(36):8908-13. PMID: 18768684.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Ambroggi F, Ishikawa A, Fields HL, Nicola SM. Basolateral amygdala neurons facilitate reward-seeking behavior by exciting nucleus accumbens neurons. Neuron. 2008 Aug 28; 59(4):648-61. PMID: 18760700; PMCID: PMC2603341.
    46. Ishikawa A, Ambroggi F, Nicola SM, Fields HL. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex contribution to behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal responses to incentive cues. J Neurosci. 2008 May 07; 28(19):5088-98. PMID: 18463262; PMCID: PMC2661106.
    47. Boettiger CA, Mitchell JM, Tavares VC, Robertson M, Joslyn G, D'Esposito M, Fields HL. Immediate reward bias in humans: fronto-parietal networks and a role for the catechol-O-methyltransferase 158(Val/Val) genotype. J Neurosci. 2007 Dec 26; 27(52):14383-91. PMID: 18160646.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Taha SA, Nicola SM, Fields HL. Cue-evoked encoding of movement planning and execution in the rat nucleus accumbens. J Physiol. 2007 Nov 01; 584(Pt 3):801-18. PMID: 17761777; PMCID: PMC2276984.
    49. Fields HL. Understanding how opioids contribute to reward and analgesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007 May-Jun; 32(3):242-6. PMID: 17543821.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Fields HL. Should we be reluctant to prescribe opioids for chronic non-malignant pain? Pain. 2007 Jun; 129(3):233-4. PMID: 17449177.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Mitchell JM, Fields HL, White RL, Meadoff TM, Joslyn G, Rowbotham MC. The Asp40 mu-opioid receptor allele does not predict naltrexone treatment efficacy in heavy drinkers. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007 Feb; 27(1):112-5. PMID: 17224736.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Fields HL, Hjelmstad GO, Margolis EB, Nicola SM. Ventral tegmental area neurons in learned appetitive behavior and positive reinforcement. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2007; 30:289-316. PMID: 17376009.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Mitchell JM, Bergren LJ, Chen KS, Fields HL. Cholecystokinin is necessary for the expression of morphine conditioned place preference. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Dec; 85(4):787-95. PMID: 17196636.
      View in: PubMed
    54. German PW, Fields HL. Rat nucleus accumbens neurons persistently encode locations associated with morphine reward. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Mar; 97(3):2094-106. PMID: 17093128.
      View in: PubMed
    55. German PW, Fields HL. How prior reward experience biases exploratory movements: a probabilistic model. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Mar; 97(3):2083-93. PMID: 17093129.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Mitchell JM, Tavares VC, Fields HL, D'Esposito M, Boettiger CA. Endogenous opioid blockade and impulsive responding in alcoholics and healthy controls. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Feb; 32(2):439-49. PMID: 17047667.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Margolis EB, Lock H, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. The ventral tegmental area revisited: is there an electrophysiological marker for dopaminergic neurons? J Physiol. 2006 Dec 15; 577(Pt 3):907-24. PMID: 16959856; PMCID: PMC1890372.
    58. Taha SA, Norsted E, Lee LS, Lang PD, Lee BS, Woolley JD, Fields HL. Endogenous opioids encode relative taste preference. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Aug; 24(4):1220-6. PMID: 16925586.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Keltner JR, Furst A, Fan C, Redfern R, Inglis B, Fields HL. Isolating the modulatory effect of expectation on pain transmission: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurosci. 2006 Apr 19; 26(16):4437-43. PMID: 16624963.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Borgland SL, Taha SA, Sarti F, Fields HL, Bonci A. Orexin A in the VTA is critical for the induction of synaptic plasticity and behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Neuron. 2006 Feb 16; 49(4):589-601. PMID: 16476667.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Margolis EB, Lock H, Chefer VI, Shippenberg TS, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. Kappa opioids selectively control dopaminergic neurons projecting to the prefrontal cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 21; 103(8):2938-42. PMID: 16477003; PMCID: PMC1413839.
    62. Taha SA, Fields HL. Inhibitions of nucleus accumbens neurons encode a gating signal for reward-directed behavior. J Neurosci. 2006 Jan 04; 26(1):217-22. PMID: 16399690.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Mitchell JM, Fields HL, D'Esposito M, Boettiger CA. Impulsive responding in alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Dec; 29(12):2158-69. PMID: 16385186.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Rowbotham MC, Reisner LA, Davies PS, Fields HL. Treatment response in antidepressant-naïve postherpetic neuralgia patients: double-blind, randomized trial. J Pain. 2005 Nov; 6(11):741-6. PMID: 16275598.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Mitchell JM, Liang MT, Fields HL. A single injection of the kappa opioid antagonist norbinaltorphimine increases ethanol consumption in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Nov; 182(3):384-92. PMID: 16001119.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Taha SA, Fields HL. Encoding of palatability and appetitive behaviors by distinct neuronal populations in the nucleus accumbens. J Neurosci. 2005 Feb 02; 25(5):1193-202. PMID: 15689556.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Margolis EB, Hjelmstad GO, Bonci A, Fields HL. Both kappa and mu opioid agonists inhibit glutamatergic input to ventral tegmental area neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Jun; 93(6):3086-93. PMID: 15615834.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL, Nicola SM. Dissociation of the role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in responding to reward-predictive cues and waiting for reward. Behav Brain Res. 2004 Sep 23; 154(1):19-30. PMID: 15302107.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Fields H. State-dependent opioid control of pain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2004 Jul; 5(7):565-75. PMID: 15208698.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Yun IA, Nicola SM, Fields HL. Contrasting effects of dopamine and glutamate receptor antagonist injection in the nucleus accumbens suggest a neural mechanism underlying cue-evoked goal-directed behavior. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Jul; 20(1):249-63. PMID: 15245497.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Kim JA, Pollak KA, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. A single cocaine exposure enhances both opioid reward and aversion through a ventral tegmental area-dependent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 13; 101(15):5664-9. PMID: 15064402; PMCID: PMC397468.
    72. Yun IA, Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL, Nicola SM. The ventral tegmental area is required for the behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal firing responses to incentive cues. J Neurosci. 2004 Mar 24; 24(12):2923-33. PMID: 15044531.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Johansen JP, Fields HL. Glutamatergic activation of anterior cingulate cortex produces an aversive teaching signal. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Apr; 7(4):398-403. PMID: 15004562.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Papanastassiou AM, Fields HL, Meng ID. Local application of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, to spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis differentially affects nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons. Pain. 2004 Feb; 107(3):267-75. PMID: 14736589.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Nicola SM, Yun IA, Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL. Firing of nucleus accumbens neurons during the consummatory phase of a discriminative stimulus task depends on previous reward predictive cues. J Neurophysiol. 2004 Apr; 91(4):1866-82. PMID: 14645378.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Potrebic S, Ahn AH, Skinner K, Fields HL, Basbaum AI. Peptidergic nociceptors of both trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia express serotonin 1D receptors: implications for the selective antimigraine action of triptans. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 26; 23(34):10988-97. PMID: 14645495.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Nicola SM, Yun IA, Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL. Cue-evoked firing of nucleus accumbens neurons encodes motivational significance during a discriminative stimulus task. J Neurophysiol. 2004 Apr; 91(4):1840-65. PMID: 14645377.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Margolis EB, Hjelmstad GO, Bonci A, Fields HL. Kappa-opioid agonists directly inhibit midbrain dopaminergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 05; 23(31):9981-6. PMID: 14602811.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. Kappa opioid receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens inhibits glutamate and GABA release through different mechanisms. J Neurophysiol. 2003 May; 89(5):2389-95. PMID: 12740400.
      View in: PubMed