Howard Fields, MD, PhD

Title(s)Professor Emeritus, Neurology
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address675 Nelson Rising Lane, #410
San Francisco CA 94158
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-5989-0760 Additional info
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Stanford UniversityMD1965Medicine
    Stanford UniversityPhD1966Neuroscience
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    American Academy of Pain Medicine2012Founder's Award
    American Academy of Neurology2012Mitchell Max Award for Neuropathic Pain Research
    2010American Academy of Arts and Sciences
    American Neurological Association2006Raymond D. Adams Lecture
    American Academy of Neurology2000Cotzias Lecture
    1997Institute of Medicine
    American Pain Society1997Kerr Award
    1988  - 1993Bristol Myers Award for Pain Research

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Howard Fields received his MD and PhD in Neuroscience at Stanford in 1965-66. After Internal Medicine training at Bellevue Hospital in New York, he spent three years as a research neurologist at Walter Reed Army Institute of Research. Following clinical training in neurology at the Boston City Hospital Service of Harvard Medical School in 1972, he joined the faculty of the University of California San Francisco. Fields major interests are in nervous system mechanisms of pain and substance abuse with a focus on how endogenous opioids contribute to these mechanisms. He was a founder of the UCSF pain management center and has made major contributions to understanding and treating neuropathic pain. His group was the first to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of opioids for neuropathic pain and of topical lidocaine for post-herpetic neuralgia. In laboratory studies he discovered and elucidated a pain modulating neural circuit that is required for opioids to produce analgesia. He also discovered that placebo analgesia is blocked by an opioid antagonist. Recently, his laboratory has discovered nerve cells in the striatum that selectively encode the magnitude of a reward. They have also shown how the neurotransmitter dopamine contributes to motivation and reward based choice. Current work is focused on the neurobiology of opioid reward.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    NIH P50NS021445Jan 1, 1985 - Dec 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH P01NS021445Jan 1, 1985 - Dec 31, 1999
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01DA001949Feb 1, 1978 - Mar 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R37DA001949Feb 1, 1978 - Mar 31, 1999
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Featured Publications
    Collapse Academic Senate

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. International Association for the Study of Pain publications over the 50-year span. Pain. 2023 Nov 01; 164(11S):S27-S30. Davis KD, Basbaum AI, Bushnell MC, Yarnitsky D, Fields HL. PMID: 37831957.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. A deeper dive into top-down control of pain and itch. Brain. 2022 07 29; 145(7):2245-2246. Fields HL. PMID: 35770875.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    3. Optimal opioid treatment requires a consensual approach. Pain. 2022 05 01; 163(5):e689-e690. Fields HL, Darnall BD. PMID: 37595622.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    4. Optimal opioid treatment requires a consensual approach. Pain. 2022 05 01; 163(5):1303-1312. Yamaguchi S, Terahara T, Okawa K, Inakura H. PMID: 34855648.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    5. Pain modulates dopamine neurons via a spinal-parabrachial-mesencephalic circuit. Nat Neurosci. 2021 10; 24(10):1402-1413. Yang H, de Jong JW, Cerniauskas I, Peck JR, Lim BK, Gong H, Fields HL, Lammel S. PMID: 34373644; PMCID: PMC8962653.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    6. Onset hyperalgesia and offset analgesia: Transient increases or decreases of noxious thermal stimulus intensity robustly modulate subsequent perceived pain intensity. PLoS One. 2020; 15(12):e0231124. Alter BJ, Aung MS, Strigo IA, Fields HL. PMID: 33290407; PMCID: PMC7723268.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. A Midbrain Circuit that Mediates Headache Aversiveness in Rats. Cell Rep. 2019 09 10; 28(11):2739-2747.e4. Waung MW, Margolis EB, Charbit AR, Fields HL. PMID: 31509737; PMCID: PMC6831085.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. How expectations influence pain. Pain. 2018 Sep; 159 Suppl 1:S3-S10. Fields HL. PMID: 30113941.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. Two delta opioid receptor subtypes are functional in single ventral tegmental area neurons, and can interact with the mu opioid receptor. Neuropharmacology. 2017 Sep 01; 123:420-432. Margolis EB, Fujita W, Devi LA, Fields HL. PMID: 28645621; PMCID: PMC5563499.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    10. Cortico-Accumbens Regulation of Approach-Avoidance Behavior Is Modified by Experience and Chronic Pain. Cell Rep. 2017 05 23; 19(8):1522-1531. Schwartz N, Miller C, Fields HL. PMID: 28538173.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    11. Mu Opioid Receptor Actions in the Lateral Habenula. PLoS One. 2016; 11(7):e0159097. Margolis EB, Fields HL. PMID: 27427945; PMCID: PMC4948872.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. Ventral Pallidum Neurons Encode Incentive Value and Promote Cue-Elicited Instrumental Actions. Neuron. 2016 06 15; 90(6):1165-1173. Richard JM, Ambroggi F, Janak PH, Fields HL. PMID: 27238868; PMCID: PMC4911300.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 65     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    13. Mu-opioid receptor activation in the medial shell of nucleus accumbens promotes alcohol consumption, self-administration and cue-induced reinstatement. Neuropharmacology. 2016 09; 108:14-23. Richard JM, Fields HL. PMID: 27089981; PMCID: PMC4912898.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    14. Alterations in the rostral ventromedial medulla after the selective ablation of μ-opioid receptor expressing neurons. Pain. 2016 Jan; 157(1):166-173. Harasawa I, Johansen JP, Fields HL, Porreca F, Meng ID. PMID: 26335909; PMCID: PMC4829402.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    15. Endogenous opioid activity in the anterior cingulate cortex is required for relief of pain. J Neurosci. 2015 May 06; 35(18):7264-71. Navratilova E, Xie JY, Meske D, Qu C, Morimura K, Okun A, Arakawa N, Ossipov M, Fields HL, Porreca F. PMID: 25948274; PMCID: PMC4420787.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 84     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    16. Understanding opioid reward. Trends Neurosci. 2015 Apr; 38(4):217-25. Fields HL, Margolis EB. PMID: 25637939; PMCID: PMC4385443.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 161     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    17. Direct bidirectional μ-opioid control of midbrain dopamine neurons. J Neurosci. 2014 Oct 29; 34(44):14707-16. Margolis EB, Hjelmstad GO, Fujita W, Fields HL. PMID: 25355223; PMCID: PMC4212068.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 52     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Neuroscience. More pain; less gain. Science. 2014 Aug 01; 345(6196):513-4. Fields HL. PMID: 25082685.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    19. Parceling human accumbens into putative core and shell dissociates encoding of values for reward and pain. J Neurosci. 2013 Oct 09; 33(41):16383-93. Baliki MN, Mansour A, Baria AT, Huang L, Berger SE, Fields HL, Apkarian AV. PMID: 24107968; PMCID: PMC3792469.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 59     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. Capturing the aversive state of cephalic pain preclinically. Ann Neurol. 2013 Aug; 74(2):257-65. De Felice M, Eyde N, Dodick D, Dussor GO, Ossipov MH, Fields HL, Porreca F. PMID: 23686557; PMCID: PMC3830648.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 65     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    21. Intra-VTA deltorphin, but not DPDPE, induces place preference in ethanol-drinking rats: distinct DOR-1 and DOR-2 mechanisms control ethanol consumption and reward. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2014 Jan; 38(1):195-203. Mitchell JM, Margolis EB, Coker AR, Allen DC, Fields HL. PMID: 24033469.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    22. Catechol-O-methyltransferase genotype modulates opioid release in decision circuitry. Clin Transl Sci. 2013 Oct; 6(5):400-3. Mitchell JM, O'Neil JP, Jagust WJ, Fields HL. PMID: 24127930; PMCID: PMC5350883.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    23. Opioid modulation of ventral pallidal afferents to ventral tegmental area neurons. J Neurosci. 2013 Apr 10; 33(15):6454-9. Hjelmstad GO, Xia Y, Margolis EB, Fields HL. PMID: 23575843; PMCID: PMC3865539.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 54     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    24. Pain relief produces negative reinforcement through activation of mesolimbic reward-valuation circuitry. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Dec 11; 109(50):20709-13. Navratilova E, Xie JY, Okun A, Qu C, Eyde N, Ci S, Ossipov MH, King T, Fields HL, Porreca F. PMID: 23184995; PMCID: PMC3528534.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 170     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    25. Ventral tegmental area glutamate neurons: electrophysiological properties and projections. J Neurosci. 2012 Oct 24; 32(43):15076-85. Hnasko TS, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL, Edwards RH. PMID: 23100428; PMCID: PMC3685320.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 140     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    26. Identification of rat ventral tegmental area GABAergic neurons. PLoS One. 2012; 7(7):e42365. Margolis EB, Toy B, Himmels P, Morales M, Fields HL. PMID: 22860119; PMCID: PMC3409171.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 93     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    27. Dopamine, corticostriatal connectivity, and intertemporal choice. J Neurosci. 2012 Jul 04; 32(27):9402-9. Kayser AS, Allen DC, Navarro-Cebrian A, Mitchell JM, Fields HL. PMID: 22764248; PMCID: PMC6622221.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 68     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Corticostriatal functional connectivity predicts transition to chronic back pain. Nat Neurosci. 2012 Jul 01; 15(8):1117-9. Baliki MN, Petre B, Torbey S, Herrmann KM, Huang L, Schnitzer TJ, Fields HL, Apkarian AV. PMID: 22751038; PMCID: PMC3411898.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 416     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Alcohol self-administration, anxiety, and cortisol levels predict changes in delta opioid receptor function in the ventral tegmental area. Behav Neurosci. 2012 Aug; 126(4):515-22. Mitchell JM, Margolis EB, Coker AR, Fields HL. PMID: 22708955; PMCID: PMC3669671.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    30. Varenicline decreases alcohol consumption in heavy-drinking smokers. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2012 Oct; 223(3):299-306. Mitchell JM, Teague CH, Kayser AS, Bartlett SE, Fields HL. PMID: 22547331; PMCID: PMC3438402.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 89     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. Pain and the primary somatosensory cortex. Pain. 2012 Apr; 153(4):742-743. Fields HL. PMID: 22365311.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    32. Alcohol consumption induces endogenous opioid release in the human orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. Sci Transl Med. 2012 Jan 11; 4(116):116ra6. Mitchell JM, O'Neil JP, Janabi M, Marks SM, Jagust WJ, Fields HL. PMID: 22238334.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 101     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    33. Prefrontal cortex mediates extinction of responding by two distinct neural mechanisms in accumbens shell. J Neurosci. 2012 Jan 11; 32(2):726-37. Ghazizadeh A, Ambroggi F, Odean N, Fields HL. PMID: 22238108; PMCID: PMC6621084.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 56     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    34. Engagement of descending inhibition from the rostral ventromedial medulla protects against chronic neuropathic pain. Pain. 2011 Dec; 152(12):2701-2709. De Felice M, Sanoja R, Wang R, Vera-Portocarrero L, Oyarzo J, King T, Ossipov MH, Vanderah TW, Lai J, Dussor GO, Fields HL, Price TJ, Porreca F. PMID: 21745713; PMCID: PMC3222148.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 97     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    35. A novel opioid receptor-mediated enhancement of GABAA receptor function induced by stress in ventral tegmental area neurons. J Physiol. 2011 Sep 01; 589(17):4229-42. Margolis EB, Mitchell JM, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. PMID: 21690191; PMCID: PMC3180580.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Nucleus accumbens medium spiny neurons target non-dopaminergic neurons in the ventral tegmental area. J Neurosci. 2011 May 25; 31(21):7811-6. Xia Y, Driscoll JR, Wilbrecht L, Margolis EB, Fields HL, Hjelmstad GO. PMID: 21613494; PMCID: PMC6633124.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 110     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Interaction between family history of alcoholism and Locus of Control in the opioid regulation of impulsive responding under the influence of alcohol. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2011 Nov; 35(11):1905-14. Altamirano LJ, Fields HL, D'Esposito M, Boettiger CA. PMID: 21569055; PMCID: PMC3158828.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    38. Roles of nucleus accumbens core and shell in incentive-cue responding and behavioral inhibition. J Neurosci. 2011 May 04; 31(18):6820-30. Ambroggi F, Ghazizadeh A, Nicola SM, Fields HL. PMID: 21543612; PMCID: PMC3145462.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 94     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. Lesion of the rostral anterior cingulate cortex eliminates the aversiveness of spontaneous neuropathic pain following partial or complete axotomy. Pain. 2011 Jul; 152(7):1641-1648. Qu C, King T, Okun A, Lai J, Fields HL, Porreca F. PMID: 21474245; PMCID: PMC3389793.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 103     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    40. The doctor's dilemma: opiate analgesics and chronic pain. Neuron. 2011 Feb 24; 69(4):591-4. Fields HL. PMID: 21338871; PMCID: PMC3073133.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 66     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Ask the experts: What has the establishment of multidisciplinary pain centers done to improve the management of chronic pain conditions? Pain Manag. 2011 Jan; 1(1):23-4. Fields HL. PMID: 24654581.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    42. Reliability in the identification of midbrain dopamine neurons. PLoS One. 2010 Dec 09; 5(12):e15222. Margolis EB, Coker AR, Driscoll JR, Lemaître AI, Fields HL. PMID: 21151605; PMCID: PMC3000317.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    43. Isolating event-related neuronal responses by deconvolution. J Neurophysiol. 2010 Sep; 104(3):1790-802. Ghazizadeh A, Fields HL, Ambroggi F. PMID: 20631219.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. Reply: Is reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome type I a small-fiber neuropathy? Ann Neurol. 2010 Jul; 68(1):116-7. Oaklander AL, Fields HL. PMID: 20583223.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Predicting value of pain and analgesia: nucleus accumbens response to noxious stimuli changes in the presence of chronic pain. Neuron. 2010 Apr 15; 66(1):149-60. Baliki MN, Geha PY, Fields HL, Apkarian AV. PMID: 20399736; PMCID: PMC2873199.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 274     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. A pause in nucleus accumbens neuron firing is required to initiate and maintain feeding. J Neurosci. 2010 Mar 31; 30(13):4746-56. Krause M, German PW, Taha SA, Fields HL. PMID: 20357125; PMCID: PMC2878763.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 98     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Unmasking the tonic-aversive state in neuropathic pain. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Nov; 12(11):1364-6. King T, Vera-Portocarrero L, Gutierrez T, Vanderah TW, Dussor G, Lai J, Fields HL, Porreca F. PMID: 19783992; PMCID: PMC3427725.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 284     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    48. Is reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndrome type I a small-fiber neuropathy? Ann Neurol. 2009 Jun; 65(6):629-38. Oaklander AL, Fields HL. PMID: 19557864.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 48     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    49. The rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a GABAergic afferent to midbrain dopamine neurons, encodes aversive stimuli and inhibits motor responses. Neuron. 2009 Mar 12; 61(5):786-800. Jhou TC, Fields HL, Baxter MG, Saper CB, Holland PC. PMID: 19285474; PMCID: PMC2841475.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 331     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    50. Now or Later? An fMRI study of the effects of endogenous opioid blockade on a decision-making network. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2009 Sep; 93(3):291-9. Boettiger CA, Kelley EA, Mitchell JM, D'Esposito M, Fields HL. PMID: 19258022; PMCID: PMC2729462.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    51. Delta-opioid receptor expression in the ventral tegmental area protects against elevated alcohol consumption. J Neurosci. 2008 Nov 26; 28(48):12672-81. Margolis EB, Fields HL, Hjelmstad GO, Mitchell JM. PMID: 19036960; PMCID: PMC6671807.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 59     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    52. Naltrexone aversion and treatment efficacy are greatest in humans and rats that actively consume high levels of alcohol. Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Jan; 33(1):72-80. Mitchell JM, Bergren LJ, Chen KS, Rowbotham MC, Fields HL. PMID: 18955144.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    53. Midbrain dopamine neurons: projection target determines action potential duration and dopamine D(2) receptor inhibition. J Neurosci. 2008 Sep 03; 28(36):8908-13. Margolis EB, Mitchell JM, Ishikawa J, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. PMID: 18768684; PMCID: PMC6670880.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 139     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    54. Basolateral amygdala neurons facilitate reward-seeking behavior by exciting nucleus accumbens neurons. Neuron. 2008 Aug 28; 59(4):648-61. Ambroggi F, Ishikawa A, Fields HL, Nicola SM. PMID: 18760700; PMCID: PMC2603341.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 249     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Dorsomedial prefrontal cortex contribution to behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal responses to incentive cues. J Neurosci. 2008 May 07; 28(19):5088-98. Ishikawa A, Ambroggi F, Nicola SM, Fields HL. PMID: 18463262; PMCID: PMC2661106.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 78     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. Immediate reward bias in humans: fronto-parietal networks and a role for the catechol-O-methyltransferase 158(Val/Val) genotype. J Neurosci. 2007 Dec 26; 27(52):14383-91. Boettiger CA, Mitchell JM, Tavares VC, Robertson M, Joslyn G, D'Esposito M, Fields HL. PMID: 18160646; PMCID: PMC6673461.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 152     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    57. Cue-evoked encoding of movement planning and execution in the rat nucleus accumbens. J Physiol. 2007 Nov 01; 584(Pt 3):801-18. Taha SA, Nicola SM, Fields HL. PMID: 17761777; PMCID: PMC2276984.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    58. Understanding how opioids contribute to reward and analgesia. Reg Anesth Pain Med. 2007 May-Jun; 32(3):242-6. Fields HL. PMID: 17543821.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 68     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    59. Should we be reluctant to prescribe opioids for chronic non-malignant pain? Pain. 2007 Jun; 129(3):233-234. Fields HL. PMID: 17449177.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    60. The Asp40 mu-opioid receptor allele does not predict naltrexone treatment efficacy in heavy drinkers. J Clin Psychopharmacol. 2007 Feb; 27(1):112-5. Mitchell JM, Fields HL, White RL, Meadoff TM, Joslyn G, Rowbotham MC. PMID: 17224736.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    61. Ventral tegmental area neurons in learned appetitive behavior and positive reinforcement. Annu Rev Neurosci. 2007; 30:289-316. Fields HL, Hjelmstad GO, Margolis EB, Nicola SM. PMID: 17376009.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 268     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    62. Cholecystokinin is necessary for the expression of morphine conditioned place preference. Pharmacol Biochem Behav. 2006 Dec; 85(4):787-95. Mitchell JM, Bergren LJ, Chen KS, Fields HL. PMID: 17196636.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    63. Rat nucleus accumbens neurons persistently encode locations associated with morphine reward. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Mar; 97(3):2094-106. German PW, Fields HL. PMID: 17093128.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    64. How prior reward experience biases exploratory movements: a probabilistic model. J Neurophysiol. 2007 Mar; 97(3):2083-93. German PW, Fields HL. PMID: 17093129.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    65. Endogenous opioid blockade and impulsive responding in alcoholics and healthy controls. Neuropsychopharmacology. 2007 Feb; 32(2):439-49. Mitchell JM, Tavares VC, Fields HL, D'Esposito M, Boettiger CA. PMID: 17047667.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 55     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    66. The ventral tegmental area revisited: is there an electrophysiological marker for dopaminergic neurons? J Physiol. 2006 Dec 15; 577(Pt 3):907-24. Margolis EB, Lock H, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. PMID: 16959856; PMCID: PMC1890372.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 296     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    67. Endogenous opioids encode relative taste preference. Eur J Neurosci. 2006 Aug; 24(4):1220-6. Taha SA, Norsted E, Lee LS, Lang PD, Lee BS, Woolley JD, Fields HL. PMID: 16925586.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17  Translation:AnimalsCells
    68. Isolating the modulatory effect of expectation on pain transmission: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study. J Neurosci. 2006 Apr 19; 26(16):4437-43. Keltner JR, Furst A, Fan C, Redfern R, Inglis B, Fields HL. PMID: 16624963; PMCID: PMC6674009.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 126     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    69. Orexin A in the VTA is critical for the induction of synaptic plasticity and behavioral sensitization to cocaine. Neuron. 2006 Feb 16; 49(4):589-601. Borgland SL, Taha SA, Sarti F, Fields HL, Bonci A. PMID: 16476667.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 317     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    70. Kappa opioids selectively control dopaminergic neurons projecting to the prefrontal cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Feb 21; 103(8):2938-42. Margolis EB, Lock H, Chefer VI, Shippenberg TS, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. PMID: 16477003; PMCID: PMC1413839.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 185     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    71. Inhibitions of nucleus accumbens neurons encode a gating signal for reward-directed behavior. J Neurosci. 2006 Jan 04; 26(1):217-22. Taha SA, Fields HL. PMID: 16399690; PMCID: PMC6674301.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 88     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    72. Impulsive responding in alcoholics. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2005 Dec; 29(12):2158-69. Mitchell JM, Fields HL, D'Esposito M, Boettiger CA. PMID: 16385186.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 145     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    73. Treatment response in antidepressant-naïve postherpetic neuralgia patients: double-blind, randomized trial. J Pain. 2005 Nov; 6(11):741-6. Rowbotham MC, Reisner LA, Davies PS, Fields HL. PMID: 16275598.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    74. A single injection of the kappa opioid antagonist norbinaltorphimine increases ethanol consumption in rats. Psychopharmacology (Berl). 2005 Nov; 182(3):384-92. Mitchell JM, Liang MT, Fields HL. PMID: 16001119.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 53     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    75. Fibromyalgia from the perspective of neuropathic pain. J Rheumatol Suppl. 2005 Aug; 75:1-5. Dworkin RH, Fields HL. PMID: 16078355.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    76. Encoding of palatability and appetitive behaviors by distinct neuronal populations in the nucleus accumbens. J Neurosci. 2005 Feb 02; 25(5):1193-202. Taha SA, Fields HL. PMID: 15689556; PMCID: PMC6725953.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 95     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    77. Both kappa and mu opioid agonists inhibit glutamatergic input to ventral tegmental area neurons. J Neurophysiol. 2005 Jun; 93(6):3086-93. Margolis EB, Hjelmstad GO, Bonci A, Fields HL. PMID: 15615834.
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    78. Dissociation of the role of nucleus accumbens dopamine in responding to reward-predictive cues and waiting for reward. Behav Brain Res. 2004 Sep 23; 154(1):19-30. Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL, Nicola SM. PMID: 15302107.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    79. Contrasting effects of dopamine and glutamate receptor antagonist injection in the nucleus accumbens suggest a neural mechanism underlying cue-evoked goal-directed behavior. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Jul; 20(1):249-63. Yun IA, Nicola SM, Fields HL. PMID: 15245497.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 48  Translation:Animals
    80. State-dependent opioid control of pain. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2004 Jul; 5(7):565-75. Fields H. PMID: 15208698.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 343     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    81. A single cocaine exposure enhances both opioid reward and aversion through a ventral tegmental area-dependent mechanism. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 13; 101(15):5664-9. Kim JA, Pollak KA, Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. PMID: 15064402; PMCID: PMC397468.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    82. The ventral tegmental area is required for the behavioral and nucleus accumbens neuronal firing responses to incentive cues. J Neurosci. 2004 Mar 24; 24(12):2923-33. Yun IA, Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL, Nicola SM. PMID: 15044531; PMCID: PMC6729854.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 115     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    83. Glutamatergic activation of anterior cingulate cortex produces an aversive teaching signal. Nat Neurosci. 2004 Apr; 7(4):398-403. Johansen JP, Fields HL. PMID: 15004562.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 159     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    84. Local application of the cannabinoid receptor agonist, WIN 55,212-2, to spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis differentially affects nociceptive and non-nociceptive neurons. Pain. 2004 Feb; 107(3):267-275. Papanastassiou AM, Fields HL, Meng ID. PMID: 14736589.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    85. Peptidergic nociceptors of both trigeminal and dorsal root ganglia express serotonin 1D receptors: implications for the selective antimigraine action of triptans. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 26; 23(34):10988-97. Potrebic S, Ahn AH, Skinner K, Fields HL, Basbaum AI. PMID: 14645495; PMCID: PMC6740979.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 61     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    86. Cue-evoked firing of nucleus accumbens neurons encodes motivational significance during a discriminative stimulus task. J Neurophysiol. 2004 Apr; 91(4):1840-65. Nicola SM, Yun IA, Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL. PMID: 14645377.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 100     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    87. Firing of nucleus accumbens neurons during the consummatory phase of a discriminative stimulus task depends on previous reward predictive cues. J Neurophysiol. 2004 Apr; 91(4):1866-82. Nicola SM, Yun IA, Wakabayashi KT, Fields HL. PMID: 14645378.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 60     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    88. Kappa-opioid agonists directly inhibit midbrain dopaminergic neurons. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 05; 23(31):9981-6. Margolis EB, Hjelmstad GO, Bonci A, Fields HL. PMID: 14602811; PMCID: PMC6740851.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 142     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    89. Kappa opioid receptor activation in the nucleus accumbens inhibits glutamate and GABA release through different mechanisms. J Neurophysiol. 2003 May; 89(5):2389-95. Hjelmstad GO, Fields HL. PMID: 12740400.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 66     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    90. National Institutes of Health Workshop: reflex sympathetic dystrophy/complex regional pain syndromes--state-of-the-science. Anesth Analg. 2002 Dec; 95(6):1812-6. Baron R, Fields HL, Jänig W, Kitt C, Levine JD. PMID: 12456464.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    91. Capsaicin evoked pain and allodynia in post-herpetic neuralgia. Pain. 2000 Nov; 88(2):125-133. Petersen KL, Fields HL, Brennum J, Sandroni P, Rowbotham MC. PMID: 11050367.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    92. Pain: an unpleasant topic. Pain. 1999 Aug; Suppl 6:S61-S69. Fields HL. PMID: 10491974.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    93. Comments on Thurston and Randich. Pain. 1996 Feb; 64(2):396. Fields HL, Heinricher MM. PMID: 8740621.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    94. Do benzodiazepines have a role in chronic pain management? Pain. 1994 May; 57(2):137-152. Dellemijn PLI, Fields HL. PMID: 8090510.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    95. Activity of nociceptive modulatory neurons in the rostral ventromedial medulla associated with volume expansion-induced antinociception. Pain. 1993 Jan; 52(1):1-9. Morgan MM, Fields HL. PMID: 8446430.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    96. Treatment of inflammatory, neuropathic and sympathetically maintained pain in a patient with Sjögren's syndrome. Pain. 1992 Aug; 50(2):205-208. Galer BS, Rowbotham MC, Miller KV, Walton A, Fields HL. PMID: 1408318.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    97. Post-herpetic neuralgia: the relation of pain complaint, sensory disturbance, and skin temperature. Pain. 1989 Nov; 39(2):129-144. Rowbotham MC, Fields HL. PMID: 2594392.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    98. Topical lidocaine reduces pain in post-herpetic neuralgia. Pain. 1989 Sep; 38(3):297-301. Rowbotham MC, Fields HL. PMID: 2478945.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    99. Can opiates relieve neuropathic pain? Pain. 1988 Dec; 35(3):365. Fields HL. PMID: 3226762.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    100. Sources of variability in the sensation of pain. Pain. 1988 May; 33(2):195-200. Fields HL. PMID: 3288941.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    101. Synergy between the antinociceptive effects of intrathecal clonidine and systemic morphine in the rat. Pain. 1988 Mar; 32(3):309-312. Drasner K, Fields HL. PMID: 3362566.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    102. Potentiation of morphine antinociception by monoamine reuptake inhibitors in the rat spinal cord. Pain. 1985 Apr; 21(4):329-337. Taiwo YO, Fabian A, Pazoles CJ, Fields HL. PMID: 4000684.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    103. Naloxone fails to antagonize nitrous oxide analgesia for clinical pain. Pain. 1982 Jun; 13(2):165-170. Levine JD, Gordon NC, Fields HL. PMID: 7122107.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    104. Analgesic responses to morphine and placebo in individuals with postoperative pain. Pain. 1981 Jun; 10(3):379-389. Levine JD, Gordon NC, Smith R, Fields HL. PMID: 7279424.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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