Matthew Leonard, PhD

Title(s)Associate Professor, Neurological Surgery
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address1651 4th Street, #675A
San Francisco CA 94158
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-8530-880X Additional info
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)UCSF Weill Institute for Neurosciences

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Occidental CollegeBA2006Cognitive Science
    University of California, San DiegoMS2008Cognitive Science
    University of California, San DiegoPhD2011Cognitive Science

    Collapse Overview 
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Neural Systems in Auditory and Speech Categorization
    NIH R01DC015504Jul 1, 2017 - Jun 30, 2022
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Peripheral Nerve Stimulation to Facilitate Language Learning
    DARPA N66001-17-2-4008Mar 2, 2017 - Feb 29, 2020
    Role: Co-PI
    Description: Human studies team leader
    The Neurophysiological Dynamics of Lexical and Sub-Lexical Representations
    NIH F32DC013486Oct 1, 2013 - Sep 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Parallel Encoding of Speech in Human Frontal and Temporal Lobes. bioRxiv. 2024 Mar 20. Hullett PW, Leonard MK, Gorno-Tempini ML, Mandelli ML, Chang EF. PMID: 38562883; PMCID: PMC10983886.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    2. Encoding of melody in the human auditory cortex. Sci Adv. 2024 Feb 16; 10(7):eadk0010. Sankaran N, Leonard MK, Theunissen F, Chang EF. PMID: 38363839; PMCID: PMC10871532.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    3. Large-scale single-neuron speech sound encoding across the depth of human cortex. Nature. 2024 Feb; 626(7999):593-602. Leonard MK, Gwilliams L, Sellers KK, Chung JE, Xu D, Mischler G, Mesgarani N, Welkenhuysen M, Dutta B, Chang EF. PMID: 38093008; PMCID: PMC10866713.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    4. Encoding of melody in the human auditory cortex. bioRxiv. 2023 Oct 19. Sankaran N, Leonard MK, Theunissen F, Chang EF. PMID: 37905047; PMCID: PMC10614915.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    5. Interictal epileptiform discharges contribute to word-finding difficulty in epilepsy through multiple cognitive mechanisms. Epilepsia. 2023 Dec; 64(12):3266-3278. Silva AB, Leonard MK, Oganian Y, D'Esopo E, Krish D, Kopald B, Tran EB, Chang EF, Kleen JK. PMID: 37753856; PMCID: PMC10841419.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    6. Transcutaneous Auricular Vagus Nerve Stimulation Modulates Performance but Not Pupil Size During Nonnative Speech Category Learning. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2023 Oct 04; 66(10):3825-3843. McHaney JR, Schuerman WL, Leonard MK, Chandrasekaran B. PMID: 37652065.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    7. Human Intracranial Recordings for Language Research. Language Electrified. 2023 Aug 4; 202:285-309. Schuerman SW, Leonard LM. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    8. Apraxia of speech with phonological alexia and agraphia following resection of the left middle precentral gyrus: illustrative case. J Neurosurg Case Lessons. 2023 Mar 27; 5(13). Levy DF, Silva AB, Scott TL, Liu JR, Harper S, Zhao L, Hullett PW, Kurteff G, Wilson SM, Leonard MK, Chang EF. PMID: 37014023; PMCID: PMC10550577.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    9. High-density single-unit human cortical recordings using the Neuropixels probe. Neuron. 2022 08 03; 110(15):2409-2421.e3. Chung JE, Sellers KK, Leonard MK, Gwilliams L, Xu D, Dougherty ME, Kharazia V, Metzger SL, Welkenhuysen M, Dutta B, Chang EF. PMID: 35679860.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    10. Arousal States as a Key Source of Variability in Speech Perception and Learning. Languages. 2022 Jan 24; 7(1):19. Schuerman SW, Chandrasekaran CB, Leonard LM. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    11. Human intracranial recordings reveal distinct cortical activity patterns during invasive and non-invasive vagus nerve stimulation. Sci Rep. 2021 11 23; 11(1):22780. Schuerman WL, Nourski KV, Rhone AE, Howard MA, Chang EF, Leonard MK. PMID: 34815529; PMCID: PMC8611055.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Learning nonnative speech sounds changes local encoding in the adult human cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2021 09 07; 118(36). Yi HG, Chandrasekaran B, Nourski KV, Rhone AE, Schuerman WL, Howard MA, Chang EF, Leonard MK. PMID: 34475209; PMCID: PMC8433551.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Cortical Encoding of Manual Articulatory and Linguistic Features in American Sign Language. Curr Biol. 2020 11 16; 30(22):4342-4351.e3. Leonard MK, Lucas B, Blau S, Corina DP, Chang EF. PMID: 32888480; PMCID: PMC7674262.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Non-invasive peripheral nerve stimulation selectively enhances speech category learning in adults. NPJ Sci Learn. 2020; 5:12. Llanos F, McHaney JR, Schuerman WL, Yi HG, Leonard MK, Chandrasekaran B. PMID: 32802406; PMCID: PMC7410845.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10  
    15. Interictal Epileptiform Discharges and the Quality of Human Intracranial Neurophysiology Data. Front Hum Neurosci. 2020; 14:44. Ammanuel SG, Kleen JK, Leonard MK, Chang EF. PMID: 32194384; PMCID: PMC7062638.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    16. Brain Stimulation Can Help Us Understand Music and Language. Frontiers for Young Minds. 2020 Feb 25; 8:16. Desai DM, Sorrells SR, Leonard LM, Chang CE, Hamilton HL. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    17. Real-time decoding of question-and-answer speech dialogue using human cortical activity. Nat Commun. 2019 07 30; 10(1):3096. Moses DA, Leonard MK, Makin JG, Chang EF. PMID: 31363096; PMCID: PMC6667454.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 52     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. The Encoding of Speech Sounds in the Superior Temporal Gyrus. Neuron. 2019 06 19; 102(6):1096-1110. Yi HG, Leonard MK, Chang EF. PMID: 31220442; PMCID: PMC6602075.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 98     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. Neural Encoding of Auditory Features during Music Perception and Imagery. Cereb Cortex. 2018 12 01; 28(12):4222-4233. Martin S, Mikutta C, Leonard MK, Hungate D, Koelsch S, Shamma S, Chang EF, Millán JDR, Knight RT, Pasley BN. PMID: 29088345; PMCID: PMC6215461.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    20. Neurosurgical Patients as Human Research Subjects: Ethical Considerations in Intracranial Electrophysiology Research. Neurosurgery. 2018 07 01; 83(1):29-37. Chiong W, Leonard MK, Chang EF. PMID: 28973530; PMCID: PMC5777911.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. The Control of Vocal Pitch in Human Laryngeal Motor Cortex. Cell. 2018 06 28; 174(1):21-31.e9. Dichter BK, Breshears JD, Leonard MK, Chang EF. PMID: 29958109; PMCID: PMC6084806.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 53     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Direct cortical stimulation of inferior frontal cortex disrupts both speech and music production in highly trained musicians. Cogn Neuropsychol. 2019 May - Jun; 36(3-4):158-166. Leonard MK, Desai M, Hungate D, Cai R, Singhal NS, Knowlton RC, Chang EF. PMID: 29786470.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Human Sensorimotor Cortex Control of Directly Measured Vocal Tract Movements during Vowel Production. J Neurosci. 2018 03 21; 38(12):2955-2966. Conant DF, Bouchard KE, Leonard MK, Chang EF. PMID: 29439164; PMCID: PMC5864145.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Neural correlates of sine-wave speech intelligibility in human frontal and temporal cortex. Brain Lang. 2018 12; 187:83-91. Khoshkhoo S, Leonard MK, Mesgarani N, Chang EF. PMID: 29397190; PMCID: PMC6067983.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Real-time classification of auditory sentences using evoked cortical activity in humans. J Neural Eng. 2018 06; 15(3):036005. Moses DA, Leonard MK, Chang EF. PMID: 29378977; PMCID: PMC10560396.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Chronic ambulatory electrocorticography from human speech cortex. Neuroimage. 2017 06; 153:273-282. Rao VR, Leonard MK, Kleen JK, Lucas BA, Mirro EA, Chang EF. PMID: 28396294; PMCID: PMC5482367.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Perceptual restoration of masked speech in human cortex. Nat Commun. 2016 12 20; 7:13619. Leonard MK, Baud MO, Sjerps MJ, Chang EF. PMID: 27996973; PMCID: PMC5187421.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 57     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    28. Neural speech recognition: continuous phoneme decoding using spatiotemporal representations of human cortical activity. J Neural Eng. 2016 10; 13(5):056004. Moses DA, Mesgarani N, Leonard MK, Chang EF. PMID: 27484713; PMCID: PMC5031534.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. The peri-Sylvian cortical network underlying single word repetition revealed by electrocortical stimulation and direct neural recordings. Brain Lang. 2019 06; 193:58-72. Leonard MK, Cai R, Babiak MC, Ren A, Chang EF. PMID: 27450996; PMCID: PMC5790638.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. Chapter 39 Direct Cortical Neurophysiology of Speech Perception. Neurobiology of Language. 2016 Jan 1; 479-489. Leonard LM, Chang CE. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    31. Neurobiology of Language (G. Hickok & S.L. Small, Eds). Neural organization of speech perception: Intracranial Recording. 2015. Leonard, M.K. Chang, E.F.
    32. The influence of lexical statistics on temporal lobe cortical dynamics during spoken word listening. Brain Lang. 2015 Aug; 147:66-75. Cibelli ES, Leonard MK, Johnson K, Chang EF. PMID: 26072003; PMCID: PMC4521602.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. Dynamic encoding of speech sequence probability in human temporal cortex. J Neurosci. 2015 May 06; 35(18):7203-14. Leonard MK, Bouchard KE, Tang C, Chang EF. PMID: 25948269; PMCID: PMC4420784.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Neural Language Processing in Adolescent First-Language Learners: Longitudinal Case Studies in American Sign Language. Cereb Cortex. 2016 Mar; 26(3):1015-26. Ferjan Ramirez N, Leonard MK, Davenport TS, Torres C, Halgren E, Mayberry RI. PMID: 25410427; PMCID: PMC4737603.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    35. Facial emotion recognition in agenesis of the corpus callosum. J Neurodev Disord. 2014; 6(1):32. Bridgman MW, Brown WS, Spezio ML, Leonard MK, Adolphs R, Paul LK. PMID: 25705318; PMCID: PMC4335392.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    
    36. Dynamic speech representations in the human temporal lobe. Trends Cogn Sci. 2014 Sep; 18(9):472-9. Leonard MK, Chang EF. PMID: 24906217; PMCID: PMC4149812.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 40     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Neural evidence for shared phonetic, phonological, and lexical processing of words and pseudowords. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 2013 Nov 1; 134(5):4233-4233. Cibelli CE, Leonard LM, Chang CE. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    38. Human superior temporal gyrus encoding of speech sequence probabilities. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 2013 Nov 1; 134(5):4234-4234. Leonard LM, Bouchard BK, Chang CE. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    39. Neural stages of spoken, written, and signed word processing in beginning second language learners. Front Hum Neurosci. 2013; 7:322. Leonard MK, Ferjan Ramirez N, Torres C, Hatrak M, Mayberry RI, Halgren E. PMID: 23847496; PMCID: PMC3698463.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8  
    40. Neural language processing in adolescent first-language learners. Cereb Cortex. 2014 Oct; 24(10):2772-83. Ferjan Ramirez N, Leonard MK, Torres C, Hatrak M, Halgren E, Mayberry RI. PMID: 23696277; PMCID: PMC4153811.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Speech-specific tuning of neurons in human superior temporal gyrus. Cereb Cortex. 2014 Oct; 24(10):2679-93. Chan AM, Dykstra AR, Jayaram V, Leonard MK, Travis KE, Gygi B, Baker JM, Eskandar E, Hochberg LR, Halgren E, Cash SS. PMID: 23680841; PMCID: PMC4162511.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 45     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    42. Age-related changes in tissue signal properties within cortical areas important for word understanding in 12- to 19-month-old infants. Cereb Cortex. 2014 Jul; 24(7):1948-55. Travis KE, Curran MM, Torres C, Leonard MK, Brown TT, Dale AM, Elman JL, Halgren E. PMID: 23448869; PMCID: PMC4051897.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    43. Independence of early speech processing from word meaning. Cereb Cortex. 2013 Oct; 23(10):2370-9. Travis KE, Leonard MK, Chan AM, Torres C, Sizemore ML, Qu Z, Eskandar E, Dale AM, Elman JL, Cash SS, Halgren E. PMID: 22875868; PMCID: PMC3767959.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. Signed words in the congenitally deaf evoke typical late lexicosemantic responses with no early visual responses in left superior temporal cortex. J Neurosci. 2012 Jul 11; 32(28):9700-5. Leonard MK, Ferjan Ramirez N, Torres C, Travis KE, Hatrak M, Mayberry RI, Halgren E. PMID: 22787055; PMCID: PMC3418348.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Investigating the spatiotemporal neural dynamics of lexico-semantic activity in 12–18 month old infants by combining magnetoencephalography and magnetic resonance imaging. The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America. 2011 Apr 1; 129(4):2493-2493. Travis TK, Leonard LM, Brown BT, Hagler HD, Dale DA, Elman EJ, Halgren HE. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    46. Language proficiency modulates the recruitment of non-classical language areas in bilinguals. PLoS One. 2011 Mar 24; 6(3):e18240. Leonard MK, Torres C, Travis KE, Brown TT, Hagler DJ, Dale AM, Elman JL, Halgren E. PMID: 21455315; PMCID: PMC3063800.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Spatiotemporal neural dynamics of word understanding in 12- to 18-month-old-infants. Cereb Cortex. 2011 Aug; 21(8):1832-9. Travis KE, Leonard MK, Brown TT, Hagler DJ, Curran M, Dale AM, Elman JL, Halgren E. PMID: 21209121; PMCID: PMC3138516.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    48. Multimodal imaging of repetition priming: Using fMRI, MEG, and intracranial EEG to reveal spatiotemporal profiles of word processing. Neuroimage. 2010 Nov 01; 53(2):707-17. McDonald CR, Thesen T, Carlson C, Blumberg M, Girard HM, Trongnetrpunya A, Sherfey JS, Devinsky O, Kuzniecky R, Dolye WK, Cash SS, Leonard MK, Hagler DJ, Dale AM, Halgren E. PMID: 20620212; PMCID: PMC2930128.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 49     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. Spatiotemporal dynamics of bilingual word processing. Neuroimage. 2010 Feb 15; 49(4):3286-94. Leonard MK, Brown TT, Travis KE, Gharapetian L, Hagler DJ, Dale AM, Elman JL, Halgren E. PMID: 20004256; PMCID: PMC2824560.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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