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Robert Knowlton, MD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentNeurology
Address513 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Tulane UniversityBSBiological Chemistry
    LSU New Orleans MDSchool of Medicine
    University California Los AngelesResidencyNeurology
    University California San FranciscoFellowship Epilepsy Clinical NeurophysiologyNeurology
    University of Alabama BirminghamMSPHSchool of Public Health

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    ROLE OF FDG-PET, 1H-MRSI, AND MSI IN EPILEPSY SURGERY
    NIH/NINDS K23NS002218Sep 6, 2001 - Aug 31, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Leonard MK, Desai M, Hungate D, Cai R, Singhal NS, Knowlton R, Chang EF. Direct cortical stimulation of inferior frontal cortex disrupts both speech and music production in highly trained musicians. Cogn Neuropsychol. 2018 May 22; 1-9. PMID: 29786470.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Muller L, Rolston JD, Fox NP, Knowlton R, Rao VR, Chang EF. Direct electrical stimulation of human cortex evokes high gamma activity that predicts conscious somatosensory perception. J Neural Eng. 2018 Apr; 15(2):026015. PMID: 29160232.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Barbaro NM, Quigg M, Ward MM, Chang EF, Broshek DK, Langfitt JT, Yan G, Laxer KD, Cole AJ, Sneed PK, Hess CP, Yu W, Tripathi M, Heck CN, Miller JW, Garcia PA, McEvoy A, Fountain NB, Salanova V, Knowlton R, Bagic A, Henry T, Kapoor S, McKhann G, Palade AE, Reuber M, Tecoma E. Radiosurgery versus open surgery for mesial temporal lobe epilepsy: The randomized, controlled ROSE trial. Epilepsia. 2018 Mar 30. PMID: 29600809.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Allen SE, Limdi N, Westrick AC, Ver Hoef LW, Szaflarski JP, Knowlton R. Racial disparities in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2018 Feb; 140:56-60. PMID: 29272743.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Tan YL, Kim H, Lee S, Tihan T, Ver Hoef L, Mueller SG, Barkovich AJ, Xu D, Knowlton R. Quantitative surface analysis of combined MRI and PET enhances detection of focal cortical dysplasias. Neuroimage. 2018 Feb 01; 166:10-18. PMID: 29097316.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Baud MO, Kleen JK, Anumanchipalli GK, Hamilton LS, Tan YL, Knowlton R, Chang EF. Unsupervised Learning of Spatiotemporal Interictal Discharges in Focal Epilepsy. Neurosurgery. 2017 Oct 10. PMID: 29040672.
      View in: PubMed
    7. González Otárula KA, Tan YL, Dubeau F, Correa JA, Chang E, Hall JA, Knowlton R, Kobayashi E. Psychogenic nonepileptic seizures in patients with surgically treated temporal lobe epilepsy: Presurgical and de novo postsurgical occurrence. Epilepsy Behav. 2017 10; 75:252-255. PMID: 28867568.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Muhlhofer W, Tan YL, Mueller SG, Knowlton R. MRI-negative temporal lobe epilepsy-What do we know? Epilepsia. 2017 05; 58(5):727-742. PMID: 28266710.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Tan YL, Muhlhofer W, Knowlton R. Pearls and Oy-sters: The chapeau de gendarme sign and other localizing gems in frontal lobe epilepsy. Neurology. 2016 Sep 06; 87(10):e103-5. PMID: 27597558.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Szaflarski JP, Lee S, Allendorfer JB, Gaston TE, Knowlton R, Pati S, Ver Hoef LW, Deutsch G. White Matter Abnormalities in Patients with Treatment-Resistant Genetic Generalized Epilepsies. Med Sci Monit. 2016 Jun 10; 22:1966-75. PMID: 27283395; PMCID: PMC4917325.
    11. Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Knowlton R, Chang EF. Rate and complications of adult epilepsy surgery in North America: Analysis of multiple databases. Epilepsy Res. 2016 08; 124:55-62. PMID: 27259069.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Englot DJ, Nagarajan SS, Wang DD, Rolston JD, Mizuiri D, Honma SM, Mantle M, Tarapore PE, Knowlton R, Chang EF, Kirsch HE. The sensitivity and significance of lateralized interictal slow activity on magnetoencephalography in focal epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2016 Mar; 121:21-8. PMID: 26871959; PMCID: PMC4769925 [Available on 03/01/17].
    13. Panov F, Li Y, Chang EF, Knowlton R, Cornes SB. Epilepsy with temporal encephalocele: Characteristics of electrocorticography and surgical outcome. Epilepsia. 2016 Feb; 57(2):e33-8. PMID: 26682848.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Wang DD, Knox R, Rolston JD, Englot DJ, Barkovich AJ, Tihan T, Auguste KI, Knowlton R, Cornes SB, Chang EF. Surgical management of medically refractory epilepsy in patients with polymicrogyria. Epilepsia. 2016 Jan; 57(1):151-61. PMID: 26647903.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Fallil Z, Pardoe H, Bachman R, Cunningham B, Parulkar I, Shain C, Poduri A, Knowlton R, Kuzniecky R. Phenotypic and imaging features of FLNA-negative patients with bilateral periventricular nodular heterotopia and epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2015 Oct; 51:321-7. PMID: 26340046; PMCID: PMC4594191 [Available on 10/01/16].
    16. Jehi L, Friedman D, Carlson C, Cascino G, Dewar S, Elger C, Engel J, Knowlton R, Kuzniecky R, McIntosh A, O'Brien TJ, Spencer D, Sperling MR, Worrell G, Bingaman B, Gonzalez-Martinez J, Doyle W, French J. The evolution of epilepsy surgery between 1991 and 2011 in nine major epilepsy centers across the United States, Germany, and Australia. Epilepsia. 2015 Oct; 56(10):1526-33. PMID: 26250432.
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    17. Englot DJ, Hinkley LB, Kort NS, Imber BS, Mizuiri D, Honma SM, Findlay AM, Garrett C, Cheung PL, Mantle M, Tarapore PE, Knowlton R, Chang EF, Kirsch HE, Nagarajan SS. Global and regional functional connectivity maps of neural oscillations in focal epilepsy. Brain. 2015 Aug; 138(Pt 8):2249-62. PMID: 25981965; PMCID: PMC4840946.
    18. Lee S, Allendorfer JB, Gaston TE, Griffis JC, Hernando KA, Knowlton R, Szaflarski JP, Ver Hoef LW. White matter diffusion abnormalities in patients with psychogenic non-epileptic seizures. Brain Res. 2015 Sep 16; 1620:169-76. PMID: 25979311.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Englot DJ, Nagarajan SS, Imber BS, Raygor KP, Honma SM, Mizuiri D, Mantle M, Knowlton R, Kirsch HE, Chang EF. Epileptogenic zone localization using magnetoencephalography predicts seizure freedom in epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia. 2015 Jun; 56(6):949-58. PMID: 25921215; PMCID: PMC4457690.
    20. Kharkar S, Knowlton R. Magnetoencephalography in the presurgical evaluation of epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2015 May; 46:19-26. PMID: 25555504.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Englot DJ, Raygor KP, Molinaro AM, Garcia PA, Knowlton R, Auguste KI, Chang EF. Factors associated with failed focal neocortical epilepsy surgery. Neurosurgery. 2014 Dec; 75(6):648-5;discussion 655; quiz 656. PMID: 25181435; PMCID: PMC4393951.
    22. Esquenazi Y, Kalamangalam GP, Slater JD, Knowlton R, Friedman E, Morris SA, Shetty A, Gowda A, Tandon N. Stereotactic laser ablation of epileptogenic periventricular nodular heterotopia. Epilepsy Res. 2014 Mar; 108(3):547-54. PMID: 24518890.
      View in: PubMed
    23. De novo mutations in epileptic encephalopathies. Nature. 2013 Sep 12; 501(7466):217-21. PMID: 23934111; PMCID: PMC3773011.
    24. Ver Hoef LW, Paige AL, Riley KO, Cure J, Soltani M, Williams FB, Kennedy RE, Szaflarski JP, Knowlton R. Evaluating hippocampal internal architecture on MRI: inter-rater reliability of a proposed scoring system. Epilepsy Res. 2013 Sep; 106(1-2):146-54. PMID: 23916363; PMCID: PMC3759581.
    25. Ver Hoef LW, Williams FB, Kennedy RE, Szaflarski JP, Knowlton R. Predictive value of hippocampal internal architecture asymmetry in temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Res. 2013 Sep; 106(1-2):155-63. PMID: 23911210; PMCID: PMC4475754.
    26. Shain C, Ramgopal S, Fallil Z, Parulkar I, Alongi R, Knowlton R, Poduri A. Polymicrogyria-associated epilepsy: a multicenter phenotypic study from the Epilepsy Phenome/Genome Project. Epilepsia. 2013 Aug; 54(8):1368-75. PMID: 23750890; PMCID: PMC3851304.
    27. Kim H, Kankirawatana P, Killen J, Harrison A, Oh A, Rozzelle C, Blount J, Knowlton R. Magnetic source imaging (MSI) in children with neocortical epilepsy: surgical outcome association with 3D post-resection analysis. Epilepsy Res. 2013 Sep; 106(1-2):164-72. PMID: 23689013.
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    28. Pisu M, Kratt P, Faught E, Martin RC, Kim Y, Clements K, Knowlton R, Funkhouser E, Richman JS. Geographic variation of epilepsy for older Americans: how close to the geographic variation of stroke? Epilepsia. 2012 Dec; 53(12):2186-93. PMID: 22958112.
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    29. Walker HC, Huang H, Gonzalez CL, Bryant JE, Killen J, Knowlton R, Montgomery EB, Cutter GC, Yildirim A, Guthrie BL, Watts RL. Short latency activation of cortex by clinically effective thalamic brain stimulation for tremor. Mov Disord. 2012 Sep 15; 27(11):1404-12. PMID: 22926754; PMCID: PMC3691999.
    30. Pisu M, Richman JS, Martin RC, Kim Y, Kratt P, Clements K, Funkhouser E, Knowlton R, Faught E. Diagnostic tests and neurology care for Medicare beneficiaries with seizures: differences across racial groups. Med Care. 2012 Aug; 50(8):730-6. PMID: 22781710.
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    31. Hutcheson NL, Reid MA, White DM, Kraguljac NV, Avsar KB, Bolding MS, Knowlton R, den Hollander JA, Lahti AC. Multimodal analysis of the hippocampus in schizophrenia using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy and functional magnetic resonance imaging. Schizophr Res. 2012 Sep; 140(1-3):136-42. PMID: 22831772; PMCID: PMC3482548.
    32. Walker HC, Huang H, Gonzalez CL, Bryant JE, Killen J, Cutter GR, Knowlton R, Montgomery EB, Guthrie BL, Watts RL. Short latency activation of cortex during clinically effective subthalamic deep brain stimulation for Parkinson's disease. Mov Disord. 2012 Jun; 27(7):864-73. PMID: 22648508; PMCID: PMC3636546.
    33. Weller RE, Stoeckel LE, Milby JB, Bolding M, Twieg DB, Knowlton R, Avison MJ, Ding Z. Smaller regional gray matter volume in homeless african american cocaine-dependent men: a preliminary report. Open Neuroimag J. 2011; 5:57-64. PMID: 22135719; PMCID: PMC3227861.
    34. Bagic AI, Knowlton R, Rose DF, Ebersole JS. American Clinical Magnetoencephalography Society Clinical Practice Guideline 3: MEG-EEG reporting. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2011 Aug; 28(4):362-3. PMID: 21811123.
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    35. Bagic AI, Knowlton R, Rose DF, Ebersole JS. American Clinical Magnetoencephalography Society Clinical Practice Guideline 1: recording and analysis of spontaneous cerebral activity. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2011 Aug; 28(4):348-54. PMID: 21811121.
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    36. Kim H, Lee C, Knowlton R, Rozzelle C, Blount JP. Safety and utility of supplemental depth electrodes for localizing the ictal onset zone in pediatric neocortical epilepsy. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2011 Jul; 8(1):49-56. PMID: 21721889.
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    37. Knowlton R, Kar J, Miller S, Limdi N, Elgavish R, Gilliam FG, Riley K, Howell J, Kilgore M. Preference-based quality-of-life measures for neocortical epilepsy surgery. Epilepsia. 2011 May; 52(5):1018-20. PMID: 21426329.
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    38. Reid MA, Stoeckel LE, White DM, Avsar KB, Bolding MS, Akella NS, Knowlton R, den Hollander JA, Lahti AC. Assessments of function and biochemistry of the anterior cingulate cortex in schizophrenia. Biol Psychiatry. 2010 Oct 01; 68(7):625-33. PMID: 20570244; PMCID: PMC2953853.
    39. Ver Hoef L, Elgavish R, Knowlton R. Effect of detection parameters on automated electroencephalography spike detection sensitivity and false-positive rate. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2010 Feb; 27(1):12-6. PMID: 20087204.
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    40. Knowlton R, Razdan SN, Limdi N, Elgavish RA, Killen J, Blount J, Burneo JG, Ver Hoef L, Paige L, Faught E, Kankirawatana P, Bartolucci A, Riley K, Kuzniecky R. Effect of epilepsy magnetic source imaging on intracranial electrode placement. Ann Neurol. 2009 Jun; 65(6):716-23. PMID: 19557860; PMCID: PMC2729691.
    41. DeWolfe JL, Knowlton R, Beasley MT, Cofield S, Faught E, Limdi NA. Hyperammonemia following intravenous valproate loading. Epilepsy Res. 2009 Jul; 85(1):65-71. PMID: 19299111.
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    42. Blount JP, Cormier J, Kim H, Kankirawatana P, Riley KO, Knowlton R. Advances in intracranial monitoring. Neurosurg Focus. 2008 Sep; 25(3):E18. PMID: 18759619.
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    43. Knowlton R, Elgavish RA, Limdi N, Bartolucci A, Ojha B, Blount J, Burneo JG, Ver Hoef L, Paige L, Faught E, Kankirawatana P, Riley K, Kuzniecky R. Functional imaging: I. Relative predictive value of intracranial electroencephalography. Ann Neurol. 2008 Jul; 64(1):25-34. PMID: 18412264.
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    44. Knowlton R, Elgavish RA, Bartolucci A, Ojha B, Limdi N, Blount J, Burneo JG, Ver Hoef L, Paige L, Faught E, Kankirawatana P, Riley K, Kuzniecky R. Functional imaging: II. Prediction of epilepsy surgery outcome. Ann Neurol. 2008 Jul; 64(1):35-41. PMID: 18570291.
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    45. McConley R, Martin R, Palmer CA, Kuzniecky R, Knowlton R, Faught E. Rey Osterrieth complex figure test spatial and figural scoring: relations to seizure focus and hippocampal pathology in patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. Epilepsy Behav. 2008 Jul; 13(1):174-7. PMID: 18467181.
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    46. Stoeckel LE, Weller RE, Cook EW, Twieg DB, Knowlton R, Cox JE. Widespread reward-system activation in obese women in response to pictures of high-calorie foods. Neuroimage. 2008 Jun; 41(2):636-47. PMID: 18413289.
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    47. Ver Hoef LW, Sawrie S, Killen J, Knowlton R. Left mesial temporal sclerosis and verbal memory: a magnetoencephalography study. J Clin Neurophysiol. 2008 Feb; 25(1):1-6. PMID: 18303554.
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    48. Knowlton R. Can magnetoencephalography aid epilepsy surgery? Epilepsy Curr. 2008 Jan-Feb; 8(1):1-5. PMID: 18265877; PMCID: PMC2238648.
    49. Burneo JG, Villanueva V, Knowlton R, Faught RE, Kuzniecky RI. Kaplan-Meier analysis on seizure outcome after epilepsy surgery: do gender and race influence it? Seizure. 2008 Jun; 17(4):314-9. PMID: 18024095.
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    50. Burneo JG, Black L, Martin R, Devinsky O, Pacia S, Faught E, Vasquez B, Knowlton R, Luciano D, Doyle W, Najjar S, Kuzniecky RI. Race/ethnicity, sex, and socioeconomic status as predictors of outcome after surgery for temporal lobe epilepsy. Arch Neurol. 2006 Aug; 63(8):1106-10. PMID: 16908736.
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    51. Tayah TF, Abou-Khalil B, Gilliam FG, Knowlton R, Wushensky CA, Gallagher MJ. Musicogenic seizures can arise from multiple temporal lobe foci: intracranial EEG analyses of three patients. Epilepsia. 2006 Aug; 47(8):1402-6. PMID: 16922888.
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    52. Blount JP, Tubbs RS, Kankirawatana P, Kiel S, Knowlton R, Grabb PA, Bebin M. Vagus nerve stimulation in children less than 5 years old. Childs Nerv Syst. 2006 Sep; 22(9):1167-9. PMID: 16718501.
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    53. Moore TA, Markert JM, Knowlton R. Dexmedetomidine as rescue drug during awake craniotomy for cortical motor mapping and tumor resection. Anesth Analg. 2006 May; 102(5):1556-8. PMID: 16632841.
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    54. Knowlton R, Elgavish R, Howell J, Blount J, Burneo JG, Faught E, Kankirawatana P, Riley K, Morawetz R, Worthington J, Kuzniecky RI. Magnetic source imaging versus intracranial electroencephalogram in epilepsy surgery: a prospective study. Ann Neurol. 2006 May; 59(5):835-42. PMID: 16634031.
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    55. Lee D, Sawrie SM, Simos PG, Killen J, Knowlton R. Reliability of language mapping with magnetic source imaging in epilepsy surgery candidates. Epilepsy Behav. 2006 Jun; 8(4):742-9. PMID: 16603415.
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    56. Knowlton R. The role of FDG-PET, ictal SPECT, and MEG in the epilepsy surgery evaluation. Epilepsy Behav. 2006 Feb; 8(1):91-101. PMID: 16406729.
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    57. Martin R, Griffith HR, Sawrie S, Knowlton R, Faught E. Determining empirically based self-reported cognitive change: development of reliable change indices and standardized regression-based change norms for the multiple abilities self-report questionnaire in an epilepsy sample. Epilepsy Behav. 2006 Feb; 8(1):239-45. PMID: 16368275.
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    58. Lee D, Simos P, Sawrie SM, Martin RC, Knowlton R. Dynamic brain activation patterns for face recognition: a magnetoencephalography study. Brain Topogr. 2005; 18(1):19-26. PMID: 16193263.
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    59. Burneo JG, Knowlton R, Martin R, Faught RE, Kuzniecky RI. Race/ethnicity: a predictor of temporal lobe epilepsy surgery outcome? Epilepsy Behav. 2005 Nov; 7(3):486-90. PMID: 16103016.
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    60. LoGalbo A, Sawrie S, Roth DL, Kuzniecky R, Knowlton R, Faught E, Martin R. Verbal memory outcome in patients with normal preoperative verbal memory and left mesial temporal sclerosis. Epilepsy Behav. 2005 May; 6(3):337-41. PMID: 15820340.
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    61. Burneo JG, Bebin M, Kuzniecky RI, Knowlton R. Electroclinical and magnetoencephalographic studies in epilepsy patients with polymicrogyria. Epilepsy Res. 2004 Dec; 62(2-3):125-33. PMID: 15579301.
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    62. Burneo JG, Kuzniecky RI, Bebin M, Knowlton R. Cortical reorganization in malformations of cortical development: a magnetoencephalographic study. Neurology. 2004 Nov 23; 63(10):1818-24. PMID: 15557496.
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    63. Knowlton R, Lawn ND, Mountz JM, Buddhiwardhan O, Miller S, Burneo JG, Kuzniecky RI. Ictal single-photon emission computed tomography imaging in extra temporal lobe epilepsy using statistical parametric mapping. J Neuroimaging. 2004 Oct; 14(4):324-30. PMID: 15358952.
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    64. Baños JH, LaGory J, Sawrie S, Faught E, Knowlton R, Prasad A, Kuzniecky R, Martin RC. Self-report of cognitive abilities in temporal lobe epilepsy: cognitive, psychosocial, and emotional factors. Epilepsy Behav. 2004 Aug; 5(4):575-9. PMID: 15256196.
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    65. Knowlton R, Lawn ND, Mountz JM, Kuzniecky RI. Ictal SPECT analysis in epilepsy: subtraction and statistical parametric mapping techniques. Neurology. 2004 Jul 13; 63(1):10-5. PMID: 15249603.
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    66. Knowlton R. Multimodality imaging in partial epilepsies. Curr Opin Neurol. 2004 Apr; 17(2):165-72. PMID: 15021244.
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    67. Banos JH, Roth DL, Palmer C, Morawetz R, Knowlton R, Faught E, Kuzniecky R, Bilir E, Martin RC. Confirmatory factor analysis of the california verbal learning test in patients with epilepsy: relationship to clinical and neuropathological markers of temporal lobe epilepsy. Neuropsychology. 2004 Jan; 18(1):60-8. PMID: 14744188.
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    68. Knowlton R, Shih J. Magnetoencephalography in epilepsy. Epilepsia. 2004; 45 Suppl 4:61-71. PMID: 15281961.
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    69. Burneo JG, Bilir E, Faught E, Morawetz R, Knowlton R, Martin R, Kuzniecky RI. Significance of fornix atrophy in temporal lobe epilepsy surgery outcome. Arch Neurol. 2003 Sep; 60(9):1238-42. PMID: 12975289.
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    70. Prasad A, Kuzniecky RI, Knowlton R, Welty TE, Martin RC, Mendez M, Faught RE. Evolving antiepileptic drug treatment in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy. Arch Neurol. 2003 Aug; 60(8):1100-5. PMID: 12925366.
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    71. Burneo JG, Knowlton R, Gomez C, Martin R, Kuzniecky RI. Confirmation of nonconvulsive limbic status epilepticus with the sodium amytal test. Epilepsia. 2003 Aug; 44(8):1122-6. PMID: 12887448.
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    72. Knowlton R. Magnetoencephalography: clinical application in epilepsy. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2003 Jul; 3(4):341-8. PMID: 12930705.
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    73. Burneo JG, Faught E, Knowlton R, Martin RC, Bebin M, Morawetz R, Kuzniecky R. Temporal lobectomy in congenital porencephaly associated with hippocampal sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 2003 Jun; 60(6):830-4. PMID: 12810487.
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    74. Martin R, Sawrie S, Gilliam F, Mackey M, Faught E, Knowlton R, Kuzniekcy R. Determining reliable cognitive change after epilepsy surgery: development of reliable change indices and standardized regression-based change norms for the WMS-III and WAIS-III. Epilepsia. 2002 Dec; 43(12):1551-8. PMID: 12460258.
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    75. Martin RC, Kretzmer T, Palmer C, Sawrie S, Knowlton R, Faught E, Morawetz R, Kuzniecky R. Risk to verbal memory following anterior temporal lobectomy in patients with severe left-sided hippocampal sclerosis. Arch Neurol. 2002 Dec; 59(12):1895-901. PMID: 12470177.
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    76. Knowlton R, Abou-Khalil B, Sawrie SM, Martin RC, Faught RE, Kuzniecky RI. In vivo hippocampal metabolic dysfunction in human temporal lobe epilepsy. Arch Neurol. 2002 Dec; 59(12):1882-6. PMID: 12470175.
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    77. Kuzniecky RI, Knowlton R. Neuroimaging of epilepsy. Semin Neurol. 2002 Sep; 22(3):279-88. PMID: 12528053.
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    78. Wong ST, Hoo KS, Knowlton R, Laxer KD, Cao X, Hawkins RA, Dillon WP, Arenson RL. Design and applications of a multimodality image data warehouse framework. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2002 May-Jun; 9(3):239-54. PMID: 11971885; PMCID: PMC344584.