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Van Halbach, MD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentRadiology
Address505 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-353-1863
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    2011 - 20122012 US News and World Report's "Top Doctors" (2011-2012)
    2013San Francisco Chronicle "Super Doctor"
    2011Top Doctors
    2012Super Doctors
    2003Honorary Member of the Cuban Society of Radiology
    UCSF Medical Center1999William G. Obota, MD Outstanding Clinical Faculty Award
    San Francisco Magazine1999Best Doctors in San Francisco
    1999Best Doctors in San Francisco, San Francisco Magazine
    1994The Best Doctors in the West
    1994 - 2016The Best Doctors in America
    1994Wilson Award Honorable Mention, Western Neuroradiology Society, "Endovascular therapy for vertebral
    1992Japanese Neurosurgical Society, Keynote speaker Kagoshima, Japan
    1979Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society
    1986Magna Cum Laude Award, XIII Symposium Neuroradiologicum, "Normal anatomy of the facial nerve as demo

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Van V. Halbach, MD, is a Clinical Professor of Radiology, Neurological Surgery, Neurology, and Anesthesiology at the University of California at San Francisco. Dr. Halbach received his medical degree from the School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, and completed his residency in Diagnostic Radiology from the Medical Center of UCLA, followed by a fellowship in Interventional Radiology from the Medical Center of UCLA.

    As Principal and Co-Principal Investigator, Dr. Halbach and his colleagues of the Interventional Neurovascular Radiology Section developed clinical and basic science research protocols designed to perfect innovative techniques to treat life threatening neurovascular disorders. Dr. Halbach and his group have pioneered many current techniques and developed many of the devices utilized in the expanding field of interventional neuroradiology.

    Dr. Halbach has published over 240 scientific articles on stroke, dural fistulae, ateriovenous malformations and related topics and authored over 87 book chapters. His articles have appeared in the American Journal of Neuroradiology, Radiology, the Journal of Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery, the Journal of Endovascular Surgery, Lancet, Stroke, Neurology, and the Journal of the American Medical Association.

    Expertise:
    Neuro Interventional Radiology

    Specialty:
    Neurovascular disorders

    Professional Interests:
    Interventional neuroradiological procedures in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke and dural and direct fistulae

    Education and Training:
    • Medical School: University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine
    • Internship: Sepulveda Veterans Hospital, California - Internal Medicine
    • Residency: University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center - Diagnostic Radiology
    • Fellowship: University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center - Interventional Radiology
    • American Board of Radiology (Certified)
    • Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
    • Advanced Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
    • Added Qualifications in Neuroradiology

    Collapse Interests
    Interventional neuroradiological procedures in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke and dural and direct fistulae.

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Kefayati S, Amans M, Faraji F, Ballweber M, Kao E, Ahn S, Meisel K, Halbach V, Saloner D. The manifestation of vortical and secondary flow in the cerebral venous outflow tract: An in vivo MR velocimetry study. J Biomech. 2016 Nov 15. PMID: 27894675.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Lum MA, Martin AJ, Alexander MD, McCoy DB, Cooke DL, Lillaney P, Moftakhar P, Amans MR, Settecase F, Nicholson A, Dowd CF, Halbach V, Higashida RT, McDermott MW, Saloner D, Hetts SW. Intra-Arterial MR Perfusion Imaging of Meningiomas: Comparison to Digital Subtraction Angiography and Intravenous MR Perfusion Imaging. PLoS One. 2016; 11(11):e0163554. PMID: 27802268.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Alexander MD, Nicholson AD, Darflinger RJ, Settecase F, Cooke DL, Dowd CF, Amans MR, Higashida RT, Hetts SW, Halbach V. Effects on vessel measurement accuracy and subsequent occlusion after calcium channel blocker infusion during treatment of cerebral aneurysms with the Pipeline embolization device. Interv Neuroradiol. 2016 Oct 26. PMID: 27798327.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Hetts SW, Moftakhar P, Maluste N, Fullerton HJ, Cooke DL, Amans MR, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. Pediatric intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: age-related differences in clinical features, angioarchitecture, and treatment outcomes. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Nov; 18(5):602-610. PMID: 27540826.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Alexander MD, Halbach V, Nicholson A, Settecase F, Darflinger RJ, Amans MR. Transvenous ethanol sclerotherapy of feeding arteries for treatment of a dural arteriovenous fistula. BMJ Case Rep. 2016; 2016. PMID: 27432825.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Lawton MT, Abla AA, Rutledge WC, Benet A, Zador Z, Rayz V, Saloner D, Halbach V. Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Dolichoectatic Basilar Trunk Aneurysms: A Work in Progress. Neurosurgery. 2016 Jul; 79(1):83-99. PMID: 26671632.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Settecase F, Nicholson AD, Amans MR, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Cooke DL, Dowd CF, Hetts SW. Onyx embolization of an intraosseous pseudoaneurysm of the middle meningeal artery in a patient with meningiomatosis, McCune-Albright syndrome, and gray platelet syndrome. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Mar; 17(3):324-9. PMID: 26588455.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Settecase F, Hetts SW, Nicholson AD, Amans MR, Cooke DL, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach V. Superselective Intra-Arterial Ethanol Sclerotherapy of Feeding Artery and Nidal Aneurysms in Ruptured Cerebral Arteriovenous Malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2016 Apr; 37(4):692-7. PMID: 26564434.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Narvid J, Amans MR, Cooke DL, Hetts SW, Dillon WP, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Spontaneous retroclival hematoma: a case series. J Neurosurg. 2016 Mar; 124(3):716-9. PMID: 26252463.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Acevedo-Bolton G, Amans MR, Kefayati S, Halbach V, Saloner D. Four dimensional magnetic resonance velocimetry for complex flow in the jugular vein. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2015 Aug; 5(4):635-7. PMID: 26435930; PMCID: PMC4559987.
    11. Sun Z, Lawson DA, Sinclair E, Wang CY, Lai MD, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Werb Z, Su H, Cooke DL. Endovascular biopsy: Strategy for analyzing gene expression profiles of individual endothelial cells obtained from human vessels(?). Biotechnol Rep (Amst). 2015 Sep; 7:157-165. PMID: 26989654.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Hetts SW, Tsai T, Cooke DL, Amans MR, Settecase F, Moftakhar P, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Halbach V. Progressive versus Nonprogressive Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Fistulas: Characteristics and Outcomes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2015 Oct; 36(10):1912-9. PMID: 26206813.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Seymour ZA, Sneed PK, Gupta N, Lawton MT, Molinaro AM, Young W, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, McDermott MW. Volume-staged radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations: an evolving paradigm. J Neurosurg. 2016 Jan; 124(1):163-74. PMID: 26140495.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Alexander MD, Rebhun JM, Hetts SW, Kim AS, Nelson J, Kim H, Amans MR, Settecase F, Dowd CF, Halbach V, Higashida RT, Cooke DL. Lesion location, stability, and pretreatment management: factors affecting outcomes of endovascular treatment for vertebrobasilar atherosclerosis. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016 May; 8(5):466-70. PMID: 25795438.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Cooke DL, Bauer D, Sun Z, Stillson C, Nelson J, Barry D, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Su H, Saeed MM. Endovascular biopsy: Technical feasibility of novel endothelial cell harvesting devices assessed in a rabbit aneurysm model. Interv Neuroradiol. 2015 Feb; 21(1):120-8. PMID: 25934786.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Moftakhar P, Cooke DL, Fullerton HJ, Ko NU, Amans MR, Narvid JA, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Hetts SW. Extent of collateralization predicting symptomatic cerebral vasospasm among pediatric patients: correlations among angiography, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, and clinical findings. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2015 Mar; 15(3):282-90. PMID: 25555113.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Sun Z, Su H, Long B, Sinclair E, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Cooke DL. Endothelial cell high-enrichment from endovascular biopsy sample by laser capture microdissection and fluorescence activated cell sorting. J Biotechnol. 2014 Dec 20; 192 Pt A:34-9. PMID: 25450638.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Alexander MD, Cooke DL, Meyers PM, Amans MR, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hetts SW. Lesion stability characteristics outperform degree of stenosis in predicting outcomes following stenting for symptomatic intracranial atherosclerosis. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016 Jan; 8(1):19-23. PMID: 25416828.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Amans MR, Narvid J, Halbach VV. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for bilateral retinoblastoma via left ophthalmic artery and right anterior deep temporal artery. BMJ Case Rep. 2014; 2014. PMID: 25240013.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Rutledge WC, Abla AA, Nelson J, Halbach VV, Kim H, Lawton MT. Treatment and outcomes of ARUBA-eligible patients with unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations at a single institution. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Sep; 37(3):E8. PMID: 25175446; PMCID: PMC4420142.
    21. Cooke DL, Stout CE, Kim WT, Kansagra AP, Yu JP, Gu A, Jewell NP, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Cerebral arterial fenestrations. Interv Neuroradiol. 2014 May-Jun; 20(3):261-74. PMID: 24976087; PMCID: PMC4178766.
    22. Chow ML, Cooke DL, Fullerton HJ, Amans MR, Narvid J, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Hetts SW. Radiological and clinical features of vein of Galen malformations. J Neurointerv Surg. 2015 Jun; 7(6):443-8. PMID: 24789593.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Alexander MD, Meyers PM, English JD, Stradford TR, Sung S, Smith WS, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Cooke DL, Hetts SW. Symptom differences and pretreatment asymptomatic interval affect outcomes of stenting for intracranial atherosclerotic disease. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 Jun; 35(6):1157-62. PMID: 24676000.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Hetts SW, Cooke DL, Nelson J, Gupta N, Fullerton H, Amans MR, Narvid JA, Moftakhar P, McSwain H, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Lawton MT, Kim H. Influence of patient age on angioarchitecture of brain arteriovenous malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2014 Jul; 35(7):1376-80. PMID: 24627452; PMCID: PMC4102659.
    25. Amans MR, Cooke DL, Vella M, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hetts SW. Contrast staining on CT after DSA in ischemic stroke patients progresses to infarction and rarely hemorrhages. Interv Neuroradiol. 2014 Jan-Feb; 20(1):106-15. PMID: 24556308; PMCID: PMC3971133.
    26. Cooke DL, Stout CE, Kim WT, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Gould RG. Radiation dose reduction in intra-arterial chemotherapy infusion for intraocular retinoblastoma. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Dec; 6(10):785-9. PMID: 24385553.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Amans MR, Stout C, Fox C, Narvid J, Hetts SW, Cooke DL, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, McSwain H, Halbach VV. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Nov; 6(9):e46. PMID: 24353327.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Meisel K, Yee A, Stout C, Kim W, Cooke D, Halbach V. Arteriovenous fistula after ventriculostomy in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurology. 2013 Jun 4; 80(23):2168. PMID: 23733553.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Thampi S, Hetts SW, Cooke DL, Stewart PJ, Robbins E, Banerjee A, Dubois SG, Char D, Halbach V, Matthay K. Superselective intra-arterial melphalan therapy for newly diagnosed and refractory retinoblastoma: results from a single institution. Clin Ophthalmol. 2013; 7:981-9. PMID: 23818751; PMCID: PMC3693581.
    30. Losey AD, Lillaney P, Martin AJ, Halbach VV, Cooke DL, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Saloner DA, Wilson MW, Saeed M, Hetts SW. Safety of retained microcatheters: an evaluation of radiofrequency heating in endovascular microcatheters with nitinol, tungsten, and polyetheretherketone braiding at 1.5 T and 3 T. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 May; 6(4):314-9. PMID: 23685793; PMCID: PMC3796159.
    31. Kansagra AP, Cooke DL, English JD, Sincic RM, Amans MR, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hetts SW. Current trends in endovascular management of traumatic cerebrovascular injury. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Jan; 6(1):47-50. PMID: 23322749.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Moftakhar P, English JD, Cooke DL, Kim WT, Stout C, Smith WS, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Hetts SW. Density of thrombus on admission CT predicts revascularization efficacy in large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2013 Jan; 44(1):243-5. PMID: 23111438.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Hetts SW, Keenan K, Fullerton HJ, Young WL, English JD, Gupta N, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Halbach VV. Pediatric intracranial nongalenic pial arteriovenous fistulas: clinical features, angioarchitecture, and outcomes. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2012 Oct; 33(9):1710-9. PMID: 22766672.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Cooke DL, Meisel KM, Kim WT, Stout CE, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Serial angiographic appearance of segmental arterial mediolysis manifesting as vertebral, internal mammary and intra-abdominal visceral artery aneurysms in a patient presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and review of the literature. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013 Sep 1; 5(5):478-82. PMID: 22693248.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Hetts SW, Moftakhar P, English JD, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Douglas VC, Halbach VV. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas and intrathecal venous drainage: correlation between digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical findings. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 May; 16(5):433-40. PMID: 22324803.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Tatum J, Farid H, Cooke D, Fullerton H, Smith W, Higashida R, Halbach VV, Dowd C. Mechanical embolectomy for treatment of large vessel acute ischemic stroke in children. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013 Mar; 5(2):128-34. PMID: 22307540.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Hetts SW, English JD, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Scanlon JT, Halbach VV. Pediatric intracranial aneurysms: new and enlarging aneurysms after index aneurysm treatment or observation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Dec; 32(11):2017-22. PMID: 22081674.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Alexander MD, Hetts SW, Young WL, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, English JD. Supernova hemorrhage: obliterative hemorrhage of brain arteriovenous malformations following ? knife radiosurgery. J Neurointerv Surg. 2012 Sep; 4(5):364-7. PMID: 21990534.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Cooke D, Farid H, Kim W, Dowd C, Higashida R, Halbach V. Zygomatico-orbital intra-arterial melphalan infusion for intraocular retinoblastoma. J Neurointerv Surg. 2012 Jul; 4(4):e16. PMID: 21990490.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Cooke D, Tatum J, Farid H, Dowd C, Higashida R, Halbach V. Transvenous embolization of a pediatric pial arteriovenous fistula. J Neurointerv Surg. 2012 Jul; 4(4):e14. PMID: 21990498.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Farid H, Tatum JK, Wong C, Halbach VV, Hetts SW. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome: treatment with combined intra-arterial verapamil infusion and intracranial angioplasty. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Nov-Dec; 32(10):E184-7. PMID: 21273351.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Martin AJ, Hetts SW, Dillon WP, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Lawton MT, Saloner D. MR imaging of partially thrombosed cerebral aneurysms: characteristics and evolution. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2011 Feb; 32(2):346-51. PMID: 21087941; PMCID: PMC3542832.
    43. Antonietti L, Sheth SA, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Lawton MT, English JD, Hetts SW. Long-term outcome in the repair of spinal cord perimedullary arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Nov; 31(10):1824-30. PMID: 20813874.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Jun P, Ko NU, English JD, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Hetts SW. Endovascular treatment of medically refractory cerebral vasospasm following aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2010 Nov; 31(10):1911-6. PMID: 20616179; PMCID: PMC4067264.
    45. Potter CA, Armstrong-Wells J, Fullerton HJ, Young WL, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Hetts SW. Neonatal giant pial arteriovenous malformation: genesis or rapid enlargement in the third trimester. J Neurointerv Surg. 2009 Dec; 1(2):151-3. PMID: 20625463.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Waldron JS, Halbach VV, Lawton MT. Microsurgical management of incompletely coiled and recurrent aneurysms: trends, techniques, and observations on coil extrusion. Neurosurgery. 2009 May; 64(5 Suppl 2):301-15; discussion 315-7. PMID: 19404109.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Hetts SW, Narvid J, Sanai N, Lawton MT, Gupta N, Fullerton HJ, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. Intracranial aneurysms in childhood: 27-year single-institution experience. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2009 Aug; 30(7):1315-24. PMID: 19357386.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Lawton MT, Sanchez-Mejia RO, Pham D, Tan J, Halbach VV. Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulae: operative strategies and microsurgical results for six types. Neurosurgery. 2008 Mar; 62(3 Suppl 1):110-24; discussion 124-5. PMID: 18424975.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Singh V, Smith WS, Lawton MT, Halbach VV, Young WL. Risk factors for hemorrhagic presentation in patients with dural arteriovenous fistulae. Neurosurgery. 2008 Mar; 62(3):628-35; discussion 628-35. PMID: 18425010.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Narvid J, Hetts SW, Larsen D, Neuhaus J, Singh TP, McSwain H, Lawton MT, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae: clinical features and long-term results. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jan; 62(1):159-66; discussion 166-7. PMID: 18300903.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Martin AJ, Cha S, Higashida RT, Cullen SP, Halbach V, Dowd CF, McDermott MW, Saloner DA. Assessment of vasculature of meningiomas and the effects of embolization with intra-arterial MR perfusion imaging: a feasibility study. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007 Oct; 28(9):1771-7. PMID: 17885240.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Dispensa BP, Saloner DA, Acevedo-Bolton G, Achrol AS, Jou LD, McCulloch CE, Johnston SC, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Ko NU, Lawton MT, Martin AJ, Quinnine N, Young WL. Estimation of fusiform intracranial aneurysm growth by serial magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007 Jul; 26(1):177-83. PMID: 17659544.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Hetts SW, Narvid J, Singh T, Meagher S, Corcoran K, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Association between lumbar epidural injection and development of acute paraparesis in patients with spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2007 Mar; 28(3):581-3. PMID: 17353341.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Caragine LP, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Intraorbital arteriovenous fistulae of the ophthalmic veins treated by transvenous endovascular occlusion: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2006 Feb; 58(1 Suppl):ONS-E170; discussion ONS-E170. PMID: 16462623.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Juravsky L, Meagher S. Initial clinical experience with a new self-expanding nitinol stent for the treatment of intracranial cerebral aneurysms: the Cordis Enterprise stent. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Aug; 26(7):1751-6. PMID: 16091525.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Yu W, Smith WS, Singh V, Ko NU, Cullen SP, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT. Long-term outcome of endovascular stenting for symptomatic basilar artery stenosis. Neurology. 2005 Mar 22; 64(6):1055-7. PMID: 15781826.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Martin AJ, Saloner DA, Roberts TP, Roberts H, Weber OM, Dillon W, Cullen S, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Carotid stent delivery in an XMR suite: immediate assessment of the physiologic impact of extracranial revascularization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Mar; 26(3):531-7. PMID: 15760861.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Smith WS, Dowd CF, Johnston SC, Ko NU, DeArmond SJ, Dillon WP, Setty D, Lawton MT, Young WL, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. Neurotoxicity of intra-arterial papaverine preserved with chlorobutanol used for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2004 Nov; 35(11):2518-22. PMID: 15472097.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Chun JY, Gulati M, Halbach V, Lawton MT. Thrombosis of a spinal arteriovenous malformation after hemorrhage: case report. Surg Neurol. 2004 Jan; 61(1):92-4. PMID: 14706393.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Ng PP, Higashida RT, Cullen SP, Malek R, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Intraarterial thrombolysis trials in acute ischemic stroke. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004 Jan; 15(1 Pt 2):S77-85. PMID: 15101517.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Caragine LP, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Ng PP, Higashida RT. Parallel venous channel as the recipient pouch in transverse/sigmoid sinus dural fistulae. Neurosurgery. 2003 Dec; 53(6):1261-6; discussion 1266-7. PMID: 14633292.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Stefanutto TB, Halbach V. Bronchospasm precipitated by ethanol injection in arteriovenous malformation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003 Nov-Dec; 24(10):2050-1. PMID: 14625231.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Ng PP, Higashida RT, Cullen S, Malek R, Halbach VV, Dowd CF. Endovascular strategies for carotid cavernous and intracerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Oct 15; 15(4):ECP1. PMID: 15344900.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Higashida RT. Meningiomas: the role of preoperative angiography and embolization. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Jul 15; 15(1):E10. PMID: 15355012.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Ng PP, Halbach VV, Quinn R, Balousek P, Caragine LP, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Wilson C. Endovascular treatment for dural arteriovenous fistulae of the superior petrosal sinus. Neurosurgery. 2003 Jul; 53(1):25-32; discussion 32-3. PMID: 12823870.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Du R, Binder DK, Halbach V, Fischbein N, Barbaro NM. Trigeminal neuralgia in a patient with a dural arteriovenous fistula in Meckel's cave: case report. Neurosurgery. 2003 Jul; 53(1):216-21; discussion 221. PMID: 12823893.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Ng PP, Halbach VV, Caragine LP, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Guglielmi detachable coil extraction: suction generated by pusher-wire withdrawal after coil detachment within an intracranial aneurysm. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003 May; 24(5):982-4. PMID: 12748107.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Hashimoto T, Wen G, Lawton MT, Boudreau NJ, Bollen AW, Yang GY, Barbaro NM, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Young WL. Abnormal expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in brain arteriovenous malformations. Stroke. 2003 Apr; 34(4):925-31. PMID: 12649522.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Vates GE, Lawton MT, Wilson CB, McDermott MW, Halbach VV, Roberts TP, Rowley HA. Magnetic source imaging demonstrates altered cortical distribution of function in patients with arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 2002 Sep; 51(3):614-23; discussion 623-7. PMID: 12188939.
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    70. Meyers PM, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Lempert TE, Malek AM, Phatouros CC, Lefler JE, Higashida RT. Dural carotid cavernous fistula: definitive endovascular management and long-term follow-up. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002 Jul; 134(1):85-92. PMID: 12095813.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Caragine LP, Halbach VV, Ng PP, Dowd CF. Vascular myelopathies-vascular malformations of the spinal cord: presentation and endovascular surgical management. Semin Neurol. 2002 Jun; 22(2):123-32. PMID: 12524557.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Singh V, Gress DR, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Johnston SC. The learning curve for coil embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2002 May; 23(5):768-71. PMID: 12006274.
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    73. Phatouros CC, Meyers PM, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Lempert TE, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after extracranial carotid artery angioplasty and stent placement. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2002 Mar; 23(3):503-4. PMID: 11901031.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Halim AX, Singh V, Johnston SC, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Lawton MT, Gress DR, McCulloch CE, Young WL. Characteristics of brain arteriovenous malformations with coexisting aneurysms: a comparison of two referral centers. Stroke. 2002 Mar; 33(3):675-9. PMID: 11872886.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Vates GE, Quiñones-Hinojosa A, Halbach VV, Lawton MT. Conus perimedullary arteriovenous fistula with intracranial drainage: case report. Neurosurgery. 2001 Aug; 49(2):457-61; discussion 461-2. PMID: 11504125.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Atkinson RP, Awad IA, Batjer HH, Dowd CF, Furlan A, Giannotta SL, Gomez CR, Gress D, Hademenos G, Halbach V, Hemphill JC, Higashida RT, Hopkins LN, Horowitz MB, Johnston SC, Lawton MW, McDermott MW, Malek AM, Mohr JP, Qureshi AI, Riina H, Smith WS, Pile-Spellman J, Spetzler RF, Tomsick TA, Young WL. Reporting terminology for brain arteriovenous malformation clinical and radiographic features for use in clinical trials. Stroke. 2001 Jun; 32(6):1430-42. PMID: 11387510.
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    77. Chun JY, Smith W, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Wilson CB, Lawton MT. Current multimodality management of infectious intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 2001 Jun; 48(6):1203-13; discussion 1213-4. PMID: 11383721.
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    78. Dowd CF, Phatouros CC, Malek AM, Lempert TE, Meyers PM, Halbach VV, Higashida RT. Embolization of non-ruptured aneurysms. Interv Neuroradiol. 1999 Nov; 5 Suppl 1:93-6. PMID: 20670547.
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    80. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Phatouros CC, Lempert TE, Meyers PM, Smith WS, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Stent angioplasty for cervical carotid artery stenosis in high-risk symptomatic NASCET-ineligible patients. Stroke. 2000 Dec; 31(12):3029-33. PMID: 11108767.
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    81. Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Meyers PM, Lempert TE, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Carotid artery stent placement for atherosclerotic disease: rationale, technique, and current status. Radiology. 2000 Oct; 217(1):26-41. PMID: 11012420.
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    82. Phatouros CC, Lefler JE, Higashida RT, Meyers PM, Malek AM, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Primary stenting for high-grade basilar artery stenosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000 Oct; 21(9):1744-9. PMID: 11039359.
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    83. Meyers PM, Halbach VV, Malek AM, Phatouros CC, Dowd CF, Lawton MT, Lempert TE, Higashida RT. Endovascular treatment of cerebral artery aneurysms during pregnancy: report of three cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000 Aug; 21(7):1306-11. PMID: 10954284.
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    84. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Phatouros CC, Lempert TE, Meyers PM, Smith WS, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Endovascular management of extracranial carotid artery dissection achieved using stent angioplasty. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000 Aug; 21(7):1280-92. PMID: 10954281.
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    85. Meyers PM, Higashida RT, Phatouros CC, Malek AM, Lempert TE, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after percutaneous transluminal stenting of the craniocervical arteries. Neurosurgery. 2000 Aug; 47(2):335-43; discussion 343-5. PMID: 10942006.
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    86. Johnston SC, Wilson CB, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, McDermott MW, Applebury CB, Farley TL, Gress DR. Endovascular and surgical treatment of unruptured cerebral aneurysms: comparison of risks. Ann Neurol. 2000 Jul; 48(1):11-9. PMID: 10894211.
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    87. Phatouros CC, Sasaki TY, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Meyers PM, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Stent-supported coil embolization: the treatment of fusiform and wide-neck aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms. Neurosurgery. 2000 Jul; 47(1):107-13; discussion 113-5. PMID: 10917353.
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    88. Meyers PM, Halbach VV, Phatouros CP, Dowd CF, Malek AM, Lempert TE, Lefler JE, Higashida RT. Hemorrhagic complications in vein of Galen malformations. Ann Neurol. 2000 Jun; 47(6):748-55. PMID: 10852540.
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    89. Malek AM, Halbach VV, Phatouros CC, Lempert TE, Meyers PM, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Balloon-assist technique for endovascular coil embolization of geometrically difficult intracranial aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 2000 Jun; 46(6):1397-406; discussion 1406-7. PMID: 10834645.
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    90. Higashida RT, Hopkins LN, Berenstein A, Halbach VV, Kerber C. Program requirements for residency/fellowship education in neuroendovascular surgery/interventional neuroradiology: a special report on graduate medical education. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000 Jun-Jul; 21(6):1153-9. PMID: 10871032.
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    91. Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Meyers PM, Lempert TE, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Endovascular stenting for carotid artery stenosis: preliminary experience using the shape-memory- alloy-recoverable-technology (SMART) stent. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2000 Apr; 21(4):732-8. PMID: 10782787.
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    92. Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Meyers PM, Lefler JE, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Endovascular treatment of noncarotid extracranial cerebrovascular disease. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2000 Apr; 11(2):331-50. PMID: 10733849.
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    93. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Phatouros CC, Lempert TE, Meyers PM, Smith WS, Stoney R. Patient presentation, angiographic features, and treatment of strangulation-induced bilateral dissection of the cervical internal carotid artery. Report of three cases. J Neurosurg. 2000 Mar; 92(3):481-7. PMID: 10701540.
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    94. Lempert TE, Malek AM, Halbach VV, Phatouros CC, Meyers PM, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Endovascular treatment of ruptured posterior circulation cerebral aneurysms. Clinical and angiographic outcomes. Stroke. 2000 Jan; 31(1):100-10. PMID: 10625723.
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    95. Malek AM, Halbach VV, Phatouros CC, Meyers PM, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Endovascular treatment of a ruptured intracranial dissecting vertebral aneurysm in a kickboxer. J Trauma. 2000 Jan; 48(1):143-5. PMID: 10647582.
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    96. Phatouros CC, Meyers PM, Dowd CF, Halbach VV, Malek AM, Higashida RT. Carotid artery cavernous fistulas. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2000 Jan; 11(1):67-84, viii. PMID: 10565871.
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    97. Malek AM, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Phatouros CC, Meyers PM, Dowd CF. Treatment of dural arteriovenous malformations and fistulas. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 2000 Jan; 11(1):147-66, ix. PMID: 10565875.
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    98. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Reilly LM, Smith WS, Kang SM, Gress DR, Meyers PM, Phatouros CC, Halbach VV, Dowd CF. Subclavian arteritis and pseudoaneurysm formation secondary to stent infection. Cardiovasc Intervent Radiol. 2000 Jan-Feb; 23(1):57-60. PMID: 10656908.
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    99. Phatouros CC, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Lempert TE, Malek AM, Meyers PM, Higashida RT. Acquired pial arteriovenous fistula following cerebral vein thrombosis. Stroke. 1999 Nov; 30(11):2487-90. PMID: 10548689.
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    100. Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Meyers PM, Lempert TE, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Clinical use of stents for carotid artery disease. Neurol Med Chir (Tokyo). 1999 Nov; 39(12):809-27. PMID: 10639807.
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    101. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Phatouros CC, Lempert TE, Meyers PM, Gress DR, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Treatment of posterior circulation ischemia with extracranial percutaneous balloon angioplasty and stent placement. Stroke. 1999 Oct; 30(10):2073-85. PMID: 10512910.
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    102. Hemphill JC, Gress DR, Halbach VV. Endovascular therapy of traumatic injuries of the intracranial cerebral arteries. Crit Care Clin. 1999 Oct; 15(4):811-29. PMID: 10569123.
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    103. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Phatouros CC, Meyers PM, Dowd CF. Tandem intracranial stent deployment for treatment of an iatrogenic, flow-limiting, basilar artery dissection: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 1999 Oct; 45(4):919-24. PMID: 10515491.
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    104. Lawton MT, Chun J, Wilson CB, Halbach VV. Ethmoidal dural arteriovenous fistulae: an assessment of surgical and endovascular management. Neurosurgery. 1999 Oct; 45(4):805-10; discussion 810-1. PMID: 10515474.
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    105. Malek AM, Halbach VV, Holmes S, Phatouros CC, Meyers PM, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Beating aneurysm sign: angiographic evidence of ruptured aneurysm tamponade by intracranial hemorrhage. Case illustration. J Neurosurg. 1999 Sep; 91(3):517. PMID: 10470834.
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    106. Phatouros CC, Halbach VV, Malek AM, Meyers PM, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Intraventricular contrast medium leakage during ethanol embolization of an arteriovenous malformation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999 Aug; 20(7):1329-32. PMID: 10472994.
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    107. Miyawaki L, Dowd C, Wara W, Goldsmith B, Albright N, Gutin P, Halbach V, Hieshima G, Higashida R, Lulu B, Pitts L, Schell M, Smith V, Weaver K, Wilson C, Larson D. Five year results of LINAC radiosurgery for arteriovenous malformations: outcome for large AVMS. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 1999 Jul 15; 44(5):1089-106. PMID: 10421543.
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    108. Phatouros CC, Halbach VV, Malek AM, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Simultaneous subarachnoid hemorrhage and carotid cavernous fistula after rupture of a paraclinoid aneurysm during balloon-assisted coil embolization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999 Jun-Jul; 20(6):1100-2. PMID: 10445450.
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    109. Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Smith WS, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Embolization of the meningohypophyseal trunk as a cause of diabetes insipidus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1999 Jun-Jul; 20(6):1115-8. PMID: 10445454.
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    110. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Phatouros CC, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Treatment of an intracranial aneurysm using a new three-dimensional-shape Guglielmi detachable coil: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 1999 May; 44(5):1142-4; discussion 1144-5. PMID: 10232552.
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    111. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Phatouros CC, Halbach VV. A strangled wife. Lancet. 1999 Apr 17; 353(9161):1324. PMID: 10218532.
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    112. Malek AM, Higashida RT, Balousek PA, Phatouros CC, Smith WS, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Endovascular recanalization with balloon angioplasty and stenting of an occluded occipital sinus for treatment of intracranial venous hypertension: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 1999 Apr; 44(4):896-901. PMID: 10201320.
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    113. Malek AM, Halbach VV, Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Wachhorst S, Lawton MT. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistula with an associated feeding artery aneurysm: case report. Neurosurgery. 1999 Apr; 44(4):877-80. PMID: 10201316.
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    114. Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Smith WS, Mully TW, DeArmond SJ, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Endovascular stenting of an acutely thrombosed basilar artery: technical case report and review of the literature. Neurosurgery. 1999 Mar; 44(3):667-73. PMID: 10069607.
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    115. Lempert TE, Malek AM, Halbach VV, Phatouros CC, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Rescue treatment of acute parent vessel thrombosis with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitor during GDC coil embolization. Stroke. 1999 Mar; 30(3):693-5. PMID: 10066986.
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    116. Lefkowitz M, Giannotta SL, Hieshima G, Higashida R, Halbach V, Dowd C, Teitelbaum GP. Embolization of neurosurgical lesions involving the ophthalmic artery. Neurosurgery. 1998 Dec; 43(6):1298-303. PMID: 9848842.
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    117. Phatouros CC, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. New methods of treatment for cerebral aneurysms. West J Med. 1998 Nov; 169(5):286-7. PMID: 9830359; PMCID: PMC1305321.
    118. Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Balousek PA, Ciricillo SF, Edwards MS. Endovascular treatment of mural-type vein of Galen malformations. J Neurosurg. 1998 Jul; 89(1):74-80. PMID: 9647175.
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    119. McDougall CG, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Larsen DW, Hieshima GB. Causes and management of aneurysmal hemorrhage occurring during embolization with Guglielmi detachable coils. J Neurosurg. 1998 Jul; 89(1):87-92. PMID: 9647177.
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    120. McElhinney DB, Halbach VV, Silverman NH, Dowd CF, Hanley FL. Congenital cardiac anomalies with vein of Galen malformations in infants. Arch Dis Child. 1998 Jun; 78(6):548-51. PMID: 9713012; PMCID: PMC1717608.
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    122. Malek AM, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Diagnosis and treatment of dural arteriovenous fistulas. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 1998 May; 8(2):445-68. PMID: 9562597.
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    123. Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Balousek PA, Urwin RW. Preliminary experience with an electrolytically detachable fibered coil. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1998 Apr; 19(4):773-7. PMID: 9576672.
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    124. Johnston SC, Halbach VV, Smith WS, Gress DR. Rapid development of giant fusiform cerebral aneurysms in angiographically normal vessels. Neurology. 1998 Apr; 50(4):1163-6. PMID: 9566418.
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    125. Hemphill JC, Smith WS, Halbach VV. Neurologic manifestations of spinal epidural arteriovenous malformations. Neurology. 1998 Mar; 50(3):817-9. PMID: 9521288.
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    126. Chen D, Concus AP, Halbach VV, Cheung SW. Epistaxis originating from traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the internal carotid artery: diagnosis and endovascular therapy. Laryngoscope. 1998 Mar; 108(3):326-31. PMID: 9504602.
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    127. Terada T, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Hieshima GB. The effect of oestrogen on the development of arteriovenous fistulae induced by venous hypertension in rats. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1998; 140(1):82-6. PMID: 9522913.
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    128. Higashida RT, Smith W, Gress D, Urwin R, Dowd CF, Balousek PA, Halbach VV. Intravascular stent and endovascular coil placement for a ruptured fusiform aneurysm of the basilar artery. Case report and review of the literature. J Neurosurg. 1997 Dec; 87(6):944-9. PMID: 9384409.
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    129. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Urwin RW, Balousek PA, Lempert TE, Hieshima GB. Cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysms treated with electrolytically detachable coils. J Neuroophthalmol. 1997 Dec; 17(4):231-9. PMID: 9427173.
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    130. McDougall CG, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Larsen DW, Hieshima GB. Dural arteriovenous fistulas of the marginal sinus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1997 Sep; 18(8):1565-72. PMID: 9296201.
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    131. Urwin RW, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Balousek PA, Hieshima GB. Endovascular therapy for the carotid artery. Neuroimaging Clin N Am. 1996 Nov; 6(4):957-73. PMID: 8824143.
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    132. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Hieshima GB. Endovascular surgical approach to intracranial vascular diseases. J Endovasc Surg. 1996 May; 3(2):146-57. PMID: 8798133.
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    133. Terada T, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Nakai E, Yokote H, Itakura T, Hieshima GB. Transluminal angioplasty for arteriosclerotic disease of the distal vertebral and basilar arteries. J Neurol Neurosurg Psychiatry. 1996 Apr; 60(4):377-81. PMID: 8774399; PMCID: PMC1073887.
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    135. Terada T, Tsuura M, Komai N, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Wilson CB, Hieshima GB. The role of angiogenic factor bFGF in the development of dural AVFs. Acta Neurochir (Wien). 1996; 138(7):877-83. PMID: 8869717.
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    136. Teitelbaum GP, Halbach VV, Larsen DW, McDougall CG, Dowd C, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Treatment of massive posterior epistaxis by detachable coil embolization of a cavernous internal carotid artery aneurysm. Neuroradiology. 1995 May; 37(4):334-6. PMID: 7666976.
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    137. Smith TP, Halbach VV, Fraser KW, Teitelbaum GP, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of subclavian stenosis from neurofibromatosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1995 Apr; 16(4 Suppl):872-4. PMID: 7611060.
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    138. Teitelbaum GP, Dowd CF, Larsen DW, McDougall CG, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Endovascular management of biopsy-related posterior inferior cerebellar artery pseudoaneurysm. Surg Neurol. 1995 Apr; 43(4):357-9. PMID: 7792705.
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    139. Higashida RT, Tsai FY, Halbach VV, Barnwell SL, Dowd CF, Hieshima GB. Interventional neurovascular techniques in the treatment of stroke--state-of-the-art therapy. J Intern Med. 1995 Jan; 237(1):105-15. PMID: 7830022.
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    140. Larsen DW, Halbach VV, Teitelbaum GP, McDougall CG, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Hieshima GB. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas supplied by branches of the internal iliac arteries. Surg Neurol. 1995 Jan; 43(1):35-40; discussion 40-1. PMID: 7701420.
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    141. Teitelbaum GP, Halbach VV, Fraser KW, Larsen DW, McDougall CG, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Hieshima GB. Direct-puncture coil embolization of maxillofacial high-flow vascular malformations. Laryngoscope. 1994 Nov; 104(11 Pt 1):1397-400. PMID: 7968172.
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    142. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Tsai FY, Dowd CF, Hieshima GB. Interventional neurovascular techniques for cerebral revascularization in the treatment of stroke. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1994 Oct; 163(4):793-800. PMID: 8092013.
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    143. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Barnwell SL, Dowd CF, Hieshima GB. Thrombolytic therapy in acute stroke. J Endovasc Surg. 1994 Sep; 1:4-15. PMID: 9234100.
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    144. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Hieshima GB. Intracranial aneurysms. Evolution and future role of endovascular techniques. Neurosurg Clin N Am. 1994 Jul; 5(3):413-25. PMID: 8086795.
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    145. Teitelbaum GP, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Larsen DW, McDougall CG, Dowd CF, Hieshima GB. Flow-directed use of electrolytically detachable platinum embolization coils. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1994 May-Jun; 5(3):453-6. PMID: 8054745.
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    146. Terada T, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Tsuura M, Komai N, Wilson CB, Hieshima GB. Development of acquired arteriovenous fistulas in rats due to venous hypertension. J Neurosurg. 1994 May; 80(5):884-9. PMID: 8169629.
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    147. Smith TP, Higashida RT, Barnwell SL, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Fraser KW, Teitelbaum GP, Hieshima GB. Treatment of dural sinus thrombosis by urokinase infusion. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1994 May; 15(5):801-7. PMID: 8059645.
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    148. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Barnwell SL, Fraser KW, Smith TP, Teitelbaum GP, Hieshima GB. The efficacy of endosaccular aneurysm occlusion in alleviating neurological deficits produced by mass effect. J Neurosurg. 1994 Apr; 80(4):659-66. PMID: 8151344.
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    149. Fraser KW, Halbach VV, Teitelbaum GP, Smith TP, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Wilson CB, Hieshima GB. Endovascular platinum coil embolization of incompletely surgically clipped cerebral aneurysms. Surg Neurol. 1994 Jan; 41(1):4-8. PMID: 8310385.
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    150. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Fraser KW, Edwards MS, Barnwell SL. Treatment of giant intradural (perimedullary) arteriovenous fistulas. Neurosurgery. 1993 Dec; 33(6):972-9; discussion 979-80. PMID: 8134010.
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    151. Wang ML, Seiff SR, Halbach VV, Christenbury JD, Jaben SL. Total choroidal detachment complicating dural arteriovenous sinus fistula. Ophthalmic Surg. 1993 Dec; 24(12):856-7. PMID: 8115106.
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    152. Higashida RT, Tsai FY, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Hieshima GB. Cerebral percutaneous transluminal angioplasty. Heart Dis Stroke. 1993 Nov-Dec; 2(6):497-502. PMID: 8137057.
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    153. Smith TP, Koci T, Mehringer CM, Tsai FY, Fraser KW, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Hieshima GB. Transarterial embolization of vertebral hemangioma. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 1993 Sep-Oct; 4(5):681-5. PMID: 8219564.
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    154. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Fraser KW, Smith TP, Teitelbaum GP, Wilson CB, Hieshima GB. Endovascular treatment of vertebral artery dissections and pseudoaneurysms. J Neurosurg. 1993 Aug; 79(2):183-91. PMID: 8331398.
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    155. Halbach V. The "current" status of aneurysm treatment? AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1993 Jul-Aug; 14(4):799-800. PMID: 8352146.
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    156. Smith TP, Graves VB, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Fraser KW, Dowd CF, Hieshima GB. Microcatheter retrieval device for intravascular foreign body removal. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1993 Jul-Aug; 14(4):809-11. PMID: 8352149.
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    157. Lalwani AK, Dowd CF, Halbach VV. Grading venous restrictive disease in patients with dural arteriovenous fistulas of the transverse/sigmoid sinus. J Neurosurg. 1993 Jul; 79(1):11-5. PMID: 8315446.
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    158. McCormick GF, Halbach VV. Recurrent ischemic events in two patients with painless vertebral artery dissection. Stroke. 1993 Apr; 24(4):598-602. PMID: 8465368.
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    159. Higashida RT, Tsai FY, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Smith T, Fraser K, Hieshima GB. Transluminal angioplasty for atherosclerotic disease of the vertebral and basilar arteries. J Neurosurg. 1993 Feb; 78(2):192-8. PMID: 8421202.
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    160. Edwards MS, Halbach VV. Management of intracranial and spinal cord vascular lesions in children. West J Med. 1993 Feb; 158(2):182. PMID: 8434474; PMCID: PMC1021978.
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    162. Tsuruda JS, Sevick RJ, Halbach V. Three-dimensional time-of-flight MR angiography in the evaluation of intracranial aneurysms treated by endovascular balloon occlusion. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1992 Jul-Aug; 13(4):1129-36. PMID: 1636524.
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    163. Chen JC, Tsuruda JS, Halbach V. Suspected dural arteriovenous fistula: results with screening MR angiography in seven patients. Radiology. 1992 Apr; 183(1):265-71. PMID: 1549684.
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    164. Higashida RT, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Dormandy B, Bell J, Hieshima GB. Intravascular balloon dilatation therapy for intracranial arterial vasospasm: patient selection, technique, and clinical results. Neurosurg Rev. 1992; 15(2):89-95. PMID: 1386147.
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    165. Mirabel S, Lindblom B, Halbach V, Hoyt WF. Giant suprasellar varix: an unusual cause of chiasmal compression. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1991 Dec; 11(4):268-72. PMID: 1838547.
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    166. Dowd CF, Halbach V, Barnwell SL, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Particulate embolization of the anterior choroidal artery in the treatment of cerebral arteriovenous malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1991 Nov-Dec; 12(6):1055-61. PMID: 1763725.
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    167. Barnwell SL, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Wilson CB. Multiple dural arteriovenous fistulas of the cranium and spine. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1991 May-Jun; 12(3):441-5. PMID: 2058490.
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    168. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Barnwell SL, Dowd CF, Hieshima GB. Transarterial platinum coil embolization of carotid-cavernous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1991 May-Jun; 12(3):429-33. PMID: 2058488.
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    169. Higashida RT, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Barnwell SL, Hieshima GB. Intracranial aneurysms: interventional neurovascular treatment with detachable balloons--results in 215 cases. Radiology. 1991 Mar; 178(3):663-70. PMID: 1994399.
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    170. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Barnwell SL, Hieshima GB. Management of vascular perforations that occur during neurointerventional procedures. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1991 Mar-Apr; 12(2):319-27. PMID: 1902036.
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    171. Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Halbach V. Advances in the treatment of complex cerebrovascular disorders by interventional neurovascular techniques. Circulation. 1991 Feb; 83(2 Suppl):I196-206. PMID: 1825046.
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    172. Barnwell SL, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Wilson CB. A variant of arteriovenous fistulas within the wall of dural sinuses. Results of combined surgical and endovascular therapy. J Neurosurg. 1991 Feb; 74(2):199-204. PMID: 1988588.
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    173. Barnwell SL, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Hieshima GB. Direct endovascular thrombolytic therapy for dural sinus thrombosis. Neurosurgery. 1991 Jan; 28(1):135-42. PMID: 1994268.
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    174. Wilson CB, Hieshima GB, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Barnwell SL. Interventional radiologic adjuncts in cerebrovascular surgery. Clin Neurosurg. 1991; 37:332-52. PMID: 2009697.
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    175. Higashida RT, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Barnwell SL, Hieshima GB. Interventional neurovascular treatment of a giant intracranial aneurysm using platinum microcoils. Surg Neurol. 1991 Jan; 35(1):64-8. PMID: 1983886.
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    176. Dowd CF, Halbach V, Higashida RT, Barnwell SL, Hieshima GB. Endovascular coil embolization of unusual posterior inferior cerebellar artery aneurysms. Neurosurgery. 1990 Dec; 27(6):954-61. PMID: 2274138.
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    177. Ciricillo SF, Schmidt KG, Silverman NH, Hieshima GB, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Edwards MS. Serial ultrasonographic evaluation of neonatal vein of Galen malformations to assess the efficacy of interventional neuroradiological procedures. Neurosurgery. 1990 Oct; 27(4):544-8. PMID: 2234356.
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    178. Ciricillo SF, Edwards MS, Schmidt KG, Hieshima GB, Silverman NH, Higashida RT, Halbach V. Interventional neuroradiological management of vein of Galen malformations in the neonate. Neurosurgery. 1990 Jul; 27(1):22-7; discussion 27-8. PMID: 2198486.
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    179. Higashida RT, Halbach V, Barnwell SL, Dowd C, Dormandy B, Bell J, Hieshima GB. Treatment of intracranial aneurysms with preservation of the parent vessel: results of percutaneous balloon embolization in 84 patients. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1990 Jul-Aug; 11(4):633-40. PMID: 2114739.
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    180. Dowd CF, Halbach V, Barnwell SL, Higashida RT, Edwards MS, Hieshima GB. Transfemoral venous embolization of vein of Galen malformations. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1990 Jul-Aug; 11(4):643-8. PMID: 2114741.
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    181. Higashida RT, Halbach V, Dowd C, Barnwell SL, Dormandy B, Bell J, Hieshima GB. Endovascular detachable balloon embolization therapy of cavernous carotid artery aneurysms: results in 87 cases. J Neurosurg. 1990 Jun; 72(6):857-63. PMID: 2338569.
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    182. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Barnwell SL, Hieshima GB. Treatment of carotid-cavernous fistulas associated with Ehlers-Danlos syndrome. Neurosurgery. 1990 Jun; 26(6):1021-7. PMID: 2362658.
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    183. Gaensler EH, Jackson DE, Halbach V. Arteriovenous fistulas of the cervicomedullary junction as a cause of myelopathy: radiographic findings in two cases. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1990 May; 11(3):518-21. PMID: 2112318.
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    184. Barnwell SL, Halbach VV, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Dural arteriovenous fistulas involving the inferior petrosal sinus: angiographic findings in six patients. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1990 May; 11(3):511-6. PMID: 2112316.
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    185. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Wilson CB, Barnwell SL, Dowd CF. Dural arteriovenous fistulas supplied by ethmoidal arteries. Neurosurgery. 1990 May; 26(5):816-23. PMID: 2191241.
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    186. Halbach V. Cerebral arteriography. Curr Opin Radiol. 1990 Apr; 2(2):250-1. PMID: 2202393.
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    187. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Dowd CF, Barnwell SL, Edwards MS, Melicharek M. Aneurysms of the petrous portion of the internal carotid artery: results of treatment with endovascular or surgical occlusion. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1990 Mar-Apr; 11(2):253-7. PMID: 2107708.
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    188. Higashida RT, Halbach V, Dormandy B, Bell J, Brant-Zawadzki M, Hieshima GB. New microballoon device for transluminal angioplasty of intracranial arterial vasospasm. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1990 Mar-Apr; 11(2):233-8. PMID: 2138406.
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    189. Hieshima GB, Higashida RT, Halbach V. Intravascular treatment of aneurysms. Clin Neurosurg. 1990; 36:338-43. PMID: 2136825.
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    190. Barnwell SL, Ciricillo SF, Halbach V, Edwards MS, Cogen PH. Intracerebral arteriovenous fistulas associated with intraparenchymal varix in childhood: case reports. Neurosurgery. 1990 Jan; 26(1):122-5. PMID: 2294462.
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    191. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Dowd CF, Barnwell SL. Venography and venous pressure monitoring in dural sinus meningiomas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989 Nov-Dec; 10(6):1209-13. PMID: 2512784.
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    192. Higashida RT, Halbach V, Cahan LD, Brant-Zawadzki M, Barnwell S, Dowd C, Hieshima GB. Transluminal angioplasty for treatment of intracranial arterial vasospasm. J Neurosurg. 1989 Nov; 71(5 Pt 1):648-53. PMID: 2530320.
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    193. Barnwell SL, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Endovascular treatment of scalp arteriovenous fistulas associated with a large varix. Radiology. 1989 Nov; 173(2):533-9. PMID: 2798886.
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    194. Higashida RT, Halbach V, Cahan LD, Hieshima GB, Konishi Y. Detachable balloon embolization therapy of posterior circulation intracranial aneurysms. J Neurosurg. 1989 Oct; 71(4):512-9. PMID: 2795171.
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    195. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Tsai FY, Norman D, Pribram HF, Mehringer CM, Hieshima GB. Interventional neurovascular treatment of traumatic carotid and vertebral artery lesions: results in 234 cases. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1989 Sep; 153(3):577-82. PMID: 2763958.
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    196. Barnwell SL, Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima G, Wilson CB. Complex dural arteriovenous fistulas. Results of combined endovascular and neurosurgical treatment in 16 patients. J Neurosurg. 1989 Sep; 71(3):352-8. PMID: 2769386.
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    197. Barnwell SL, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Wilson CB, Hieshima GB. Transluminal angioplasty of intracerebral vessels for cerebral arterial spasm: reversal of neurological deficits after delayed treatment. Neurosurgery. 1989 Sep; 25(3):424-9. PMID: 2528079.
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    198. Higashida RT, Helmer E, Halbach V, Hieshima GB. Direct thrombolytic therapy for superior sagittal sinus thrombosis. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989 Sep-Oct; 10(5 Suppl):S4-6. PMID: 2505559.
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    199. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Interventional neuroradiology. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1989 Sep; 153(3):467-76. PMID: 2669460.
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    200. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Hardin CW, Dowd CF, Barnwell SL. Transarterial occlusion of solitary intracerebral arteriovenous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989 Jul-Aug; 10(4):747-52. PMID: 2505503.
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    201. Kwan E, Hieshima GB, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Wolpert SM. Interventional neuroradiology in neuro-ophthalmology. J Clin Neuroophthalmol. 1989 Jun; 9(2):83-97. PMID: 2526163.
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    202. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Wilson CB, Hardin CW, Kwan E. Treatment of dural fistulas involving the deep cerebral venous system. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989 Mar-Apr; 10(2):393-9. PMID: 2494859.
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    203. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Hardin CW, Pribram H. Transvenous embolization of dural fistulas involving the cavernous sinus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989 Mar-Apr; 10(2):377-83. PMID: 2494857.
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    204. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Mehringer CM, Hardin CW. Transvenous embolization of dural fistulas involving the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989 Mar-Apr; 10(2):385-92. PMID: 2494858.
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    205. Yang PJ, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Hieshima GB, Wilson CB. Intravascular embolization of a cerebellar arteriovenous malformation for treatment of hemifacial spasm. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989 Mar-Apr; 10(2):403-5. PMID: 2494861.
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    206. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Hardin CW. Embolization of branches arising from the cavernous portion of the internal carotid artery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989 Jan-Feb; 10(1):143-50. PMID: 2492714.
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    207. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Hardin CW. Direct puncture of the proximally occluded internal carotid artery for treatment of carotid cavernous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1989 Jan-Feb; 10(1):151-4. PMID: 2492715.
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    208. Goto K, Halbach V, Hardin CW, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Permanent inflation of detachable balloons with a low-viscosity, hydrophilic polymerizing system. Radiology. 1988 Dec; 169(3):787-90. PMID: 3187001.
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    209. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Hieshima GB, Weinstein PR, Hoyt WF. Treatment of a giant carotid ophthalmic artery aneurysm by intravascular balloon embolization therapy. Surg Neurol. 1988 Nov; 30(5):382-6. PMID: 3187883.
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    210. Hieshima GB, Higashida RT, Halbach VV. Intravascular detachable balloon embolization of intracranial aneurysms. West J Med. 1988 Sep; 149(3):323. PMID: 18750469.
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    211. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Hardin CW. Arteriovenous fistula of the internal maxillary artery: treatment with transarterial embolization. Radiology. 1988 Aug; 168(2):443-5. PMID: 3393664.
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    212. Tsuruda JS, Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Mark AS, Hieshima GB, Norman D. MR evaluation of large intracranial aneurysms using cine low flip angle gradient-refocused imaging. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988 Jul; 151(1):153-62. PMID: 3259800.
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    213. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Hardin CW, Yang PJ. Transvenous embolization of direct carotid cavernous fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1988 Jul-Aug; 9(4):741-7. PMID: 3135718.
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    214. Yang PJ, Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Platinum wire: a new transvascular embolic agent. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1988 May-Jun; 9(3):547-50. PMID: 3132829.
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    215. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Rosenblum M, Cahan L. Treatment of dural arteriovenous malformations involving the superior sagittal sinus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1988 Mar-Apr; 9(2):337-43. PMID: 3128082.
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    216. Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Hieshima GB, Cahan L. Cavernous carotid artery aneurysm associated with Marfan's syndrome: treatment by balloon embolization therapy. Neurosurgery. 1988 Feb; 22(2):297-300. PMID: 3352878.
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    217. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB. Treatment of vertebral arteriovenous fistulas. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1988 Feb; 150(2):405-12. PMID: 3257333.
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    218. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Yang P, Barnwell S, Wilson CB, Hieshima GB. Preoperative balloon occlusion of arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 1988 Feb; 22(2):301-8. PMID: 3352879.
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    219. Ross DA, Olsen WL, Halbach V, Rosegay H, Pitts LH. Cervical root compression by a traumatic pseudoaneurysm of the vertebral artery: case report. Neurosurgery. 1988 Feb; 22(2):414-7. PMID: 3352893.
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    220. Ishii K, Goto K, Ihara K, Hieshima GB, Halbach V, Bentson JR, Shirouzu T, Fukumura A. High-risk dural arteriovenous fistulae of the transverse and sigmoid sinuses. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1987 Nov-Dec; 8(6):1113-20. PMID: 3120538.
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    221. Halbach VV, Hieshima GB, Higashida RT, Reicher M. Carotid cavernous fistulae: indications for urgent treatment. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987 Sep; 149(3):587-93. PMID: 3497549.
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    222. Hieshima GB, Reicher MA, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Cahan LD, Martin NA, Frazee JG, Rand RW, Bentson JR. Intraoperative digital subtraction neuroangiography: a diagnostic and therapeutic tool. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1987 Sep-Oct; 8(5):759-67. PMID: 3118672.
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    223. Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Norman D. Normal perfusion pressure breakthrough occurring during treatment of carotid and vertebral fistulas. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1987 Sep-Oct; 8(5):751-6. PMID: 3118670.
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    224. Higashida RT, Halbach V, Mehringer CM, Hieshima GB. Giant cavernous aneurysm associated with trigeminal artery: treatment by detachable balloon. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1987 Sep-Oct; 8(5):757-8. PMID: 3118671.
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    225. Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Tsai FY, Halbach V, Norman D, Newton TH. Transluminal angioplasty of the vertebral and basilar artery. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1987 Sep-Oct; 8(5):745-9. PMID: 2960222.
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    226. Brodsky MC, Hoyt WF, Halbach VV, Hieshima GB, Higashida RT, Barbaro NM. Recovery from total monocular blindness after balloon embolization of carotid-cavernous fistula. Am J Ophthalmol. 1987 Jul 15; 104(1):86-7. PMID: 3605287.
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    227. Brodsky MC, Hoyt WF, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Halbach VV. Bonnet-Dechaume-Blanc syndrome with large facial angioma. Arch Ophthalmol. 1987 Jun; 105(6):854-5. PMID: 3579716.
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    228. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Reicher M, Norman D, Newton TH. Dural fistulas involving the cavernous sinus: results of treatment in 30 patients. Radiology. 1987 May; 163(2):437-42. PMID: 3562823.
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    229. Halbach VV, Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Goto K, Norman D, Newton TH. Dural fistulas involving the transverse and sigmoid sinuses: results of treatment in 28 patients. Radiology. 1987 May; 163(2):443-7. PMID: 3562824.
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    230. Teresi L, Lufkin R, Wortham D, Flannigan B, Reicher M, Halbach V, Bentson J, Wilson G, Ward P, Hanafee W. MR imaging of the intratemporal facial nerve by using surface coils. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1987 Mar; 148(3):589-94. PMID: 3492891.
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    231. Cahan LD, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Hieshima GB. Variants of radiculomeningeal vascular malformations of the spine. J Neurosurg. 1987 Mar; 66(3):333-7. PMID: 3819826.
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    232. Hieshima GB, Higashida RT, Wapenski J, Halbach VV, Bentson JR. Intravascular balloon embolization of a large mid-basilar artery aneurysm. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1987 Jan; 66(1):124-7. PMID: 3783243.
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    233. Reicher MA, Gold RH, Halbach VV, Rauschning W, Wilson GH, Lufkin RB. MR imaging of the lumbar spine: anatomic correlations and the effects of technical variations. AJR Am J Roentgenol. 1986 Nov; 147(5):891-8. PMID: 3490160.
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    234. Hieshima GB, Higashida RT, Wapenski J, Halbach VV, Cahan L, Bentson JR. Balloon embolization of a large distal basilar artery aneurysm. Case report. J Neurosurg. 1986 Sep; 65(3):413-6. PMID: 3734895.
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    235. Reicher MA, Bentson JR, Halbach V, Lufkin R, Hepler RS. Pneumosinus dilatans of the sphenoid sinus. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1986 Sep-Oct; 7(5):865-8. PMID: 3096105.
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    236. Reicher MA, Halbach V, Bentson JR, Helmer E. The push-up view: a superior cross-table lateral projection for cervical myelography. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1986 Sep-Oct; 7(5):899-900. PMID: 3096111.
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    237. Hieshima GB, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Cahan L, Goto K. Intravascular balloon embolization of a carotid-ophthalmic artery aneurysm with preservation of the parent vessel. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 1986 Sep-Oct; 7(5):916-8. PMID: 3096116.
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    238. Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Halbach V, Bentson JR, Goto K. Closure of carotid cavernous sinus fistulae by external compression of the carotid artery and jugular vein. Acta Radiol Suppl. 1986; 369:580-3. PMID: 2980563.
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    239. Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Halbach V, Goto K. Cervical carotid artery aneurysms and pseudoaneurysms. Treatment by balloon embolization therapy. Acta Radiol Suppl. 1986; 369:591-3. PMID: 2980566.
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    240. Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Tsai FY, Bentson JR, Halbach V. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty of the subclavian and vertebral arteries. Acta Radiol Suppl. 1986; 369:124-6. PMID: 2980989.
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    241. Goto K, Hieshima GB, Higashida RT, Halbach VV, Bentson JR, Mehringer CM, Pribram HF. Treatment of direct carotid cavernous sinus fistulae. Various therapeutic approaches and results in 148 cases. Acta Radiol Suppl. 1986; 369:576-9. PMID: 2980562.
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    242. Higashida RT, Hieshima GB, Halbach V, Goto K, Dormandy B, Bell J, Cahan L, Bentson JR. Intravascular detachable balloon embolization of intracranial aneurysms. Indications and techniques. Acta Radiol Suppl. 1986; 369:594-6. PMID: 2980567.
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