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C. Anthony Hunt, PhD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Pharmacy
DepartmentBioengineering
Address513 Parnassus Ave
San Francisco CA 94143
Phone415-476-2455
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    Collapse Biography 
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    Georgia Institute of Technology1970BS in Chemistry with Highest Honors
    1984American Association for the Advancement of Science

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    My research is motivated by this question. What are the causal mechanisms that link induced changes in molecular level events to emergent changes in phenotype at the organism level? We need new ways to explore and challenge plausible answers. So doing will facilitate moving away from empirical approaches to biomedical research and reliance on correlational methods toward new approaches based on improving mechanistic knowledge and insight.
    We need ways to build and challenge experimentally (falsify) many alternative, nested, networked mechanistic hypotheses. Doing so using established, bottom-up, computational mathematical models is problematic at best. New methods and new approaches are needed. My search started in earnest circa 1997. We have now developed and demonstrated the scientific power of a novel, fundamentally new class biomedical simulation models along with methods to challenge and iteratively improve plausible, explanatory mechanisms. We adapted concepts and advanced methods from several domains. I call the process the synthetic method of modeling and simulation (SM). I say synthetic because standalone biomimetic components are plugged together in specific ways to form hierarchical, multiscale biomimetic mechanisms in software. I refer to the models as analogues because even though they exist only in silico, their phenotypes can be made to increasingly overlap more of the referent, biological phenotype. They are designed to evolve to become embodiments of most of what we know (or think we know) about aspects of specific organisms and their components.


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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Smith AK, Petersen BK, Ropella GE, Kennedy RC, Kaplowitz N, Ookhtens M, Hunt C. Competing Mechanistic Hypotheses of Acetaminophen-Induced Hepatotoxicity Challenged by Virtual Experiments. PLoS Comput Biol. 2016 Dec; 12(12):e1005253. PMID: 27984590.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Petersen BK, Ropella GE, Hunt C. Virtual Experiments Enable Exploring and Challenging Explanatory Mechanisms of Immune-Mediated P450 Down-Regulation. PLoS One. 2016; 11(5):e0155855. PMID: 27227433.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Kennedy RC, Ropella GE, Hunt C. A cell-centered, agent-based framework that enables flexible environment granularities. Theor Biol Med Model. 2016; 13(1):4. PMID: 26839017.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Hunt C, Kennedy RC, Kim SH, Ropella GE. Agent-based modeling: a systematic assessment of use cases and requirements for enhancing pharmaceutical research and development productivity. Wiley Interdiscip Rev Syst Biol Med. 2013 Jul-Aug; 5(4):461-80. PMID: 23737142; PMCID: PMC3739932.
    5. Kim SH, Jackson AJ, Hur R, Hunt C. Individualized, discrete event, simulations provide insight into inter- and intra-subject variability of extended-release, drug products. Theor Biol Med Model. 2012; 9:39. PMID: 22938185; PMCID: PMC3563477.
    6. Hunt C, Ropella GE, Lam Tn, Gewitz AD. Relational grounding facilitates development of scientifically useful multiscale models. Theor Biol Med Model. 2011; 8:35. PMID: 21951817; PMCID: PMC3200146.
    7. Engelberg JA, Datta A, Mostov KE, Hunt C. MDCK cystogenesis driven by cell stabilization within computational analogues. PLoS Comput Biol. 2011 Apr; 7(4):e1002030. PMID: 21490722; PMCID: PMC3072361.
    8. Park S, Kim SH, Ropella GE, Roberts MS, Hunt C. Tracing multiscale mechanisms of drug disposition in normal and diseased livers. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Jul; 334(1):124-36. PMID: 20406856.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Kim SH, Matthay MA, Mostov K, Hunt C. Simulation of lung alveolar epithelial wound healing in vitro. J R Soc Interface. 2010 Aug 6; 7(49):1157-70. PMID: 20236957; PMCID: PMC2894878.
    10. Tang J, Hunt C. Identifying the rules of engagement enabling leukocyte rolling, activation, and adhesion. PLoS Comput Biol. 2010 Feb; 6(2):e1000681. PMID: 20174606; PMCID: PMC2824748.
    11. Kim SH, Debnath J, Mostov K, Park S, Hunt C. A computational approach to resolve cell level contributions to early glandular epithelial cancer progression. BMC Syst Biol. 2009; 3:122. PMID: 20043854; PMCID: PMC2814811.
    12. Lam TN, Hunt C. Mechanistic insight from in silico pharmacokinetic experiments: roles of P-glycoprotein, Cyp3A4 enzymes, and microenvironments. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2010 Feb; 332(2):398-412. PMID: 19864617.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Hunt C, Ropella GE, Lam TN, Tang J, Kim SH, Engelberg JA, Sheikh-Bahaei S. At the biological modeling and simulation frontier. Pharm Res. 2009 Nov; 26(11):2369-400. PMID: 19756975.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Kim SH, Park S, Mostov K, Debnath J, Hunt C. Computational investigation of epithelial cell dynamic phenotype in vitro. Theor Biol Med Model. 2009; 6:8. PMID: 19476639; PMCID: PMC2696420.
    15. Kim SH, Yu W, Mostov K, Matthay MA, Hunt C. A computational approach to understand in vitro alveolar morphogenesis. PLoS One. 2009; 4(3):e4819. PMID: 19283073; PMCID: PMC2653231.
    16. Engelberg JA, Ropella GE, Hunt C. Essential operating principles for tumor spheroid growth. BMC Syst Biol. 2008; 2:110. PMID: 19105850; PMCID: PMC2667182.
    17. Park S, Ropella GE, Kim SH, Roberts MS, Hunt C. Computational strategies unravel and trace how liver disease changes hepatic drug disposition. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2009 Jan; 328(1):294-305. PMID: 18948498.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Lam TN, Hunt C. Discovering plausible mechanistic details of hepatic drug interactions. Drug Metab Dispos. 2009 Jan; 37(1):237-46. PMID: 18936110.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Yan L, Sheihk-Bahaei S, Park S, Ropella GE, Hunt C. Predictions of hepatic disposition properties using a mechanistically realistic, physiologically based model. Drug Metab Dispos. 2008 Apr; 36(4):759-68. PMID: 18227144.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Lam TN, Hunt C. Mechanistic simulations explain paradoxical saquinavir metabolism during in vitro vectorial transport study. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008; 2008:5462-5. PMID: 19163953.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Engelberg JA, Kim M, Mostov KE, Hunt C. In silico simulation of epithelial cell tubulogenesis. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008; 2008:1036-9. PMID: 19162839.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Hunt C, Ropella GE. Using an in silico liver to evaluate a hepatic enzyme induction mechanism. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2008; 2008:2415-8. PMID: 19163189.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Yan L, Ropella GE, Park S, Roberts MS, Hunt C. Modeling and simulation of hepatic drug disposition using a physiologically based, multi-agent in silico liver. Pharm Res. 2008 May; 25(5):1023-36. PMID: 18044012.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Yu W, Fang X, Ewald A, Wong K, Hunt C, Werb Z, Matthay MA, Mostov K. Formation of cysts by alveolar type II cells in three-dimensional culture reveals a novel mechanism for epithelial morphogenesis. Mol Biol Cell. 2007 May; 18(5):1693-700. PMID: 17332496; PMCID: PMC1855040.
    25. Tang J, Ley KF, Hunt C. Dynamics of in silico leukocyte rolling, activation, and adhesion. BMC Syst Biol. 2007; 1:14. PMID: 17408504; PMCID: PMC1839892.
    26. Hunt C, Ropella GE, Yan L, Hung DY, Roberts MS. Physiologically based synthetic models of hepatic disposition. J Pharmacokinet Pharmacodyn. 2006 Dec; 33(6):737-72. PMID: 17051440.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Grant MR, Mostov KE, Tlsty TD, Hunt C. Simulating properties of in vitro epithelial cell morphogenesis. PLoS Comput Biol. 2006 Oct 6; 2(10):e129. PMID: 17029556; PMCID: PMC1592363.
    28. Liu Y, Hunt C. Mechanistic study of the cellular interplay of transport and metabolism using the synthetic modeling method. Pharm Res. 2006 Mar; 23(3):493-505. PMID: 16435171.
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    29. Grant MR, Kim SH, Hunt C. Simulating in vitro epithelial morphogenesis in multiple environments. Comput Syst Bioinformatics Conf. 2006; 381-4. PMID: 17369657.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Liu Y, Hunt C. Studies of intestinal drug transport using an in silico epithelio-mimetic device. Biosystems. 2005 Nov; 82(2):154-67. PMID: 16135397.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Qutub AA, Hunt C. Glucose transport to the brain: a systems model. Brain Res Brain Res Rev. 2005 Nov; 49(3):595-617. PMID: 16269321.
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    32. Grant MR, Hunt C, Xia L, Fata JE, Bissell MJ. Modeling mammary gland morphogenesis as a reaction-diffusion process. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2004; 1:679-82. PMID: 17271768.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Ganguli S, Hunt C. The necessity of a theory of biology for tissue engineering: metabolism-repair systems. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2004; 7:5031-4. PMID: 17271446.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Lin DW, Johnson S, Hunt C. Modeling liver physiology: combining fractals, imaging and animation. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2004; 5:3120-3. PMID: 17270940.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Liu Y, Hunt C. Representing intestinal drug transport in silico: an agent-oriented approach. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2004; 1:770-3. PMID: 17271791.
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    36. Lam TN, Hunt C. Applying models of targeted drug delivery to gene delivery. Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc. 2004; 5:3535-8. PMID: 17271053.
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    37. Xiao Y, Segal MR, Rabert D, Ahn AH, Anand P, Sangameswaran L, Hu D, Hunt C. Assessment of differential gene expression in human peripheral nerve injury. BMC Genomics. 2002 Sep 27; 3(1):28. PMID: 12354329; PMCID: PMC137578.
    38. Hunt C, Guzy S, Weiner DL. A forecasting approach to accelerate drug development. Stat Med. 1998 Aug 15-30; 17(15-16):1725-40; discussion 1741-3. PMID: 9749443.
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    39. Hunt C, Givens GH, Guzy S. Bootstrapping for pharmacokinetic models: visualization of predictive and parameter uncertainty. Pharm Res. 1998 May; 15(5):690-7. PMID: 9619776.
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    40. Guzy S, Hunt C. Validation of a decision support system for use in drug development: pharmacokinetic data. Pharm Res. 1997 Oct; 14(10):1287-97. PMID: 9358539.
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    41. Lim CS, Jabrane-Ferrat N, Fontes JD, Okamoto H, Garovoy MR, Peterlin BM, Hunt C. Sequence-independent inhibition of RNA transcription by DNA dumbbells and other decoys. Nucleic Acids Res. 1997 Feb 1; 25(3):575-81. PMID: 9016598; PMCID: PMC146464.
    42. Guzy S, Hunt C. Measures of uncertainty of pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameter estimates: a new computerized algorithm. Comput Biomed Res. 1996 Dec; 29(6):466-81. PMID: 9012569.
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    43. Lee PP, Ramanathan M, Hunt C, Garovoy MR. An oligonucleotide blocks interferon-gamma signal transduction. Transplantation. 1996 Nov 15; 62(9):1297-301. PMID: 8932275.
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    44. Williard R, Jammalamadaka V, Zava D, Benz CC, Hunt C, Kushner PJ, Scanlan TS. Screening and characterization of estrogenic activity from a hydroxystilbene library. Chem Biol. 1995 Jan; 2(1):45-51. PMID: 9383402.
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    45. Tam S, Huey B, Li Y, Lui GM, Hwang DG, Lantz M, Weiss TL, Hunt C, Garovoy MR. Suppression of interferon-gamma induction of MHC class II and ICAM-1 by a 26-base oligonucleotide composed of deoxyguanosine and deoxythymidine. Transpl Immunol. 1994 Dec; 2(4):285-92. PMID: 7704538.
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    46. Williard R, Benz CC, Baxter JD, Kushner P, Hunt C. Paradoxical production of target protein using antisense RNA expression vectors. Gene. 1994 Nov 4; 149(1):21-4. PMID: 7958984.
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    47. Noonberg SB, Scott GK, Hunt C, Hogan ME, Benz CC. Inhibition of transcription factor binding to the HER2 promoter by triplex-forming oligodeoxyribonucleotides. Gene. 1994 Nov 4; 149(1):123-6. PMID: 7958975.
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    48. Ramanathan M, Lantz M, MacGregor RD, Garovoy MR, Hunt C. Characterization of the oligodeoxynucleotide-mediated inhibition of interferon-gamma-induced major histocompatibility complex class I and intercellular adhesion molecule-1. J Biol Chem. 1994 Oct 7; 269(40):24564-74. PMID: 7929128.
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    49. Krishnan G, MacGregor RD, Shohet SB, Hunt C. Characterization of apocytochrome C binding to human erythrocytes. Am J Hematol. 1994 Oct; 47(2):132-4. PMID: 8092129.
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    50. Lim CS, Hunt C. Sequential staining of short oligonucleotides in polyacrylamide gels with ethidium bromide and methylene blue. Biotechniques. 1994 Oct; 17(4):626, 628. PMID: 7530455.
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    51. Wu-Pong S, Weiss TL, Hunt C. Calcium dependent cellular uptake of a c-myc antisense oligonucleotide. Cell Mol Biol (Noisy-le-grand). 1994 Sep; 40(6):843-50. PMID: 7812192.
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    52. Noonberg SB, Scott GK, Garovoy MR, Benz CC, Hunt C. In vivo generation of highly abundant sequence-specific oligonucleotides for antisense and triplex gene regulation. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994 Jul 25; 22(14):2830-6. PMID: 8052538; PMCID: PMC308254.
    53. Noonberg SB, Scott GK, Hunt C, Benz CC. Detection of triplex-forming RNA oligonucleotides by triplex blotting. Biotechniques. 1994 Jun; 16(6):1070-2, 1074. PMID: 7521186.
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    54. Tam RC, Li Y, Noonberg S, Hwang DG, Lui G, Hunt C, Garovoy MR. Biological availability and nuclease resistance extend the in vitro activity of a phosphorothioate-3'hydroxypropylamine oligonucleotide. Nucleic Acids Res. 1994 Mar 25; 22(6):977-86. PMID: 8152930; PMCID: PMC307918.
    55. Fedoseyeva EV, Li Y, Huey B, Tam S, Hunt C, Benichou G, Garovoy MR. Inhibition of interferon-gamma-mediated immune functions by oligonucleotides. Suppression of human T cell proliferation by downregulation of IFN-gamma-induced ICAM-1 and Fc-receptor on accessory cells. Transplantation. 1994 Feb 27; 57(4):606-12. PMID: 7906904.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Ramanathan M, Lantz M, MacGregor RD, Huey B, Tam S, Li Y, Garovoy MR, Hunt C. Inhibition of interferon-gamma-induced major histocompatibility complex class I expression by certain oligodeoxynucleotides. Transplantation. 1994 Feb 27; 57(4):612-5. PMID: 7906905.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Wu-Pong S, Weiss TL, Hunt C. Antisense c-myc oligonucleotide cellular uptake and activity. Antisense Res Dev. 1994; 4(3):155-63. PMID: 7849486.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Noonberg SB, Garovoy MR, Hunt C. Characteristics of oligonucleotide uptake in human keratinocyte cultures. J Invest Dermatol. 1993 Nov; 101(5):727-31. PMID: 8228335.
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    59. Ramanathan M, MacGregor RD, Hunt C. Predictions of effect for intracellular antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotides from a kinetic model. Antisense Res Dev. 1993; 3(1):3-18. PMID: 8388278.
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    60. Wu-Pong S, Weiss TL, Hunt C. Antisense c-myc oligodeoxyribonucleotide cellular uptake. Pharm Res. 1992 Aug; 9(8):1010-7. PMID: 1384028.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Noonberg SB, Weiss TL, Garovoy MR, Hunt C. Characterization and minimization of cellular autofluorescence in the study of oligonucleotide uptake using confocal microscopy. Antisense Res Dev. 1992; 2(4):303-13. PMID: 1292778.
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    62. Woodruff AE, Hunt C. Involvement in medical informatics may enable pharmacists to expand their consultation potential and improve the quality of healthcare. Ann Pharmacother. 1992 Jan; 26(1):100-4. PMID: 1606329.
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    63. Siegel RA, Johannes I, Hunt C, Firestone BA. Buffer effects on swelling kinetics in polybasic gels. Pharm Res. 1992 Jan; 9(1):76-81. PMID: 1589413.
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    64. Siegel RA, MacGregor RD, Hunt C. Comparison and critique of two models for regional drug delivery. J Pharmacokinet Biopharm. 1991 Jun; 19(3):363-73; discussion 373-4. PMID: 1875288.
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    65. MacGregor RD, Hunt C. Artificial red cells. A link between the membrane skeleton and RES detectability? Biomater Artif Cells Artif Organs. 1990; 18(2):329-43. PMID: 2369655.
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    66. Hunt C, Macgregor RD, Siegel RA. Engineering targeted in vivo drug delivery. I. The physiological and physicochemical principles governing opportunities and limitations. Pharm Res. 1986 Dec; 3(6):333-44. PMID: 24271832.
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