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Hilary Seligman, MD, MAS

Title(s)Associate Professor, Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Phone628-206-4448
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CAMaster's of Advanced Studies (MAS)2006Clinical Research
    University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA Clinical Fellowship 2006Internal Medicine
    University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CA Internship & Residency 2003Internal Medicine
    Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TXMD with Honors2000
    Williams College, Williamstown, MABA1996Biology

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Hilary Seligman, MD, MAS is Associate Professor at the University of California San Francisco with appointments in the Departments of Medicine and of Epidemiology and Biostatistics.

    Dr. Seligman directs the National Clinician Scholars Program at UCSF, School of Medicine. NCSP aims to offer unparalleled training for clinicians as change agents driving policy-relevant research and partnerships to improve health and health care. The goal of the program is to cultivate health equity, eliminate health disparities, invent new models of care, and achieve higher quality health care at lower cost by training nurse and physician researchers who work as leaders and collaborators embedded in communities, healthcare systems, government, foundations, and think tanks in the United States and around the world (https://nationalcsp.org/).

    Dr. Seligman is a nationally recognized expert in food insecurity, particularly its health implications across the life course. Her policy and advocacy expertise focus on federal nutrition programs (particularly SNAP), food banking and the charitable feeding network, hunger policy, food affordability and access, and income-related drivers of food choice. She directs the Food Policy, Health, and Hunger Research Program at UCSF’s Center for Vulnerable Populations at Zuckerberg San Francisco General Hospital (https://cvp.ucsf.edu/programs/food-policy-health-and-hunger-research-program) and the CDC’s Nutrition and Obesity Policy, Research and Evaluation Network (www.nopren.org). She also serves as Senior Medical Advisor for Feeding America (feedingamerica.org).

    Dr. Seligman founded EatSF, a healthy foods voucher program for low-income residents of San Francisco (www.eatsfvoucher.org). Vouchers are redeemable for fruits and vegetables at grocery stores, corner stores, and farmer's markets in underserved neighborhoods. Outside of San Francisco, EatSF is known as Vouchers for Veggies.

    Dr. Seligman serves on the Board of Directors for California Food Policy Advocates and the San Francisco-Marin Food Bank. She also serves on the Food Security Task Force for the City and County of San Francisco. She is a Fellow of the American College of Physicians.

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Jih J, Nguyen TT, Jin C, Seligman H, Boscardin WJ, Ritchie CS. Food Insecurity Is Associated with Behavioral Health Diagnosis Among Older Primary Care Patients with Multiple Chronic Conditions. J Gen Intern Med. 2019 Dec 05. PMID: 31808129.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Golovaty I, Tien PC, Price JC, Sheira L, Seligman H, Weiser SD. Food Insecurity May Be an Independent Risk Factor Associated with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease among Low-Income Adults in the United States. J Nutr. 2019 Sep 10. PMID: 31504710.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Berkowitz SA, Basu S, Gundersen C, Seligman HK. State-Level and County-Level Estimates of Health Care Costs Associated with Food Insecurity. Prev Chronic Dis. 2019 Jul 11; 16:E90. PMID: 31298210.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Patel KG, Borno HT, Seligman HK. Food insecurity screening: A missing piece in cancer management. Cancer. 2019 Oct 15; 125(20):3494-3501. PMID: 31287159.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Wetherill MS, White KC, Seligman HK. Nutrition-Focused Food Banking in the United States: A Qualitative Study of Healthy Food Distribution Initiatives. J Acad Nutr Diet. 2019 Oct; 119(10):1653-1665. PMID: 31262694.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Wetherill MS, Williams MB, White KC, Seligman HK. Characteristics of Households of People With Diabetes Accessing US Food Pantries: Implications for Diabetes Self-Management Education and Support. Diabetes Educ. 2019 08; 45(4):397-407. PMID: 31204590.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Calloway EE, Seligman HK, Boyd LW, Stern KL, Rosenmoss S, Yaroch AL. Development and testing of the FRESH Foods Survey to assess food pantry clients' dietary behaviours and correlates. Public Health Nutr. 2019 Aug; 22(12):2170-2178. PMID: 31111812.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Basu S, Gardner CD, White JS, Rigdon J, Carroll MM, Akers M, Seligman HK. Effects Of Alternative Food Voucher Delivery Strategies On Nutrition Among Low-Income Adults. Health Aff (Millwood). 2019 Apr; 38(4):577-584. PMID: 30933599.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Seligman HK, Smith M, Golovaty I, Waxman E, Rosenmoss S. Seligman et al. Respond. Am J Public Health. 2019 Mar; 109(3):e15-e16. PMID: 30726135.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Wetherill MS, White KC, Seligman H. Charitable food as prevention: Food bank leadership perspectives on food banks as agents in population health. Community Dev (Columb). 2019; 50(1):92-107. PMID: 31057344.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Marpadga S, Fernandez A, Leung J, Tang A, Seligman H, Murphy EJ. Challenges and Successes with Food Resource Referrals for Food-Insecure Patients with Diabetes. Perm J. 2019; 23. PMID: 30939269.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Pooler JA, Hartline-Grafton H, DeBor M, Sudore RL, Seligman HK. Food Insecurity: A Key Social Determinant of Health for Older Adults. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2019 Mar; 67(3):421-424. PMID: 30586154.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Kim-Mozeleski JE, Seligman HK, Yen IH, Shaw SJ, Buchanan DR, Tsoh JY. Changes in Food Insecurity and Smoking Status over Time: Analysis of the 2003 and 2015 Panel Study of Income Dynamics. Am J Health Promot. 2019 Jun; 33(5):698-707. PMID: 30463414.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Seligman HK, Berkowitz SA. Aligning Programs and Policies to Support Food Security and Public Health Goals in the United States. Annu Rev Public Health. 2019 Apr 01; 40:319-337. PMID: 30444684.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Seligman HK, Basu S. In an unhealthy food system, what role should SNAP play? PLoS Med. 2018 10; 15(10):e1002662. PMID: 30278040.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Bomberg EM, Neuhaus J, Hake MM, Engelhard EM, Seligman HK. Food Preferences and Coping Strategies among Diabetic and Nondiabetic Households Served by US Food Pantries. J Hunger Environ Nutr. 2019; 14(1-2):4-17. PMID: 31456865.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Berkowitz SA, Seligman HK, Meigs JB, Basu S. Food insecurity, healthcare utilization, and high cost: a longitudinal cohort study. Am J Manag Care. 2018 09; 24(9):399-404. PMID: 30222918.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Seligman HK, Smith M, Rosenmoss S, Marshall MB, Waxman E. Comprehensive Diabetes Self-Management Support From Food Banks: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Am J Public Health. 2018 09; 108(9):1227-1234. PMID: 30024798.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Berkowitz SA, Karter AJ, Corbie-Smith G, Seligman HK, Ackroyd SA, Barnard LS, Atlas SJ, Wexler DJ. Food Insecurity, Food "Deserts," and Glycemic Control in Patients With Diabetes: A Longitudinal Analysis. Diabetes Care. 2018 06; 41(6):1188-1195. PMID: 29555650.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Jih J, Stijacic-Cenzer I, Seligman HK, Boscardin WJ, Nguyen TT, Ritchie CS. Chronic disease burden predicts food insecurity among older adults. Public Health Nutr. 2018 06; 21(9):1737-1742. PMID: 29388533.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Stenmark SH, Steiner JF, Marpadga S, Debor M, Underhill K, Seligman H. Lessons Learned from Implementation of the Food Insecurity Screening and Referral Program at Kaiser Permanente Colorado. Perm J. 2018; 22:18-093. PMID: 30296400.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Berkowitz SA, Seligman HK, Rigdon J, Meigs JB, Basu S. Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program (SNAP) Participation and Health Care Expenditures Among Low-Income Adults. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 11 01; 177(11):1642-1649. PMID: 28973507.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Rigdon J, Berkowitz SA, Seligman HK, Basu S. Re-evaluating associations between the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program participation and body mass index in the context of unmeasured confounders. Soc Sci Med. 2017 11; 192:112-124. PMID: 28965002.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Basu S, Berkowitz SA, Seligman H. The Monthly Cycle of Hypoglycemia: An Observational Claims-based Study of Emergency Room Visits, Hospital Admissions, and Costs in a Commercially Insured Population. Med Care. 2017 07; 55(7):639-645. PMID: 28481762.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Berkowitz SA, Basu S, Meigs JB, Seligman HK. Food Insecurity and Health Care Expenditures in the United States, 2011-2013. Health Serv Res. 2018 06; 53(3):1600-1620. PMID: 28608473.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Barnidge E, Stenmark S, Seligman H. Clinic-to-Community Models to Address Food Insecurity. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 06 01; 171(6):507-508. PMID: 28384732.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Bomberg E, Birch L, Endenburg N, German AJ, Neilson J, Seligman H, Takashima G, Day MJ. The Financial Costs, Behaviour and Psychology of Obesity: A One Health Analysis. J Comp Pathol. 2017 May; 156(4):310-325. PMID: 28460796.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Seligman HK. Food Insecurity and "Unexplained" Weight Loss. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 03 01; 177(3):421-422. PMID: 28114602.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Gundersen C, Engelhard EE, Crumbaugh AS, Seligman HK. Brief assessment of food insecurity accurately identifies high-risk US adults. Public Health Nutr. 2017 Jun; 20(8):1367-1371. PMID: 28215190.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Palar K, Napoles T, Hufstedler LL, Seligman H, Hecht FM, Madsen K, Ryle M, Pitchford S, Frongillo EA, Weiser SD. Comprehensive and Medically Appropriate Food Support Is Associated with Improved HIV and Diabetes Health. J Urban Health. 2017 02; 94(1):87-99. PMID: 28097614.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Choi SE, Seligman H, Basu S. Cost Effectiveness of Subsidizing Fruit and Vegetable Purchases Through the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Am J Prev Med. 2017 May; 52(5):e147-e155. PMID: 28153648.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Whittle HJ, Palar K, Seligman HK, Napoles T, Frongillo EA, Weiser SD. How food insecurity contributes to poor HIV health outcomes: Qualitative evidence from the San Francisco Bay Area. Soc Sci Med. 2016 12; 170:228-236. PMID: 27771206.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Basu S, Wimer C, Seligman H. Moderation of the Relation of County-Level Cost of Living to Nutrition by the Supplemental Nutrition Assistance Program. Am J Public Health. 2016 11; 106(11):2064-2070. PMID: 27631742.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Ippolito MM, Lyles CR, Prendergast K, Marshall MB, Waxman E, Seligman HK. Food insecurity and diabetes self-management among food pantry clients. Public Health Nutr. 2017 01; 20(1):183-189. PMID: 27406399.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Seligman HK, Lyles C, Marshall MB, Prendergast K, Smith MC, Headings A, Bradshaw G, Rosenmoss S, Waxman E. A Pilot Food Bank Intervention Featuring Diabetes-Appropriate Food Improved Glycemic Control Among Clients In Three States. Health Aff (Millwood). 2015 Nov; 34(11):1956-63. PMID: 26526255.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Mayer VL, McDonough K, Seligman H, Mitra N, Long JA. Food insecurity, coping strategies and glucose control in low-income patients with diabetes. Public Health Nutr. 2016 Apr; 19(6):1103-11. PMID: 26328922.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Whittle HJ, Palar K, Hufstedler LL, Seligman HK, Frongillo EA, Weiser SD. Food insecurity, chronic illness, and gentrification in the San Francisco Bay Area: An example of structural violence in United States public policy. Soc Sci Med. 2015 Oct; 143:154-61. PMID: 26356827.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Lyles CR, Seligman HK, Parker MM, Moffet HH, Adler N, Schillinger D, Piette JD, Karter AJ. Financial Strain and Medication Adherence among Diabetes Patients in an Integrated Health Care Delivery System: The Diabetes Study of Northern California (DISTANCE). Health Serv Res. 2016 Apr; 51(2):610-24. PMID: 26256117.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Berkowitz SA, Meigs JB, DeWalt D, Seligman HK, Barnard LS, Bright OJ, Schow M, Atlas SJ, Wexler DJ. Material need insecurities, control of diabetes mellitus, and use of health care resources: results of the Measuring Economic Insecurity in Diabetes study. JAMA Intern Med. 2015 Feb; 175(2):257-65. PMID: 25545780.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Lyles CR, Schafer AL, Seligman HK. Income, food insecurity, and osteoporosis among older adults in the 2007-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2014 Nov; 25(4):1530-41. PMID: 25418225.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Basu S, Seligman HK, Gardner C, Bhattacharya J. Ending SNAP subsidies for sugar-sweetened beverages could reduce obesity and type 2 diabetes. Health Aff (Millwood). 2014 Jun; 33(6):1032-9. PMID: 24889953.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Basu S, Seligman H, Winkleby M. A metabolic-epidemiological microsimulation model to estimate the changes in energy intake and physical activity necessary to meet the Healthy People 2020 obesity objective. Am J Public Health. 2014 Jul; 104(7):1209-16. PMID: 24832140.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Kwan CM, Napoles AM, Chou J, Seligman HK. Development of a conceptually equivalent Chinese-language translation of the US Household Food Security Survey Module for Chinese immigrants to the USA. Public Health Nutr. 2015 Feb; 18(2):242-50. PMID: 24642365.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Pandit AU, Bailey SC, Curtis LM, Seligman HK, Davis TC, Parker RM, Schillinger D, DeWalt D, Fleming D, Mohr DC, Wolf MS. Disease-related distress, self-care and clinical outcomes among low-income patients with diabetes. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2014 Jun; 68(6):557-64. PMID: 24489044.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Berkowitz SA, Seligman HK, Choudhry NK. Treat or eat: food insecurity, cost-related medication underuse, and unmet needs. Am J Med. 2014 Apr; 127(4):303-310.e3. PMID: 24440543.
      View in: PubMed
    46. López A, Seligman HK. Online grocery store coupons and unhealthy foods, United States. Prev Chronic Dis. 2014 Jan 09; 11:130211. PMID: 24406094.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Seligman HK, Bolger AF, Guzman D, López A, Bibbins-Domingo K. Exhaustion of food budgets at month's end and hospital admissions for hypoglycemia. Health Aff (Millwood). 2014 Jan; 33(1):116-23. PMID: 24395943.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Wolf MS, Seligman H, Davis TC, Fleming DA, Curtis LM, Pandit AU, Parker RM, Schillinger D, Dewalt DA. Clinic-based versus outsourced implementation of a diabetes health literacy intervention. J Gen Intern Med. 2014 Jan; 29(1):59-67. PMID: 24002623.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Mangurian C, Sreshta N, Seligman H. Food insecurity among adults with severe mental illness. Psychiatr Serv. 2013 Sep 01; 64(9):931-2. PMID: 24026843.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Basu S, Seligman H, Bhattacharya J. Nutritional policy changes in the supplemental nutrition assistance program: a microsimulation and cost-effectiveness analysis. Med Decis Making. 2013 10; 33(7):937-48. PMID: 23811757.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Lyles CR, Drago-Ferguson S, Lopez A, Seligman HK. Nutritional assessment of free meal programs in San Francisco. Prev Chronic Dis. 2013 May 30; 10:E90. PMID: 23721791.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Berkowitz SA, Aragon K, Hines J, Seligman H, Lee S, Sarkar U. Do clinical standards for diabetes care address excess risk for hypoglycemia in vulnerable patients? A systematic review. Health Serv Res. 2013 Aug; 48(4):1299-310. PMID: 23445498.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Lyles CR, Wolf MS, Schillinger D, Davis TC, Dewalt D, Dahlke AR, Curtis L, Seligman HK. Food insecurity in relation to changes in hemoglobin A1c, self-efficacy, and fruit/vegetable intake during a diabetes educational intervention. Diabetes Care. 2013 Jun; 36(6):1448-53. PMID: 23275354.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Handley MA, Robles M, Sanford E, Collins N, Seligman H, Defries T, Perez R, Grieshop J. Navigating changing food environments - Transnational perspectives on dietary behaviours and implications for nutrition counselling. Glob Public Health. 2013; 8(3):245-57. PMID: 23088255.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Seligman HK, Fernandez A, Stern RJ, Weech-Maldonado R, Quan J, Jacobs EA. Risk factors for reporting poor cultural competency among patients with diabetes in safety net clinics. Med Care. 2012 Sep; 50(9 Suppl 2):S56-61. PMID: 22895232.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Fernandez A, Seligman H, Quan J, Stern RJ, Jacobs EA. Associations between aspects of culturally competent care and clinical outcomes among patients with diabetes. Med Care. 2012 Sep; 50(9 Suppl 2):S74-9. PMID: 22895235.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Stern RJ, Fernandez A, Jacobs EA, Neilands TB, Weech-Maldonado R, Quan J, Carle A, Seligman HK. Advances in measuring culturally competent care: a confirmatory factor analysis of CAHPS-CC in a safety-net population. Med Care. 2012 Sep; 50(9 Suppl 2):S49-55. PMID: 22895231.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Davis TC, Seligman HK, Dewalt DA, Platt DJ, Reynolds C, Timm DF, Arnold CL. Diabetes Implementation of a Self-management Program in Resource Poor and Rural Community Clinics. J Prim Care Community Health. 2012 Oct 01; 3(4):239-42. PMID: 23804167.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Lopez A, Seligman HK.. Clinical Management of the Food Insecure Patient with Diabetes. Diabetes Spectrum. 2012; (25):14-15.
    60. Seligman HK, Jacobs EA, López A, Tschann J, Fernandez A. Food insecurity and glycemic control among low-income patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes Care. 2012 Feb; 35(2):233-8. PMID: 22210570.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Vijayaraghavan M, Jacobs EA, Seligman H, Fernandez A. The association between housing instability, food insecurity, and diabetes self-efficacy in low-income adults. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2011 Nov; 22(4):1279-91. PMID: 22080709.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Seligman HK, Jacobs EA, Lopez A, Sarkar U, Tschann J, Fernandez A. Food insecurity and hypoglycemia among safety net patients with diabetes. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Jul 11; 171(13):1204-6. PMID: 21747017.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Seligman HK, Davis TC, Schillinger D, Wolf MS. Food insecurity is associated with hypoglycemia and poor diabetes self-management in a low-income sample with diabetes. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2010 Nov; 21(4):1227-33. PMID: 21099074.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Seligman HK, Schillinger D. Hunger and socioeconomic disparities in chronic disease. N Engl J Med. 2010 Jul 01; 363(1):6-9. PMID: 20592297.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Sarkar U, Handley MA, Gupta R, Tang A, Murphy E, Seligman HK, Shojania KG, Schillinger D. What happens between visits? Adverse and potential adverse events among a low-income, urban, ambulatory population with diabetes. Qual Saf Health Care. 2010 Jun; 19(3):223-8. PMID: 20378619.
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    66. Seligman HK, Laraia BA, Kushel MB. Food insecurity is associated with chronic disease among low-income NHANES participants. J Nutr. 2010 Feb; 140(2):304-10. PMID: 20032485.
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    67. DeWalt DA, Davis TC, Wallace AS, Seligman HK, Bryant-Shilliday B, Arnold CL, Freburger J, Schillinger D. Goal setting in diabetes self-management: taking the baby steps to success. Patient Educ Couns. 2009 Nov; 77(2):218-23. PMID: 19359123.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Wallace AS, Seligman HK, Davis TC, Schillinger D, Arnold CL, Bryant-Shilliday B, Freburger JK, DeWalt DA. Literacy-appropriate educational materials and brief counseling improve diabetes self-management. Patient Educ Couns. 2009 Jun; 75(3):328-33. PMID: 19167857.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Seligman HK, Grossman MD, Bera N, Stewart AL. Improving physical activity resource guides to bridge the divide between the clinic and the community. Prev Chronic Dis. 2009 Jan; 6(1):A18. PMID: 19080024.
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    70. Sarkar U, Handley MA, Gupta R, Tang A, Murphy E, Seligman HK, Shojania KG, Schillinger D. Use of an interactive, telephone-based self-management support program to identify adverse events among ambulatory diabetes patients. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Apr; 23(4):459-65. PMID: 18373145.
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    71. Tabas JA, Rodriguez RM, Seligman HK, Goldschlager NF. Electrocardiographic criteria for detecting acute myocardial infarction in patients with left bundle branch block: a meta-analysis. Ann Emerg Med. 2008 Oct; 52(4):329-336.e1. PMID: 18342992.
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    72. Seligman HK, Wallace AS, DeWalt DA, Schillinger D, Arnold CL, Shilliday BB, Delgadillo A, Bengal N, Davis TC. Facilitating behavior change with low-literacy patient education materials. Am J Health Behav. 2007 Sep-Oct; 31 Suppl 1:S69-78. PMID: 17931139.
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    73. Seligman HK, Chattopadhyay A, Vittinghoff E, Bindman AB. Racial and ethnic differences in receipt of primary care services between medicaid fee-for-service and managed care plans. J Ambul Care Manage. 2007 Jul-Sep; 30(3):264-73. PMID: 17581438.
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    74. Seligman HK, Bindman AB, Vittinghoff E, Kanaya AM, Kushel MB. Food insecurity is associated with diabetes mellitus: results from the National Health Examination and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 1999-2002. J Gen Intern Med. 2007 Jul; 22(7):1018-23. PMID: 17436030.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Seligman HK, Wang FF, Palacios JL, Wilson CC, Daher C, Piette JD, Schillinger D. Physician notification of their diabetes patients' limited health literacy. A randomized, controlled trial. J Gen Intern Med. 2005 Nov; 20(11):1001-7. PMID: 16307624.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Seligman HK, Wang FF, Palacios JL, Wilson CC, Daher CA, Piette JD, Schillinger D. Physician notification of their diabetes patients' limited health literacy: A randomized, controlled trial. J Gen Intern Med. 2005 Nov; 20(11):1077. PMID: 27519856.
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    77. Seligman HK, Fox RK. Treatment of acute hepatitis C with interferon alfa-2b. N Engl J Med. 2002 Apr 04; 346(14):1091-2. PMID: 11936120.
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