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    Adam Gazzaley, MD, PhD

    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    Address675 Nelson Rising Lane
    San Francisco CA 94158
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      The Gazzaley lab is a cognitive neuroscience research lab at the University of California, San Francisco focused on studying the neural mechanisms of memory and attention, how these processes change with normal aging and dementia, and how we might intervene therapeutically to alleviate memory and attention deficits.

      The lab utilizes state of the art techniques and analytical approaches to address its scientific and clinical goals by coupling behavioral assessments, functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG) and transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS).

      Under the direction of Dr. Adam Gazzaley the lab supports research associates, undergraduates, medical students and residents, PhD students, and post-doctoral fellows in their research and educational development.

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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Voytek B, Kramer MA, Case J, Lepage KQ, Tempesta ZR, Knight RT, Gazzaley A. Age-Related Changes in 1/f Neural Electrophysiological Noise. J Neurosci. 2015 Sep 23; 35(38):13257-65.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Janowich J, Mishra J, Gazzaley A. A Cognitive Paradigm to Investigate Interference in Working Memory by Distractions and Interruptions. J Vis Exp. 2015; (101).
        View in: PubMed
      3. Al-Hashimi O, Zanto TP, Gazzaley A. Neural sources of performance decline during continuous multitasking. Cortex. 2015 Oct; 71:49-57.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Hsu WY, Zanto TP, Anguera JA, Lin YY, Gazzaley A. Delayed enhancement of multitasking performance: Effects of anodal transcranial direct current stimulation on the prefrontal cortex. Cortex. 2015 Aug; 69:175-85.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Hsu WY, Ku Y, Zanto TP, Gazzaley A. Effects of noninvasive brain stimulation on cognitive function in healthy aging and Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Neurobiol Aging. 2015 Aug; 36(8):2348-59.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Mishra J, Gazzaley A. Closed-loop cognition: the next frontier arrives. Trends Cogn Sci. 2015 May; 19(5):242-3.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Rolle CE, Voytek B, Gazzaley A. Exploring the Potential of the iPad and Xbox Kinect for Cognitive Science Research. Games Health J. 2015 Jun; 4(3):221-4.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Merrick C, Farnia M, Jantz TK, Gazzaley A, Morsella E. External control of the stream of consciousness: Stimulus-based effects on involuntary thought sequences. Conscious Cogn. 2015 May; 33:217-25.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Mishra J, Gazzaley A. Closed-loop rehabilitation of age-related cognitive disorders. Semin Neurol. 2014 Nov; 34(5):584-90.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Pa J, Gazzaley A. Flavanol-rich food for thought. Nat Neurosci. 2014 Nov 21; 17(12):1624-5.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Mishra J, de Villers-Sidani E, Merzenich M, Gazzaley A. Adaptive Training Diminishes Distractibility in Aging across Species. Neuron. 2014 Dec 3; 84(5):1091-103.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Mishra J, Rolle C, Gazzaley A. Neural plasticity underlying visual perceptual learning in aging. Brain Res. 2015 Jul 1; 1612:140-51.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Wais PE, Gazzaley A. External distraction impairs categorization performance in older adults. Psychol Aging. 2014 Sep; 29(3):666-71.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Guerreiro MJ, Anguera JA, Mishra J, Van Gerven PW, Gazzaley A. Age-equivalent Top-Down Modulation during Cross-modal Selective Attention. J Cogn Neurosci. 2014 Dec; 26(12):2827-39.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Chadick JZ, Zanto TP, Gazzaley A. Structural and functional differences in medial prefrontal cortex underlie distractibility and suppression deficits in ageing. Nat Commun. 2014; 5:4223.
        View in: PubMed PMC4088291
      16. Mishra J, Gazzaley A. Harnessing the neuroplastic potential of the human brain & the future of cognitive rehabilitation. Front Hum Neurosci. 2014; 8:218.
        View in: PubMed PMC3990041
      17. Wais PE, Gazzaley A. Distractibility during retrieval of long-term memory: domain-general interference, neural networks and increased susceptibility in normal aging. Front Psychol. 2014; 5:280.
        View in: PubMed PMC3985013
      18. Pa J, Dutt S, Mirsky JB, Heuer HW, Keselman P, Kong E, Trujillo A, Gazzaley A, Kramer JH, Seeley WW, Miller BL, Boxer AL. The functional oculomotor network and saccadic cognitive control in healthy elders. Neuroimage. 2014 Jul 15; 95:61-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC4043928
      19. Jantz TK, Tomory JJ, Merrick C, Cooper S, Gazzaley A, Morsella E. Subjective aspects of working memory performance: memoranda-related imagery. Conscious Cogn. 2014 Apr; 25:88-100.
        View in: PubMed
      20. Mishra J, Gazzaley A. Preserved discrimination performance and neural processing during crossmodal attention in aging. PLoS One. 2013; 8(11):e81894.
        View in: PubMed PMC3835740
      21. Zanto TP, Gazzaley A. Fronto-parietal network: flexible hub of cognitive control. Trends Cogn Sci. 2013 Dec; 17(12):602-3.
        View in: PubMed PMC3873155
      22. Zanto TP, Chadick JZ, Satris G, Gazzaley A. Rapid functional reorganization in human cortex following neural perturbation. J Neurosci. 2013 Oct 9; 33(41):16268-74.
        View in: PubMed PMC3792463
      23. Anguera JA, Lyman K, Zanto TP, Bollinger J, Gazzaley A. Reconciling the influence of task-set switching and motor inhibition processes on stop signal after-effects. Front Psychol. 2013; 4:649.
        View in: PubMed PMC3781352
      24. Allen AK, Wilkins K, Gazzaley A, Morsella E. Conscious thoughts from reflex-like processes: a new experimental paradigm for consciousness research. Conscious Cogn. 2013 Dec; 22(4):1318-31.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Zanto TP, Pa J, Gazzaley A. Reliability measures of functional magnetic resonance imaging in a longitudinal evaluation of mild cognitive impairment. Neuroimage. 2014 Jan 1; 84:443-52.
        View in: PubMed PMC3855402
      26. Anguera JA, Boccanfuso J, Rintoul JL, Al-Hashimi O, Faraji F, Janowich J, Kong E, Larraburo Y, Rolle C, Johnston E, Gazzaley A. Video game training enhances cognitive control in older adults. Nature. 2013 Sep 5; 501(7465):97-101.
        View in: PubMed PMC3983066
      27. Zanto TP, Sekuler R, Dube C, Gazzaley A. Age-related changes in expectation-based modulation of motion detectability. PLoS One. 2013; 8(8):e69766.
        View in: PubMed PMC3739821
      28. Zanto TP, Chadick JZ, Gazzaley A. Anticipatory alpha phase influences visual working memory performance. Neuroimage. 2014 Jan 15; 85 Pt 2:794-802.
        View in: PubMed PMC3859772
      29. Mishra J, Zanto T, Nilakantan A, Gazzaley A. Comparable mechanisms of working memory interference by auditory and visual motion in youth and aging. Neuropsychologia. 2013 Aug; 51(10):1896-906.
        View in: PubMed PMC3752408
      30. Pa J, Berry AS, Compagnone M, Boccanfuso J, Greenhouse I, Rubens MT, Johnson JK, Gazzaley A. Cholinergic enhancement of functional networks in older adults with mild cognitive impairment. Ann Neurol. 2013 Jun; 73(6):762-73.
        View in: PubMed PMC3748288
      31. Voytek B, Gazzaley A. Stimulating the aging brain. Ann Neurol. 2013 Jan; 73(1):1-3.
        View in: PubMed
      32. Mishra J, Anguera JA, Ziegler DA, Gazzaley A. A cognitive framework for understanding and improving interference resolution in the brain. Prog Brain Res. 2013; 207:351-77.
        View in: PubMed PMC4067257
      33. Hubbard J, Rigby T, Godwin CA, Gazzaley A, Morsella E. Representations in working memory yield interference effects found with externally-triggered representations. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2013 Jan; 142(1):127-35.
        View in: PubMed
      34. Cashdollar N, Fukuda K, Bocklage A, Aurtenetxe S, Vogel EK, Gazzaley A. Prolonged disengagement from attentional capture in normal aging. Psychol Aging. 2013 Mar; 28(1):77-86.
        View in: PubMed PMC3586289
      35. Mishra J, Gazzaley A. Attention distributed across sensory modalities enhances perceptual performance. J Neurosci. 2012 Aug 29; 32(35):12294-302.
        View in: PubMed PMC3449148
      36. Gazzaley A, Nobre AC. Top-down modulation: bridging selective attention and working memory. Trends Cogn Sci. 2012 Feb; 16(2):129-35.
        View in: PubMed PMC3510782
      37. Wais PE, Gazzaley A. The impact of auditory distraction on retrieval of visual memories. Psychon Bull Rev. 2011 Dec; 18(6):1090-7.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Wais PE, Martin GM, Gazzaley A. The impact of visual distraction on episodic retrieval in older adults. Brain Res. 2012 Jan 9; 1430:78-85.
        View in: PubMed PMC3242871
      39. Kalkstein J, Checksfield K, Bollinger J, Gazzaley A. Diminished top-down control underlies a visual imagery deficit in normal aging. J Neurosci. 2011 Nov 2; 31(44):15768-74.
        View in: PubMed PMC3510784
      40. D'Esposito M, Gazzaley A. Can age-associated memory decline be treated? N Engl J Med. 2011 Oct 6; 365(14):1346-7.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Anguera JA, Gazzaley A. Dissociation of motor and sensory inhibition processes in normal aging. Clin Neurophysiol. 2012 Apr; 123(4):730-40.
        View in: PubMed PMC3269557
      42. Zanto TP, Pan P, Liu H, Bollinger J, Nobre AC, Gazzaley A. Age-related changes in orienting attention in time. J Neurosci. 2011 Aug 31; 31(35):12461-70.
        View in: PubMed PMC3205974
      43. Wais PE, Kim OY, Gazzaley A. Distractibility during episodic retrieval is exacerbated by perturbation of left ventrolateral prefrontal cortex. Cereb Cortex. 2012 Mar; 22(3):717-24.
        View in: PubMed PMC3278320
      44. Hubbard J, Gazzaley A, Morsella E. Traditional response interference effects from anticipated action outcomes: a response-effect compatibility paradigm. Acta Psychol (Amst). 2011 Sep; 138(1):106-10.
        View in: PubMed
      45. Chadick JZ, Gazzaley A. Differential coupling of visual cortex with default or frontal-parietal network based on goals. Nat Neurosci. 2011 Jul; 14(7):830-2.
        View in: PubMed PMC3125492
      46. Clapp WC, Rubens MT, Sabharwal J, Gazzaley A. Deficit in switching between functional brain networks underlies the impact of multitasking on working memory in older adults. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Apr 26; 108(17):7212-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC3084135
      47. Wendelken C, Baym CL, Gazzaley A, Bunge SA. Neural indices of improved attentional modulation over middle childhood. Dev Cogn Neurosci. 2011 Apr; 1(2):175-86.
        View in: PubMed PMC3080660
      48. Zanto TP, Rubens MT, Thangavel A, Gazzaley A. Causal role of the prefrontal cortex in top-down modulation of visual processing and working memory. Nat Neurosci. 2011 May; 14(5):656-61.
        View in: PubMed PMC3083493
      49. Bollinger J, Rubens MT, Masangkay E, Kalkstein J, Gazzaley A. An expectation-based memory deficit in aging. Neuropsychologia. 2011 May; 49(6):1466-75.
        View in: PubMed PMC3095697
      50. Gazzaley A, Small SA. Alzheimer's disease. Network. 2011; 22(1-4):173-85.
        View in: PubMed
      51. Gazzaley A. Influence of early attentional modulation on working memory. Neuropsychologia. 2011 May; 49(6):1410-24.
        View in: PubMed PMC3086962
      52. Bollinger J, Rubens MT, Zanto TP, Gazzaley A. Expectation-driven changes in cortical functional connectivity influence working memory and long-term memory performance. J Neurosci. 2010 Oct 27; 30(43):14399-410.
        View in: PubMed PMC3006446
      53. Berry AS, Zanto TP, Clapp WC, Hardy JL, Delahunt PB, Mahncke HW, Gazzaley A. The influence of perceptual training on working memory in older adults. PLoS One. 2010; 5(7):e11537.
        View in: PubMed PMC2904363
      54. Wais PE, Rubens MT, Boccanfuso J, Gazzaley A. Neural mechanisms underlying the impact of visual distraction on retrieval of long-term memory. J Neurosci. 2010 Jun 23; 30(25):8541-50.
        View in: PubMed PMC2919837
      55. Zanto TP, Rubens MT, Bollinger J, Gazzaley A. Top-down modulation of visual feature processing: the role of the inferior frontal junction. Neuroimage. 2010 Nov 1; 53(2):736-45.
        View in: PubMed PMC2930130
      56. Rutman AM, Clapp WC, Chadick JZ, Gazzaley A. Early top-down control of visual processing predicts working memory performance. J Cogn Neurosci. 2010 Jun; 22(6):1224-34.
        View in: PubMed PMC2842470
      57. Clapp WC, Gazzaley A. Distinct mechanisms for the impact of distraction and interruption on working memory in aging. Neurobiol Aging. 2012 Jan; 33(1):134-48.
        View in: PubMed PMC2891289
      58. Zanto TP, Toy B, Gazzaley A. Delays in neural processing during working memory encoding in normal aging. Neuropsychologia. 2010 Jan; 48(1):13-25.
        View in: PubMed PMC2794969
      59. Morsella E, Wilson LE, Berger CC, Honhongva M, Gazzaley A, Bargh JA. Subjective aspects of cognitive control at different stages of processing. Atten Percept Psychophys. 2009 Nov; 71(8):1807-24.
        View in: PubMed PMC2784665
      60. Zanto TP, Hennigan K, Ostberg M, Clapp WC, Gazzaley A. Predictive knowledge of stimulus relevance does not influence top-down suppression of irrelevant information in older adults. Cortex. 2010 Apr; 46(4):564-74.
        View in: PubMed PMC2826515
      61. Clapp WC, Rubens MT, Gazzaley A. Mechanisms of working memory disruption by external interference. Cereb Cortex. 2010 Apr; 20(4):859-72.
        View in: PubMed PMC2837090
      62. Berry AS, Zanto TP, Rutman AM, Clapp WC, Gazzaley A. Practice-related improvement in working memory is modulated by changes in processing external interference. J Neurophysiol. 2009 Sep; 102(3):1779-89.
        View in: PubMed PMC2746773
      63. Pa J, Boxer A, Chao LL, Gazzaley A, Freeman K, Kramer J, Miller BL, Weiner MW, Neuhaus J, Johnson JK. Clinical-neuroimaging characteristics of dysexecutive mild cognitive impairment. Ann Neurol. 2009 Apr; 65(4):414-23.
        View in: PubMed PMC2680500
      64. Zanto TP, Gazzaley A. Neural suppression of irrelevant information underlies optimal working memory performance. J Neurosci. 2009 Mar 11; 29(10):3059-66.
        View in: PubMed PMC2704557
      65. Rissman J, Gazzaley A, D'Esposito M. The effect of non-visual working memory load on top-down modulation of visual processing. Neuropsychologia. 2009 Jun; 47(7):1637-46.
        View in: PubMed PMC2701233
      66. Gazzaley A, Clapp W, Kelley J, McEvoy K, Knight RT, D'Esposito M. Age-related top-down suppression deficit in the early stages of cortical visual memory processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Sep 2; 105(35):13122-6.
        View in: PubMed PMC2529045
      67. Rissman J, Gazzaley A, D'Esposito M. Dynamic adjustments in prefrontal, hippocampal, and inferior temporal interactions with increasing visual working memory load. Cereb Cortex. 2008 Jul; 18(7):1618-29.
        View in: PubMed PMC2905315
      68. Gazzaley A, Sheridan MA, Cooney JW, D'Esposito M. Age-related deficits in component processes of working memory. Neuropsychology. 2007 Sep; 21(5):532-9.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Handwerker DA, Gazzaley A, Inglis BA, D'Esposito M. Reducing vascular variability of fMRI data across aging populations using a breathholding task. Hum Brain Mapp. 2007 Sep; 28(9):846-59.
        View in: PubMed
      70. Gazzaley A, Rissman J, Cooney J, Rutman A, Seibert T, Clapp W, D'Esposito M. Functional interactions between prefrontal and visual association cortex contribute to top-down modulation of visual processing. Cereb Cortex. 2007 Sep; 17 Suppl 1:i125-35.
        View in: PubMed
      71. Gazzaley A, D'Esposito M. Top-down modulation and normal aging. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2007 Feb; 1097:67-83.
        View in: PubMed
      72. Krawczyk DC, Gazzaley A, D'Esposito M. Reward modulation of prefrontal and visual association cortex during an incentive working memory task. Brain Res. 2007 Apr 13; 1141:168-77.
        View in: PubMed
      73. D'Esposito M, Cooney JW, Gazzaley A, Gibbs SE, Postle BR. Is the prefrontal cortex necessary for delay task performance? Evidence from lesion and FMRI data. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2006 Mar; 12(2):248-60.
        View in: PubMed
      74. Huh TJ, Kramer JH, Gazzaley A, Delis DC. Response bias and aging on a recognition memory task. J Int Neuropsychol Soc. 2006 Jan; 12(1):1-7.
        View in: PubMed
      75. Gazzaley A, Cooney JW, Rissman J, D'Esposito M. Top-down suppression deficit underlies working memory impairment in normal aging. Nat Neurosci. 2005 Oct; 8(10):1298-300.
        View in: PubMed
      76. Gazzaley A, Cooney JW, McEvoy K, Knight RT, D'Esposito M. Top-down enhancement and suppression of the magnitude and speed of neural activity. J Cogn Neurosci. 2005 Mar; 17(3):507-17.
        View in: PubMed
      77. Gazzaley A, Rissman J, D'Esposito M. Functional connectivity during working memory maintenance. Cogn Affect Behav Neurosci. 2004 Dec; 4(4):580-99.
        View in: PubMed
      78. Rissman J, Gazzaley A, D'Esposito M. Measuring functional connectivity during distinct stages of a cognitive task. Neuroimage. 2004 Oct; 23(2):752-63.
        View in: PubMed
      79. D'Esposito M, Deouell LY, Gazzaley A. Alterations in the BOLD fMRI signal with ageing and disease: a challenge for neuroimaging. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2003 Nov; 4(11):863-72.
        View in: PubMed
      80. Gazzaley A, D'Esposito M. The contribution of functional brain imaging to our understanding of cognitive aging. Sci Aging Knowledge Environ. 2003 Jan 29; 2003(4):PE2.
        View in: PubMed
      81. Gazzaley A, Kay S, Benson DL. Dendritic spine plasticity in hippocampus. Neuroscience. 2002; 111(4):853-62.
        View in: PubMed
      82. Adams MM, Gazzaley AH, Morrison JH. Attenuated lesion-induced N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) plasticity in the dentate gyrus of aged rats following perforant path lesions. Exp Neurol. 2001 Nov; 172(1):244-9.
        View in: PubMed
      83. Gazzaley AH, Thakker MM, Hof PR, Morrison JH. Preserved number of entorhinal cortex layer II neurons in aged macaque monkeys. Neurobiol Aging. 1997 Sep-Oct; 18(5):549-53.
        View in: PubMed
      84. Gazzaley AH, Benson DL, Huntley GW, Morrison JH. Differential subcellular regulation of NMDAR1 protein and mRNA in dendrites of dentate gyrus granule cells after perforant path transection. J Neurosci. 1997 Mar 15; 17(6):2006-17.
        View in: PubMed
      85. Vissavajjhala P, Janssen WG, Hu Y, Gazzaley AH, Moran T, Hof PR, Morrison JH. Synaptic distribution of the AMPA-GluR2 subunit and its colocalization with calcium-binding proteins in rat cerebral cortex: an immunohistochemical study using a GluR2-specific monoclonal antibody. Exp Neurol. 1996 Dec; 142(2):296-312.
        View in: PubMed
      86. Morrison JH, Gazzaley AH. Age-related alterations of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor in the dentate gyrus. Mol Psychiatry. 1996 Nov; 1(5):356-8.
        View in: PubMed
      87. Gazzaley AH, Weiland NG, McEwen BS, Morrison JH. Differential regulation of NMDAR1 mRNA and protein by estradiol in the rat hippocampus. J Neurosci. 1996 Nov 1; 16(21):6830-8.
        View in: PubMed
      88. Gazzaley AH, Siegel SJ, Kordower JH, Mufson EJ, Morrison JH. Circuit-specific alterations of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor subunit 1 in the dentate gyrus of aged monkeys. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Apr 2; 93(7):3121-5.
        View in: PubMed PMC39772
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