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Nicki Bush, PhD

Title(s)Associate Professor, Psychiatry
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Phone415-476-7655
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    Dr. Bush is an Associate Professor in the departments of Psychiatry and Pediatrics.
    She is the Director of the Division of Developmental Medicine.

    She is an M-PI for the ECHO National Children's Study PATHWAYS cohort (NIH) and a site PI for the ECHO NYU Center cohort (NIH), the Co-Scientific Director of the CANDLE study (Urban Child Institute; NIH) the PI of the SEED prenatal programming study (R01), the UCSF PI of the TIDES multi-site prenatal programming study (R01), the PI of the PAWS-Genetics Substudy (RWJF), and the PI of the CTRP-HEALTH Trauma and Biomarkers study (CTSI; RWJF; JPB Foundation).

    Dr. Bush’s research focuses on the manner in which early social contexts interface with individual differences to affect developmental trajectories across the life course. She examines how socioeconomic, parental, and environmental risks for maladaptive behavior and developmental psychopathology are modulated by individual differences in children’s temperamental, neurobiological, and genetic reactivity to stress. She also investigates the ways in which contextual experiences of adversity become biologically embedded by changing children’s developing physiologic systems and epigenetic processes, thereby shaping individual differences that mediate and moderate the effects of context on trajectories of development and mental health.

    Biography Summary:

    Nicole (Nicki) Bush joined the faculty after completing a postdoctoral fellowship as a Robert Wood Johnson Health and Society Scholar at the UCSF/UCB site. Prior to that, she completed a postdoctoral fellowship in children’s physiologic stress reactivity at UC Berkeley. She received her PhD in Child Clinical Psychology from the University of Washington and completed her child clinical training internship at the Institute for Juvenile Research at the University of Illinois, Chicago. She has a background in basic research as well as clinical and community intervention with families from high-stress contexts, and she is actively involved in policy-oriented projects.

    Her research has examined relations among biobehavioral predispositions (e.g., temperament and physiology) and stressful life circumstances (e.g., poverty, parenting, and neighborhood) in the prediction of a broad range of children's mental health outcomes. In recent years, Dr. Bush has expanded her examination of contextual risk effects by infusing her models with a new understanding of biology (physiology, genetics, epigenetics) throughout early development, including the prenatal period. Her work integrates insights from social epidemiology, sociology, clinical psychology, and developmental psychobiology to elucidate the interplay of biology and context in youth development, as physiological systems mature and social environments change. Her examinations of how social disadvantage interacts with and alters children’s biological stress response systems aim to clarify the etiology of children’s mental and physical health outcomes and subsequent adult health.

    Clinical Expertise:

    Disruptive behaviors in early childhood; adolescent mood and anxiety; adolescent delinquency; family therapy; dialectical behavioral therapy; individual adult therapy; community intervention in high-risk neighborhoods and schools; unlicensed wilderness therapy programs.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Prenatal and Early Childhood Pathways To Health:  An Integrated Model of Chemical and Social Exposures, Biological Mechanisms, and Sex-Specific Effects on Neurodevelopment and Respiratory Outcomes
    NIH UG3OD023271Sep 21, 2016 - Aug 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NYU Pediatric Obesity, Metabolism and Kidney Cohort Center
    NIH UG3OD023305Sep 21, 2016 - Aug 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Prenatal Programming of Children's Mental Health: Epigenetic Mechanisms and Resilience Promotion
    Canadian Institute for Health Research (CIHR) Apr 1, 2016 - Mar 31, 2021
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Phthalate Exposure and Gender-related Development
    NIH R01ES025169May 1, 2015 - Jan 31, 2020
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Network on Toxic Stress
    JPB Foundation/ Harvard Center for the Developing Child Feb 1, 2015 - Jan 31, 2021
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Preventing Inter-generational Transmission of Obesity and Cardiometabolic Risk
    NIH R01HL116511Aug 1, 2013 - Jul 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Bush NR, Bibbins-Domingo K. Power of the Positive: Childhood Assets and Future Cardiometabolic Health. Pediatrics. 2019 Feb 04. PMID: 30718382.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Hu Z, Tylavsky FA, Han JC, Kocak M, Fowke JH, Davis RL, Lewinn K, Bush NR, Zhao Q. Maternal metabolic factors during pregnancy predict early childhood growth trajectories and obesity risk: the CANDLE Study. Int J Obes (Lond). 2019 Jan 31. PMID: 30705389.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Barrett ES, Mbowe O, Thurston SW, Butts S, Wang C, Nguyen R, Bush N, Redmon JB, Sheshu S, Swan SH, Sathyanarayana S. Predictors of Steroid Hormone Concentrations in Early Pregnancy: Results from a Multi-Center Cohort. Matern Child Health J. 2019 Jan 18. PMID: 30659461.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Anand KJS, Rigdon J, Rovnaghi CR, Qin F, Tembulkar S, Bush N, LeWinn K, Tylavsky FA, Davis R, Barr DA, Gotlib IH. Measuring socioeconomic adversity in early life. Acta Paediatr. 2019 Jan 07. PMID: 30614554.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Shaffer RM, Ferguson KK, Sheppard L, James-Todd T, Butts S, Chandrasekaran S, Swan SH, Barrett ES, Nguyen R, Bush N, McElrath TF, Sathyanarayana S. Maternal urinary phthalate metabolites in relation to gestational diabetes and glucose intolerance during pregnancy. Environ Int. 2019 Feb; 123:588-596. PMID: 30622083.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Shin EK, LeWinn K, Bush N, Tylavsky FA, Davis RL, Shaban-Nejad A. Association of Maternal Social Relationships With Cognitive Development in Early Childhood. JAMA Netw Open. 2019 Jan 04; 2(1):e186963. PMID: 30646208.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Bornehag CG, Lindh C, Reichenberg A, Wikström S, Unenge Hallerback M, Evans SF, Sathyanarayana S, Barrett ES, Nguyen RHN, Bush NR, Swan SH. Association of Prenatal Phthalate Exposure With Language Development in Early Childhood. JAMA Pediatr. 2018 Dec 01; 172(12):1169-1176. PMID: 30383084.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Roubinov DS, Boyce WT, Bush NR. Informant-specific reports of peer and teacher relationships buffer the effects of harsh parenting on children's oppositional defiant disorder during kindergarten. Dev Psychopathol. 2018 Nov 21; 1-12. PMID: 30458890.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Rosen EM, van 't Erve TJ, Boss J, Sathyanarayana S, Barrett ES, Nguyen RHN, Bush NR, Milne GL, McElrath TF, Swan SH, Ferguson KK. Urinary oxidative stress biomarkers and accelerated time to spontaneous delivery. Free Radic Biol Med. 2019 Jan; 130:419-425. PMID: 30445128.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Bornehag, C.G., Lindh, C., Reichenberg, A., Wikström, S., Unenge Hallerbäck, M., Bush, N., Sathyarayana, S., Barrett, E., Ngyuen, R., & Swan, S.H.Prenatal phthalate exposure and language delay in early childhood in two pregnancy cohorts, SELMA and TIDES. JAMA Pediatrics. 2018.
    11. Bush NR, Edgar RD, Park M, MacIsaac JL, McEwen LM, Adler NE, Essex MJ, Kobor MS, Boyce WT. The biological embedding of early-life socioeconomic status and family adversity in children's genome-wide DNA methylation. Epigenomics. 2018 Nov; 10(11):1445-1461. PMID: 30351206.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Roubinov DS, Bush NR, Adler NE, Boyce WT. Differences in Febrile and Respiratory Illnesses in Minority Children: The Sociodemographic Context of Restrictive Parenting. Acad Pediatr. 2018 Sep 27. PMID: 30268425.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Ungar, M., Hadfield, K., Bush, N., Quesne-Vallee, A., & Pekelny, I.Pathways and Barriers to the Transition to Parenthood: Existential Concerns regarding Fertility, Pregnancy, and Early Parenthood. (Ed. O. Taubman-Ben-Ari). Resilience to prenatal stress. 2018; (in press).
    14. Goodman SJ, Roubinov DS, Bush NR, Park M, Farré P, Emberly E, Hertzman C, Essex MJ, Kobor MS, Boyce WT. Children's biobehavioral reactivity to challenge predicts DNA methylation in adolescence and emerging adulthood. Dev Sci. 2018 Sep 03; e12739. PMID: 30176105.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Slopen N, Roberts AL, LeWinn KZ, Bush NR, Rovnaghi CR, Tylavsky F, Anand KJS. Maternal experiences of trauma and hair cortisol in early childhood in a prospective cohort. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018 Dec; 98:168-176. PMID: 30170311.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Roubinov DS, Hagan MJ, Boyce WT, Adler NE, Bush NR. Family Socioeconomic Status, Cortisol, and Physical Health in Early Childhood: The Role of Advantageous Neighborhood Characteristics. Psychosom Med. 2018 Jun; 80(5):492-501. PMID: 29742755.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Vieten C, Laraia BA, Kristeller J, Adler N, Coleman-Phox K, Bush NR, Wahbeh H, Duncan LG, Epel E. The mindful moms training: development of a mindfulness-based intervention to reduce stress and overeating during pregnancy. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2018 Jun 01; 18(1):201. PMID: 29859038.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Jones-Mason, K., Alkon, A., Coccia, M., & Bush, N. .Autonomic nervous system functioning assessed during the still-face paradigm: A meta-analysis and systematic review of methods, approach and findings. Developmental Review . 2018; (in press).
    19. Eick SM, Barrett ES, van 't Erve TJ, Nguyen RHN, Bush NR, Milne G, Swan SH, Ferguson KK. Association between prenatal psychological stress and oxidative stress during pregnancy. Paediatr Perinat Epidemiol. 2018 07; 32(4):318-326. PMID: 29603338.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Laraia, B., Adler, N., Coleman-Phox, K., Vieten, C., Mellin, L., Kristeller, J., Thomas, M., Stotland, N., Lustig, R., Dallman, M., Hecht, F., Bush, N., DeGroat, C., & Epel, E. .Novel Interventions to Reduce Stress and Overeating in Overweight Pregnant Women: A Feasibility Study . Maternal and Child Health Journal . 2018; (in press).
    21. Eick, S., Barrett, E., van 't Erve, T., Nguyen, R., Bush, N., Milne, G., Swan, S., & Ferguson, K. .Association Between Maternal Psychological Stress and Oxidative Stress During Pregnancy. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology . 2018; (in press).
    22. Felder JN, Roubinov D, Bush NR, Coleman-Phox K, Vieten C, Laraia B, Adler NE, Epel E. Effect of prenatal mindfulness training on depressive symptom severity through 18-months postpartum: A latent profile analysis. J Clin Psychol. 2018 Jul; 74(7):1117-1125. PMID: 29488628.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Roubinov DS, Felder JN, Vieten C, Coleman-Phox K, Laraia B, Adler N, Wilson L, Epel E, Bush NR. Maternal depressive symptoms and infant healthcare utilization: The moderating role of prenatal mindfulness. Gen Hosp Psychiatry. 2018 Jul - Aug; 53:82-83. PMID: 29361308.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Bush NR, Jones-Mason K, Coccia M, Caron Z, Alkon A, Thomas M, Coleman-Phox K, Wadhwa PD, Laraia BA, Adler NE, Epel ES. Effects of pre- and postnatal maternal stress on infant temperament and autonomic nervous system reactivity and regulation in a diverse, low-income population-CORRIGENDUM. Dev Psychopathol. 2018 10; 30(4):1541. PMID: 29229014.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Jones-Mason KM, Coccia M, Grover S, Epel ES, Bush NR. Basal and reactivity levels of cortisol in one-month-old infants born to overweight or obese mothers from an ethnically and racially diverse, low-income community sample. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2018 02; 88:115-120. PMID: 29223002.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Roubinov DS, Hagan MJ, Boyce WT, Essex MJ, Bush NR. Child temperament and teacher relationship interactively predict cortisol expression: The prism of classroom climate. Dev Psychopathol. 2017 12; 29(5):1763-1775. PMID: 29162182.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Bush NR, Jones-Mason K, Coccia M, Caron Z, Alkon A, Thomas M, Coleman-Phox K, Wadhwa PD, Laraia BA, Adler NE, Epel ES. Effects of pre- and postnatal maternal stress on infant temperament and autonomic nervous system reactivity and regulation in a diverse, low-income population. Dev Psychopathol. 2017 12; 29(5):1553-1571. PMID: 29162167.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Hagan MJ, Browne DT, Sulik M, Ippen CG, Bush N, Lieberman AF. Parent and Child Trauma Symptoms During Child-Parent Psychotherapy: A Prospective Cohort Study of Dyadic Change. J Trauma Stress. 2017 12; 30(6):690-697. PMID: 29131408.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Felder JN, Laraia B, Coleman-Phox K, Bush N, Suresh M, Thomas M, Adler N, Epel E, Prather AA. Poor Sleep Quality, Psychological Distress, and the Buffering Effect of Mindfulness Training During Pregnancy. Behav Sleep Med. 2018 Nov-Dec; 16(6):611-624. PMID: 28060531.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Bush NR, Allison AL, Miller AL, Deardorff J, Adler NE, Boyce WT. Socioeconomic Disparities in Childhood Obesity Risk: Association With an Oxytocin Receptor Polymorphism. JAMA Pediatr. 2017 01 01; 171(1):61-67. PMID: 27842184.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Hagan MJ, Bush N, Mendes WB, Arenander J, Epel E, Puterman E. Associations between childhood adversity and daily suppression and avoidance in response to stress in adulthood: can neurobiological sensitivity help explain this relationship? Anxiety Stress Coping. 2017 Mar; 30(2):163-175. PMID: 27834487.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Hagan MJ, Roubinov DS, Adler NE, Boyce WT, Bush NR. Socioeconomic Adversity, Negativity in the Parent Child-Relationship, and Physiological Reactivity: An Examination of Pathways and Interactive Processes Affecting Young Children's Physical Health. Psychosom Med. 2016 Nov/Dec; 78(9):998-1007. PMID: 27551989.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Bush NR, Lane RD, McLaughlin KA. Mechanisms Underlying the Association Between Early-Life Adversity and Physical Health: Charting a Course for the Future. Psychosom Med. 2016 Nov/Dec; 78(9):1114-1119. PMID: 27763991.
      View in: PubMed
    34. McLaughlin KA, Lane RD, Bush NR. Introduction to the Special Issue of Psychosomatic Medicine: Mechanisms Linking Early-Life Adversity to Physical Health. Psychosom Med. 2016 Nov/Dec; 78(9):976-978. PMID: 27763992.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Knight AK, Craig JM, Theda C, Bækvad-Hansen M, Bybjerg-Grauholm J, Hansen CS, Hollegaard MV, Hougaard DM, Mortensen PB, Weinsheimer SM, Werge TM, Brennan PA, Cubells JF, Newport DJ, Stowe ZN, Cheong JL, Dalach P, Doyle LW, Loke YJ, Baccarelli AA, Just AC, Wright RO, Téllez-Rojo MM, Svensson K, Trevisi L, Kennedy EM, Binder EB, Iurato S, Czamara D, Räikkönen K, Lahti JM, Pesonen AK, Kajantie E, Villa PM, Laivuori H, Hämäläinen E, Park HJ, Bailey LB, Parets SE, Kilaru V, Menon R, Horvath S, Bush NR, LeWinn KZ, Tylavsky FA, Conneely KN, Smith AK. An epigenetic clock for gestational age at birth based on blood methylation data. Genome Biol. 2016 10 07; 17(1):206. PMID: 27717399.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Arons A, Bolbocean C, Bush NR, Tylavsky FA, LeWinn KZ. Participation in the special supplemental nutrition program for women, infants, and children is not associated with early childhood socioemotional development: Results from a longitudinal cohort study. Prev Med Rep. 2016 Dec; 4:507-11. PMID: 27688993.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Sathyanarayana S, Grady R, Barrett ES, Redmon B, Nguyen RHN, Barthold JS, Bush NR, Swan SH. First trimester phthalate exposure and male newborn genital anomalies. Environ Res. 2016 Nov; 151:777-782. PMID: 27567446.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Leung CW, Laraia BA, Coleman-Phox K, Bush NR, Lin J, Blackburn EH, Adler NE, Epel ES. Sugary beverage and food consumption, and leukocyte telomere length maintenance in pregnant women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 09; 70(9):1086-8. PMID: 27302671.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Jones-Mason K, Allen IE, Bush N, Hamilton S. Epigenetic marks as the link between environment and development: examination of the associations between attachment, socioeconomic status, and methylation of the SLC6A4 gene. Brain Behav. 2016 07; 6(7):e00480. PMID: 27458544.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Congdon JL, Adler NE, Epel ES, Laraia BA, Bush NR. A Prospective Investigation of Prenatal Mood and Childbirth Perceptions in an Ethnically Diverse, Low-Income Sample. Birth. 2016 06; 43(2):159-66. PMID: 26948850.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Golemiec M, Schneider J, Boyce WT, Bush NR, Adler N, Levine JD. Layered Social Network Analysis Reveals Complex Relationships in Kindergarteners. Front Psychol. 2016; 7:276. PMID: 26973572; PMCID: PMC4773607.
    42. Bush NR, Caron ZK, Blackburn KS, Alkon A. Measuring Cardiac Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Activity in Toddlers - Resting and Developmental Challenges. J Vis Exp. 2016 Feb 25; (108):53652. PMID: 26967045; PMCID: PMC4828199 [Available on 02/25/17].
    43. Bush, N., & Boyce, W. T.Developmental psychopathology (D. Cicchetti, Eds.). Differential sensitivity to context: Implications for developmental psychopathology. 2016; 2:107-137.
    44. Levenson R, Bracken C, Bush N, Morse DE. Cyclable Condensation and Hierarchical Assembly of Metastable Reflectin Proteins, the Drivers of Tunable Biophotonics. J Biol Chem. 2016 Feb 19; 291(8):4058-68. PMID: 26719342.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Snodgrass W, Villanueva C, Bush N. Primary and reoperative hypospadias repair in adults--are results different than in children? J Urol. 2014 Dec; 192(6):1730-3. PMID: 25046617.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Quas JA, Yim IS, Oberlander TF, Nordstokke D, Essex MJ, Armstrong JM, Bush N, Obradovic J, Boyce WT. The symphonic structure of childhood stress reactivity: patterns of sympathetic, parasympathetic, and adrenocortical responses to psychological challenge. Dev Psychopathol. 2014 Nov; 26(4 Pt 1):963-82. PMID: 24909883; PMCID: PMC4557735.
    47. Rawdin, B., Lindqvist, D., Bush, N., Hamilton, S., Boparai, R., Makin, S., Reus, V., Mellon, S, & Wolkowitz, O.Treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders (R. Hagerman & R. Hendren Eds.). Neurodevelopmental and Neurobiological Aspects of Major Depression. 2014; 73-104.
    48. Bush, N., & Boyce, W. T.Handbook of developmental psychopathology (M. Lewis & K. Rudolph. Eds.). The contributions of early experience to biological development and sensitivity to context. 2014; 287-309.
    49. Boyce WT, Obradovic J, Bush NR, Stamperdahl J, Kim YS, Adler N. Social stratification, classroom climate, and the behavioral adaptation of kindergarten children. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 16; 109 Suppl 2:17168-73. PMID: 23045637.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Adler N, Bush NR, Pantell MS. Rigor, vigor, and the study of health disparities. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 16; 109 Suppl 2:17154-9. PMID: 23045672; PMCID: PMC3477386.
    51. Zalewski, M., Lengua, L., Fisher, P., Bush, N., Trancik, A., & Meltzoff, A.Poverty and single parenting: Relations with preschoolers' cortisol and effortful control. Infant and child development. 2012; (21):537-554.
    52. Kiff CJ, Lengua LJ, Bush NR. Temperament variation in sensitivity to parenting: predicting changes in depression and anxiety. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2011 Nov; 39(8):1199-212. PMID: 21800017; PMCID: PMC3199341.
    53. Bush NR, Obradovic J, Adler N, Boyce WT. Kindergarten stressors and cumulative adrenocortical activation: the "first straws" of allostatic load? Dev Psychopathol. 2011 Nov; 23(4):1089-106. PMID: 22018083.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Kroenke CH, Epel E, Adler N, Bush NR, Obradovic J, Lin J, Blackburn E, Stamperdahl JL, Boyce WT. Autonomic and adrenocortical reactivity and buccal cell telomere length in kindergarten children. Psychosom Med. 2011 Sep; 73(7):533-40. PMID: 21873585; PMCID: PMC3212037.
    55. Bush NR, Alkon A, Obradovic J, Stamperdahl J, Boyce WT. Differentiating challenge reactivity from psychomotor activity in studies of children's psychophysiology: considerations for theory and measurement. J Exp Child Psychol. 2011 Sep; 110(1):62-79. PMID: 21524757; PMCID: PMC4160114.
    56. Obradovic J, Bush NR, Boyce WT. The interactive effect of marital conflict and stress reactivity on externalizing and internalizing symptoms: the role of laboratory stressors. Dev Psychopathol. 2011 Feb; 23(1):101-14. PMID: 21262042.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Snodgrass W, Bush N, Holzer M, Zhang S. Current referral patterns and means to improve accuracy in diagnosis of undescended testis. Pediatrics. 2011 Feb; 127(2):e382-8. PMID: 21262892; PMCID: PMC3025418.
    58. Bush NR, Lengua LJ, Colder CR. Temperament as a moderator of the relation between neighborhood and children's adjustment. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2010 Sep; 31(5):351-361. PMID: 20948973.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Obradovic J, Bush NR, Stamperdahl J, Adler NE, Boyce WT. Biological sensitivity to context: the interactive effects of stress reactivity and family adversity on socioemotional behavior and school readiness. Child Dev. 2010 Jan-Feb; 81(1):270-89. PMID: 20331667; PMCID: PMC2846098.
    60. Lengua LJ, Bush NR, Long AC, Kovacs EA, Trancik AM. Effortful control as a moderator of the relation between contextual risk factors and growth in adjustment problems. Dev Psychopathol. 2008; 20(2):509-28. PMID: 18423092.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Lengua LJ, Honorado E, Bush NR. Contextual risk and parenting as predictors of effortful control and social competence in preschool children. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2007 Jan; 28(1):40-55. PMID: 21687825.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Colder CR, Lengua LJ, Fite PJ, Mott JA, Bush NR. Temperament in context: Infant temperament moderates the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and behavior problems. J Appl Dev Psychol. 2006 Sep; 27(5):456-467. PMID: 25530650.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Friedman RM, Pinto A, Behar L, Bush N, Chirolla A, Epstein M, Green A, Hawkins P, Huff B, Huffine C, Mohr W, Seltzer T, Vaughn C, Whitehead K, Young CK. Unlicensed residential programs: the next challenge in protecting youth. Am J Orthopsychiatry. 2006 Jul; 76(3):295-303. PMID: 16981808.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Colder, C, Lengua, L, Fite, P., Mott, J., & Bush, N.Temperament in context: Infant temperament moderates the relationship between perceived neighborhood quality and behavior problems. Journal of Applied Developmental Psychology. 2006; (27):456-467.