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Elizabeth Blackburn, PhD

TitleProfessor Emeritus
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentBiochemistry and Biophysics
Address600 16th St
San Francisco CA 94158
Phone415-476-4912
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    2009Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine
    2009Paul Ehrlich and Ludwig Darmstaedter Prize

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Elizabeth H. Blackburn, Morris Herztein Professor of Biology and Physiology in the Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at the University of California, San Francisco, is a leader in the area of telomere and telomerase research.

    She discovered the molecular nature of telomeres - the ends of eukaryotic chromosomes that serve as protective caps essential for preserving the genetic information - and the ribonucleoprotein enzyme, telomerase. Blackburn and her research team at the University of California, San Francisco are working with various cells including human cells, with the goal of understanding telomerase and telomere biology.

    Blackburn earned her B.Sc. (1970) and M.Sc. (1972) degrees from the University of Melbourne in Australia, and her Ph.D. (1975) from the University of Cambridge in England. She did her postdoctoral work in Molecular and Cellular Biology from 1975 to 1977 at Yale.

    In 1978, Blackburn joined the faculty at the University of California at Berkeley in the Department of Molecular Biology. In 1990, she joined the Department of Microbiology and Immunology at UC San Francisco, where she served as Department Chair from 1993 to 1999. Blackburn is currently a faculty member in Department of Biochemistry and Biophysics at UCSF. She is also a Non-Resident Fellow of the Salk Institute.

    Throughout her career, Blackburn has been honored by her peers as the recipient of many prestigious awards. She was elected President of the American Society for Cell Biology for the year 1998. Blackburn is an elected Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (1991), the Royal Society of London (1992), the American Academy of Microbiology (1993), and the American Association for the Advancement of Science (2000).

    She was elected Foreign Associate of the National Academy of Sciences in 1993, and was elected as a Member of the Institute of Medicine in 2000. She was awarded the Albert Lasker Medical Research Award in Basic Medical Research (2006). In 2007 she was named one of TIME Magazine’s 100 Most influential People and she is the 2008 North American Laureate for L’Oreal-UNESCO For Women in Science.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Social Disadvantage and Fetal Programming of Newborn-Infant Telomere Biology
    NIH/NIA R01AG050455Sep 15, 2016 - Mar 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Inflammation, Aging, Microbes, and Obstructive Lung Disease (I AM OLD) Study
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL128156Jul 1, 2015 - Apr 30, 2019
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Synergism of telomere maintenance and telomerase with cancer-promoting signaling
    NIH/NCI R01CA096840Sep 1, 2002 - Jun 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    TELOMERASE AS A NOVEL DRUG TARGET IN CANDIDA SPECIES
    NIH/NIDCR R01DE011356Sep 30, 1994 - Sep 29, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SPORE in Breast Cancer
    NIH/NCI P50CA058207Sep 30, 1992 - Nov 30, 2013
    Role: Co-Investigator
    1986 GORDON RESEARCH CONFERENCE ON NUCLEIC ACIDS
    NIH/NIGMS R13GM036836Jun 1, 1986 - May 31, 1987
    Role: Principal Investigator
    RDNA AMPLIFICATION AND REPLICATION IN TETRAHYMENA
    NIH/NIGMS R01GM032565Aug 1, 1983 - Jul 31, 1996
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Bio-Organic Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Resource
    NIH P41RR001614Mar 1, 1982 - May 31, 2015
    Role: Co-Investigator
    The function of telomerase and telomeres
    NIH/NIGMS R01GM026259Jul 1, 1978 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF TELOMERES
    NIH/NIGMS R37GM026259Jul 1, 1978 - Jun 30, 1999
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular Biology of Eukaryotic Cells and Viruses
    NIH/NCI T32CA009270Sep 1, 1976 - Jun 30, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Featured Videos

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Goglin SE, Farzaneh-Far R, Epel ES, Lin J, Blackburn E, Whooley MA. Correction: Change in Leukocyte Telomere Length Predicts Mortality in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease from the Heart and Soul Study. PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0168868. PMID: 27992608.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Rehkopf DH, Needham BL, Lin J, Blackburn E, Zota AR, Wojcicki JM, Epel ES. Leukocyte Telomere Length in Relation to 17 Biomarkers of Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Cross-Sectional Study of US Adults. PLoS Med. 2016 Nov; 13(11):e1002188. PMID: 27898678.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Goglin SE, Farzaneh-Far R, Epel ES, Lin J, Blackburn E, Whooley MA. Change in Leukocyte Telomere Length Predicts Mortality in Patients with Stable Coronary Heart Disease from the Heart and Soul Study. PLoS One. 2016; 11(10):e0160748. PMID: 27783614.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Auld E, Lin J, Chang E, Byanyima P, Ayakaka I, Musisi E, Worodria W, Davis JL, Segal M, Blackburn E, Huang L. HIV Infection Is Associated with Shortened Telomere Length in Ugandans with Suspected Tuberculosis. PLoS One. 2016; 11(9):e0163153. PMID: 27655116.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Epel ES, Puterman E, Lin J, Blackburn E, Lum PY, Beckmann ND, Zhu J, Lee E, Gilbert A, Rissman RA, Tanzi RE, Schadt EE. Meditation and vacation effects have an impact on disease-associated molecular phenotypes. Transl Psychiatry. 2016; 6(8):e880. PMID: 27576169.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Usadi B, Bruhn R, Lin J, Lee TH, Blackburn E, Murphy EL. Telomere Length, Proviral Load and Neurologic Impairment in HTLV-1 and HTLV-2-Infected Subjects. Viruses. 2016; 8(8). PMID: 27529270.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Peng H, Zhu Y, Yeh F, Cole SA, Best LG, Lin J, Blackburn E, Devereux RB, Roman MJ, Lee ET, Howard BV, Zhao J. Impact of biological aging on arterial aging in American Indians: findings from the Strong Heart Family Study. Aging (Albany NY). 2016 Aug; 8(8):1583-92. PMID: 27540694.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Wojcicki JM, Heyman MB, Elwan D, Lin J, Blackburn E, Epel E. Early exclusive breastfeeding is associated with longer telomeres in Latino preschool children. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016 Aug; 104(2):397-405. PMID: 27440083.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Jay KA, Smith DL, Blackburn E. Early Loss of Telomerase Action in Yeast Creates a Dependence on the DNA Damage Response Adaptor Proteins. Mol Cell Biol. 2016 Jul 15; 36(14):1908-19. PMID: 27161319.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Hough CM, Bersani FS, Mellon SH, Epel ES, Reus VI, Lindqvist D, Lin J, Mahan L, Rosser R, Burke H, Coetzee J, Nelson JC, Blackburn E, Wolkowitz OM. Leukocyte telomere length predicts SSRI response in major depressive disorder: A preliminary report. Mol Neuropsychiatry. 2016 Jul; 2(2):88-96. PMID: 27429957.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Leung CW, Laraia BA, Coleman-Phox K, Bush NR, Lin J, Blackburn E, Adler NE, Epel ES, et al. Sugary beverage and food consumption, and leukocyte telomere length maintenance in pregnant women. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2016 Jun 15. PMID: 27302671.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Chang J, Blackburn E, Ivashko O, Holmes AT, Christensen NB, Hücker M, Liang R, Bonn DA, Hardy WN, Rütt U, Zimmermann MV, Forgan EM, Hayden SM. Magnetic field controlled charge density wave coupling in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6+x. Nat Commun. 2016; 7:11494. PMID: 27146255.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Wojcicki JM, Shiboski S, Heyman MB, Elwan D, Lin J, Blackburn E, Epel E. Telomere length change plateaus at 4 years of age in Latino children: associations with baseline length and maternal change. Mol Genet Genomics. 2016 Jun; 291(3):1379-89. PMID: 26965507.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Lin J, Cheon J, Brown R, Coccia M, Puterman E, Aschbacher K, Sinclair E, Epel E, Blackburn E. Systematic and Cell Type-Specific Telomere Length Changes in Subsets of Lymphocytes. J Immunol Res. 2016; 2016:5371050. PMID: 26977417.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Rasgon N, Lin KW, Lin J, Epel E, Blackburn E. Telomere length as a predictor of response to Pioglitazone in patients with unremitted depression: a preliminary study. Transl Psychiatry. 2016; 6:e709. PMID: 26731446.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Matsuguchi T, Blackburn E. The yeast telomerase RNA, TLC1, participates in two distinct modes of TLC1-TLC1 association processes in vivo. PeerJ. 2016; 4:e1534. PMID: 27004145.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Kensler TW, Spira A, Garber JE, Szabo E, Lee JJ, Dong Z, Dannenberg AJ, Hait WN, Blackburn E, Davidson NE, Foti M, Lippman SM. Transforming Cancer Prevention through Precision Medicine and Immune-oncology. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2016 Jan; 9(1):2-10. PMID: 26744449.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Forgan EM, Blackburn E, Holmes AT, Briffa AK, Chang J, Bouchenoire L, Brown SD, Liang R, Bonn D, Hardy WN, Christensen NB, Zimmermann MV, Hücker M, Hayden SM. The microscopic structure of charge density waves in underdoped YBa2Cu3O6.54 revealed by X-ray diffraction. Nat Commun. 2015; 6:10064. PMID: 26648114.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Blackburn E, Epel ES, Lin J. Human telomere biology: A contributory and interactive factor in aging, disease risks, and protection. Science. 2015 Dec 4; 350(6265):1193-8. PMID: 26785477.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Wojcicki JM, Olveda R, Heyman MB, Elwan D, Lin J, Blackburn E, Epel E. Cord blood telomere length in Latino infants: relation with maternal education and infant sex. J Perinatol. 2016 Mar; 36(3):235-41. PMID: 26633142.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Henje Blom E, Han LK, Connolly CG, Ho TC, Lin J, LeWinn KZ, Simmons AN, Sacchet MD, Mobayed N, Luna ME, Paulus M, Epel ES, Blackburn E, Wolkowitz OM, Yang TT. Peripheral telomere length and hippocampal volume in adolescents with major depressive disorder. Transl Psychiatry. 2015; 5:e676. PMID: 26556285.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Loprinzi PD, Loenneke JP, Blackburn E. Movement-Based Behaviors and Leukocyte Telomere Length among US Adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2015 Nov; 47(11):2347-52. PMID: 25970659.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Bersani FS, Lindqvist D, Mellon SH, Epel ES, Yehuda R, Flory J, Henn-Hasse C, Bierer LM, Makotkine I, Abu-Amara D, Coy M, Reus VI, Lin J, Blackburn E, Marmar C, Wolkowitz OM. Association of dimensional psychological health measures with telomere length in male war veterans. J Affect Disord. 2016 Jan 15; 190:537-42. PMID: 26571103.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Blackburn E, Tucker E. Q&A: End-game winner. Nature. 2015 Oct 22; 526(7574):S56-7. PMID: 26488243.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Chae DH, Epel ES, Nuru-Jeter AM, Lincoln KD, Taylor RJ, Lin J, Blackburn E, Thomas SB. Discrimination, mental health, and leukocyte telomere length among African American men. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2016 Jan; 63:10-6. PMID: 26398001.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Conklin Q, King B, Zanesco A, Pokorny J, Hamidi A, Lin J, Epel E, Blackburn E, Saron C. Telomere lengthening after three weeks of an intensive insight meditation retreat. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Nov; 61:26-7. PMID: 26383348.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Fair B, Mellon SH, Epel ES, Révész D, Verhoeven JE, Penninx BW, Reus VI, Mahan L, Hough C, Rosser R, Burke HM, Lin J, Blackburn E, Wolkowitz OM. Telomere length is inversely correlated with urinary stress hormone levels in healthy controls but not in un-medicated depressed individuals - Preliminary findings. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2015 Nov; 61:61. PMID: 26383442.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Needham BL, Rehkopf D, Adler N, Gregorich S, Lin J, Blackburn E, Epel ES. Leukocyte telomere length and mortality in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Epidemiology. 2015 Jul; 26(4):528-35. PMID: 26039272.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Bersani FS, Morley C, Lindqvist D, Epel ES, Picard M, Yehuda R, Flory J, Bierer LM, Makotkine I, Abu-Amara D, Coy M, Reus VI, Lin J, Blackburn E, Marmar C, Wolkowitz OM, Mellon SH. Mitochondrial DNA copy number is reduced in male combat veterans with PTSD. Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry. 2016 Jan 4; 64:10-7. PMID: 26120081.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Lapham K, Kvale MN, Lin J, Connell S, Croen LA, Dispensa BP, Fang L, Hesselson S, Hoffmann TJ, Iribarren C, Jorgenson E, Kushi LH, Ludwig D, Matsuguchi T, McGuire WB, Miles S, Quesenberry CP, Rowell S, Sadler M, Sakoda LC, Smethurst D, Somkin CP, Van Den Eeden SK, Walter L, Whitmer RA, Kwok PY, Risch N, Schaefer C, Blackburn E. Automated Assay of Telomere Length Measurement and Informatics for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort. Genetics. 2015 Aug; 200(4):1061-72. PMID: 26092717; PMCID: PMC4574243 [Available on 08/01/16].
    31. Wojcicki JM, Heyman MB, Elwan D, Shiboski S, Lin J, Blackburn E, Epel E. Telomere length is associated with oppositional defiant behavior and maternal clinical depression in Latino preschool children. Transl Psychiatry. 2015; 5:e581. PMID: 26080316; PMCID: PMC4490282.
    32. Entringer S, Epel ES, Lin J, Blackburn E, Buss C, Shahbaba B, Gillen DL, Venkataramanan R, Simhan HN, Wadhwa PD. Maternal Folate Concentration in Early Pregnancy and Newborn Telomere Length. Ann Nutr Metab. 2015; 66(4):202-8. PMID: 26067849.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Lindqvist D, Epel ES, Mellon SH, Penninx BW, Révész D, Verhoeven JE, Reus VI, Lin J, Mahan L, Hough CM, Rosser R, Bersani FS, Blackburn E, Wolkowitz OM. Psychiatric disorders and leukocyte telomere length: Underlying mechanisms linking mental illness with cellular aging. Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2015 Aug; 55:333-64. PMID: 25999120; PMCID: PMC4501875 [Available on 08/01/16].
    34. Geronimus AT, Pearson JA, Linnenbringer E, Schulz AJ, Reyes AG, Epel ES, Lin J, Blackburn E. Race-Ethnicity, Poverty, Urban Stressors, and Telomere Length in a Detroit Community-based Sample. J Health Soc Behav. 2015 Jun; 56(2):199-224. PMID: 25930147; PMCID: PMC4621968 [Available on 06/01/16].
    35. Xie Z, Jay KA, Smith DL, Zhang Y, Liu Z, Zheng J, Tian R, Li H, Blackburn E. Early telomerase inactivation accelerates aging independently of telomere length. Cell. 2015 Feb 26; 160(5):928-39. PMID: 25723167; PMCID: PMC4496004 [Available on 02/26/16].
    36. Wolkowitz OM, Mellon SH, Lindqvist D, Epel ES, Blackburn E, Lin J, Reus VI, Burke H, Rosser R, Mahan L, Mackin S, Yang T, Weiner M, Mueller S. PBMC telomerase activity, but not leukocyte telomere length, correlates with hippocampal volume in major depression. Psychiatry Res. 2015 Apr 30; 232(1):58-64. PMID: 25773002; PMCID: PMC4404215 [Available on 04/30/16].
    37. Entringer S, Epel ES, Lin J, Blackburn E, Buss C, Simhan HN, Wadhwa PD. Maternal estriol concentrations in early gestation predict infant telomere length. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jan; 100(1):267-73. PMID: 25337925; PMCID: PMC4283015 [Available on 01/01/16].
    38. Fraser JA, Worrall EG, Lin Y, Landre V, Pettersson S, Blackburn E, Walkinshaw M, Muller P, Vojtesek B, Ball K, Hupp TR. Phosphomimetic mutation of the N-terminal lid of MDM2 enhances the polyubiquitination of p53 through stimulation of E2-ubiquitin thioester hydrolysis. J Mol Biol. 2015 Apr 24; 427(8):1728-47. PMID: 25543083.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Prather AA, Gurfein B, Moran P, Daubenmier J, Acree M, Bacchetti P, Sinclair E, Lin J, Blackburn E, Hecht FM, Epel ES. Tired telomeres: Poor global sleep quality, perceived stress, and telomere length in immune cell subsets in obese men and women. Brain Behav Immun. 2015 Jul; 47:155-62. PMID: 25535858; PMCID: PMC4468027 [Available on 07/01/16].
    40. Zota AR, Needham BL, Blackburn E, Lin J, Park SK, Rehkopf DH, Epel ES. Associations of cadmium and lead exposure with leukocyte telomere length: findings from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Am J Epidemiol. 2015 Jan 15; 181(2):127-36. PMID: 25504027; PMCID: PMC4351349 [Available on 01/15/16].
    41. Roberts JD, Dewland TA, Longoria J, Fitzpatrick AL, Ziv E, Hu D, Lin J, Glidden DV, Psaty BM, Burchard EG, Blackburn E, Olgin JE, Heckbert SR, Marcus GM. Telomere length and the risk of atrial fibrillation: insights into the role of biological versus chronological aging. Circ Arrhythm Electrophysiol. 2014 Dec; 7(6):1026-32. PMID: 25381796; PMCID: PMC4294941 [Available on 12/01/15].
    42. Leung CW, Laraia BA, Needham BL, Rehkopf DH, Adler NE, Lin J, Blackburn E, Epel ES. Soda and cell aging: associations between sugar-sweetened beverage consumption and leukocyte telomere length in healthy adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Am J Public Health. 2014 Dec; 104(12):2425-31. PMID: 25322305; PMCID: PMC4229419.
    43. Gazzaniga FS, Blackburn E. An antiapoptotic role for telomerase RNA in human immune cells independent of telomere integrity or telomerase enzymatic activity. Blood. 2014 Dec 11; 124(25):3675-84. PMID: 25320237; PMCID: PMC4263978.
    44. Needham BL, Mezuk B, Bareis N, Lin J, Blackburn E, Epel ES. Depression, anxiety and telomere length in young adults: evidence from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Mol Psychiatry. 2015 Apr; 20(4):520-8. PMID: 25178165; PMCID: PMC4346549.
    45. Chen SH, Epel ES, Mellon SH, Lin J, Reus VI, Rosser R, Kupferman E, Burke H, Mahan L, Blackburn E, Wolkowitz OM. Adverse childhood experiences and leukocyte telomere maintenance in depressed and healthy adults. J Affect Disord. 2014 Dec; 169:86-90. PMID: 25173430; PMCID: PMC4172492 [Available on 12/01/15].
    46. Puterman E, Lin J, Krauss J, Blackburn E, Epel ES. Determinants of telomere attrition over 1 year in healthy older women: stress and health behaviors matter. Mol Psychiatry. 2015 Apr; 20(4):529-35. PMID: 25070535; PMCID: PMC4310821.
    47. Jacobs EG, Epel ES, Lin J, Blackburn E, Rasgon NL. Relationship between leukocyte telomere length, telomerase activity, and hippocampal volume in early aging. JAMA Neurol. 2014 Jul 1; 71(7):921-3. PMID: 25023551.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Chen S, Yeh F, Lin J, Matsuguchi T, Blackburn E, Lee ET, Howard BV, Zhao J. Short leukocyte telomere length is associated with obesity in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family study. Aging (Albany NY). 2014 May; 6(5):380-9. PMID: 24861044; PMCID: PMC4069265.
    49. Chen S, Lin J, Matsuguchi T, Blackburn E, Yeh F, Best LG, Devereux RB, Lee ET, Howard BV, Roman MJ, Zhao J. Short leukocyte telomere length predicts incidence and progression of carotid atherosclerosis in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study. Aging (Albany NY). 2014 May; 6(5):414-27. PMID: 24902894; PMCID: PMC4069268.
    50. Zalli A, Carvalho LA, Lin J, Hamer M, Erusalimsky JD, Blackburn E, Steptoe A. Shorter telomeres with high telomerase activity are associated with raised allostatic load and impoverished psychosocial resources. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Mar 25; 111(12):4519-24. PMID: 24616496; PMCID: PMC3970484.
    51. Zhao J, Zhu Y, Uppal K, Tran VT, Yu T, Lin J, Matsuguchi T, Blackburn E, Jones D, Lee ET, Howard BV. Metabolic profiles of biological aging in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study. Aging (Albany NY). 2014 Mar; 6(3):176-86. PMID: 24799415; PMCID: PMC4012935.
    52. Rehkopf DH, Dow WH, Rosero-Bixby L, Lin J, Epel ES, Blackburn E. Seasonal variation of peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica: A population-based observational study. Am J Hum Biol. 2014 May-Jun; 26(3):367-75. PMID: 24615938; PMCID: PMC4136920.
    53. Chae DH, Nuru-Jeter AM, Adler NE, Brody GH, Lin J, Blackburn E, Epel ES. Discrimination, racial bias, and telomere length in African-American men. Am J Prev Med. 2014 Feb; 46(2):103-11. PMID: 24439343.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Buss J, Havel PJ, Epel E, Lin J, Blackburn E, Daubenmier J. Associations of ghrelin with eating behaviors, stress, metabolic factors, and telomere length among overweight and obese women: preliminary evidence of attenuated ghrelin effects in obesity? Appetite. 2014 May; 76:84-94. PMID: 24462487; PMCID: PMC4170078.
    55. Chen B, Gilbert LA, Cimini BA, Schnitzbauer J, Zhang W, Li GW, Park J, Blackburn E, Weissman JS, Qi LS, Huang B. Dynamic imaging of genomic loci in living human cells by an optimized CRISPR/Cas system. Cell. 2013 Dec 19; 155(7):1479-91. PMID: 24360272; PMCID: PMC3918502.
    56. Blackburn E. Q&A: Elizabeth Blackburn on telomerase and tumors. Cancer Discov. 2013 Dec; 3(12):1323. PMID: 24327681.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Listerman I, Gazzaniga FS, Blackburn E. An investigation of the effects of the core protein telomerase reverse transcriptase on Wnt signaling in breast cancer cells. Mol Cell Biol. 2014 Jan; 34(2):280-9. PMID: 24216762; PMCID: PMC3911296.
    58. Ornish D, Lin J, Chan JM, Epel E, Kemp C, Weidner G, Marlin R, Frenda SJ, Magbanua MJ, Daubenmier J, Estay I, Hills NK, Chainani-Wu N, Carroll PR, Blackburn E. Effect of comprehensive lifestyle changes on telomerase activity and telomere length in men with biopsy-proven low-risk prostate cancer: 5-year follow-up of a descriptive pilot study. Lancet Oncol. 2013 Oct; 14(11):1112-20. PMID: 24051140.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Zhu Y, Voruganti VS, Lin J, Matsuguchi T, Blackburn E, Best LG, Lee ET, MacCluer JW, Cole SA, Zhao J. QTL mapping of leukocyte telomere length in American Indians: the Strong Heart Family Study. Aging (Albany NY). 2013 Sep; 5(9):704-16. PMID: 24036517; PMCID: PMC3808702.
    60. Rehkopf DH, Dow WH, Rosero-Bixby L, Lin J, Epel ES, Blackburn E. Longer leukocyte telomere length in Costa Rica's Nicoya Peninsula: a population-based study. Exp Gerontol. 2013 Nov; 48(11):1266-73. PMID: 23988653; PMCID: PMC3819141.
    61. Zhao J, Zhu Y, Lin J, Matsuguchi T, Blackburn E, Zhang Y, Cole SA, Best LG, Lee ET, Howard BV. Short leukocyte telomere length predicts risk of diabetes in american indians: the strong heart family study. Diabetes. 2014 Jan; 63(1):354-62. PMID: 23949319; PMCID: PMC3868043.
    62. Puterman E, Epel ES, Lin J, Blackburn E, Gross JJ, Whooley MA, Cohen BE. Multisystem resiliency moderates the major depression-telomere length association: findings from the Heart and Soul Study. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 Oct; 33:65-73. PMID: 23727245; PMCID: PMC3855878.
    63. Listerman I, Sun J, Gazzaniga FS, Lukas JL, Blackburn E. The major reverse transcriptase-incompetent splice variant of the human telomerase protein inhibits telomerase activity but protects from apoptosis. Cancer Res. 2013 May 1; 73(9):2817-28. PMID: 23610451; PMCID: PMC3643995.
    64. Blackburn E, Chang J, Hücker M, Holmes AT, Christensen NB, Liang R, Bonn DA, Hardy WN, Rütt U, Gutowski O, von Zimmermann M, Forgan EM, Hayden SM. X-ray diffraction observations of a charge-density-wave order in superconducting ortho-II YBa2Cu3O6.54 single crystals in zero magnetic field. Phys Rev Lett. 2013 Mar 29; 110(13):137004. PMID: 23581362.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Belin BJ, Cimini BA, Blackburn E, Mullins RD. Visualization of actin filaments and monomers in somatic cell nuclei. Mol Biol Cell. 2013 Apr; 24(7):982-94. PMID: 23447706; PMCID: PMC3608506.
    66. Needham BL, Adler N, Gregorich S, Rehkopf D, Lin J, Blackburn E, Epel ES. Socioeconomic status, health behavior, and leukocyte telomere length in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1999-2002. Soc Sci Med. 2013 May; 85:1-8. PMID: 23540359; PMCID: PMC3666871.
    67. Jacobs EG, Kroenke C, Lin J, Epel ES, Kenna HA, Blackburn E, Rasgon NL. Accelerated cell aging in female APOE-e4 carriers: implications for hormone therapy use. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e54713. PMID: 23418430; PMCID: PMC3572118.
    68. Dowd JB, Bosch JA, Steptoe A, Blackburn E, Lin J, Rees-Clayton E, Aiello AE. Cytomegalovirus is associated with reduced telomerase activity in the Whitehall II cohort. Exp Gerontol. 2013 Apr; 48(4):385-90. PMID: 23403382; PMCID: PMC3626117.
    69. Entringer S, Epel ES, Lin J, Buss C, Shahbaba B, Blackburn E, Simhan HN, Wadhwa PD. Maternal psychosocial stress during pregnancy is associated with newborn leukocyte telomere length. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Feb; 208(2):134.e1-7. PMID: 23200710; PMCID: PMC3612534.
    70. Bansal N, Whooley MA, Regan M, McCulloch CE, Ix JH, Epel E, Blackburn E, Lin J, Hsu CY. Association between kidney function and telomere length: the heart and soul study. Am J Nephrol. 2012; 36(5):405-11. PMID: 23108000; PMCID: PMC3552638.
    71. Blackburn E, Epel ES. Telomeres and adversity: Too toxic to ignore. Nature. 2012 Oct 11; 490(7419):169-71. PMID: 23060172.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Beery AK, Lin J, Biddle JS, Francis DD, Blackburn E, Epel ES. Chronic stress elevates telomerase activity in rats. Biol Lett. 2012 Dec 23; 8(6):1063-6. PMID: 23054915; PMCID: PMC3497144.
    73. Kiecolt-Glaser JK, Epel ES, Belury MA, Andridge R, Lin J, Glaser R, Malarkey WB, Hwang BS, Blackburn E. Omega-3 fatty acids, oxidative stress, and leukocyte telomere length: A randomized controlled trial. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 Feb; 28:16-24. PMID: 23010452; PMCID: PMC3545053.
    74. Armanios M, Blackburn E. The telomere syndromes. Nat Rev Genet. 2012 Oct; 13(10):693-704. PMID: 22965356; PMCID: PMC3548426.
    75. Adler N, Pantell MS, O'Donovan A, Blackburn E, Cawthon R, Koster A, Opresko P, Newman A, Harris TB, Epel E. Educational attainment and late life telomere length in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. Brain Behav Immun. 2013 Jan; 27(1):15-21. PMID: 22981835; PMCID: PMC3543785.
    76. Needham BL, Fernandez JR, Lin J, Epel ES, Blackburn E. Socioeconomic status and cell aging in children. Soc Sci Med. 2012 Jun; 74(12):1948-51. PMID: 22472277.
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    78. O'Donovan A, Tomiyama AJ, Lin J, Puterman E, Adler NE, Kemeny M, Wolkowitz OM, Blackburn E, Epel ES. Stress appraisals and cellular aging: a key role for anticipatory threat in the relationship between psychological stress and telomere length. Brain Behav Immun. 2012 May; 26(4):573-9. PMID: 22293459; PMCID: PMC3322317.
    79. Daubenmier J, Lin J, Blackburn E, Hecht FM, Kristeller J, Maninger N, Kuwata M, Bacchetti P, Havel PJ, Epel E. Changes in stress, eating, and metabolic factors are related to changes in telomerase activity in a randomized mindfulness intervention pilot study. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2012 Jul; 37(7):917-28. PMID: 22169588; PMCID: PMC3384690.
    80. Tomiyama AJ, O'Donovan A, Lin J, Puterman E, Lazaro A, Chan J, Dhabhar FS, Wolkowitz O, Kirschbaum C, Blackburn E, Epel E. Does cellular aging relate to patterns of allostasis? An examination of basal and stress reactive HPA axis activity and telomere length. Physiol Behav. 2012 Apr 12; 106(1):40-5. PMID: 22138440; PMCID: PMC3361080.
    81. Kroenke CH, Pletcher MJ, Lin J, Blackburn E, Adler N, Matthews K, Epel E. Telomerase, telomere length, and coronary artery calcium in black and white men in the CARDIA study. Atherosclerosis. 2012 Feb; 220(2):506-12. PMID: 22178426.
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    82. Krauss J, Farzaneh-Far R, Puterman E, Na B, Lin J, Epel E, Blackburn E, Whooley MA. Physical fitness and telomere length in patients with coronary heart disease: findings from the Heart and Soul Study. PLoS One. 2011; 6(11):e26983. PMID: 22096513; PMCID: PMC3212515.
    83. Prather AA, Puterman E, Lin J, O'Donovan A, Krauss J, Tomiyama AJ, Epel ES, Blackburn E. Shorter leukocyte telomere length in midlife women with poor sleep quality. J Aging Res. 2011; 2011:721390. PMID: 22046530; PMCID: PMC3199186.
    84. Njajou OT, Cawthon RM, Blackburn E, Harris TB, Li R, Sanders JL, Newman AB, Nalls M, Cummings SR, Hsueh WC. Shorter telomeres are associated with obesity and weight gain in the elderly. Int J Obes (Lond). 2012 Sep; 36(9):1176-9. PMID: 22005719; PMCID: PMC3408817.
    85. Brydon L, Lin J, Butcher L, Hamer M, Erusalimsky JD, Blackburn E, Steptoe A. Hostility and cellular aging in men from the Whitehall II cohort. Biol Psychiatry. 2012 May 1; 71(9):767-73. PMID: 21974787; PMCID: PMC3657139.
    86. Blackburn E. Actuary of the cell. Interview by Thea Singer. Sci Am. 2011 Oct; 305(4):84-7. PMID: 22106813.
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    87. Kroenke CH, Epel E, Adler N, Bush NR, Obradovic J, Lin J, Blackburn E, Stamperdahl JL, Boyce WT. Autonomic and adrenocortical reactivity and buccal cell telomere length in kindergarten children. Psychosom Med. 2011 Sep; 73(7):533-40. PMID: 21873585; PMCID: PMC3212037.
    88. Lin J, Epel E, Blackburn E. Telomeres and lifestyle factors: roles in cellular aging. Mutat Res. 2012 Feb 1; 730(1-2):85-9. PMID: 21878343.
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    90. Entringer S, Epel ES, Kumsta R, Lin J, Hellhammer DH, Blackburn E, Wüst S, Wadhwa PD. Stress exposure in intrauterine life is associated with shorter telomere length in young adulthood. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Aug 16; 108(33):E513-8. PMID: 21813766; PMCID: PMC3158153.
    91. Blackburn E. Cancer interception. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Jun; 4(6):787-92. PMID: 21636545.
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    92. Hoen PW, de Jonge P, Na BY, Farzaneh-Far R, Epel E, Lin J, Blackburn E, Whooley MA. Depression and leukocyte telomere length in patients with coronary heart disease: data from the Heart and Soul Study. Psychosom Med. 2011 Sep; 73(7):541-7. PMID: 21597035; PMCID: PMC3161173.
    93. O'Donovan A, Pantell MS, Puterman E, Dhabhar FS, Blackburn E, Yaffe K, Cawthon RM, Opresko PL, Hsueh WC, Satterfield S, Newman AB, Ayonayon HN, Rubin SM, Harris TB, Epel ES. Cumulative inflammatory load is associated with short leukocyte telomere length in the Health, Aging and Body Composition Study. PLoS One. 2011; 6(5):e19687. PMID: 21602933; PMCID: PMC3094351.
    94. Blackburn E, Collins K. Telomerase: an RNP enzyme synthesizes DNA. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011 May; 3(5). PMID: 20660025; PMCID: PMC3101848.
    95. Steptoe A, Hamer M, Butcher L, Lin J, Brydon L, Kivimäki M, Marmot M, Blackburn E, Erusalimsky JD. Educational attainment but not measures of current socioeconomic circumstances are associated with leukocyte telomere length in healthy older men and women. Brain Behav Immun. 2011 Oct; 25(7):1292-8. PMID: 21536122.
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    96. O'Donovan A, Epel E, Lin J, Wolkowitz O, Cohen B, Maguen S, Metzler T, Lenoci M, Blackburn E, Neylan TC. Childhood trauma associated with short leukocyte telomere length in posttraumatic stress disorder. Biol Psychiatry. 2011 Sep 1; 70(5):465-71. PMID: 21489410; PMCID: PMC3152637.
    97. Blackburn E. Walking the walk from genes through telomere maintenance to cancer risk. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2011 Apr; 4(4):473-5. PMID: 21460394.
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    98. Wolkowitz OM, Mellon SH, Epel ES, Lin J, Dhabhar FS, Su Y, Reus VI, Rosser R, Burke HM, Kupferman E, Compagnone M, Nelson JC, Blackburn E. Leukocyte telomere length in major depression: correlations with chronicity, inflammation and oxidative stress--preliminary findings. PLoS One. 2011; 6(3):e17837. PMID: 21448457; PMCID: PMC3063175.
    99. Humphreys J, Epel ES, Cooper BA, Lin J, Blackburn E, Lee KA. Telomere shortening in formerly abused and never abused women. Biol Res Nurs. 2012 Apr; 14(2):115-23. PMID: 21385798; PMCID: PMC3207021.
    100. Wolkowitz OM, Mellon SH, Epel ES, Lin J, Reus VI, Rosser R, Burke H, Compagnone M, Nelson JC, Dhabhar FS, Blackburn E. Resting leukocyte telomerase activity is elevated in major depression and predicts treatment response. Mol Psychiatry. 2012 Feb; 17(2):164-72. PMID: 21242992; PMCID: PMC3130817.
    101. Jacobs TL, Epel ES, Lin J, Blackburn E, Wolkowitz OM, Bridwell DA, Zanesco AP, Aichele SR, Sahdra BK, MacLean KA, King BG, Shaver PR, Rosenberg EL, Ferrer E, Wallace BA, Saron CD. Intensive meditation training, immune cell telomerase activity, and psychological mediators. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2011 Jun; 36(5):664-81. PMID: 21035949.
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    102. Lin J, Kroenke CH, Epel E, Kenna HA, Wolkowitz OM, Blackburn E, Rasgon NL. Greater endogenous estrogen exposure is associated with longer telomeres in postmenopausal women at risk for cognitive decline. Brain Res. 2011 Mar 16; 1379:224-31. PMID: 20965155; PMCID: PMC3057451.
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    105. Fraser JA, Madhumalar A, Blackburn E, Bramham J, Walkinshaw MD, Verma C, Hupp TR. A novel p53 phosphorylation site within the MDM2 ubiquitination signal: II. a model in which phosphorylation at SER269 induces a mutant conformation to p53. J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 26; 285(48):37773-86. PMID: 20847049; PMCID: PMC2988382.
    106. Williams TL, Levy DL, Maki-Yonekura S, Yonekura K, Blackburn E. Characterization of the yeast telomere nucleoprotein core: Rap1 binds independently to each recognition site. J Biol Chem. 2010 Nov 12; 285(46):35814-24. PMID: 20826803; PMCID: PMC2975205.
    107. Stohr BA, Xu L, Blackburn E. The terminal telomeric DNA sequence determines the mechanism of dysfunctional telomere fusion. Mol Cell. 2010 Jul 30; 39(2):307-14. PMID: 20670897; PMCID: PMC2920734.
    108. Puterman E, Lin J, Blackburn E, O'Donovan A, Adler N, Epel E. The power of exercise: buffering the effect of chronic stress on telomere length. PLoS One. 2010; 5(5):e10837. PMID: 20520771; PMCID: PMC2877102.
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    110. Blackburn E, Tlsty TD, Lippman SM. Unprecedented opportunities and promise for cancer prevention research. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2010 Apr; 3(4):394-402. PMID: 20354163.
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    116. Blackburn E, Greider C, Yonath A, Ostrom E. 2009 Nobels: break or breakthrough for women? Interview by Jeffrey Mervis and Kate Travis. Science. 2009 Oct 30; 326(5953):656-8. PMID: 19900910.
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    120. Epel E, Daubenmier J, Moskowitz JT, Folkman S, Blackburn E. Can meditation slow rate of cellular aging? Cognitive stress, mindfulness, and telomeres. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2009 Aug; 1172:34-53. PMID: 19735238; PMCID: PMC3057175.
    121. Njajou OT, Hsueh WC, Blackburn E, Newman AB, Wu SH, Li R, Simonsick EM, Harris TM, Cummings SR, Cawthon RM. Association between telomere length, specific causes of death, and years of healthy life in health, aging, and body composition, a population-based cohort study. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2009 Aug; 64(8):860-4. PMID: 19435951; PMCID: PMC2981462.
    122. Blackburn E. A conversation with Elizabeth Blackburn. Interview by Misia Landau. Clin Chem. 2009 Apr; 55(4):835-41. PMID: 19233908.
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    125. Anderson CM, Blackburn E. Mec1 function in the DNA damage response does not require its interaction with Tel2. Cell Cycle. 2008 Dec; 7(23):3695-8. PMID: 19029808; PMCID: PMC2839897.
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    127. Wang X, Kam Z, Carlton PM, Xu L, Sedat JW, Blackburn E. Rapid telomere motions in live human cells analyzed by highly time-resolved microscopy. Epigenetics Chromatin. 2008; 1(1):4. PMID: 19014413; PMCID: PMC2585561.
    128. Kiefer A, Lin J, Blackburn E, Epel E. Dietary restraint and telomere length in pre- and postmenopausal women. Psychosom Med. 2008 Oct; 70(8):845-9. PMID: 18923062; PMCID: PMC3078526.
    129. Ornish D, Lin J, Daubenmier J, Weidner G, Epel E, Kemp C, Magbanua MJ, Marlin R, Yglecias L, Carroll PR, Blackburn E. Increased telomerase activity and comprehensive lifestyle changes: a pilot study. Lancet Oncol. 2008 Nov; 9(11):1048-57. PMID: 18799354.
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    131. Stohr BA, Blackburn E. ATM mediates cytotoxicity of a mutant telomerase RNA in human cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2008 Jul 1; 68(13):5309-17. PMID: 18593932; PMCID: PMC2553270.
    132. Blackburn E. Interview with Elizabeth Blackburn, Ph.D. Interview by Vicki Glaser. Rejuvenation Res. 2008 Jun; 11(3):701-5. PMID: 18593291.
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    135. Makovets S, Williams TL, Blackburn E. The telotype defines the telomere state in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and is inherited as a dominant non-Mendelian characteristic in cells lacking telomerase. Genetics. 2008 Jan; 178(1):245-57. PMID: 18202371; PMCID: PMC2206075.
    136. Xu L, Blackburn E. Human cancer cells harbor T-stumps, a distinct class of extremely short telomeres. Mol Cell. 2007 Oct 26; 28(2):315-27. PMID: 17964269; PMCID: PMC2081152.
    137. Njajou OT, Cawthon RM, Damcott CM, Wu SH, Ott S, Garant MJ, Blackburn E, Mitchell BD, Shuldiner AR, Hsueh WC. Telomere length is paternally inherited and is associated with parental lifespan. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 17; 104(29):12135-9. PMID: 17623782; PMCID: PMC1924539.
    138. Hsu M, McEachern MJ, Dandjinou AT, Tzfati Y, Orr E, Blackburn E, Lue NF. Telomerase core components protect Candida telomeres from aberrant overhang accumulation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Jul 10; 104(28):11682-7. PMID: 17609387; PMCID: PMC1913905.
    139. Blackburn E, Greider CW, Szostak JW. Telomeres and telomerase: the path from maize, Tetrahymena and yeast to human cancer and aging. Nat Med. 2006 Oct; 12(10):1133-8. PMID: 17024208.
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    140. Bagheri S, Nosrati M, Li S, Fong S, Torabian S, Rangel J, Moore DH, Federman S, Laposa RR, Baehner FL, Sagebiel RW, Cleaver JE, Haqq C, Debs RJ, Blackburn E, Kashani-Sabet M. Genes and pathways downstream of telomerase in melanoma metastasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jul 25; 103(30):11306-11. PMID: 16847266; PMCID: PMC1544082.
    141. Goldkorn A, Blackburn E. Assembly of mutant-template telomerase RNA into catalytically active telomerase ribonucleoprotein that can act on telomeres is required for apoptosis and cell cycle arrest in human cancer cells. Cancer Res. 2006 Jun 1; 66(11):5763-71. PMID: 16740715.
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    142. Li S, Blackburn E. Expression and suppression of human telomerase RNA. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 2006; 71:211-5. PMID: 17381299.
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    144. Blackburn E. Telomerase and Cancer: Kirk A. Landon--AACR prize for basic cancer research lecture. Mol Cancer Res. 2005 Sep; 3(9):477-82. PMID: 16179494.
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    145. Blackburn E. Cell biology: Shaggy mouse tales. Nature. 2005 Aug 18; 436(7053):922-3. PMID: 16107824.
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    147. Li S, Crothers J, Haqq CM, Blackburn E. Cellular and gene expression responses involved in the rapid growth inhibition of human cancer cells by RNA interference-mediated depletion of telomerase RNA. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jun 24; 280(25):23709-17. PMID: 15831499.
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    148. Blackburn E. Telomeres and telomerase: their mechanisms of action and the effects of altering their functions. FEBS Lett. 2005 Feb 7; 579(4):859-62. PMID: 15680963.
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    149. Blackburn E. Stem cell science and politics: a talk with Elizabeth Blackburn. Camb Q Healthc Ethics. 2005; 14(2):214-7. PMID: 15887814.
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    150. Blackburn E. Thoughts of a former Council member. Perspect Biol Med. 2005; 48(2):172-80. PMID: 15834190.
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    151. Xu L, Blackburn E. Human Rif1 protein binds aberrant telomeres and aligns along anaphase midzone microtubules. J Cell Biol. 2004 Dec 6; 167(5):819-30. PMID: 15583028; PMCID: PMC2172464.
    152. Epel ES, Blackburn E, Lin J, Dhabhar FS, Adler NE, Morrow JD, Cawthon RM. Accelerated telomere shortening in response to life stress. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Dec 7; 101(49):17312-5. PMID: 15574496; PMCID: PMC534658.
    153. Levy DL, Blackburn E. Counting of Rif1p and Rif2p on Saccharomyces cerevisiae telomeres regulates telomere length. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Dec; 24(24):10857-67. PMID: 15572688; PMCID: PMC533994.
    154. Rivera MA, Blackburn E. Processive utilization of the human telomerase template: lack of a requirement for template switching. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 17; 279(51):53770-81. PMID: 15456773.
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    155. Lin J, Ly H, Hussain A, Abraham M, Pearl S, Tzfati Y, Parslow TG, Blackburn E. A universal telomerase RNA core structure includes structured motifs required for binding the telomerase reverse transcriptase protein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Oct 12; 101(41):14713-8. PMID: 15371596; PMCID: PMC522012.
    156. Nosrati M, Li S, Bagheri S, Ginzinger D, Blackburn E, Debs RJ, Kashani-Sabet M. Antitumor activity of systemically delivered ribozymes targeting murine telomerase RNA. Clin Cancer Res. 2004 Aug 1; 10(15):4983-90. PMID: 15297398.
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    157. Li S, Rosenberg JE, Donjacour AA, Botchkina IL, Hom YK, Cunha GR, Blackburn E. Rapid inhibition of cancer cell growth induced by lentiviral delivery and expression of mutant-template telomerase RNA and anti-telomerase short-interfering RNA. Cancer Res. 2004 Jul 15; 64(14):4833-40. PMID: 15256453.
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    158. Makovets S, Herskowitz I, Blackburn E. Anatomy and dynamics of DNA replication fork movement in yeast telomeric regions. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 May; 24(9):4019-31. PMID: 15082794; PMCID: PMC387773.
    159. Blackburn E. Bioethics and the political distortion of biomedical science. N Engl J Med. 2004 Apr 1; 350(14):1379-80. PMID: 15070784.
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    287. Blackburn E, Challoner PB. Identification of a telomeric DNA sequence in Trypanosoma brucei. Cell. 1984 Feb; 36(2):447-57. PMID: 6319025.
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    288. Blackburn E. The molecular structure of centromeres and telomeres. Annu Rev Biochem. 1984; 53:163-94. PMID: 6383193.
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    289. Blackburn E, Pan WC, Johnson CC. Methylation of ribosomal RNA genes in the macronucleus of Tetrahymena thermophila. Nucleic Acids Res. 1983 Aug 11; 11(15):5131-45. PMID: 6308573; PMCID: PMC326242.
    290. Blackburn E, Budarf ML, Challoner PB, Cherry JM, Howard EA, Katzen AL, Pan WC, Ryan T. DNA termini in ciliate macronuclei. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1983; 47 Pt 2:1195-207. PMID: 6407801.
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    291. Szostak JW, Blackburn E. Cloning yeast telomeres on linear plasmid vectors. Cell. 1982 May; 29(1):245-55. PMID: 6286143.
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    292. Pan WC, Orias E, Flacks M, Blackburn E. Allele-specific, selective amplification of a ribosomal RNA gene in Tetrahymena thermophila. Cell. 1982 Mar; 28(3):595-604. PMID: 6280878.
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    293. Yao MC, Blackburn E, Gall J. Tandemly repeated C-C-C-C-A-A hexanucleotide of Tetrahymena rDNA is present elsewhere in the genome and may be related to the alteration of the somatic genome. J Cell Biol. 1981 Aug; 90(2):515-20. PMID: 7287815; PMCID: PMC2111854.
    294. Katzen AL, Cann GM, Blackburn E. Sequence-specific fragmentation of macronuclear DNA in a holotrichous ciliate. Cell. 1981 May; 24(2):313-20. PMID: 6786754.
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    295. Blackburn E, Chiou SS. Non-nucleosomal packaging of a tandemly repeated DNA sequence at termini of extrachromosomal DNA coding for rRNA in Tetrahymena. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1981 Apr; 78(4):2263-7. PMID: 6941283; PMCID: PMC319325.
    296. Pan WC, Blackburn E. Single extrachromosomal ribosomal RNA gene copies are synthesized during amplification of the rDNA in Tetrahymena. Cell. 1981 Feb; 23(2):459-66. PMID: 7471208.
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    297. Yao MC, Blackburn E, Gall JG. Amplification of the rRNA genes in Tetrahymena. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1979; 43 Pt 2:1293-6. PMID: 290442.
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    298. Blackburn E, Gall JG. A tandemly repeated sequence at the termini of the extrachromosomal ribosomal RNA genes in Tetrahymena. J Mol Biol. 1978 Mar 25; 120(1):33-53. PMID: 642006.
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    299. Blackburn E. Transcription and sequence analysis of a fragment of bacteriophage phiX174 DNA. J Mol Biol. 1976 Nov 15; 107(4):417-31. PMID: 826641.
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    300. Air GM, Blackburn E, Coulson AR, Galibert F, Sanger F, Sedat JW, Ziff EB. Gene F of bacteriophage phiX174. Correlation of nucleotide sequences from the DNA and amino acid sequences from the gene product. J Mol Biol. 1976 Nov 15; 107(4):445-58. PMID: 1088826.
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    301. Air GM, Blackburn E, Sanger F, Coulson AR. The nucleotide and amino acid sequences of the N (5') terminal region of gene G of bacteriophage phiphiX 174. J Mol Biol. 1975 Aug 25; 96(4):703-19. PMID: 1081600.
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    302. Blackburn E. Transcription by Escherichia coli RNA polymerase of a single-stranded fragment by bacteriophage phiX174 DNA 48 residues in length. J Mol Biol. 1975 Apr 15; 93(3):367-74. PMID: 806693.
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