Rosemary Akhurst, PhD

Title(s)Professor, HDF Comprehensive Cancer Ctr
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address1450 Third St, #367
San Francisco CA 94158
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-4474-9668 Additional info
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Currently, I hold the position of Professor of Anatomy within the HDF Comprehensive Cancer Center at UCSF. My research work delves into the involvement of TGFbeta signaling pathway components in vascular biology and cancer. I have also taken on the role of Principal Investigator in numerous research projects funded by the NIH, focusing on areas like vascular stability, cancer immunotherapy, and vascular pathobiology. As part of my ongoing work, I am an active participant in projects aimed at reducing cancer health disparities and furthering our understanding of cancer progression. This journey into discovery and understanding is ongoing and I am continually learning and expanding upon my research.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    University of California and UT Southwestern Diversity Patient-Derived Xenograft (PDX) Development and Trial Center (UCaTS)
    NIH Natl Cancer Institute (NIH-NCI), UC Davis (UCD) U54CA283766Jul 1, 2023 - Jun 30, 2028
    Role: Site PI
    Protein tyrosine phosphatase non-receptor 14 in vascular stability and remodeling
    NIH/NHLBI 1R01HL164891Mar 17, 2023 - Feb 28, 2027
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PerkinElmer Quantum GX CT-imager
    NIH S10OD025022Aug 1, 2019 - Jul 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    University of California Minority Patient-Derived Xenograft (PDX) Development and Trial Center (UCaMP) to Reduce Cancer Health Disparities
    NIH/NCI U54233306Sep 1, 2018 - Aug 31, 2023
    Advancing the translatability of mouse models for cancer immunotherapy
    NIH R01CA210561Jan 1, 2018 - Dec 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Circulating cells as tools to study vascular pathobiology of HHT
    NIH R01HL122869Sep 1, 2015 - May 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Circulating cells as tools to study vascular pathobiology of HHT
    NIH R56HL122869Sep 15, 2014 - Aug 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Acquired Resistance to TGFBR1 inhibitors and cancer stem cell outgrowth
    NIH R21CA164772Apr 1, 2012 - Mar 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    IVIS Spectrum Imaging System
    NIH S10RR031642Apr 15, 2011 - Apr 14, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    "Genetic interactions between Tgfb1 and Skts15/Tgfbm3 in cancer"
    NIH R01CA116019May 1, 2007 - Jan 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Functional analysis of Tgfbm3 locus in vascular development and disease
    NIH R01HL078564Feb 16, 2006 - Jan 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Program Project Grant
    NIH P01AR050440Sep 26, 2003 - Aug 31, 2010
    Role: Co-Investigator
    TGFBM2 in Development and Disease
    NIH R01GM060514Feb 1, 2001 - Mar 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Cancer Center Support Grant
    NIH P30CA082103Aug 5, 1999 - May 31, 2023
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. From shape-shifting embryonic cells to oncology: The fascinating history of epithelial mesenchymal transition. Semin Cancer Biol. 2023 11; 96:100-114. Akhurst RJ. PMID: 37852342; PMCID: PMC10883734.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    2. Executive summary of the 14th HHT international scientific conference. Angiogenesis. 2023 08; 26(Suppl 1):27-37. Ola R, Hessels J, Hammill A, Friday C, Clancy M, Al-Samkari H, Meadows S, Iyer V, Akhurst R. PMID: 37695357; PMCID: PMC10543799.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    3. Gene networks reveal stem-cell state convergence during preneoplasia and progression to malignancy in multistage skin carcinogenesis. bioRxiv. 2023 May 10. Taylor MA, Kandyba E, Halliwill K, Delrosario R, Koroshkin M, Goodarzi H, Quigley D, Li YR, Wu D, Bollam S, Mirzoeva O, Akhurst RJ, Balmain A. PMID: 37215032; PMCID: PMC10197547.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    4. Abstract 3420: Tgfbm3b is a natural germline genetic variant that modifies anti-tumor responses to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy through its action on the tumor microenvironment. Cancer Research. 2022 Jun 15; 82(12_Supplement):3420-3420. Chen CS, Mamai MO, Akhurst AR. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    5. Genetic polymorphism in Methylenetetrahydrofolate Reductase chloride transport protein 6 (MTHFR CLCN6) gene is associated with keratinocyte skin cancer in a cohort of renal transplant recipients. Skin Health Dis. 2022 Jun; 2(2):e95. Griffin L, Ho L, Akhurst RJ, Arron ST, Boggs JME, Conlon P, O'Kelly P, Toland AE, Epstein EH, Balmain A, Bastian BC, Moloney FJ, Murphy GM, Laing ME. PMID: 35677930; PMCID: PMC9168012.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2  
    6. TGFβ: Signaling Blockade for Cancer Immunotherapy. Annu Rev Cancer Biol. 2022; 6(1):123-146. Chen SY, Mamai O, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 36382146; PMCID: PMC9645596.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6  
    7. Integrin αvβ8 on T cells suppresses anti-tumor immunity in multiple models and is a promising target for tumor immunotherapy. Cell Rep. 2021 07 06; 36(1):109309. Dodagatta-Marri E, Ma HY, Liang B, Li J, Meyer DS, Chen SY, Sun KH, Ren X, Zivak B, Rosenblum MD, Headley MB, Pinzas L, Reed NI, Del Cid JS, Hann BC, Yang S, Giddabasappa A, Noorbehesht K, Yang B, Dal Porto J, Tsukui T, Niessen K, Atakilit A, Akhurst RJ, Sheppard D. PMID: 34233193; PMCID: PMC8321414.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. TGFβ biology in cancer progression and immunotherapy. Nat Rev Clin Oncol. 2021 01; 18(1):9-34. Derynck R, Turley SJ, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 32710082; PMCID: PMC9721352.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 274     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    9. α-PD-1 therapy elevates Treg/Th balance and increases tumor cell pSmad3 that are both targeted by α-TGFβ antibody to promote durable rejection and immunity in squamous cell carcinomas. J Immunother Cancer. 2019 03 04; 7(1):62. Dodagatta-Marri E, Meyer DS, Reeves MQ, Paniagua R, To MD, Binnewies M, Broz ML, Mori H, Wu D, Adoumie M, Del Rosario R, Li O, Buchmann T, Liang B, Malato J, Arce Vargus F, Sheppard D, Hann BC, Mirza A, Quezada SA, Rosenblum MD, Krummel MF, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 30832732; PMCID: PMC6399967.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 93     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    10. Chronic TGF-β exposure drives stabilized EMT, tumor stemness, and cancer drug resistance with vulnerability to bitopic mTOR inhibition. Sci Signal. 2019 02 26; 12(570). Katsuno Y, Meyer DS, Zhang Z, Shokat KM, Akhurst RJ, Miyazono K, Derynck R. PMID: 30808819; PMCID: PMC6746178.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 101     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    11. Enhanced TGF-β Signaling Contributes to the Insulin-Induced Angiogenic Responses of Endothelial Cells. iScience. 2019 Jan 25; 11:474-491. Budi EH, Mamai O, Hoffman S, Akhurst RJ, Derynck R. PMID: 30684493; PMCID: PMC6348203.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14  
    12. From prevention to cure, repurposing anti-viral vaccines for cancer immunotherapy. Biotarget. 2018 Dec; 2. Mamai O, Dodagatta-Marri E, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 30906919; PMCID: PMC6428074.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    13. Smad3-mediated recruitment of the methyltransferase SETDB1/ESET controls Snail1 expression and epithelial-mesenchymal transition. EMBO Rep. 2018 01; 19(1):135-155. Du D, Katsuno Y, Meyer D, Budi EH, Chen SH, Koeppen H, Wang H, Akhurst RJ, Derynck R. PMID: 29233829; PMCID: PMC5757214.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    14. Targeting TGF-β Signaling for Therapeutic Gain. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2017 Oct 03; 9(10). Akhurst RJ. PMID: 28246179; PMCID: PMC5630004.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 88     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    15. ShcA Protects against Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition through Compartmentalized Inhibition of TGF-β-Induced Smad Activation. PLoS Biol. 2015 Dec; 13(12):e1002325. Muthusamy BP, Budi EH, Katsuno Y, Lee MK, Smith SM, Mirza AM, Akhurst RJ, Derynck R. PMID: 26680585; PMCID: PMC4682977.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    16. Defining Primary Marrow Microenvironment-Induced Synthetic Lethality and Resistance for 2,684 Approved Drugs Across Molecularly Distinct Forms of Multiple Myeloma. Blood. 2015 Dec 3; 126(23):503-503. Murnane MM, Dhimolea DE, Li LR, Bariteau BM, Wheeler WD, Akhurst AR, Logan LA, Munster MP, Wiita WA, Martin MT, Wolf WJ, Liu LJ, Mitsiades MC, Aftab AB. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    17. Matters of context guide future research in TGFβ superfamily signaling. Sci Signal. 2015 Oct 20; 8(399):re10. Akhurst RJ, Padgett RW. PMID: 26486175.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Genetic variation in the functional ENG allele inherited from the non-affected parent associates with presence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia 1 (HHT1) and may influence expression of PTPN14. Front Genet. 2015; 6:67. Letteboer TG, Benzinou M, Merrick CB, Quigley DA, Zhau K, Kim IJ, To MD, Jablons DM, van Amstel JK, Westermann CJ, Giraud S, Dupuis-Girod S, Lesca G, Berg JH, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 25815003; PMCID: PMC4357294.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10  
    19. Excessive vascular sprouting underlies cerebral hemorrhage in mice lacking αVβ8-TGFβ signaling in the brain. Development. 2014 Dec; 141(23):4489-99. Arnold TD, Niaudet C, Pang MF, Siegenthaler J, Gaengel K, Jung B, Ferrero GM, Mukouyama YS, Fuxe J, Akhurst R, Betsholtz C, Sheppard D, Reichardt LF. PMID: 25406396; PMCID: PMC4302931.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 59     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    20. Genetic variants of Adam17 differentially regulate TGFβ signaling to modify vascular pathology in mice and humans. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 27; 111(21):7723-8. Kawasaki K, Freimuth J, Meyer DS, Lee MM, Tochimoto-Okamoto A, Benzinou M, Clermont FF, Wu G, Roy R, Letteboer TG, Ploos van Amstel JK, Giraud S, Dupuis-Girod S, Lesca G, Westermann CJ, Coffey RJ, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 24812125; PMCID: PMC4040598.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    21. BMP-9 balances endothelial cell fate. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 19; 110(47):18746-7. Derynck R, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 24222686; PMCID: PMC3839760.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    22. Multiple self-healing squamous epithelioma (MSSE): rare variants in an adjacent region of chromosome 9q22.3 to known TGFBR1 mutations suggest a digenic or multilocus etiology. J Invest Dermatol. 2013 Jul; 133(7):1907-10. Kang HC, Quigley DA, Kim IJ, Wakabayashi Y, Ferguson-Smith MA, D'Alessandro M, Birgitte Lane E, Akhurst RJ, Goudie DR, Balmain A. PMID: 23358096; PMCID: PMC3664264.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    23. Erratum: Targeting the TGFß signalling pathway in disease. Nature Reviews Drug Discovery. 2012 Nov 1; 11(11):886-886. Akhurst AR, Hata HA. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    24. Epistatic interactions between Tgfb1 and genetic loci, Tgfbm2 and Tgfbm3, determine susceptibility to an asthmatic stimulus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Oct 30; 109(44):18042-7. Freimuth J, Clermont FF, Huang X, DeSapio A, Tokuyasu TA, Sheppard D, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 23064636; PMCID: PMC3497801.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    25. Targeting the TGFβ signalling pathway in disease. Nat Rev Drug Discov. 2012 Oct; 11(10):790-811. Akhurst RJ, Hata A. PMID: 23000686; PMCID: PMC3520610.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 727     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    26. The paradoxical TGF-β vasculopathies. Nat Genet. 2012 Jul 27; 44(8):838-9. Akhurst RJ. PMID: 22836090; PMCID: PMC3543110.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 38     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    27. Complexities of TGF-β targeted cancer therapy. Int J Biol Sci. 2012; 8(7):964-78. Connolly EC, Freimuth J, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 22811618; PMCID: PMC3399319.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 184     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    28. TGF- -induced activation of mTOR complex 2 drives epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell invasion. Development. 2012 May 15; 139(10):e1008-e1008. Lamouille LS, Connolly CE, Smyth SJ, Akhurst AR, Derynck DR. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    29. TGF-β-induced activation of mTOR complex 2 drives epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell invasion. J Cell Sci. 2012 Mar 01; 125(Pt 5):1259-73. Lamouille S, Connolly E, Smyth JW, Akhurst RJ, Derynck R. PMID: 22399812; PMCID: PMC3324583.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 178     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    30. Defective retinal vascular endothelial cell development as a consequence of impaired integrin αVβ8-mediated activation of transforming growth factor-β. J Neurosci. 2012 Jan 25; 32(4):1197-206. Arnold TD, Ferrero GM, Qiu H, Phan IT, Akhurst RJ, Huang EJ, Reichardt LF. PMID: 22279205; PMCID: PMC3578416.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 40     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    31. Mouse and human strategies identify PTPN14 as a modifier of angiogenesis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Nat Commun. 2012 Jan 10; 3:616. Benzinou M, Clermont FF, Letteboer TG, Kim JH, Espejel S, Harradine KA, Arbelaez J, Luu MT, Roy R, Quigley D, Higgins MN, Zaid M, Aouizerat BE, van Amstel JK, Giraud S, Dupuis-Girod S, Lesca G, Plauchu H, Hughes CC, Westermann CJ, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 22233626; PMCID: PMC3509798.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    32. Erratum: Mouse and human strategies identify PTPN14 as a modifier of angiogenesis and hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia. Nature Communications. 2012 Jan 1; 3(1):1148. Benzinou BM, Clermont CF, Letteboer LT, Kim KJ, Espejel ES, Harradine HK, Arbelaez AJ, Luu LM, Roy RR, Quigley QD, Higgins HM, Zaid ZM, Aouizerat AB, van Amstel vJ, Giraud GS, Dupuis-Girod DS, Lesca LG, Plauchu PH, Hughes HC, Westermann WC, Akhurst AR. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    33. The complexities of TGF-β action during mammary and squamous cell carcinogenesis. Curr Pharm Biotechnol. 2011 Dec; 12(12):2138-49. Connolly EC, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 21619543; PMCID: PMC3520605.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    34. TGFβ1 inhibition increases the radiosensitivity of breast cancer cells in vitro and promotes tumor control by radiation in vivo. Clin Cancer Res. 2011 Nov 01; 17(21):6754-65. Bouquet F, Pal A, Pilones KA, Demaria S, Hann B, Akhurst RJ, Babb JS, Lonning SM, DeWyngaert JK, Formenti SC, Barcellos-Hoff MH. PMID: 22028490; PMCID: PMC3724539.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 120     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    35. Outgrowth of drug-resistant carcinomas expressing markers of tumor aggression after long-term TβRI/II kinase inhibition with LY2109761. Cancer Res. 2011 Mar 15; 71(6):2339-49. Connolly EC, Saunier EF, Quigley D, Luu MT, De Sapio A, Hann B, Yingling JM, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 21282335; PMCID: PMC3059399.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Taking thalidomide out of rehab. Nat Med. 2010 Apr; 16(4):370-2. Akhurst RJ. PMID: 20376039; PMCID: PMC2917634.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    37. Elevated cutaneous Smad activation associates with enhanced skin tumor susceptibility in organ transplant recipients. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Aug 15; 15(16):5101-7. Harradine KA, Ridd K, Saunier EF, Clermont FF, Perez-Losada J, Moore DH, Epstein EH, Bastian BC, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 19671862; PMCID: PMC2812428.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    38. Transforming growth factor-beta in breast cancer: too much, too late. Breast Cancer Res. 2009; 11(1):202. Barcellos-Hoff MH, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 19291273; PMCID: PMC2687712.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 101     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    39. The type I TGF-beta receptor is covalently modified and regulated by sumoylation. Nat Cell Biol. 2008 Jun; 10(6):654-64. Kang JS, Saunier EF, Akhurst RJ, Derynck R. PMID: 18469808; PMCID: PMC2649123.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 73     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    40. Reversal of EMT by Small-Molecule Inhibitors of TGF-ß Type I and II Receptors: Implications for Carcinoma Treatment. Transforming Growth Factor-ß in Cancer Therapy, Volume II. 2008 Jan 1; 707-722. Lacher LM, Korn KW, Akhurst AR. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    41. Differentiation plasticity regulated by TGF-beta family proteins in development and disease. Nat Cell Biol. 2007 Sep; 9(9):1000-4. Derynck R, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 17762890.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 182     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    42. Characterization of Tgfbm2, a genetic modifier of Tgfb1-/- embryonic lethality. The FASEB Journal. 2007 Jan 1; 21(6):lb73-lb73. Clermont CF, Luu LM, Higgins HM, Akhurst AR. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    43. TGF beta inhibition for cancer therapy. Curr Cancer Drug Targets. 2006 Nov; 6(7):565-78. Saunier EF, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 17100564.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. Large- and small-molecule inhibitors of transforming growth factor-beta signaling. Curr Opin Investig Drugs. 2006 Jun; 7(6):513-21. Akhurst RJ. PMID: 16784021.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    45. Genetic variants of Tgfb1 act as context-dependent modifiers of mouse skin tumor susceptibility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 23; 103(21):8125-30. Mao JH, Saunier EF, de Koning JP, McKinnon MM, Higgins MN, Nicklas K, Yang HT, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 16702541; PMCID: PMC1472440.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    46. A sweet link between TGFbeta and vascular disease? Nat Genet. 2006 Apr; 38(4):400-1. Akhurst RJ. PMID: 16570059.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    
    47. Transforming growth factor-beta receptor inhibition enhances adenoviral infectability of carcinoma cells via up-regulation of Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor in conjunction with reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 01; 66(3):1648-57. Lacher MD, Tiirikainen MI, Saunier EF, Christian C, Anders M, Oft M, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ, Korn WM. PMID: 16452224.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    48. TGFbeta inhibition of yolk-sac-like differentiation of human embryonic stem-cell-derived embryoid bodies illustrates differences between early mouse and human development. J Cell Sci. 2006 Feb 15; 119(Pt 4):759-68. Poon E, Clermont F, Firpo MT, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 16449320.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    49. Mutations of TGFbeta signaling molecules in human disease. Ann Med. 2006; 38(6):403-14. Harradine KA, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 17008304.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 36     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    50. Epistatic interactions between modifier genes confer strain-specific redundancy for Tgfb1 in developmental angiogenesis. Genomics. 2005 Jan; 85(1):60-70. Tang Y, Lee KS, Yang H, Logan DW, Wang S, McKinnon ML, Holt LJ, Condie A, Luu MT, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 15607422.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    51. TGF beta signaling in health and disease. Nat Genet. 2004 Aug; 36(8):790-2. Akhurst RJ. PMID: 15284845.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 66     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    52. Cancer: dangerous liaisons. Nature. 2004 Mar 18; 428(6980):271-2. Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 15029181.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Mouse strain-dependent heterogeneity of resting limbal vasculature. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2004 Feb; 45(2):441-7. Chan CK, Pham LN, Chinn C, Spee C, Ryan SJ, Akhurst RJ, Hinton DR. PMID: 14744883.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    54. Genetic modifiers interact with maternal determinants in vascular development of Tgfb1(-/-) mice. Hum Mol Genet. 2003 Jul 01; 12(13):1579-89. Tang Y, McKinnon ML, Leong LM, Rusholme SA, Wang S, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 12812985.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    55. Transforming growth factor-beta1 mediates cellular response to DNA damage in situ. Cancer Res. 2002 Oct 15; 62(20):5627-31. Ewan KB, Henshall-Powell RL, Ravani SA, Pajares MJ, Arteaga C, Warters R, Akhurst RJ, Barcellos-Hoff MH. PMID: 12384514.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. Metastasis is driven by sequential elevation of H-ras and Smad2 levels. Nat Cell Biol. 2002 Jul; 4(7):487-94. Oft M, Akhurst RJ, Balmain A. PMID: 12105419.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 134     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. Latent transforming growth factor-beta activation in mammary gland: regulation by ovarian hormones affects ductal and alveolar proliferation. Am J Pathol. 2002 Jun; 160(6):2081-93. Ewan KB, Shyamala G, Ravani SA, Tang Y, Akhurst R, Wakefield L, Barcellos-Hoff MH. PMID: 12057913; PMCID: PMC1850834.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 73     Fields:    
    58. TGF-beta antagonists: why suppress a tumor suppressor? J Clin Invest. 2002 Jun; 109(12):1533-6. Akhurst RJ. PMID: 12070299; PMCID: PMC151022.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 48     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    59. TGF-beta signaling in cancer--a double-edged sword. Trends Cell Biol. 2001 Nov; 11(11):S44-51. Akhurst RJ, Derynck R. PMID: 11684442.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 352     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    60. TGF-ß signaling in cancer — a double-edged sword. Trends in Cell Biology. 2001 Nov 1; 11:s44-s51. Akhurst AR, Derynck DR. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    61. TGF-beta signaling in tumor suppression and cancer progression. Nat Genet. 2001 Oct; 29(2):117-29. Derynck R, Akhurst RJ, Balmain A. PMID: 11586292.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 864     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    62. Isolation, identification, and molecular characterization of strains of Photorhabdus luminescens from infected humans in Australia. J Clin Microbiol. 1999 Nov; 37(11):3647-53. Peel MM, Alfredson DA, Gerrard JG, Davis JM, Robson JM, McDougall RJ, Scullie BL, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 10523568; PMCID: PMC85716.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    63. Genetic events and the role of TGF beta in epithelial tumour progression. J Pathol. 1999 Jan; 187(1):82-90. Akhurst RJ, Balmain A. PMID: 10341708.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    64. Epithelial carcinogenesis in the mouse: correlating the genetics and the biology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1998 Jun 29; 353(1370):839-45. Frame S, Crombie R, Liddell J, Stuart D, Linardopoulos S, Nagase H, Portella G, Brown K, Street A, Akhurst R, Balmain A. PMID: 9684281; PMCID: PMC1692278.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    65. Transforming growth factor beta is essential for spindle cell conversion of mouse skin carcinoma in vivo: implications for tumor invasion. Cell Growth Differ. 1998 May; 9(5):393-404. Portella G, Cumming SA, Liddell J, Cui W, Ireland H, Akhurst RJ, Balmain A. PMID: 9607560.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 60     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    66. Mapping of a major genetic modifier of embryonic lethality in TGF beta 1 knockout mice. Nat Genet. 1997 Feb; 15(2):207-11. Bonyadi M, Rusholme SA, Cousins FM, Su HC, Biron CA, Farrall M, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 9020852.
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    67. TGFbeta1 inhibits the formation of benign skin tumors, but enhances progression to invasive spindle carcinomas in transgenic mice. Cell. 1996 Aug 23; 86(4):531-42. Cui W, Fowlis DJ, Bryson S, Duffie E, Ireland H, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 8752208.
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    68. Altered epidermal cell growth control in vivo by inducible expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 in the skin of transgenic mice. Cell Growth Differ. 1996 May; 7(5):679-87. Fowlis DJ, Cui W, Johnson SA, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 8732677.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    69. The TGF beta type II receptor, Tgfbr2, maps to distal mouse chromosome 9. Genomics. 1996 Apr 15; 33(2):328-9. Bonyadi M, Cui W, Nagase H, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 8660988.
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    70. The role of transforming growth factor ß during cardiovascular development. Molecular Physiology of Growth. 1996 Jan 1; 69-86. Dickson DM, Martin MJ, Akhurst AR. .
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    71. Transforming growth factor ßS: Biochemistry and biological activities in vitro and in vivo. Growth Factors. 1996 Jan 1; 1:319-356. Cui CW, Akhurst AR. .
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    72. Liposome-medicated gene transfer and expression via the skin. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Dec; 4(12):2279-85. Alexander MY, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 8634699.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    73. Defective haematopoiesis and vasculogenesis in transforming growth factor-beta 1 knock out mice. Development. 1995 Jun; 121(6):1845-54. Dickson MC, Martin JS, Cousins FM, Kulkarni AB, Karlsson S, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 7600998.
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    74. Circulating human factor IX produced in keratin-promoter transgenic mice: a feasibility study for gene therapy of haemophilia B. Hum Mol Genet. 1995 Jun; 4(6):993-9. Alexander MY, Bidichandani SI, Cousins FM, Robinson CJ, Duffie E, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 7544665.
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    75. Concerted action of TGF-beta 1 and its type II receptor in control of epidermal homeostasis in transgenic mice. Genes Dev. 1995 Apr 15; 9(8):945-55. Cui W, Fowlis DJ, Cousins FM, Duffie E, Bryson S, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 7774812.
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    76. Analysis of homozygous TGF beta 1 null mouse embryos demonstrates defects in yolk sac vasculogenesis and hematopoiesis. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Mar 27; 752:300-8. Martin JS, Dickson MC, Cousins FM, Kulkarni AB, Karlsson S, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 7755275.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    77. Lack of transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression in benign skin tumors of p53null mice is prognostic for a high risk of malignant conversion. Cancer Res. 1994 Nov 15; 54(22):5831-6. Cui W, Kemp CJ, Duffie E, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 7954410.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    78. Localization of transforming growth factor-alpha RNA and protein in the skin of psoriatic patients receiving therapy. Br J Dermatol. 1994 Jul; 131(1):64-71. Watts P, Stables GS, Akhurst RJ, Mackie RM. PMID: 7519033.
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    79. Physical methods of gene delivery using keratinocytes as a target for somatic cell gene therapy. Gene Ther. 1994; 1 Suppl 1:S57. Alexander MY, Bidichandani S, Robinson C, Trainer AH, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 8542402.
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    80. Localization of growth factor mRNA in tissue sections by in situ hybridization. Growth Factors. 1993 Mar 4; 109-132. Akhurst AR. .
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    81. RNA and protein localisations of TGF beta 2 in the early mouse embryo suggest an involvement in cardiac development. Development. 1993 Feb; 117(2):625-39. Dickson MC, Slager HG, Duffie E, Mummery CL, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 7687212.
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    82. Positive and negative growth control in multistage skin carcinogenesis. Recent Results Cancer Res. 1993; 128:309-21. Brown K, Kemp CJ, Burns PA, Stoler AB, Fowlis DJ, Akhurst RJ, Balmain A. PMID: 8356328.
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    83. Rapid induction and clearance of TGF beta 1 is an early response to wounding in the mouse embryo. Dev Genet. 1993; 14(3):225-38. Martin P, Dickson MC, Millan FA, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 8358867.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    84. Transforming growth factor ßs and cardiac development. Growth Factors and the Cardiovascular System. 1993 Jan 1; 147:347-366. Akhurst AR, Dickson DM, Millan MF. .
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    85. The role of TGF-beta s in mammalian development and neoplasia. Mol Reprod Dev. 1992 Jun; 32(2):127-35. Akhurst RJ, Fitzpatrick DR, Fowlis DJ, Gatherer D, Millan FA, Slager H. PMID: 1637551.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    86. Palatal expression of TGF-ß isoforms in normal and retinoic acid-treated mouse embryos. Retinoids in Normal Development and Teratogenesis. 1992 May 21; 149-164. FitzPatrick FD, Abbott AB, Akhurst AR. .
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    87. Enormous scope for further research peptide growth factors and their receptors vol. I (1990). Edited by M. B. Sporn and A. B. Roberts. Springer-Verlag: Berlin. 785pp. DM 398. ISBN 3 540 51184 9. BioEssays. 1992 Feb 1; 14(2):143-144. Akhurst AR. .
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    88. Discordant transforming growth factor beta 1 RNA and protein localization during chemical carcinogenesis of the skin. Cell Growth Differ. 1992 Feb; 3(2):81-91. Fowlis DJ, Flanders KC, Duffie E, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 1504019.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    89. Loss of growth control by TGF-beta occurs at a late stage of mouse skin carcinogenesis and is independent of ras gene activation. Oncogene. 1991 Aug; 6(8):1465-70. Haddow S, Fowlis DJ, Parkinson K, Akhurst RJ, Balmain A. PMID: 1886717.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    90. Functional loss of tumour suppressor genes in multistage chemical carcinogenesis. Princess Takamatsu Symp. 1991; 22:97-108. Balmain A, Kemp CJ, Burns PA, Stoler AB, Fowlis DJ, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 1844254.
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    91. Embryonic gene expression patterns of TGF beta 1, beta 2 and beta 3 suggest different developmental functions in vivo. Development. 1991 Jan; 111(1):131-43. Millan FA, Denhez F, Kondaiah P, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 1707784.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 111     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    92. Expression of TGF-beta isoforms during first trimester human embryogenesis. Development. 1990 Oct; 110(2):445-60. Gatherer D, Ten Dijke P, Baird DT, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 2133548.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    93. Localization of elevated transforming growth factor-alpha in psoriatic epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 1990 Aug; 95(2):229-32. Turbitt ML, Akhurst RJ, White SI, MacKie RM. PMID: 2380581.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    94. Differential expression of TGF beta isoforms in murine palatogenesis. Development. 1990 Jul; 109(3):585-95. Fitzpatrick DR, Denhez F, Kondaiah P, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 2401212.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 77     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    95. TGF beta in murine morphogenetic processes: the early embryo and cardiogenesis. Development. 1990 Apr; 108(4):645-56. Akhurst RJ, Lehnert SA, Faissner A, Duffie E. PMID: 1696875.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    96. Transforming growth factor betas in mammalian embryogenesis. Prog Growth Factor Res. 1990; 2(3):153-68. Akhurst RJ, FitzPatrick DR, Gatherer D, Lehnert SA, Millan FA. PMID: 2132953.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    97. The role of TGF beta in mouse development. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1990; 593:259-71. Akhurst RJ, Lehnert SA, Gatherer D, Duffie E. PMID: 1695826.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    98. The role of transforming growth factor-ß in mouse development and carcinogenesis. Biochemical Society Transactions. 1989 Jun 1; 17(3):595-597. AKHURST AR, LEHNERT LS, FEE FF, BALMAIN BA. .
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    99. Chemical induction of oncogene mutations and growth factor activity in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Environ Health Perspect. 1989 May; 81:23-7. Bailleul B, Brown K, Ramsden M, Akhurst RJ, Fee F, Balmain A. PMID: 2667981; PMCID: PMC1567527.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    100. Intracellular localisation and expression of mammalian CDC2 protein during myogenic differentiation. Differentiation. 1989 Mar; 40(1):36-41. Akhurst RJ, Flavin NB, Worden J, Lee MG. PMID: 2663576.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    101. The action of oncogenes and growth factors in tumour initiation and promotion. Carcinog Compr Surv. 1989; 11:243-55. Akhurst R, Bailleul B, Brown K, Ramsden M, Fee F, Balmain A. PMID: 2493336.
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    102. Prospects for gene therapy now and in the future. J Inherit Metab Dis. 1989; 12 Suppl 1:191-201. Akhurst RJ. PMID: 2509805.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    103. Prospects for Gene Therapy Now and in the Future. Studies in Inherited Metabolic Disease. 1989 Jan 1; 191-201. Akhurst AR. .
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    104. Molecular analysis of chemical carcinogenesis in the skin. Br J Cancer Suppl. 1988 Dec; 9:72-5. Balmain A, Brown K, Akhurst RJ, Fee FM. PMID: 3076069; PMCID: PMC2149109.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    105. Chorionic gonadotrophin-beta mRNA, a trophoblast marker, is expressed in human 8-cell embryos derived from tripronucleate zygotes. Hum Reprod. 1988 Oct; 3(7):909-14. Bonduelle ML, Dodd R, Liebaers I, Van Steirteghem A, Williamson R, Akhurst R. PMID: 2460490.
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    106. Embryonic expression pattern of TGF beta type-1 RNA suggests both paracrine and autocrine mechanisms of action. Development. 1988 Oct; 104(2):263-73. Lehnert SA, Akhurst RJ. PMID: 2474426.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    107. Isolation and characterization of a variant myoblast cell line that is temperature sensitive for differentiation. Mol Cell Biol. 1988 Jun; 8(6):2335-41. Akhurst RJ, Flavin NB, Worden J. PMID: 3043175; PMCID: PMC363431.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    108. Isolation and characterization of a variant myoblast cell line that is temperature sensitive for differentiation. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 1988 Jun 1; 8(6):2335-2341. Akhurst AR, Flavin FN, Worden WJ. .
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    109. Isolation and Characterization of a Variant Myoblast Cell Line That is Temperature Sensitive for Differentiation. Molecular and Cellular Biology. 1988 Jun 1; 8(6):2335-2341. Akhurst AR, Flavin FN, Worden WJ. .
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    110. Localized production of TGF-beta mRNA in tumour promoter-stimulated mouse epidermis. Nature. 1988 Jan 28; 331(6154):363-5. Akhurst RJ, Fee F, Balmain A. PMID: 3422343.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 62     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    111. Sea urchin actin gene linkages determined by genetic segregation. Dev Biol. 1987 Jul; 122(1):291-5. Minor JE, Lee JJ, Akhurst RJ, Leahy PS, Britten RJ, Davidson EH. PMID: 2885237.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    112. Structure and organization of the CyIII actin gene subfamily of the sea urchin, Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. J Mol Biol. 1987 Mar 20; 194(2):193-203. Akhurst RJ, Calzone FJ, Lee JJ, Britten RJ, Davidson EH. PMID: 3612803.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    113. The use of gene probes in studying human reproduction and embryology. Hum Reprod. 1986 Jun; 1(4):213-8. Akhurst RJ. PMID: 3549766.
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    114. Sea urchin actin gene subtypes. Gene number, linkage and evolution. J Mol Biol. 1984 Jan 15; 172(2):149-76. Lee JJ, Shott RJ, Rose SJ, Thomas TL, Britten RJ, Davidson EH. PMID: 6319714.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    115. Dev. Biol. Differential expression of the actin gene family of Strongylocentrotus purpuratus. 1984; 101(2):295-306. Akhurst RJ (Shott RJ) Lee JJ, Britten RJ, Davidson EH.
    116. Regulation of the relative abundances of mRNAs in hepatoma and liver. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1982; 158:387-94. Birnie GD, Jacobs H, Shott R, Wilkes PR. PMID: 6186132.
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    117. Post-transcriptional control of messenger abundance. Mol Biol Rep. 1981 May 22; 7(1-3):159-62. Birnie GD, Balmain A, Jacobs H, Shott R, Wilkes PR, Paul J. PMID: 6114395.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells