Shibani Pati, MD, PhD

TitleAssociate Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentLaboratory Medicine
Address513 Parnassus Ave
San Francisco CA 94143
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Princeton University, Princeton NJA.B.1992Molecular Biology
    University of Maryland School of Medicine, Baltimore, MDMD PhD2001Virology/Immunology
    Baylor College of Medicine and University of Texas Houston, Houston TXPostdoctoral Fellow2007Neurobiology

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    I am a vascular biologist with an interest in the role of endothelial dysfunction and vascular compromise in the pathogenesis of human disease. My specific areas of investigation involve the use of stem cell therapies and novel resuscitative modalities that can mitigate endothelial dysfunction and improve outcomes in traumatic injury. Areas of focus in the lab include traumatic brain injury (TBI), spinal cord injury (SCI), and hemorrhagic shock induced organ failure.

    Abnormalities in vascular permeability leading to inflammation, tissue edema, and end-organ dysfunction significantly contribute to the morbidity and mortality associated with a number of human disease processes. For example, although a number of factors contribute to the high mortality and morbidity associated with traumatic brain injury (TBI), the development of cerebral edema with brain swelling remains one of the most significant predictors of outcome. Similarly both hemorrhagic shock and septic shock are characterized by abnormal vascular permeability, which contributes to the development of shock-associated acute lung injury (ALI) and acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). Despite the clear importance of abnormal vascular permeability in a number of human disease processes, there exists no therapeutic modality in current use to attenuate it. Our lab's focus is to understand the mechanisms of action that lead to organ failure in traumatic injury and to also discover novel therapies that improve outcomes.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    The Vasculo-protective and anti-inflammatory effects of Kcentra
    CSL BehringFeb 1, 2019 - Jan 31, 2021
    Role: PI
    Mesenchymal Stem Cells for Treatment of ARDS Following Trauma
    Department of Defense PR160568Sep 30, 2017 - Sep 29, 2021
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Prothrombin Complex Concentrate for Prolonged Field Care of War Casualties
    Department of Defense DM160342Sep 30, 2017 - Sep 29, 2020
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Dried Plasma to Improve Outcomes in Polytrauma, Hemorrhage and Trauma Associated Sepsis (TAS): Novel Solutions for the Prolonged Field Care Environment
    Department of Defense DM160146Sep 30, 2017 - Sep 29, 2019
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Platelets Modulate Vascular Stability: Assessing the Biological Properties and Function of Apheresis Platelets Stored at 22o C vs. 4o C
    Department of Defense DOD W81XWH-16-2-0035 (Log#BA150440).Sep 30, 2016 - Sep 29, 2019
    Role: PI
    Mesenchymal Stem Cells for the prevention of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome after Pulmonary Contusion and Hemorrhagic Shock
    Department of Defense LogNo.BA150560Sep 30, 2016 - Sep 29, 2019
    Role: Co Investigator
    Modulation of Pulmonary Vascular Permeability and Inflammation by Mesenchymal Stem Cells (MSCs) in Hemorrhagic Shock
    NIH/NIGMS R01GM111899Sep 15, 2015 - Jul 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Systemic Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived MSCs on Vascular Stability
    NIH/NHLBI K18HL102256Sep 26, 2011 - Jul 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Global Health

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Jones JM, DePaul M, Gregory CR, Lang BT, Xie H, Zhu M, Rutten M, Mays R, Busch S, Pati S, Gregory K. Multipotent adult progenitor cells, but not TIMP3, increase tissue sparing and reduce urological complications following spinal cord injury. J Neurotrauma. 2018 Sep 25. PMID: 30251917.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Hendrickson CM, Gibb SL, Miyazawa BY, Keating SM, Ross E, Conroy AS, Calfee CS, Pati S, Cohen MJ. Elevated plasma levels of TIMP-3 are associated with a higher risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome and death following severe isolated traumatic brain injury. Trauma Surg Acute Care Open. 2018; 3(1):e000171. PMID: 30023434.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Lopez E, Srivastava AK, Pati S, Holcomb JB, Wade CE. Platelet-Derived Microvesicles: A Potential Therapy for Trauma-Induced Coagulopathy. Shock. 2018 Mar; 49(3):243-248. PMID: 28858139.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Wang Y, Pati S, Schreiber M. Cellular therapies and stem cell applications in trauma. Am J Surg. 2018 Feb 09. PMID: 29502858.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Pati S, Peng Z, Wataha K, Miyazawa B, Potter DR, Kozar RA. Lyophilized plasma attenuates vascular permeability, inflammation and lung injury in hemorrhagic shock. PLoS One. 2018; 13(2):e0192363. PMID: 29394283.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Potter DR, Miyazawa BY, Gibb SL, Deng X, Togaratti PP, Croze RH, Srivastava AK, Trivedi A, Matthay M, Holcomb JB, Schreiber MA, Pati S. Mesenchymal stem cell-derived extracellular vesicles attenuate pulmonary vascular permeability and lung injury induced by hemorrhagic shock and trauma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2018 Feb; 84(2):245-256. PMID: 29251710.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Chang R, Holcomb JB, Johansson PI, Pati S, Schreiber MA, Wade CE. Plasma Resuscitation Improved Survival in a Cecal Ligation and Puncture Rat Model of Sepsis. Shock. 2018 Jan; 49(1):53-61. PMID: 28591008.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Smith S, McCully B, Bommiasamy A, Murphy J, Behrens B, Pati S, Goodman A, Schreiber M. A Combat Relevant Model for the Creation of Acute Lung Injury in Swine. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Dec 28. PMID: 29283971.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Pati S, Rasmussen TE. Cellular therapies in trauma and critical care medicine: Looking towards the future. PLoS Med. 2017 Jul; 14(7):e1002343. PMID: 28700606.
      View in: PubMed
    10. McDaniel S, Golla S, Moore AN, DaCorta J, Bode A, Pati S, Dash PK, Zhao J. Resuscitation of Hypotensive Traumatic Brain Injured Animals With Spray-Dried Plasma Does Not Adversely Alter Physiology and Improves Blood-Brain Barrier Function. Mil Med. 2017 Jul; 182(7):e1706-e1711. PMID: 28810961.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Tramontini Gomes de Sousa Cardozo F, Baimukanova G, Lanteri MC, Keating SM, Moraes Ferreira F, Heitman J, Pannuti CS, Pati S, Romano CM, Cerdeira Sabino E. Serum from dengue virus-infected patients with and without plasma leakage differentially affects endothelial cells barrier function in vitro. PLoS One. 2017; 12(6):e0178820. PMID: 28586397.
      View in: PubMed
    12. White NJ, Ward KR, Pati S, Strandenes G, Cap AP. Hemorrhagic blood failure: Oxygen debt, coagulopathy, and endothelial damage. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2017 Jun; 82(6S Suppl 1):S41-S49. PMID: 28328671.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Matthay MA, Pati S, Lee JW. Concise Review: Mesenchymal Stem (Stromal) Cells: Biology and Preclinical Evidence for Therapeutic Potential for Organ Dysfunction Following Trauma or Sepsis. Stem Cells. 2017 02; 35(2):316-324. PMID: 27888550.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Watson JJ, Pati S, Schreiber MA. Plasma Transfusion: History, Current Realities, and Novel Improvements. Shock. 2016 11; 46(5):468-479. PMID: 27380536.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Peng Z, Pati S, Fontaine MJ, Hall K, Herrera AV, Kozar RA. Lack of species-specific difference in pulmonary function when using mouse versus human plasma in a mouse model of hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016 11; 81(5 Suppl 2 Proceedings of the 2015 Military Health System Research Symposium):S171-S176. PMID: 27768665.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Zhao Y, Gibb SL, Zhao J, Moore AN, Hylin MJ, Menge T, Xue H, Baimukanova G, Potter D, Johnson EM, Holcomb JB, Cox CS, Dash PK, Pati S. Wnt3a, a Protein Secreted by Mesenchymal Stem Cells Is Neuroprotective and Promotes Neurocognitive Recovery Following Traumatic Brain Injury. Stem Cells. 2016 05; 34(5):1263-72. PMID: 26840479.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Pati S, Potter DR, Baimukanova G, Farrel DH, Holcomb JB, Schreiber MA. Modulating the endotheliopathy of trauma: Factor concentrate versus fresh frozen plasma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2016 Apr; 80(4):576-84; discussion 584-5. PMID: 26808040.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Pusateri AE, Given MB, Schreiber MA, Spinella PC, Pati S, Kozar RA, Khan A, Dacorta JA, Kupferer KR, Prat N, Pidcoke HF, Macdonald VW, Malloy WW, Sailliol A, Cap AP. Dried plasma: state of the science and recent developments. Transfusion. 2016 04; 56 Suppl 2:S128-39. PMID: 27100749.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Baimukanova G, Miyazawa B, Potter DR, Muench MO, Bruhn R, Gibb SL, Spinella PC, Cap AP, Cohen MJ, Pati S. Platelets regulate vascular endothelial stability: assessing the storage lesion and donor variability of apheresis platelets. Transfusion. 2016 Mar; 56 Suppl 1:S65-75. PMID: 27001364.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Baimukanova G, Miyazawa B, Potter DR, Gibb SL, Keating S, Danesh A, Beyer A, Dayter Y, Bruhn R, Muench MO, Cap AP, Norris PJ, Spinella P, Cohen M, Pati S. The effects of 22°C and 4°C storage of platelets on vascular endothelial integrity and function. Transfusion. 2016 Mar; 56 Suppl 1:S52-64. PMID: 27001362.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Pati S, Pilia M, Grimsley JM, Karanikas AT, Oyeniyi B, Holcomb JB, Cap AP, Rasmussen TE. Cellular Therapies in Trauma and Critical Care Medicine: Forging New Frontiers. Shock. 2015 Dec; 44(6):505-23. PMID: 26428845; PMCID: PMC4851225.
    22. Ban K, Peng Z, Pati S, Witkov RB, Park PW, Kozar RA. Plasma-Mediated Gut Protection After Hemorrhagic Shock is Lessened in Syndecan-1-/- Mice. Shock. 2015 Nov; 44(5):452-7. PMID: 26263434; PMCID: PMC4816460 [Available on 11/01/16].
    23. Gibb SL, Zhao Y, Potter D, Hylin MJ, Bruhn R, Baimukanova G, Zhao J, Xue H, Abdel-Mohsen M, Pillai SK, Moore AN, Johnson EM, Cox CS, Dash PK, Pati S. TIMP3 Attenuates the Loss of Neural Stem Cells, Mature Neurons and Neurocognitive Dysfunction in Traumatic Brain Injury. Stem Cells. 2015 Dec; 33(12):3530-44. PMID: 26299440.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Kozar RA, Pati S. Syndecan-1 restitution by plasma after hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Jun; 78(6 Suppl 1):S83-6. PMID: 26002270; PMCID: PMC4841450.
    25. Potter DR, Baimukanova G, Keating SM, Deng X, Chu JA, Gibb SL, Peng Z, Muench MO, Fomin ME, Spinella PC, Kozar R, Pati S. Fresh frozen plasma and spray-dried plasma mitigate pulmonary vascular permeability and inflammation in hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Jun; 78(6 Suppl 1):S7-S17. PMID: 26002267.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Spinella PC, Frazier E, Pidcoke HF, Dietzen DJ, Pati S, Gorkun O, Aden JK, Norris PJ, Cap AP. All plasma products are not created equal: Characterizing differences between plasma products. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Jun; 78(6 Suppl 1):S18-25. PMID: 26002258.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Rahbar E, Cardenas JC, Baimukanova G, Usadi B, Bruhn R, Pati S, Ostrowski SR, Johansson PI, Holcomb JB, Wade CE. Endothelial glycocalyx shedding and vascular permeability in severely injured trauma patients. J Transl Med. 2015 Apr 12; 13:117. PMID: 25889764; PMCID: PMC4397670.
    28. Kornblith LZ, Howard BM, Cheung CK, Dayter Y, Pandey S, Busch MP, Pati S, Callcut RA, Vilardi RF, Redick BJ, Nelson MF, Cohen MJ. The whole is greater than the sum of its parts: hemostatic profiles of whole blood variants. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Dec; 77(6):818-27. PMID: 25051379.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Cao Y, Dua A, Matijevic N, Wang YW, Pati S, Wade CE, Ko TC, Holcomb JB. Never-frozen liquid plasma blocks endothelial permeability as effectively as thawed fresh frozen plasma. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2014 Jul; 77(1):28-33; discussion 33. PMID: 24977751.
      View in: PubMed
    30. McKenna D, Matthay MA, Pati S. Correspondence to: soliciting strategies for developing cell-based reference materials to advance mesenchymal stem/stromal cell research and clinical translation. Stem Cells Dev. 2014 Aug 01; 23(15):1717-8. PMID: 24749526.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Jenkins DH, Rappold JF, Badloe JF, Berséus O, Blackbourne L, Brohi KH, Butler FK, Cap AP, Cohen MJ, Davenport R, DePasquale M, Doughty H, Glassberg E, Hervig T, Hooper TJ, Kozar R, Maegele M, Moore EE, Murdock A, Ness PM, Pati S, Rasmussen T, Sailliol A, Schreiber MA, Sunde GA, van de Watering LM, Ward KR, Weiskopf RB, White NJ, Strandenes G, Spinella PC. Trauma hemostasis and oxygenation research position paper on remote damage control resuscitation: definitions, current practice, and knowledge gaps. Shock. 2014 May; 41 Suppl 1:3-12. PMID: 24430539; PMCID: PMC4309265.
    32. Peng Z, Pati S, Potter D, Brown R, Holcomb JB, Grill R, Wataha K, Park PW, Xue H, Kozar RA. Fresh frozen plasma lessens pulmonary endothelial inflammation and hyperpermeability after hemorrhagic shock and is associated with loss of syndecan 1. Shock. 2013 Sep; 40(3):195-202. PMID: 23807246; PMCID: PMC3764452.
    33. Bedi SS, Walker PA, Shah SK, Jimenez F, Thomas CP, Smith P, Hetz RA, Xue H, Pati S, Dash PK, Cox CS. Autologous bone marrow mononuclear cells therapy attenuates activated microglial/macrophage response and improves spatial learning after traumatic brain injury. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2013 Sep; 75(3):410-6. PMID: 23928737; PMCID: PMC4086922.
    34. Holcomb JB, Pati S. Optimal trauma resuscitation with plasma as the primary resuscitative fluid: the surgeon's perspective. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program. 2013; 2013:656-9. PMID: 24319247.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Menge T, Zhao Y, Zhao J, Wataha K, Gerber M, Zhang J, Letourneau P, Redell J, Shen L, Wang J, Peng Z, Xue H, Kozar R, Cox CS, Khakoo AY, Holcomb JB, Dash PK, Pati S. Mesenchymal stem cells regulate blood-brain barrier integrity through TIMP3 release after traumatic brain injury. Sci Transl Med. 2012 Nov 21; 4(161):161ra150. PMID: 23175708; PMCID: PMC3890105.
    36. Walker PA, Bedi SS, Shah SK, Jimenez F, Xue H, Hamilton JA, Smith P, Thomas CP, Mays RW, Pati S, Cox CS. Intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cell therapy after traumatic brain injury: modulation of the resident microglia population. J Neuroinflammation. 2012 Sep 28; 9:228. PMID: 23020860; PMCID: PMC3546881.
    37. Menge T, Gerber M, Wataha K, Reid W, Guha S, Cox CS, Dash P, Reitz MS, Khakoo AY, Pati S. Human mesenchymal stem cells inhibit endothelial proliferation and angiogenesis via cell-cell contact through modulation of the VE-Cadherin/ß-catenin signaling pathway. Stem Cells Dev. 2013 Jan 01; 22(1):148-57. PMID: 22734943; PMCID: PMC3528090.
    38. Zhao J, Pati S, Redell JB, Zhang M, Moore AN, Dash PK. Caffeic Acid phenethyl ester protects blood-brain barrier integrity and reduces contusion volume in rodent models of traumatic brain injury. J Neurotrauma. 2012 Apr 10; 29(6):1209-18. PMID: 22150135; PMCID: PMC3325550.
    39. Letourneau PA, McManus M, Sowards K, Wang W, Wang YW, Matijevic N, Pati S, Wade CE, Holcomb JB. Aged plasma transfusion increases mortality in a rat model of uncontrolled hemorrhage. J Trauma. 2011 Nov; 71(5):1115-9. PMID: 22071917; PMCID: PMC3217202.
    40. Pati S, Gerber MH, Menge TD, Wataha KA, Zhao Y, Baumgartner JA, Zhao J, Letourneau PA, Huby MP, Baer LA, Salsbury JR, Kozar RA, Wade CE, Walker PA, Dash PK, Cox CS, Doursout MF, Holcomb JB. Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stem cells inhibit inflammation and preserve vascular endothelial integrity in the lungs after hemorrhagic shock. PLoS One. 2011; 6(9):e25171. PMID: 21980392; PMCID: PMC3182198.
    41. Dash PK, Johnson D, Clark J, Orsi SA, Zhang M, Zhao J, Grill RJ, Moore AN, Pati S. Involvement of the glycogen synthase kinase-3 signaling pathway in TBI pathology and neurocognitive outcome. PLoS One. 2011; 6(9):e24648. PMID: 21935433; PMCID: PMC3174188.
    42. Haywood-Watson RJ, Holcomb JB, Gonzalez EA, Peng Z, Pati S, Park PW, Wang W, Zaske AM, Menge T, Kozar RA. Modulation of syndecan-1 shedding after hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23530. PMID: 21886795; PMCID: PMC3158765.
    43. Holcomb JB, Zarzabal LA, Michalek JE, Kozar RA, Spinella PC, Perkins JG, Matijevic N, Dong JF, Pati S, Wade CE. Increased platelet:RBC ratios are associated with improved survival after massive transfusion. J Trauma. 2011 Aug; 71(2 Suppl 3):S318-28. PMID: 21814099.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Duan C, Cao Y, Deng X, Wang W, Yang W, Liu X, Chen Z, Pati S, Kozar RA, Gonzalez EA, Wade CE, Holcomb JB, Ko TC. Increased transforming growth factor ß contributes to deterioration of refrigerated fresh frozen plasma's effects in vitro on endothelial cells. Shock. 2011 Jul; 36(1):54-9. PMID: 21330944; PMCID: PMC3763495.
    45. Kozar RA, Peng Z, Zhang R, Holcomb JB, Pati S, Park P, Ko TC, Paredes A. Plasma restoration of endothelial glycocalyx in a rodent model of hemorrhagic shock. Anesth Analg. 2011 Jun; 112(6):1289-95. PMID: 21346161; PMCID: PMC3102787.
    46. Letourneau PA, Menge TD, Wataha KA, Wade CE, S Cox C, Holcomb JB, Pati S. Human Bone Marrow Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells Regulate Leukocyte-Endothelial Interactions and Activation of Transcription Factor NF-Kappa B. J Tissue Sci Eng. 2011; Suppl 3:001. PMID: 25309818.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Pati S, Khakoo AY, Zhao J, Jimenez F, Gerber MH, Harting M, Redell JB, Grill R, Matsuo Y, Guha S, Cox CS, Reitz MS, Holcomb JB, Dash PK. Human mesenchymal stem cells inhibit vascular permeability by modulating vascular endothelial cadherin/ß-catenin signaling. Stem Cells Dev. 2011 Jan; 20(1):89-101. PMID: 20446815; PMCID: PMC3128758.
    48. Rogers TB, Pati S, Gaa S, Riley D, Khakoo AY, Patel S, Wardlow RD, Frederick CA, Hall G, He LP, Lederer WJ. Mesenchymal stem cells stimulate protective genetic reprogramming of injured cardiac ventricular myocytes. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011 Feb; 50(2):346-56. PMID: 20837021.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Walker PA, Shah SK, Jimenez F, Gerber MH, Xue H, Cutrone R, Hamilton JA, Mays RW, Deans R, Pati S, Dash PK, Cox CS. Intravenous multipotent adult progenitor cell therapy for traumatic brain injury: preserving the blood brain barrier via an interaction with splenocytes. Exp Neurol. 2010 Oct; 225(2):341-52. PMID: 20637752; PMCID: PMC3774549.
    50. Pati S, Matijevic N, Doursout MF, Ko T, Cao Y, Deng X, Kozar RA, Hartwell E, Conyers J, Holcomb JB. Protective effects of fresh frozen plasma on vascular endothelial permeability, coagulation, and resuscitation after hemorrhagic shock are time dependent and diminish between days 0 and 5 after thaw. J Trauma. 2010 Jul; 69 Suppl 1:S55-63. PMID: 20622621; PMCID: PMC3126659.
    51. Dash PK, Orsi SA, Zhang M, Grill RJ, Pati S, Zhao J, Moore AN. Valproate administered after traumatic brain injury provides neuroprotection and improves cognitive function in rats. PLoS One. 2010 Jun 30; 5(6):e11383. PMID: 20614021; PMCID: PMC2894851.
    52. Walker PA, Harting MT, Jimenez F, Shah SK, Pati S, Dash PK, Cox CS. Direct intrathecal implantation of mesenchymal stromal cells leads to enhanced neuroprotection via an NFkappaB-mediated increase in interleukin-6 production. Stem Cells Dev. 2010 Jun; 19(6):867-76. PMID: 19775197; PMCID: PMC2891441.
    53. Letourneau PA, Pati S, Gerber MH, Jimenez F, Holcomb JB. Fresh frozen plasma increases adhesion molecule expression on human pulmonary endothelial cells. J Surg Res. 2010 Oct; 163(2):317-22. PMID: 20599210; PMCID: PMC2943032.
    54. Pati S, Orsi SA, Moore AN, Dash PK. Intra-hippocampal administration of the VEGF receptor blocker PTK787/ZK222584 impairs long-term memory. Brain Res. 2009 Feb 23; 1256:85-91. PMID: 19100245; PMCID: PMC2692845.
    55. Yadav A, Pati S, Nyugen A, Barabitskaja O, Mondal P, Anderson M, Gallo RC, Huso DL, Reid W. HIV-1 transgenic rat CD4+ T cells develop decreased CD28 responsiveness and suboptimal Lck tyrosine dephosphorylation following activation. Virology. 2006 Sep 30; 353(2):357-65. PMID: 16828835.
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    56. Khakoo AY, Pati S, Anderson SA, Reid W, Elshal MF, Rovira II, Nguyen AT, Malide D, Combs CA, Hall G, Zhang J, Raffeld M, Rogers TB, Stetler-Stevenson W, Frank JA, Reitz M, Finkel T. Human mesenchymal stem cells exert potent antitumorigenic effects in a model of Kaposi's sarcoma. J Exp Med. 2006 May 15; 203(5):1235-47. PMID: 16636132; PMCID: PMC2121206.
    57. Pati S, Pelser CB, Dufraine J, Bryant JL, Reitz MS, Weichold FF. Antitumorigenic effects of HIV protease inhibitor ritonavir: inhibition of Kaposi sarcoma. Blood. 2002 May 15; 99(10):3771-9. PMID: 11986235.
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    58. Dittmer D, Pati S, Zambetti G, Chu S, Teresky AK, Moore M, Finlay C, Levine AJ. Gain of function mutations in p53. Nat Genet. 1993 May; 4(1):42-6. PMID: 8099841.
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