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Sheila Keating, PhD

TitleAssociate Professor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentLaboratory Medicine
Address
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Institute of Child Health, University College London, London, UKPostdoctoral Fellow2007Immunobiology
    WIMM/Oxford University, Open University, Centre for Vaccinology and Tropical Med, Oxford, UKPhD2006Vaccine Immunology
    Tulane School of Public Health and Tropical Medicine, New Orleans, LAMSPH1998Tropical Medicine
    College of the Holy Cross, Worcester, MABA1995Biology
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    National University Ireland, Maynooth, County Kildare, Ireland2005Dorothy Price Medal for Immunology
    CFAR2010Women and HIV Junior Scholar Award
    CHAVI2011Young Investigator

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    For the past 10 years I have been studying clinical diagnostics and biomarkers of immunity and immunopathology to infectious and chronic diseases. One particular interest of my research is to identify cytokines, chemokines and other biomarkers that may be associated with pathology. As the Director of the Core Immunology Laboratory, I have focused on biomarker discovery using low volume, high throughput immune assays to measure cytokines, chemokines, growth factors and other biomarkers of immune response or pathology in a number of studies ranging from HIV, HCV, HBV vaccine breakthrough, Chagas, West Nile Virus, cardiovascular disease, neuropathology and many other areas.


    Collapse ORNG Applications 
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    Collapse Twitter
    Collapse Featured Publications

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Keating S, Pilcher CD, Jain V, Lebedeva M, Hampton D, Abdel-Mohsen M, Deng X, Murphy G, Welte A, Facente SN, Hecht F, Deeks SG, Pillai SK, Busch MP. HIV Antibodies Detect HIV Persistence and Low Level Viral Replication. J Infect Dis. 2017 May 11. PMID: 28498985.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Koelsch KK, Rasmussen TA, Hey-Nguyen WJ, Pearson C, Xu Y, Bailey M, Marks KH, Sasson SC, Taylor MS, Tantau R, Obeid S, Milner B, Morrissey CO, Pinto AN, Suzuki K, Busch MP, Keating S, Kaiser P, Yukl S, Wong JK, Hiener BM, Palmer S, Zaunders J, Post JJ, Chan DJ, Avery S, Milliken ST, Kelleher AD, Lewin SR, Cooper DA. Impact of allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation on the HIV reservoir and immune response in three HIV infected individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Mar 24. PMID: 28350553.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Steurer MA, Norton ME, Baer RJ, Shaw GM, Keating S, Moon-Grady AJ, Chambers CD, Jelliffe-Pawlowski LL. The association of maternal lymphatic markers and critical congenital heart defects in the fetus-A population based case-control study. Am J Med Genet A. 2017 Mar 21. PMID: 28323386.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Jacobs ES, Keating S, Abdel-Mohsen M, Gibb SL, Heitman JW, Inglis HC, Martin JN, Zhang J, Kaidarova Z, Deng X, Wu S, Anastos K, Crystal H, Villacres MC, Young M, Greenblatt RM, Landay AL, Gange SJ, Deeks SG, Golub ET, Pillai SK, Norris PJ. Cytokines Elevated in HIV Elite Controllers Reduce HIV Replication in vitro and Modulate HIV Restriction Factor Expression. J Virol. 2017 Jan 04. PMID: 28053103.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Murphy G, Pilcher CD, Keating S, Kassanjee R, Facente SN, Welte A, Grebe E, Marson K, Busch MP, Dailey P, Parkin N, Osborn J, Ongarello S, Marsh K, Garcia-Calleja JM. Moving towards a reliable HIV incidence test - current status, resources available, future directions and challenges ahead. Epidemiol Infect. 2016 Dec 22; 1-17. PMID: 28004622.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Keating S, Kassanjee R, Lebedeva M, Facente SN, MacArthur JC, Grebe E, Murphy G, Welte A, Martin JN, Little S, Price MA, Kallas EG, Busch MP, Pilcher CD. Performance of the Bio-Rad Geenius HIV1/2 Supplemental Assay in Detecting "Recent" HIV Infection and Calculating Population Incidence. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Dec 15; 73(5):581-588. PMID: 27509247.
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    7. Sharma A, Ma Y, Scherzer R, Wheeler AL, Cohen M, Gustafson DR, Keating S, Yin MT, Tien PC. Brief Report: Association of Adipokines With Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected and HIV-Uninfected Women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Dec 1; 73(4):433-437. PMID: 27792683.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Keating S, Heitman JW, Wu S, Deng X, Stacey AR, Zahn RC, de la Rosa M, Finstad SL, Lifson JD, Piatak M, Gauduin MC, Kessler BM, Ternette N, Carville A, Johnson RP, Desrosiers RC, Letvin NL, Borrow P, Norris PJ, Schmitz JE. Magnitude and Quality of Cytokine and Chemokine Storm during Acute Infection Distinguish Nonprogressive and Progressive Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Infections of Nonhuman Primates. J Virol. 2016 Nov 15; 90(22):10339-10350. PMID: 27630228.
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    9. Gangcuangco LM, Kohorn LB, Chow DC, Keating S, Norris PJ, Nagamine LS, Ndhlovu LC, Souza SA, Kallianpur KJ, Shikuma CM. High 25-hydroxyvitamin D is associated with unexpectedly high plasma inflammatory markers in HIV patients on antiretroviral therapy. Medicine (Baltimore). 2016 Oct; 95(43):e5270. PMID: 27787390.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Kassanjee R, Pilcher CD, Busch MP, Murphy G, Facente SN, Keating S, Mckinney E, Marson K, Price MA, Martin JN, Little SJ, Hecht FM, Kallas EG, Welte A. Viral load criteria and threshold optimization to improve HIV incidence assay characteristics. AIDS. 2016 Sep 24; 30(15):2361-71. PMID: 27454561.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Himes JE, Ho C, Nguyen QN, Amos JD, Xu H, Chan C, Chow SC, Ochsenbauer C, Kaidarova Z, Keating S, Fouda GG, Permar SR. Characterization of Simian Immunodeficiency Virus Variants Anatomically Compartmentalized in Plasma and Milk in Chronically Infected African Green Monkeys. J Virol. 2016 Oct 1; 90(19):8795-808. PMID: 27466415.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Chow WZ, Bon AH, Keating S, Anderios F, Halim HA, Takebe Y, Kamarulzaman A, Busch MP, Tee KK. Extensive Genetic Diversity of HIV-1 in Incident and Prevalent Infections among Malaysian Blood Donors: Multiple Introductions of HIV-1 Genotypes from Highly Prevalent Countries. PLoS One. 2016; 11(8):e0161853. PMID: 27575746.
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    13. Hora B, Keating S, Chen Y, Sanchez AM, Sabino E, Hunt G, Ledwaba J, Hackett J, Swanson P, Hewlett I, Ragupathy V, Vikram Vemula S, Zeng P, Tee KK, Chow WZ, Ji H, Sandstrom P, Denny TN, Busch MP, Gao F. Genetic Characterization of a Panel of Diverse HIV-1 Isolates at Seven International Sites. PLoS One. 2016; 11(6):e0157340. PMID: 27314585.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Keating S, Pilcher CD, Busch MP. Editorial Commentary: Timing Is Everything: Shortcomings of Current HIV Diagnostics in the Early Treatment Era. Clin Infect Dis. 2016 Aug 15; 63(4):562-4. PMID: 27317798.
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    15. Abdel-Mohsen M, Chavez L, Tandon R, Chew GM, Deng X, Danesh A, Keating S, Lanteri M, Samuels ML, Hoh R, Sacha JB, Norris PJ, Niki T, Shikuma CM, Hirashima M, Deeks SG, Ndhlovu LC, Pillai SK. Human Galectin-9 Is a Potent Mediator of HIV Transcription and Reactivation. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Jun; 12(6):e1005677. PMID: 27253379.
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    16. Chow DC, Kagihara JM, Zhang G, Souza SA, Hodis HN, Li Y, Mitchell BI, Nakamoto BK, Kallianpur KJ, Keating S, Norris PJ, Kohorn LB, Ndhlovu LC, Shikuma CM. Non-classical monocytes predict progression of carotid artery bifurcation intima-media thickness in HIV-infected individuals on stable antiretroviral therapy. HIV Clin Trials. 2016 May; 17(3):114-22. PMID: 27125366.
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    17. Baimukanova G, Miyazawa B, Potter DR, Gibb SL, Keating S, Danesh A, Beyer A, Dayter Y, Bruhn R, Muench MO, Cap AP, Norris PJ, Spinella P, Cohen M, Pati S. The effects of 22°C and 4°C storage of platelets on vascular endothelial integrity and function. Transfusion. 2016 Mar; 56 Suppl 1:S52-64. PMID: 27001362.
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    18. Chow D, Kohorn L, Souza S, Ndhlovu L, Ando A, Kallianpur KJ, Byron MM, Baumer Y, Keating S, Shikuma C. Atazanavir use and carotid intima media thickness progression in HIV: potential influence of bilirubin. AIDS. 2016 Feb 20; 30(4):672-4. PMID: 26825035.
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    19. Zungsontiporn N, Tello RR, Zhang G, Mitchell BI, Budoff M, Kallianpur KJ, Nakamoto BK, Keating S, Norris PJ, Ndhlovu LC, Souza SA, Shikuma CM, Chow DC. Non-Classical Monocytes and Monocyte Chemoattractant Protein-1 (MCP-1) Correlate with Coronary Artery Calcium Progression in Chronically HIV-1 Infected Adults on Stable Antiretroviral Therapy. PLoS One. 2016; 11(2):e0149143. PMID: 26867220.
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    20. Norris PJ, Zhang J, Worlock A, Nair SV, Anastos K, Minkoff HL, Villacres MC, Young M, Greenblatt RM, Desai S, Landay AL, Gange SJ, Nugent CT, Golub ET, Keating S. Systemic Cytokine Levels Do Not Predict CD4(+) T-Cell Recovery After Suppressive Combination Antiretroviral Therapy in Chronic Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection. Open Forum Infect Dis. 2016 Jan; 3(1):ofw025. PMID: 26966697.
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    21. Hodowanec A, Williams B, Hanson B, Livak B, Keating S, Lurain N, Adeyemi OM. Soluble CD163 But Not Soluble CD14 Is Associated With Cytomegalovirus Immunoglobulin G Antibody Levels in Virologically Suppressed HIV+ Individuals. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Dec 15; 70(5):e171-4. PMID: 26569178.
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    22. Jin J, Liss NM, Chen DH, Liao M, Fox JM, Shimak RM, Fong RH, Chafets D, Bakkour S, Keating S, Fomin ME, Muench MO, Sherman MB, Doranz BJ, Diamond MS, Simmons G. Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies Block Chikungunya Virus Entry and Release by Targeting an Epitope Critical to Viral Pathogenesis. Cell Rep. 2015 Dec 22; 13(11):2553-64. PMID: 26686638.
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    23. Zungsontiporn N, Ndhlovu LC, Mitchell BI, Stein JH, Kallianpur KJ, Nakamoto B, Keating S, Norris PJ, Souza SA, Shikuma CM, Chow DC. Serum amyloid P (SAP) is associated with impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in chronically HIV-1 infected adults on stable antiretroviral therapy. HIV Clin Trials. 2015 Nov; 16(6):228-35. PMID: 26777795.
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    24. Zungsontiporn N, Ndhlovu LC, Mitchell BI, Stein JH, Kallianpur KJ, Nakamoto B, Keating S, Norris PJ, Souza SA, Shikuma CM, Chow DC. Serum amyloid P (SAP) is associated with impaired brachial artery flow-mediated dilation in chronically HIV-1 infected adults on stable antiretroviral therapy. HIV Clin Trials. 2015 Nov; 16(6):228-235. PMID: 26356593.
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    25. Williams B, Livak B, Bahk M, Keating S, Adeyemi OM. Short Communication: SCD14 and SCD163 Levels Are Correlated with VACS Index Scores: Initial Data from the Blunted Immune Recovery in CORE Patients with HIV (BIRCH) Cohort. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2016 Feb; 32(2):144-7. PMID: 26366931.
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    26. Keating S, Deng X, Fernandes F, Cunha-Neto E, Ribeiro AL, Adesina B, Beyer AI, Contestable P, Custer B, Busch MP, Sabino EC. Inflammatory and cardiac biomarkers are differentially expressed in clinical stages of Chagas disease. Int J Cardiol. 2015 Nov 15; 199:451-9. PMID: 26277551.
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    27. Potter DR, Baimukanova G, Keating S, Deng X, Chu JA, Gibb SL, Peng Z, Muench MO, Fomin ME, Spinella PC, Kozar R, Pati S. Fresh frozen plasma and spray-dried plasma mitigate pulmonary vascular permeability and inflammation in hemorrhagic shock. J Trauma Acute Care Surg. 2015 Jun; 78(6 Suppl 1):S7-S17. PMID: 26002267.
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    28. Ragin AB, Wu Y, Gao Y, Keating S, Du H, Sammet C, Kettering CS, Epstein LG. Brain alterations within the first 100 days of HIV infection. Ann Clin Transl Neurol. 2015 Jan; 2(1):12-21. PMID: 25642430; PMCID: PMC4301670.
    29. O-Charoen P, Ndhlovu LC, Gangcuangco LM, Keating S, Norris PJ, Ng RC, Mitchell BI, Shikuma CM, Chow DC. Albuminuria is associated with elevated acute phase reactants and proinflammatory markers in HIV-infected patients receiving suppressive combination antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Dec; 30(12):1185-91. PMID: 25205472; PMCID: PMC4250959 [Available on 12/01/15].
    30. Lanteri MC, Vahidnia F, Tan S, Stapleton JT, Norris PJ, Heitman J, Deng X, Keating S, Brambilla D, Busch MP, Custer B. Downregulation of Cytokines and Chemokines by GB Virus C After Transmission Via Blood Transfusion in HIV-Positive Blood Recipients. J Infect Dis. 2015 May 15; 211(10):1585-96. PMID: 25425697; PMCID: PMC4481614 [Available on 05/15/16].
    31. Kassanjee R, Pilcher CD, Keating S, Facente SN, McKinney E, Price MA, Martin JN, Little S, Hecht FM, Kallas EG, Welte A, Busch MP, Murphy G. Independent assessment of candidate HIV incidence assays on specimens in the CEPHIA repository. AIDS. 2014 Oct 23; 28(16):2439-49. PMID: 25144218; PMCID: PMC4210690.
    32. Kwan M, Hazan A, Zhang J, Jones RL, Harris LK, Whittle W, Keating S, Dunk CE, Lye SJ. Dynamic changes in maternal decidual leukocyte populations from first to second trimester gestation. Placenta. 2014 Dec; 35(12):1027-34. PMID: 25449030.
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    33. Henrich TJ, Hanhauser E, Marty FM, Sirignano MN, Keating S, Lee TH, Robles YP, Davis BT, Li JZ, Heisey A, Hill AL, Busch MP, Armand P, Soiffer RJ, Altfeld M, Kuritzkes DR. Antiretroviral-free HIV-1 remission and viral rebound after allogeneic stem cell transplantation: report of 2 cases. Ann Intern Med. 2014 Sep 2; 161(5):319-27. PMID: 25047577; PMCID: PMC4236912.
    34. Shikuma CM, Chow DC, Gangcuangco LM, Zhang G, Keating S, Norris PJ, Seto TB, Parikh N, Kallianpur KJ, Nakamoto BK, Nagamine LS, Ndhlovu LC, Barbour JD. Monocytes expand with immune dysregulation and is associated with insulin resistance in older individuals with chronic HIV. PLoS One. 2014; 9(2):e90330. PMID: 24587328; PMCID: PMC3937368.
    35. Sanchez AM, DeMarco CT, Hora B, Keinonen S, Chen Y, Brinkley C, Stone M, Tobler L, Keating S, Schito M, Busch MP, Gao F, Denny TN. Development of a contemporary globally diverse HIV viral panel by the EQAPOL program. J Immunol Methods. 2014 Jul; 409:117-30. PMID: 24447533; PMCID: PMC4104154.
    36. Pilcher CD, Louie B, Facente S, Keating S, Hackett J, Vallari A, Hall C, Dowling T, Busch MP, Klausner JD, Hecht FM, Liska S, Pandori MW. Performance of rapid point-of-care and laboratory tests for acute and established HIV infection in San Francisco. PLoS One. 2013; 8(12):e80629. PMID: 24349007; PMCID: PMC3861178.
    37. Barbour JD, Jalbert EC, Chow DC, Gangcuangco LM, Norris PJ, Keating S, Heitman J, Nagamine L, Seto T, Ndhlovu LC, Nakamoto BK, Hodis HN, Parikh NI, Shikuma CM. Reduced CD14 expression on classical monocytes and vascular endothelial adhesion markers independently associate with carotid artery intima media thickness in chronically HIV-1 infected adults on virologically suppressive anti-retroviral therapy. Atherosclerosis. 2014 Jan; 232(1):52-8. PMID: 24401216; PMCID: PMC3919042.
    38. Keating S, Heitman JD, Wu S, Deng X, Stramer SL, Kuhns MC, Mullen C, Norris PJ, Busch MP. Cytokine and chemokine responses in the acute phase of hepatitis B virus replication in naive and previously vaccinated blood and plasma donors. J Infect Dis. 2014 Mar; 209(6):845-54. PMID: 24158960.
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    39. Curtis KA, Longosz AF, Kennedy MS, Keating S, Heitman J, Laeyendecker O, Owen SM. Inter-laboratory assessment of a prototype multiplex kit for determination of recent HIV-1 infection. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77765. PMID: 24147075; PMCID: PMC3798393.
    40. Jalbert E, Crawford TQ, D'Antoni ML, Keating S, Norris PJ, Nakamoto BK, Seto T, Parikh NI, Shikuma CM, Ndhlovu LC, Barbour JD. IL-1? enriched monocytes mount massive IL-6 responses to common inflammatory triggers among chronically HIV-1 infected adults on stable anti-retroviral therapy at risk for cardiovascular disease. PLoS One. 2013; 8(9):e75500. PMID: 24086545; PMCID: PMC3783392.
    41. Shikuma CM, Barbour JD, Ndhlovu LC, Keating S, Norris PJ, Budoff M, Parikh N, Seto T, Gangcuangco LM, Ogata-Arakaki D, Chow D. Plasma monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 and tumor necrosis factor-a levels predict the presence of coronary artery calcium in HIV-infected individuals independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2014 Feb; 30(2):142-6. PMID: 23984974; PMCID: PMC3910454.
    42. Porat S, Fitzgerald B, Wright E, Keating S, Kingdom JC. Placental hyperinflation and the risk of adverse perinatal outcome. Ultrasound Obstet Gynecol. 2013 Sep; 42(3):315-21. PMID: 23288860.
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    43. Li S, Wu Y, Keating S, Du H, Sammet CL, Zadikoff C, Mahadevia R, Epstein LG, Ragin AB. Matrix metalloproteinase levels in early HIV infection and relation to in vivo brain status. J Neurovirol. 2013 Oct; 19(5):452-60. PMID: 23979706; PMCID: PMC3819028.
    44. Alencar CS, Sabino EC, Carvalho SM, Leao SC, Carneiro-Proietti AB, Capuani L, Oliveira CL, Carrick D, Birch RJ, Gonçalez TT, Keating S, Swanson PA, Hackett J, Busch MP. HIV genotypes and primary drug resistance among HIV-seropositive blood donors in Brazil: role of infected blood donors as sentinel populations for molecular surveillance of HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Jul 1; 63(3):387-92. PMID: 23507660; PMCID: PMC4136640.
    45. Fleck S, Bautista G, Keating S, Lee TH, Keller RL, Moon-Grady AJ, Gonzales K, Norris PJ, Busch MP, Kim CJ, Romero R, Lee H, Miniati D, MacKenzie TC. Fetal production of growth factors and inflammatory mediators predicts pulmonary hypertension in congenital diaphragmatic hernia. Pediatr Res. 2013 Sep; 74(3):290-8. PMID: 23770923; PMCID: PMC4164304.
    46. Yukl SA, Boritz E, Busch M, Bentsen C, Chun TW, Douek D, Eisele E, Haase A, Ho YC, Hütter G, Justement JS, Keating S, Lee TH, Li P, Murray D, Palmer S, Pilcher C, Pillai S, Price RW, Rothenberger M, Schacker T, Siliciano J, Siliciano R, Sinclair E, Strain M, Wong J, Richman D, Deeks SG. Challenges in detecting HIV persistence during potentially curative interventions: a study of the Berlin patient. PLoS Pathog. 2013; 9(5):e1003347. PMID: 23671416; PMCID: PMC3649997.
    47. Henrich TJ, Hu Z, Li JZ, Sciaranghella G, Busch MP, Keating S, Gallien S, Lin NH, Giguel FF, Lavoie L, Ho VT, Armand P, Soiffer RJ, Sagar M, Lacasce AS, Kuritzkes DR. Long-term reduction in peripheral blood HIV type 1 reservoirs following reduced-intensity conditioning allogeneic stem cell transplantation. J Infect Dis. 2013 Jun 1; 207(11):1694-702. PMID: 23460751; PMCID: PMC3636784.
    48. Batista MD, Tincati C, Milush JM, Ho EL, Ndhlovu LC, York VA, Kallas EG, Kalil J, Keating S, Norris PJ, Chang D, Unemori P, Leslie KS, Maurer T, Liao W, Nixon DF. CD57 expression and cytokine production by T cells in lesional and unaffected skin from patients with psoriasis. PLoS One. 2013; 8(2):e52144. PMID: 23468834; PMCID: PMC3585296.
    49. Keating S, Hanson D, Lebedeva M, Laeyendecker O, Ali-Napo NL, Owen SM, Stramer SL, Moore RD, Norris PJ, Busch MP. Lower-sensitivity and avidity modifications of the vitros anti-HIV 1+2 assay for detection of recent HIV infections and incidence estimation. J Clin Microbiol. 2012 Dec; 50(12):3968-76. PMID: 23035182; PMCID: PMC3503010.
    50. Keating S, Jacobs ES, Norris PJ. Soluble mediators of inflammation in HIV and their implications for therapeutics and vaccine development. Cytokine Growth Factor Rev. 2012 Aug-Oct; 23(4-5):193-206. PMID: 22743035; PMCID: PMC3418433.
    51. Selvarajah S, Keating S, Heitman J, Lu K, Simmons G, Norris PJ, Operskalski E, Mosley JW, Busch MP. Detection of host immune responses in acute phase sera of spontaneous resolution versus persistent hepatitis C virus infection. J Gen Virol. 2012 Aug; 93(Pt 8):1673-9. PMID: 22535775; PMCID: PMC3541758.
    52. Eriksson EM, Milush JM, Ho EL, Batista MD, Holditch SJ, Keh CE, Norris PJ, Keating S, Deeks SG, Hunt PW, Martin JN, Rosenberg MG, Hecht FM, Nixon DF. Expansion of CD8+ T cells lacking Sema4D/CD100 during HIV-1 infection identifies a subset of T cells with decreased functional capacity. Blood. 2012 Jan 19; 119(3):745-55. PMID: 22134167; PMCID: PMC3265199.
    53. Keating S, Golub ET, Nowicki M, Young M, Anastos K, Crystal H, Cohen MH, Zhang J, Greenblatt RM, Desai S, Wu S, Landay AL, Gange SJ, Norris PJ. The effect of HIV infection and HAART on inflammatory biomarkers in a population-based cohort of women. AIDS. 2011 Sep 24; 25(15):1823-32. PMID: 21572306; PMCID: PMC3314300.
    54. Kassanjee R, Welte A, McWalter TA, Keating S, Vermeulen M, Stramer SL, Busch MP. Seroconverting blood donors as a resource for characterising and optimising recent infection testing algorithms for incidence estimation. PLoS One. 2011; 6(6):e20027. PMID: 21694760; PMCID: PMC3111407.
    55. Letvin NL, Rao SS, Montefiori DC, Seaman MS, Sun Y, Lim SY, Yeh WW, Asmal M, Gelman RS, Shen L, Whitney JB, Seoighe C, Lacerda M, Keating S, Norris PJ, Hudgens MG, Gilbert PB, Buzby AP, Mach LV, Zhang J, Balachandran H, Shaw GM, Schmidt SD, Todd JP, Dodson A, Mascola JR, Nabel GJ. Immune and Genetic Correlates of Vaccine Protection Against Mucosal Infection by SIV in Monkeys. Sci Transl Med. 2011 May 4; 3(81):81ra36. PMID: 21543722; PMCID: PMC3718279.
    56. Dunachie SJ, Berthoud T, Keating S, Hill AV, Fletcher HA. MIG and the regulatory cytokines IL-10 and TGF-ß1 correlate with malaria vaccine immunogenicity and efficacy. PLoS One. 2010; 5(9):e12557. PMID: 20838432; PMCID: PMC2933226.
    57. Baxendale HE, Johnson M, Keating S, Ashton L, Burbidge P, Woodgate S, Southern J, Miller E, Goldblatt D. Circulating pneumococcal specific plasma and memory B cells in the elderly two years after pneumococcal conjugate versus polysaccharide vaccination. Vaccine. 2010 Oct 4; 28(42):6915-22. PMID: 20708698.
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    58. Liu J, Keele BF, Li H, Keating S, Norris PJ, Carville A, Mansfield KG, Tomaras GD, Haynes BF, Kolodkin-Gal D, Letvin NL, Hahn BH, Shaw GM, Barouch DH. Low-dose mucosal simian immunodeficiency virus infection restricts early replication kinetics and transmitted virus variants in rhesus monkeys. J Virol. 2010 Oct; 84(19):10406-12. PMID: 20686016; PMCID: PMC2937794.
    59. Baxendale HE, Keating S, Johnson M, Southern J, Miller E, Goldblatt D. The early kinetics of circulating pneumococcal-specific memory B cells following pneumococcal conjugate and plain polysaccharide vaccines in the elderly. Vaccine. 2010 Jul 5; 28(30):4763-70. PMID: 20471437.
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    60. Todryk SM, Pathan AA, Keating S, Porter DW, Berthoud T, Thompson F, Klenerman P, Hill AV. The relationship between human effector and memory T cells measured by ex vivo and cultured ELISPOT following recent and distal priming. Immunology. 2009 Sep; 128(1):83-91. PMID: 19689738; PMCID: PMC2747141.
    61. Bejon P, Mwacharo J, Kai O, Todryk S, Keating S, Lowe B, Lang T, Mwangi TW, Gilbert SC, Peshu N, Marsh K, Hill AV. The induction and persistence of T cell IFN-gamma responses after vaccination or natural exposure is suppressed by Plasmodium falciparum. J Immunol. 2007 Sep 15; 179(6):4193-201. PMID: 17785859; PMCID: PMC2658805.
    62. Bejon P, Mwacharo J, Kai O, Mwangi T, Milligan P, Todryk S, Keating S, Lang T, Lowe B, Gikonyo C, Molyneux C, Fegan G, Gilbert SC, Peshu N, Marsh K, Hill AV. A phase 2b randomised trial of the candidate malaria vaccines FP9 ME-TRAP and MVA ME-TRAP among children in Kenya. PLoS Clin Trials. 2006; 1(6):e29. PMID: 17053830; PMCID: PMC1617125.
    63. Dunachie SJ, Walther M, Epstein JE, Keating S, Berthoud T, Andrews L, Andersen RF, Bejon P, Goonetilleke N, Poulton I, Webster DP, Butcher G, Watkins K, Sinden RE, Levine GL, Richie TL, Schneider J, Kaslow D, Gilbert SC, Carucci DJ, Hill AV. A DNA prime-modified vaccinia virus ankara boost vaccine encoding thrombospondin-related adhesion protein but not circumsporozoite protein partially protects healthy malaria-naive adults against Plasmodium falciparum sporozoite challenge. Infect Immun. 2006 Oct; 74(10):5933-42. PMID: 16988273; PMCID: PMC1594937.
    64. Bejon P, Keating S, Mwacharo J, Kai OK, Dunachie S, Walther M, Berthoud T, Lang T, Epstein J, Carucci D, Moris P, Cohen J, Gilbert SC, Peshu N, Marsh K, Hill AV. Early gamma interferon and interleukin-2 responses to vaccination predict the late resting memory in malaria-naïve and malaria-exposed individuals. Infect Immun. 2006 Nov; 74(11):6331-8. PMID: 16966412; PMCID: PMC1695504.
    65. Bejon P, Kai OK, Mwacharo J, Keating S, Lang T, Gilbert SC, Peshu N, Marsh K, Hill AV. Alternating vector immunizations encoding pre-erythrocytic malaria antigens enhance memory responses in a malaria endemic area. Eur J Immunol. 2006 Aug; 36(8):2264-72. PMID: 16856208.
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    66. Imoukhuede EB, Berthoud T, Milligan P, Bojang K, Ismaili J, Keating S, Nwakanma D, Keita S, Njie F, Sowe M, Todryk S, Laidlaw SM, Skinner MA, Lang T, Gilbert S, Greenwood BM, Hill AV. Safety and immunogenicity of the malaria candidate vaccines FP9 CS and MVA CS in adult Gambian men. Vaccine. 2006 Oct 30; 24(42-43):6526-33. PMID: 16842888.
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    67. Walther M, Thompson FM, Dunachie S, Keating S, Todryk S, Berthoud T, Andrews L, Andersen RF, Moore A, Gilbert SC, Poulton I, Dubovsky F, Tierney E, Correa S, Huntcooke A, Butcher G, Williams J, Sinden RE, Hill AV. Safety, immunogenicity, and efficacy of prime-boost immunization with recombinant poxvirus FP9 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara encoding the full-length Plasmodium falciparum circumsporozoite protein. Infect Immun. 2006 May; 74(5):2706-16. PMID: 16622207; PMCID: PMC1459746.
    68. Bejon P, Mwacharo J, Kai OK, Todryk S, Keating S, Lang T, Gilbert SC, Peshu N, Marsh K, Hill AV. Immunogenicity of the candidate malaria vaccines FP9 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara encoding the pre-erythrocytic antigen ME-TRAP in 1-6 year old children in a malaria endemic area. Vaccine. 2006 May 29; 24(22):4709-15. PMID: 16621181.
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    69. Dunachie SJ, Walther M, Vuola JM, Webster DP, Keating S, Berthoud T, Andrews L, Bejon P, Poulton I, Butcher G, Watkins K, Sinden RE, Leach A, Moris P, Tornieporth N, Schneider J, Dubovsky F, Tierney E, Williams J, Heppner DG, Gilbert SC, Cohen J, Hill AV. A clinical trial of prime-boost immunisation with the candidate malaria vaccines RTS,S/AS02A and MVA-CS. Vaccine. 2006 Apr 5; 24(15):2850-9. PMID: 16434127.
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    70. Keating S, Bejon P, Berthoud T, Vuola JM, Todryk S, Webster DP, Dunachie SJ, Moorthy VS, McConkey SJ, Gilbert SC, Hill AV. Durable human memory T cells quantifiable by cultured enzyme-linked immunospot assays are induced by heterologous prime boost immunization and correlate with protection against malaria. J Immunol. 2005 Nov 1; 175(9):5675-80. PMID: 16237057.
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    71. Gilbert SC, Moorthy VS, Andrews L, Pathan AA, McConkey SJ, Vuola JM, Keating S, Berthoud T, Webster D, McShane H, Hill AV. Synergistic DNA-MVA prime-boost vaccination regimes for malaria and tuberculosis. Vaccine. 2006 May 22; 24(21):4554-61. PMID: 16150517.
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    72. Webster DP, Dunachie S, Vuola JM, Berthoud T, Keating S, Laidlaw SM, McConkey SJ, Poulton I, Andrews L, Andersen RF, Bejon P, Butcher G, Sinden R, Skinner MA, Gilbert SC, Hill AV. Enhanced T cell-mediated protection against malaria in human challenges by using the recombinant poxviruses FP9 and modified vaccinia virus Ankara. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Mar 29; 102(13):4836-41. PMID: 15781866; PMCID: PMC555695.
    73. Walther M, Dunachie S, Keating S, Vuola JM, Berthoud T, Schmidt A, Maier C, Andrews L, Andersen RF, Gilbert S, Poulton I, Webster D, Dubovsky F, Tierney E, Sarpotdar P, Correa S, Huntcooke A, Butcher G, Williams J, Sinden RE, Thornton GB, Hill AV. Safety, immunogenicity and efficacy of a pre-erythrocytic malaria candidate vaccine, ICC-1132 formulated in Seppic ISA 720. Vaccine. 2005 Jan 4; 23(7):857-64. PMID: 15603885.
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    74. Vuola JM, Keating S, Webster DP, Berthoud T, Dunachie S, Gilbert SC, Hill AV. Differential immunogenicity of various heterologous prime-boost vaccine regimens using DNA and viral vectors in healthy volunteers. J Immunol. 2005 Jan 1; 174(1):449-55. PMID: 15611270.
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    75. Moorthy VS, Imoukhuede EB, Milligan P, Bojang K, Keating S, Kaye P, Pinder M, Gilbert SC, Walraven G, Greenwood BM, Hill AS. A randomised, double-blind, controlled vaccine efficacy trial of DNA/MVA ME-TRAP against malaria infection in Gambian adults. PLoS Med. 2004 Nov; 1(2):e33. PMID: 15526058; PMCID: PMC524376.
    76. McShane H, Pathan AA, Sander CR, Keating S, Gilbert SC, Huygen K, Fletcher HA, Hill AV. Recombinant modified vaccinia virus Ankara expressing antigen 85A boosts BCG-primed and naturally acquired antimycobacterial immunity in humans. Nat Med. 2004 Nov; 10(11):1240-4. PMID: 15502839.
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    77. Moorthy VS, Imoukhuede EB, Keating S, Pinder M, Webster D, Skinner MA, Gilbert SC, Walraven G, Hill AV. Phase 1 evaluation of 3 highly immunogenic prime-boost regimens, including a 12-month reboosting vaccination, for malaria vaccination in Gambian men. J Infect Dis. 2004 Jun 15; 189(12):2213-9. PMID: 15181568.
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    78. Patke DS, Langan SJ, Carruth LM, Keating S, Sabundayo BP, Margolick JB, Quinn TC, Bollinger RC. Association of Gag-specific T lymphocyte responses during the early phase of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection and lower virus load set point. J Infect Dis. 2002 Oct 15; 186(8):1177-80. PMID: 12355372.
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    79. Keating S, Bollinger RC, Quinn TC, Jackson JB, Carruth LM. Cross-clade T lymphocyte-mediated immunity to HIV type 1: implications for vaccine design and immunodetection assays. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2002 Sep 20; 18(14):1067-79. PMID: 12396458.
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