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Thomas Lang, PhD

TitleAssociate Dean for Research
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentRadiology
Address185 Berry St B N
San Francisco CA 94107
Phone415-353-4552
vCardDownload vCard
    Other Positions
    TitleSchool of Dentistry

    TitleProfessor in Residence

    TitleRadiology and Biomedical Imaging


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    NIH Center for Scientific Review, ZRG1-MOSS-C56 DP2, Director's New Innovator Award Study Section2014Editorial Reviewer
    American Institute of Medical and Biological Engineering2014Fellow
    Academy of Radiology Research2013Distinguished Investigator Award
    American Astronautical Society/NASA2013International Space Station Top Discoveries in Microgravity Award
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research2013Associate Editor
    Osteoporosis International20132012 Citation Prize
    American Federation for Aging Research2012Member, Scientific Advisory Board
    Journal of Bone and Mineral Research2010  - 2012Editorial Board
    NIH Center for Scientific Review, ZRG1 DTCS-A81 Imaging Study Section2011Editorial Reviewer
    University of California, San Francisco2010Conflict of Interest Advisory Committee Chairman
    NIH Center for Scientific Review2009  - 2013Skeletal Biology, Structure and Regeneration Study Section
    National Space Biomedical Research Institute2008  - 2012Musculoskeletal Alterations Team Leader
    American Society of Bone and Mineral Research2007Bridge Funding Grant Award
    Faculty of Medicine, University of Buenos Aires2004Visiting Professor
    World Congress on Osteoporosis1995Young Investigator Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Thomas F. Lang, PhD, is a Professor in Residence, a faculty member of the Musculoskeletal Quantitative Imaging Research Group, and he leads the Musculoskeletal CT Imaging Research Group at the University of California, San Francisco. Since 2010, Dr. Lang has served as Chair of the UCSF Chancellor’s Conflict of Interest Advisory Committee. Clinically, Dr. Lang and his colleagues are establishing a research program using CT and PET/CT to measure physical traits, muscle size, adiposity, and protein synthesis rate as markers of frailty. Dr. Lang obtained his BA in Chemistry at the University of Chicago in 1983, and completed his PhD in Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley in 1990, followed by a postdoctoral fellowship in Radiology Imaging at UCSF in 1992.

    The focus of Dr Lang's Research is to develop quantitative analytic methods centered on bettering our understanding of two major chronic problems that affect the growing elderly population: osteoporosis, a main cause of age-related fractures, and sarcopenia, a loss of skeletal muscle strength, endurance and function. The aim of this research is to characterize skeletal density, geometry and indices of strength from volumetric CT scans of the hip and spine, as well as similar imaging based methods to quantify skeletal muscle anatomy and function. With the growth of his research group, Dr. Lang and his group have continued a robust program in methods development, integrating density and structured analysis with serial image registration to improve sensitivity for detecting changes in longitudinal measures, and finite element modeling in order to understand how density and structure measures of bones are related to bone strength, stiffness, and factures.

    Presently, Dr. Lang is principal investigator on two NIH R01 projects and is collaborating with NASA Johnson Space Center’s using quantitative assessments to study the effect of long-duration spaceflight and prolonged mechanical unloading on skeletal density, structure, and strength. Dr. Lang has served as Principal Investigator and Co-Principal Investigator of many NIH grants. He has over 110 published articles, in addition to other contributions including patents, review articles and book chapters.

    Expertise:
    Osteoporosis and Musculoskeletal

    Specialty:
    Bone aging, quantitative computed tomography, sarcopenia

    Professional Interests:
    Osteoporosis, computed tomography, bone mineral density measurements, CT and PET/CT imaging in the study of the human biology of the musculoskeletal system

    Education and Training:
    • Bachelor of Art: University of Chicago - Chemistry
    • Doctor of Philosophy: University of California, Berkeley - Chemistry
    • Postdoctoral Fellowship: University of California, San Francisco - Radiology Imaging
    • UCSF/Coro Leadership Collaborative Program


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    CT-based modeling to analyze variation in skeletal response to osteoporosis drugs
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR064140Aug 1, 2013 - May 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PET/CT of skeletal muscle amino acid kinetics
    NIH/NIAMS R21AR062479Aug 17, 2012 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Bone quality by vQCT and HR-pQCT: translation to multi-center clinical research
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR060700Aug 1, 2011 - Jul 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Quantitative periprosthetic PET/CT
    NIH/NIAMS R21AR055253Sep 5, 2008 - Aug 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The Proximal Femoral Musculature: A new Risk Factor for Hip Fracture
    NIH/NIA R01AG029571Sep 1, 2008 - May 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Age-related changes in proximal femoral strength in men and women
    NIH/NIA R01AG028832Jul 15, 2007 - Apr 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Race differences in hip strength, density and geometry
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR046197Apr 1, 2001 - Mar 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PRECISE 3-D QCT TO MONITOR OSTEOPOROSIS THERAPY
    NIH/NIAMS R41AR045713Sep 30, 1999 - Sep 29, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Precise 3D QCT to Monitor Osteoporosis Therapy
    NIH/NIAMS R42AR045713Jan 1, 1999 - Dec 31, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    General Clinical Research Center
    NIH/NCRR M01RR000079Dec 1, 1974 - Mar 31, 2009
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Global Health

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Zillikens MC, Demissie S, Hsu YH, Yerges-Armstrong LM, Chou WC, Stolk L, Livshits G, Broer L, Johnson T, Koller DL, Kutalik Z, Luan J, Malkin I, Ried JS, Smith AV, Thorleifsson G, Vandenput L, Hua Zhao J, Zhang W, Aghdassi A, Åkesson K, Amin N, Baier LJ, Barroso I, Bennett DA, Bertram L, Biffar R, Bochud M, Boehnke M, Borecki IB, Buchman AS, Byberg L, Campbell H, Campos Obanda N, Cauley JA, Cawthon PM, Cederberg H, Chen Z, Cho NH, Jin Choi H, Claussnitzer M, Collins F, Cummings SR, De Jager PL, Demuth I, Dhonukshe-Rutten RAM, Diatchenko L, Eiriksdottir G, Enneman AW, Erdos M, Eriksson JG, Eriksson J, Estrada K, Evans DS, Feitosa MF, Fu M, Garcia M, Gieger C, Girke T, Glazer NL, Grallert H, Grewal J, Han BG, Hanson RL, Hayward C, Hofman A, Hoffman EP, Homuth G, Hsueh WC, Hubal MJ, Hubbard A, Huffman KM, Husted LB, Illig T, Ingelsson E, Ittermann T, Jansson JO, Jordan JM, Jula A, Karlsson M, Khaw KT, Kilpeläinen TO, Klopp N, Kloth JSL, Koistinen HA, Kraus WE, Kritchevsky S, Kuulasmaa T, Kuusisto J, Laakso M, Lahti J, Lang T, Langdahl BL, Launer LJ, Lee JY, Lerch MM, Lewis JR, Lind L, Lindgren C, Liu Y, Liu T, Liu Y, Ljunggren Ö, Lorentzon M, Luben RN, Maixner W, McGuigan FE, Medina-Gomez C, Meitinger T, Melhus H, Mellström D, Melov S, Michaëlsson K, Mitchell BD, Morris AP, Mosekilde L, Newman A, Nielson CM, O'Connell JR, Oostra BA, Orwoll ES, Palotie A, Parker S, Peacock M, Perola M, Peters A, Polasek O, Prince RL, Räikkönen K, Ralston SH, Ripatti S, Robbins JA, Rotter JI, Rudan I, Salomaa V, Satterfield S, Schadt EE, Schipf S, Scott L, Sehmi J, Shen J, Soo Shin C, Sigurdsson G, Smith S, Soranzo N, Stančáková A, Steinhagen-Thiessen E, Streeten EA, Styrkarsdottir U, Swart KMA, Tan ST, Tarnopolsky MA, Thompson P, Thomson CA, Thorsteinsdottir U, Tikkanen E, Tranah GJ, Tuomilehto J, van Schoor NM, Verma A, Vollenweider P, Völzke H, Wactawski-Wende J, Walker M, Weedon MN, Welch R, Wichman HE, Widen E, Williams FMK, Wilson JF, Wright NC, Xie W, Yu L, Zhou Y, Chambers JC, Döring A, van Duijn CM, Econs MJ, Gudnason V, Kooner JS, Psaty BM, Spector TD, Stefansson K, Rivadeneira F, Uitterlinden AG, Wareham NJ, Ossowski V, Waterworth D, Loos RJF, Karasik D, Harris TB, Ohlsson C, Kiel DP. Large meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies identifies five loci for lean body mass. Nat Commun. 2017 Jul 19; 8(1):80. PMID: 28724990.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Yu A, Carballido-Gamio J, Wang L, Lang T, Su Y, Wu X, Wang M, Wei J, Yi C, Cheng X. Spatial Differences in the Distribution of Bone between Femoral Neck and Trochanteric Fractures. J Bone Miner Res. 2017 Apr 13. PMID: 28407298.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Marques EA, Figueiredo P, Gudnason V, Lang T, Sigurdsson G, Sigurdsson S, Aspelund T, Siggeirsdottir K, Launer L, Eiriksdottir G, Harris TB. Associations of 24-hour sleep duration and CT-derived measurements of muscle and bone: The AGES-Reykjavik Study. Exp Gerontol. 2017 Jul; 93:1-6. PMID: 28404506.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Bonaretti S, Majumdar S, Lang T, Khosla S, Burghardt AJ. The comparability of HR-pQCT bone measurements is improved by scanning anatomically standardized regions. Osteoporos Int. 2017 Apr 08. PMID: 28391447.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Marques EA, Elbejjani M, Gudnason V, Sigurdsson G, Lang T, Sigurdsson S, Aspelund T, Meirelles O, Siggeirsdottir K, Launer L, Eiriksdottir G, Harris TB. Proximal Femur Volumetric Bone Mineral Density and Mortality: 13 Years of Follow-up of the AGES-Reykjavik Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2017 Mar 09. PMID: 28276125.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Arentson-Lantz EJ, Saeed IH, Frassetto LA, Masharani U, Harnish RJ, Seo Y, VanBrocklin HF, Hawkins RA, Mari-Aparici C, Pampaloni MH, Slater J, Paddon-Jones D, Lang T. (11)C-L-methyl methionine dynamic PET/CT of skeletal muscle: response to protein supplementation compared to L-[ring (13)C6] phenylalanine infusion with serial muscle biopsy. Ann Nucl Med. 2017 Mar 04. PMID: 28260185.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Lang T, Van Loon JJWA, Bloomfield S, Vico L, Chopard A, Rittweger J, Kyparos A, Blottner D, Vuori I, Gerzer R, Cavanagh PR. Towards human exploration of space: the THESEUS review series on muscle and bone research priorities. NPJ Microgravity. 2017; 3:8. PMID: 28649630.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Carballido-Gamio J, Bonaretti S, Kazakia GJ, Khosla S, Majumdar S, Lang T, Burghardt AJ. Statistical Parametric Mapping of HR-pQCT Images: A Tool for Population-Based Local Comparisons of Micro-Scale Bone Features. Ann Biomed Eng. 2016 Nov 9. PMID: 27830488.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Nielson CM, Liu CT, Smith AV, Ackert-Bicknell CL, Reppe S, Johanna J, Wassel C, Register TC, Oei L, Alonso Lopez N, Oei EH, Parimi N, Samelson EJ, Nalls MA, Zmuda J, Lang T, Bouxsein M, Latourelle J, Claussnitzer M, Siggeirsdottir K, Srikanth P, Lorentzen E, Vandenput L, Langefeld C, Raffield L, Terry G, Cox AJ, Allison MA, Criqui MH, Bowden D, Ikram MA, Mellström D, Karlsson MK, Carr J, Budoff M, Phillips C, Cupples LA, Chou WC, Myers RH, Ralston SH, Gautvik KM, Cawthon PM, Cummings S, Karasik D, Rivadeneira F, Gudnason V, Orwoll ES, Harris TB, Ohlsson C, Kiel DP, Hsu YH, et al. Novel Genetic Variants are Associated With Increased Vertebral Volumetric BMD, Reduced Vertebral Fracture Risk, and Increased Expression of SCL1A3 and EPHB2. J Bone Miner Res. 2016 Aug 1. PMID: 27476799.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Bonaretti S, Vilayphiou N, Chan CM, Yu A, Nishiyama K, Liu D, Boutroy S, Ghasem-Zadeh A, Boyd SK, Chapurlat R, McKay H, Shane E, Bouxsein ML, Black DM, Majumdar S, Orwoll ES, Lang T, Khosla S, Burghardt AJ, et al. Operator variability in scan positioning is a major component of HR-pQCT precision error and is reduced by standardized training. Osteoporos Int. 2016 Jul 30. PMID: 27475931.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Marques EA, Gudnason V, Lang T, Sigurdsson G, Sigurdsson S, Aspelund T, Siggeirsdottir K, Launer L, Eiriksdottir G, Harris TB, et al. Association of bone turnover markers with volumetric bone loss, periosteal apposition, and fracture risk in older men and women: the AGES-Reykjavik longitudinal study. Osteoporos Int. 2016 Jun 24. PMID: 27341810.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Walker MD, Saeed I, Lee JA, Zhang C, Hans D, Lang T, Silverberg SJ. Effect of concomitant vitamin D deficiency or insufficiency on lumbar spine volumetric bone mineral density and trabecular bone score in primary hyperparathyroidism. Osteoporos Int. 2016 May 19. PMID: 27198233.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Reinders I, Murphy RA, Brouwer IA, Visser M, Launer L, Siggeirsdottir K, Eiriksdottir G, Gudnason V, Jonsson PV, Lang T, Harris TB. Muscle Quality and Myosteatosis: Novel Associations With Mortality Risk: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2016 Jan 1; 183(1):53-60. PMID: 26643983.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Marques EA, Gudnason V, Sigurdsson G, Lang T, Johannesdottir F, Siggeirsdottir K, Launer L, Eiriksdottir G, Harris TB. Are bone turnover markers associated with volumetric bone density, size, and strength in older men and women? The AGES-Reykjavik study. Osteoporos Int. 2016 May; 27(5):1765-76. PMID: 26630978.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Carballido-Gamio J, Bonaretti S, Saeed I, Harnish R, Recker R, Burghardt AJ, Keyak JH, Harris T, Khosla S, Lang T. Automatic multi-parametric quantification of the proximal femur with quantitative computed tomography. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2015 Aug; 5(4):552-68. PMID: 26435919; PMCID: PMC4559986.
    16. Engelke K, Lang T, Khosla S, Qin L, Zysset P, Leslie WD, Shepherd JA, Schousboe JT. Clinical Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography (QCT) of the Hip in the Management of Osteoporosis in Adults: the 2015 ISCD Official Positions-Part I. J Clin Densitom. 2015 Jul-Sep; 18(3):338-58. PMID: 26277851.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Zysset P, Qin L, Lang T, Khosla S, Leslie WD, Shepherd JA, Schousboe JT, Engelke K. Clinical Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography-Based Finite Element Analysis of the Hip and Spine in the Management of Osteoporosis in Adults: the 2015 ISCD Official Positions-Part II. J Clin Densitom. 2015 Jul-Sep; 18(3):359-92. PMID: 26277852.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Engelke K, Lang T, Khosla S, Qin L, Zysset P, Leslie WD, Shepherd JA, Shousboe JT. Clinical Use of Quantitative Computed Tomography-Based Advanced Techniques in the Management of Osteoporosis in Adults: the 2015 ISCD Official Positions-Part III. J Clin Densitom. 2015 Jul-Sep; 18(3):393-407. PMID: 26277853.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Kiel DP, Hannan MT, Barton BA, Bouxsein ML, Sisson E, Lang T, Allaire B, Dewkett D, Carroll D, Magaziner J, Shane E, Leary ET, Zimmerman S, Rubin CT. Low-Magnitude Mechanical Stimulation to Improve Bone Density in Persons of Advanced Age: A Randomized, Placebo-Controlled Trial. J Bone Miner Res. 2015 Jul; 30(7):1319-28. PMID: 25581217.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Harris TB, Song X, Reinders I, Lang T, Garcia ME, Siggeirsdottir K, Sigurdsson S, Gudnason V, Eiriksdottir G, Sigurdsson G, Steingrimsdottir L, Aspelund T, Brouwer IA, Murphy RA. Plasma phospholipid fatty acids and fish-oil consumption in relation to osteoporotic fracture risk in older adults: the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Study. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015 May; 101(5):947-55. PMID: 25787995; PMCID: PMC4409686 [Available on 05/01/16].
    21. Koster A, Murphy RA, Eiriksdottir G, Aspelund T, Sigurdsson S, Lang T, Gudnason V, Launer LJ, Harris TB. Fat distribution and mortality: the AGES-Reykjavik Study. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2015 Apr; 23(4):893-7. PMID: 25755182.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Reinders I, Murphy RA, Song X, Visser M, Cotch MF, Lang T, Garcia ME, Launer LJ, Siggeirsdottir K, Eiriksdottir G, Jonsson PV, Gudnason V, Harris TB, Brouwer IA. Polyunsaturated fatty acids in relation to incident mobility disability and decline in gait speed; the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. Eur J Clin Nutr. 2015 Apr; 69(4):489-93. PMID: 25585599.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Heilmeier U, Carpenter DR, Patsch JM, Harnish R, Joseph GB, Burghardt AJ, Baum T, Schwartz AV, Lang T, Link TM. Volumetric femoral BMD, bone geometry, and serum sclerostin levels differ between type 2 diabetic postmenopausal women with and without fragility fractures. Osteoporos Int. 2015 Apr; 26(4):1283-93. PMID: 25582311.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Bonaretti S, Carpenter RD, Saeed I, Burghardt AJ, Yu L, Bruesewitz M, Khosla S, Lang T. Novel anthropomorphic hip phantom corrects systemic interscanner differences in proximal femoral vBMD. Phys Med Biol. 2014 Dec 21; 59(24):7819-34. PMID: 25419618; PMCID: PMC4442068 [Available on 12/21/15].
    25. Ma YH, Schwartz AV, Sigurdsson S, Hue TF, Lang T, Harris TB, Rosen CJ, Vittinghoff E, Eiriksdottir G, Hauksdottir AM, Siggeirsdottir K, Sigurdsson G, Oskarsdottir D, Napoli N, Palermo L, Gudnason V, Li X. Circulating sclerostin associated with vertebral bone marrow fat in older men but not women. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Dec; 99(12):E2584-90. PMID: 25144629; PMCID: PMC4255105 [Available on 12/01/15].
    26. Carpenter RD, Saeed I, Bonaretti S, Schreck C, Keyak JH, Streeper T, Harris TB, Lang T. Inter-scanner differences in in vivo QCT measurements of the density and strength of the proximal femur remain after correction with anthropomorphic standardization phantoms. Med Eng Phys. 2014 Oct; 36(10):1225-32. PMID: 25001172; PMCID: PMC4589175.
    27. Lang T, Saeed IH, Streeper T, Carballido-Gamio J, Harnish RJ, Frassetto LA, Lee SM, Sibonga JD, Keyak JH, Spiering BA, Grodsinsky CM, Bloomberg JJ, Cavanagh PR. Spatial heterogeneity in the response of the proximal femur to two lower-body resistance exercise regimens. J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Jun; 29(6):1337-45. PMID: 24293094; PMCID: PMC4029859.
    28. Link TM, Lang T. Axial QCT: clinical applications and new developments. J Clin Densitom. 2014 Oct-Dec; 17(4):438-48. PMID: 24880494.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Harnish R, Prevrhal S, Alavi A, Zaidi H, Lang T. The effect of metal artefact reduction on CT-based attenuation correction for PET imaging in the vicinity of metallic hip implants: a phantom study. Ann Nucl Med. 2014 Jul; 28(6):540-50. PMID: 24710757; PMCID: PMC4101148.
    30. Carballido-Gamio J, Harnish R, Saeed I, Streeper T, Sigurdsson S, Amin S, Atkinson EJ, Therneau TM, Siggeirsdottir K, Cheng X, Melton LJ, Keyak JH, Gudnason V, Khosla S, Harris TB, Lang T. Structural patterns of the proximal femur in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women. Bone. 2013 Nov; 57(1):290-9. PMID: 23981658; PMCID: PMC3809121.
    31. Keyak JH, Sigurdsson S, Karlsdottir GS, Oskarsdottir D, Sigmarsdottir A, Kornak J, Harris TB, Sigurdsson G, Jonsson BY, Siggeirsdottir K, Eiriksdottir G, Gudnason V, Lang T. Effect of finite element model loading condition on fracture risk assessment in men and women: the AGES-Reykjavik study. Bone. 2013 Nov; 57(1):18-29. PMID: 23907032; PMCID: PMC3786229.
    32. Murphy RA, Register TC, Shively CA, Carr JJ, Ge Y, Heilbrun ME, Cummings SR, Koster A, Nevitt MC, Satterfield S, Tylvasky FA, Strotmeyer ES, Newman AB, Simonsick EM, Scherzinger A, Goodpaster BH, Launer LJ, Eiriksdottir G, Sigurdsson S, Sigurdsson G, Gudnason V, Lang T, Kritchevsky SB, Harris TB. Adipose tissue density, a novel biomarker predicting mortality risk in older adults. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2014 Jan; 69(1):109-17. PMID: 23707956; PMCID: PMC3859360.
    33. Schwartz AV, Sigurdsson S, Hue TF, Lang T, Harris TB, Rosen CJ, Vittinghoff E, Siggeirsdottir K, Sigurdsson G, Oskarsdottir D, Shet K, Palermo L, Gudnason V, Li X. Vertebral bone marrow fat associated with lower trabecular BMD and prevalent vertebral fracture in older adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jun; 98(6):2294-300. PMID: 23553860; PMCID: PMC3667265.
    34. Rianon NJ, Lang T, Siggeirsdottir K, Sigurdsson G, Eiriksdottir G, Sigurdsson S, Jonsson BY, Garcia M, Yu B, Kapadia AS, Taylor WC, Selwyn BJ, Gudnason V, Launer LJ, Harris TB. Fracture risk assessment in older adults using a combination of selected quantitative computed tomography bone measures: a subanalysis of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. J Clin Densitom. 2014 Jan-Mar; 17(1):25-31. PMID: 23562129.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Cohen A, Dempster DW, Recker RR, Lappe JM, Zhou H, Zwahlen A, Müller R, Zhao B, Guo X, Lang T, Saeed I, Liu XS, Guo XE, Cremers S, Rosen CJ, Stein EM, Nickolas TL, McMahon DJ, Young P, Shane E. Abdominal fat is associated with lower bone formation and inferior bone quality in healthy premenopausal women: a transiliac bone biopsy study. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2013 Jun; 98(6):2562-72. PMID: 23515452; PMCID: PMC3667251.
    36. Carballido-Gamio J, Harnish R, Saeed I, Streeper T, Sigurdsson S, Amin S, Atkinson EJ, Therneau TM, Siggeirsdottir K, Cheng X, Melton LJ, Keyak J, Gudnason V, Khosla S, Harris TB, Lang T. Proximal femoral density distribution and structure in relation to age and hip fracture risk in women. J Bone Miner Res. 2013 Mar; 28(3):537-46. PMID: 23109068; PMCID: PMC3578081.
    37. Leblanc A, Matsumoto T, Jones J, Shapiro J, Lang T, Shackelford L, Smith SM, Evans H, Spector E, Ploutz-Snyder R, Sibonga J, Keyak J, Nakamura T, Kohri K, Ohshima H. Bisphosphonates as a supplement to exercise to protect bone during long-duration spaceflight. Osteoporos Int. 2013 Jul; 24(7):2105-14. PMID: 23334732.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Cohen A, Lang T, McMahon DJ, Liu XS, Guo XE, Zhang C, Stein EM, Dempster DW, Young P, Saeed I, Lappe JM, Recker RR, Shane E. Central QCT reveals lower volumetric BMD and stiffness in premenopausal women with idiopathic osteoporosis, regardless of fracture history. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Nov; 97(11):4244-52. PMID: 22962425; PMCID: PMC3485589.
    39. Lang T . Sarcopenia, edited by Alfredo Cruz-Jentoft and John E. Morley. Imaging of Skeletal Muscle. 2012; 193-204.
    40. Liu CT, Karasik D, Zhou Y, Hsu YH, Genant HK, Broe KE, Lang T, Samelson EJ, Demissie S, Bouxsein ML, Cupples LA, Kiel DP. Heritability of prevalent vertebral fracture and volumetric bone mineral density and geometry at the lumbar spine in three generations of the Framingham study. J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Apr; 27(4):954-8. PMID: 22222934; PMCID: PMC3375687.
    41. Johannesdottir F, Aspelund T, Siggeirsdottir K, Jonsson BY, Mogensen B, Sigurdsson S, Harris TB, Gudnason VG, Lang T, Sigurdsson G. Mid-thigh cortical bone structural parameters, muscle mass and strength, and association with lower limb fractures in older men and women (AGES-Reykjavik Study). Calcif Tissue Int. 2012 May; 90(5):354-64. PMID: 22451219.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Samelson EJ, Christiansen BA, Demissie S, Broe KE, Louie-Gao Q, Cupples LA, Roberts BJ, Manoharam R, D'Agostino J, Lang T, Kiel DP, Bouxsein ML. QCT measures of bone strength at the thoracic and lumbar spine: the Framingham Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2012 Mar; 27(3):654-63. PMID: 22143959; PMCID: PMC3728822.
    43. R. Harnish, T. Streeper, I. Saeed, C. Schreck, S. Dannoon, J. Slater, J. Blecha, H. VanBrocklin, M. Hernandez-Pampaloni, R. Hawkins, Y. Seo, G. Sayre and T. Lang. Journal of Molecular Imaging and Dynamics. Quantification of changes in skeletal muscle amino acid kinetics in adult humans in response to exercise via positron-emission tomography with L-[methyl-11C]methionine. 2012; 2(1):103.
    44. Rianon NJ, Lang T, Sigurdsson G, Eiriksdottir G, Sigurdsson S, Garcia M, Pajala S, Koster A, Yu B, Selwyn BJ, Taylor WC, Kapadia AS, Gudnason V, Launer LJ, Harris TB. Lifelong physical activity in maintaining bone strength in older men and women of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. Osteoporos Int. 2012 Sep; 23(9):2303-12. PMID: 22234811.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Lang T, Sigurdsson S, Karlsdottir G, Oskarsdottir D, Sigmarsdottir A, Chengshi J, Kornak J, Harris TB, Sigurdsson G, Jonsson BY, Siggeirsdottir K, Eiriksdottir G, Gudnason V, Keyak JH. Age-related loss of proximal femoral strength in elderly men and women: the Age Gene/Environment Susceptibility Study--Reykjavik. Bone. 2012 Mar; 50(3):743-8. PMID: 22178403; PMCID: PMC3278586.
    46. Walker MD, Saeed I, McMahon DJ, Udesky J, Liu G, Lang T, Bilezikian JP. Volumetric bone mineral density at the spine and hip in Chinese American and White women. Osteoporos Int. 2012 Oct; 23(10):2499-506. PMID: 22147209; PMCID: PMC3552556.
    47. Lang T. The bone-muscle relationship in men and women. J Osteoporos. 2011; 2011:702735. PMID: 22007336; PMCID: PMC3189615.
    48. Javaid MK, Prieto-Alhambra D, Lui LY, Cawthon P, Arden NK, Lang T, Lane NE, Orwoll E, Barrett-Conner E, Nevitt MC, Cooper C, Cummings SR. Self-reported weight at birth predicts measures of femoral size but not volumetric BMD in eldery men: MrOS. J Bone Miner Res. 2011 Aug; 26(8):1802-7. PMID: 21509824; PMCID: PMC3809067.
    49. Keyak JH, Sigurdsson S, Karlsdottir G, Oskarsdottir D, Sigmarsdottir A, Zhao S, Kornak J, Harris TB, Sigurdsson G, Jonsson BY, Siggeirsdottir K, Eiriksdottir G, Gudnason V, Lang T. Male-female differences in the association between incident hip fracture and proximal femoral strength: a finite element analysis study. Bone. 2011 Jun 1; 48(6):1239-45. PMID: 21419886; PMCID: PMC3095704.
    50. Streeper T, Cavanagh TR, Hanson AM, Carpenter RD,Saeed I, Kornak J, Frassetto L, Grodsinsky C, Funk J, Lee SMC, Spiering BA, Bloomberg J, Mulavara A, Sibonga J, Lang T . Acta Astronauta. Development of an integrated countermeasure device for use in long-duration spaceflight. 2011; 68(11-12):2029-2037.
    51. Carpenter RD, Sigurdsson S, Zhao S, Lu Y, Eiriksdottir G, Sigurdsson G, Jonsson BY, Prevrhal S, Harris TB, Siggeirsdottir K, Guðnason V, Lang T. Effects of age and sex on the strength and cortical thickness of the femoral neck. Bone. 2011 Apr 1; 48(4):741-7. PMID: 21168538; PMCID: PMC3075958.
    52. Zmuda JM, Yerges-Armstrong LM, Moffett SP, Klei L, Kammerer CM, Roeder K, Cauley JA, Kuipers A, Ensrud KE, Nestlerode CS, Hoffman AR, Lewis CE, Lang T, Barrett-Connor E, Ferrell RE, Orwoll ES. Genetic analysis of vertebral trabecular bone density and cross-sectional area in older men. Osteoporos Int. 2011 Apr; 22(4):1079-90. PMID: 21153022; PMCID: PMC3691107.
    53. Liu XS, Cohen A, Shane E, Yin PT, Stein EM, Rogers H, Kokolus SL, McMahon DJ, Lappe JM, Recker RR, Lang T, Guo XE. Bone density, geometry, microstructure, and stiffness: Relationships between peripheral and central skeletal sites assessed by DXA, HR-pQCT, and cQCT in premenopausal women. J Bone Miner Res. 2010 Oct; 25(10):2229-38. PMID: 20499344; PMCID: PMC3128822.
    54. Schafer AL, Vittinghoff E, Lang T, Sellmeyer DE, Harris TB, Kanaya AM, Strotmeyer ES, Cawthon PM, Cummings SR, Tylavsky FA, Scherzinger AL, Schwartz AV. Fat infiltration of muscle, diabetes, and clinical fracture risk in older adults. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Nov; 95(11):E368-72. PMID: 20668037; PMCID: PMC2968723.
    55. Zhao Q, Li W, Li C, Chu PW, Kornak J, Lang T, Fang J, Lu Y. A statistical method (cross-validation) for bone loss region detection after spaceflight. Australas Phys Eng Sci Med. 2010 Jun; 33(2):163-9. PMID: 20632144; PMCID: PMC2917547.
    56. Kiel DP, Hannan MT, Barton BA, Bouxsein ML, Lang T, Brown KM, Shane E, Magaziner J, Zimmerman S, Rubin CT. Insights from the conduct of a device trial in older persons: low magnitude mechanical stimulation for musculoskeletal health. Clin Trials. 2010 Aug; 7(4):354-67. PMID: 20571129; PMCID: PMC3136380.
    57. Lang T. Quantitative computed tomography. Radiol Clin North Am. 2010 May; 48(3):589-600. PMID: 20609894.
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    59. Yerges LM, Klei L, Cauley JA, Roeder K, Kammerer CM, Ensrud KE, Nestlerode CS, Lewis C, Lang T, Barrett-Connor E, Moffett SP, Hoffman AR, Ferrell RE, Orwoll ES, Zmuda JM. Candidate gene analysis of femoral neck trabecular and cortical volumetric bone mineral density in older men. J Bone Miner Res. 2010 Feb; 25(2):330-8. PMID: 19619005; PMCID: PMC3153388.
    60. Chaganti RK, Parimi N, Lang T, Orwoll E, Stefanick ML, Nevitt M, Lane NE. Bone mineral density and prevalent osteoarthritis of the hip in older men for the Osteoporotic Fractures in Men (MrOS) Study Group. Osteoporos Int. 2010 Aug; 21(8):1307-16. PMID: 20101493; PMCID: PMC3354730.
    61. Carpenter RD, LeBlanc AD, Evans H, Sibonga JD, Lang T . Long-term changes in the density and structure of the human hip and spine after long-duration spaceflight. Acta Astronautica. 2010; 67(1-2):71-81.
    62. Yerges LM, Klei L, Cauley JA, Roeder K, Kammerer CM, Moffett SP, Ensrud KE, Nestlerode CS, Marshall LM, Hoffman AR, Lewis C, Lang T, Barrett-Connor E, Ferrell RE, Orwoll ES, Zmuda JM. High-density association study of 383 candidate genes for volumetric BMD at the femoral neck and lumbar spine among older men. J Bone Miner Res. 2009 Dec; 24(12):2039-49. PMID: 19453261; PMCID: PMC2791518.
    63. Eastell R, Lang T, Boonen S, Cummings S, Delmas PD, Cauley JA, Horowitz Z, Kerzberg E, Bianchi G, Kendler D, Leung P, Man Z, Mesenbrink P, Eriksen EF, Black DM. Effect of once-yearly zoledronic acid on the spine and hip as measured by quantitative computed tomography: results of the HORIZON Pivotal Fracture Trial. Osteoporos Int. 2010 Jul; 21(7):1277-85. PMID: 19802508.
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    64. Chevalier Y, Quek E, Borah B, Gross G, Stewart J, Lang T, Zysset P. Biomechanical effects of teriparatide in women with osteoporosis treated previously with alendronate and risedronate: results from quantitative computed tomography-based finite element analysis of the vertebral body. Bone. 2010 Jan; 46(1):41-8. PMID: 19800436.
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    65. Lang T, Streeper T, Cawthon P, Baldwin K, Taaffe DR, Harris TB. Sarcopenia: etiology, clinical consequences, intervention, and assessment. Osteoporos Int. 2010 Apr; 21(4):543-59. PMID: 19779761; PMCID: PMC2832869.
    66. Saeed I, Carpenter RD, Leblanc AD, Li J, Keyak JH, Sibonga JD, Lang T. Quantitative computed tomography reveals the effects of race and sex on bone size and trabecular and cortical bone density. J Clin Densitom. 2009 Jul-Sep; 12(3):330-6. PMID: 19577939.
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    67. Li W, Kornak J, Harris TB, Keyak J, Li C, Lu Y, Cheng X, Lang T. Bone fracture risk estimation based on image similarity. Bone. 2009 Sep; 45(3):560-7. PMID: 19414074; PMCID: PMC2896043.
    68. Li W, Kornak J, Harris T, Keyak J, Li C, Lu Y, Cheng X, Lang T. Identify fracture-critical regions inside the proximal femur using statistical parametric mapping. Bone. 2009 Apr; 44(4):596-602. PMID: 19130910; PMCID: PMC2656587.
    69. Hyder JA, Allison MA, Wong N, Papa A, Lang T, Sirlin C, Gapstur SM, Ouyang P, Carr JJ, Criqui MH. Association of coronary artery and aortic calcium with lumbar bone density: the MESA Abdominal Aortic Calcium Study. Am J Epidemiol. 2009 Jan 15; 169(2):186-94. PMID: 19064643; PMCID: PMC2727254.
    70. Taaffe DR, Henwood TR, Nalls MA, Walker DG, Lang T, Harris TB. Alterations in muscle attenuation following detraining and retraining in resistance-trained older adults. Gerontology. 2009; 55(2):217-23. PMID: 19060453; PMCID: PMC2756799.
    71. Keyak JH, Koyama AK, LeBlanc A, Lu Y, Lang T. Reduction in proximal femoral strength due to long-duration spaceflight. Bone. 2009 Mar; 44(3):449-53. PMID: 19100348.
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    72. Miller PD, Delmas PD, Lindsay R, Watts NB, Luckey M, Adachi J, Saag K, Greenspan SL, Seeman E, Boonen S, Meeves S, Lang T, Bilezikian JP. Early responsiveness of women with osteoporosis to teriparatide after therapy with alendronate or risedronate. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct; 93(10):3785-93. PMID: 18682511.
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    73. Black DM, Bouxsein ML, Marshall LM, Cummings SR, Lang T, Cauley JA, Ensrud KE, Nielson CM, Orwoll ES. Proximal femoral structure and the prediction of hip fracture in men: a large prospective study using QCT. J Bone Miner Res. 2008 Aug; 23(8):1326-33. PMID: 18348697; PMCID: PMC2680175.
    74. Prevrhal S, Shepherd JA, Faulkner KG, Gaither KW, Black DM, Lang T. Comparison of DXA hip structural analysis with volumetric QCT. J Clin Densitom. 2008 Apr-Jun; 11(2):232-6. PMID: 18280192.
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    75. Lang T, Koyama A, Li C, Li J, Lu Y, Saeed I, Gazze E, Keyak J, Harris T, Cheng X. Pelvic body composition measurements by quantitative computed tomography: association with recent hip fracture. Bone. 2008 Apr; 42(4):798-805. PMID: 18234578.
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    76. Marshall LM, Zmuda JM, Chan BK, Barrett-Connor E, Cauley JA, Ensrud KE, Lang T, Orwoll ES. Race and ethnic variation in proximal femur structure and BMD among older men. J Bone Miner Res. 2008 Jan; 23(1):121-30. PMID: 17892375; PMCID: PMC2663587.
    77. Mackey DC, Eby JG, Harris F, Taaffe DR, Cauley JA, Tylavsky FA, Harris TB, Lang T, Cummings SR. Prediction of clinical non-spine fractures in older black and white men and women with volumetric BMD of the spine and areal BMD of the hip: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study*. J Bone Miner Res. 2007 Dec; 22(12):1862-8. PMID: 17708713.
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    78. Sibonga JD, Evans HJ, Sung HG, Spector ER, Lang T, Oganov VS, Bakulin AV, Shackelford LC, LeBlanc AD. Recovery of spaceflight-induced bone loss: bone mineral density after long-duration missions as fitted with an exponential function. Bone. 2007 Dec; 41(6):973-8. PMID: 17931994.
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    79. Li W, Kezele I, Collins DL, Zijdenbos A, Keyak J, Kornak J, Koyama A, Saeed I, Leblanc A, Harris T, Lu Y, Lang T. Voxel-based modeling and quantification of the proximal femur using inter-subject registration of quantitative CT images. Bone. 2007 Nov; 41(5):888-95. PMID: 17707712; PMCID: PMC2080679.
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    81. Lang T, Leblanc AD, Evans HJ, Lu Y. Adaptation of the proximal femur to skeletal reloading after long-duration spaceflight. J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Aug; 21(8):1224-30. PMID: 16869720.
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    82. Marshall LM, Lang T, Lambert LC, Zmuda JM, Ensrud KE, Orwoll ES. Dimensions and volumetric BMD of the proximal femur and their relation to age among older U.S. men. J Bone Miner Res. 2006 Aug; 21(8):1197-206. PMID: 16869717.
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    83. Cheng X, Li J, Lu Y, Keyak J, Lang T. Proximal femoral density and geometry measurements by quantitative computed tomography: association with hip fracture. Bone. 2007 Jan; 40(1):169-74. PMID: 16876496.
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    84. Guglielmi G, van Kuijk C, Li J, Meta MD, Scillitani A, Lang T. Influence of anthropometric parameters and bone size on bone mineral density using volumetric quantitative computed tomography and dual X-ray absorptiometry at the hip. Acta Radiol. 2006 Jul; 47(6):574-80. PMID: 16875335.
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    85. Sigurdsson G, Aspelund T, Chang M, Jonsdottir B, Sigurdsson S, Eiriksdottir G, Gudmundsson A, Harris TB, Gudnason V, Lang T. Increasing sex difference in bone strength in old age: The Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik study (AGES-REYKJAVIK). Bone. 2006 Sep; 39(3):644-51. PMID: 16790372.
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    86. Meta M, Lu Y, Keyak JH, Lang T. Young-elderly differences in bone density, geometry and strength indices depend on proximal femur sub-region: a cross sectional study in Caucasian-American women. Bone. 2006 Jul; 39(1):152-8. PMID: 16459156; PMCID: PMC1482801.
    87. Li W, Sode M, Saeed I, Lang T. Automated registration of hip and spine for longitudinal QCT studies: integration with 3D densitometric and structural analysis. Bone. 2006 Feb; 38(2):273-9. PMID: 16199215; PMCID: PMC1550383.
    88. Black DM, Bilezikian JP, Ensrud KE, Greenspan SL, Palermo L, Hue T, Lang T, McGowan JA, Rosen CJ. One year of alendronate after one year of parathyroid hormone (1-84) for osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 2005 Aug 11; 353(6):555-65. PMID: 16093464.
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    89. Carpenter RD, Beaupré GS, Lang T, Orwoll ES, Carter DR. New QCT analysis approach shows the importance of fall orientation on femoral neck strength. J Bone Miner Res. 2005 Sep; 20(9):1533-42. PMID: 16059625.
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    90. Guglielmi G, Floriani I, Torri V, Li J, van Kuijk C, Genant HK, Lang T. Effect of spinal degenerative changes on volumetric bone mineral density of the central skeleton as measured by quantitative computed tomography. Acta Radiol. 2005 May; 46(3):269-75. PMID: 15981723.
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    91. Genant HK, Lang T, Fuerst T, Pinette KV, Zhou C, Thiebaud D, Diez-Perez A. Treatment with raloxifene for 2 years increases vertebral bone mineral density as measured by volumetric quantitative computed tomography. Bone. 2004 Nov; 35(5):1164-8. PMID: 15542042.
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    92. Wong M, Papa A, Lang T, Hodis HN, Labree L, Detrano R. Validation of thoracic quantitative computed tomography as a method to measure bone mineral density. Calcif Tissue Int. 2005 Jan; 76(1):7-10. PMID: 15455185.
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    93. Lian KC, Lang T, Keyak JH, Modin GW, Rehman Q, Do L, Lane NE. Differences in hip quantitative computed tomography (QCT) measurements of bone mineral density and bone strength between glucocorticoid-treated and glucocorticoid-naive postmenopausal women. Osteoporos Int. 2005 Jun; 16(6):642-50. PMID: 15455195.
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    94. Lang T, LeBlanc A, Evans H, Lu Y, Genant H, Yu A. Cortical and trabecular bone mineral loss from the spine and hip in long-duration spaceflight. J Bone Miner Res. 2004 Jun; 19(6):1006-12. PMID: 15125798.
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    95. Carbone LD, Tylavsky FA, Cauley JA, Harris TB, Lang T, Bauer DC, Barrow KD, Kritchevsky SB. Association between bone mineral density and the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and aspirin: impact of cyclooxygenase selectivity. J Bone Miner Res. 2003 Oct; 18(10):1795-802. PMID: 14584890.
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    96. Black DM, Greenspan SL, Ensrud KE, Palermo L, McGowan JA, Lang T, Garnero P, Bouxsein ML, Bilezikian JP, Rosen CJ. The effects of parathyroid hormone and alendronate alone or in combination in postmenopausal osteoporosis. N Engl J Med. 2003 Sep 25; 349(13):1207-15. PMID: 14500804.
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    97. Taaffe DR, Lang T, Fuerst T, Cauley JA, Nevitt MC, Harris TB. Sex- and race-related differences in cross-sectional geometry and bone density of the femoral mid-shaft in older adults. Ann Hum Biol. 2003 May-Jun; 30(3):329-46. PMID: 12850965.
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    98. Taaffe DR, Lang T, Harris TB. Poor correlation of mid-femoral measurements by CT and hip measurements by DXA in the elderly. Aging Clin Exp Res. 2003 Apr; 15(2):131-5. PMID: 12889844.
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    99. Tylavsky FA, Lohman TG, Dockrell M, Lang T, Schoeller DA, Wan JY, Fuerst T, Cauley JA, Nevitt M, Harris TB. Comparison of the effectiveness of 2 dual-energy X-ray absorptiometers with that of total body water and computed tomography in assessing changes in body composition during weight change. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003 Feb; 77(2):356-63. PMID: 12540394.
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    100. Rehman Q, Lang T, Arnaud CD, Modin GW, Lane NE. Daily treatment with parathyroid hormone is associated with an increase in vertebral cross-sectional area in postmenopausal women with glucocorticoid-induced osteoporosis. Osteoporos Int. 2003 Jan; 14(1):77-81. PMID: 12577188.
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    101. Guglielmi G, Lang T. Quantitative computed tomography. Semin Musculoskelet Radiol. 2002 Sep; 6(3):219-27. PMID: 12541199.
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    102. Snijder MB, Visser M, Dekker JM, Seidell JC, Fuerst T, Tylavsky F, Cauley J, Lang T, Nevitt M, Harris TB. The prediction of visceral fat by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in the elderly: a comparison with computed tomography and anthropometry. Int J Obes Relat Metab Disord. 2002 Jul; 26(7):984-93. PMID: 12080454.
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    103. Rehman Q, Lang T, Modin G, Lane NE. Quantitative computed tomography of the lumbar spine, not dual x-ray absorptiometry, is an independent predictor of prevalent vertebral fractures in postmenopausal women with osteopenia receiving long-term glucocorticoid and hormone-replacement therapy. Arthritis Rheum. 2002 May; 46(5):1292-7. PMID: 12115236.
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    104. Lang T, Guglielmi G, van Kuijk C, De Serio A, Cammisa M, Genant HK. Measurement of bone mineral density at the spine and proximal femur by volumetric quantitative computed tomography and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in elderly women with and without vertebral fractures. Bone. 2002 Jan; 30(1):247-50. PMID: 11792593.
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    105. Taaffe DR, Cauley JA, Danielson M, Nevitt MC, Lang T, Bauer DC, Harris TB. Race and sex effects on the association between muscle strength, soft tissue, and bone mineral density in healthy elders: the Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study. J Bone Miner Res. 2001 Jul; 16(7):1343-52. PMID: 11450711.
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    106. Salamone LM, Fuerst T, Visser M, Kern M, Lang T, Dockrell M, Cauley JA, Nevitt M, Tylavsky F, Lohman TG. Measurement of fat mass using DEXA: a validation study in elderly adults. J Appl Physiol (1985). 2000 Jul; 89(1):345-52. PMID: 10904070.
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    107. Genant HK, Gordon C, Jiang Y, Link TM, Hans D, Majumdar S, Lang T. Advanced imaging of the macrostructure and microstructure of bone. Horm Res. 2000; 54 Suppl 1:24-30. PMID: 11146376.
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    108. Visser M, Fuerst T, Lang T, Salamone L, Harris TB. Validity of fan-beam dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry for measuring fat-free mass and leg muscle mass. Health, Aging, and Body Composition Study--Dual-Energy X-ray Absorptiometry and Body Composition Working Group. J Appl Physiol (1985). 1999 Oct; 87(4):1513-20. PMID: 10517786.
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    109. Genant HK, Gordon C, Jiang Y, Lang T, Link TM, Majumdar S. Advanced imaging of bone macro and micro structure. Bone. 1999 Jul; 25(1):149-52. PMID: 10423042.
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    110. Lang T, Li J, Harris ST, Genant HK. Assessment of vertebral bone mineral density using volumetric quantitative CT. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1999 Jan-Feb; 23(1):130-7. PMID: 10050823.
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    111. Lang T, Augat P, Lane NE, Genant HK. Trochanteric hip fracture: strong association with spinal trabecular bone mineral density measured with quantitative CT. Radiology. 1998 Nov; 209(2):525-30. PMID: 9807584.
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    112. Augat P, Gordon CL, Lang T, Iida H, Genant HK. Accuracy of cortical and trabecular bone measurements with peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT). Phys Med Biol. 1998 Oct; 43(10):2873-83. PMID: 9814524.
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    113. Lang T. Summary of research issues in imaging and noninvasive bone measurement. Bone. 1998 May; 22(5 Suppl):159S-161S. PMID: 9600775.
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    114. Majumdar S, Kothari M, Augat P, Newitt DC, Link TM, Lin JC, Lang T, Lu Y, Genant HK. High-resolution magnetic resonance imaging: three-dimensional trabecular bone architecture and biomechanical properties. Bone. 1998 May; 22(5):445-54. PMID: 9600777.
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    115. Lang T, Augat P, Majumdar S, Ouyang X, Genant HK. Noninvasive assessment of bone density and structure using computed tomography and magnetic resonance. Bone. 1998 May; 22(5 Suppl):149S-153S. PMID: 9600773.
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    116. Augat P, Fan B, Lane NE, Lang T, LeHir P, Lu Y, Uffmann M, Genant HK. Assessment of bone mineral at appendicular sites in females with fractures of the proximal femur. Bone. 1998 Apr; 22(4):395-402. PMID: 9556141.
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    117. Augat P, Link T, Lang T, Lin JC, Majumdar S, Genant HK. Anisotropy of the elastic modulus of trabecular bone specimens from different anatomical locations. Med Eng Phys. 1998 Mar; 20(2):124-31. PMID: 9679231.
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    118. Gordon CL, Lang T, Augat P, Genant HK. Image-based assessment of spinal trabecular bone structure from high-resolution CT images. Osteoporos Int. 1998; 8(4):317-25. PMID: 10024901.
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    119. Link TM, Majumdar S, Lin JC, Augat P, Gould RG, Newitt D, Ouyang X, Lang T, Mathur A, Genant HK. Assessment of trabecular structure using high resolution CT images and texture analysis. J Comput Assist Tomogr. 1998 Jan-Feb; 22(1):15-24. PMID: 9448755.
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    120. Takada M, Wu CY, Lang T, Genant HK. Vertebral fracture assessment using the lateral scoutview of computed tomography in comparison with radiographs. Osteoporos Int. 1998; 8(3):197-203. PMID: 9797902.
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    121. Ito M, Lang T, Jergas M, Ohki M, Takada M, Nakamura T, Hayashi K, Genant HK. Spinal trabecular bone loss and fracture in American and Japanese women. Calcif Tissue Int. 1997 Aug; 61(2):123-8. PMID: 9236258.
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    122. Hans D, Fuerst T, Lang T, Majumdar S, Lu Y, Genant HK, Glüer C. How can we measure bone quality? Baillieres Clin Rheumatol. 1997 Aug; 11(3):495-515. PMID: 9367034.
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    123. Lang T, Keyak JH, Heitz MW, Augat P, Lu Y, Mathur A, Genant HK. Volumetric quantitative computed tomography of the proximal femur: precision and relation to bone strength. Bone. 1997 Jul; 21(1):101-8. PMID: 9213015.
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    124. Guglielmi G, Schneider P, Lang T, Giannatempo GM, Cammisa M, Genant HK. Quantitative computed tomography at the axial and peripheral skeleton. Eur Radiol. 1997; 7 Suppl 2:S32-42. PMID: 9126457.
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    125. Lang T, Takada M, Gee R, Wu C, Li J, Hayashi-Clark C, Schoen S, March V, Genant HK. A preliminary evaluation of the lunar expert-XL for bone densitometry and vertebral morphometry. J Bone Miner Res. 1997 Jan; 12(1):136-43. PMID: 9240736.
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    126. Genant HK, Engelke K, Fuerst T, Glüer CC, Grampp S, Harris ST, Jergas M, Lang T, Lu Y, Majumdar S, Mathur A, Takada M. Noninvasive assessment of bone mineral and structure: state of the art. J Bone Miner Res. 1996 Jun; 11(6):707-30. PMID: 8725168.
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    127. Genant HK, Lang T, Engelke K, Fuerst T, Glüer C, Majumdar S, Jergas M. Advances in the noninvasive assessment of bone density, quality, and structure. Calcif Tissue Int. 1996; 59 Suppl 1:S10-5. PMID: 8974723.
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    128. Glüer CC, Engelke K, Lang T, Grampp S, Genant HK. Quantitative computed tomography (QCT) of the lumbar spine and appendicular skeleton. Eur J Radiol. 1995 Sep; 20(3):173-8. PMID: 8536743.
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    129. Brown JK, Hasegawa BH, Lang T. Iterative concurrent reconstruction algorithms for emission computed tomography. Phys Med Biol. 1994 Jul; 39(7):1113-32. PMID: 15552101.
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    130. Liew SC, Hasegawa BH, Brown JK, Lang T. Noise propagation in SPECT images reconstructed using an iterative maximum-likelihood algorithm. Phys Med Biol. 1993 Dec; 38(12):1713-26. PMID: 8108487.
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    131. Lang T, Hasegawa BH, Liew SC, Brown JK, Blankespoor SC, Reilly SM, Gingold EL, Cann CE. Description of a prototype emission-transmission computed tomography imaging system. J Nucl Med. 1992 Oct; 33(10):1881-7. PMID: 1403162.
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