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Van Halbach, MD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentRadiology
Address505 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-353-1863
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    2011  - 20122012 US News and World Report's "Top Doctors" (2011-2012)
    2013San Francisco Chronicle "Super Doctor"
    2011Top Doctors
    2012Super Doctors
    2003Honorary Member of the Cuban Society of Radiology
    UCSF Medical Center1999William G. Obota, MD Outstanding Clinical Faculty Award
    San Francisco Magazine1999Best Doctors in San Francisco
    1999Best Doctors in San Francisco, San Francisco Magazine
    1994The Best Doctors in the West
    1994  - 2016The Best Doctors in America
    1994Wilson Award Honorable Mention, Western Neuroradiology Society, "Endovascular therapy for vertebral
    1992Japanese Neurosurgical Society, Keynote speaker Kagoshima, Japan
    1979Alpha Omega Alpha Medical Honor Society
    1986Magna Cum Laude Award, XIII Symposium Neuroradiologicum, "Normal anatomy of the facial nerve as demo

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Van V. Halbach, MD, is a Clinical Professor of Radiology, Neurological Surgery, Neurology, and Anesthesiology at the University of California at San Francisco. Dr. Halbach received his medical degree from the School of Medicine at University of California, Los Angeles, and completed his residency in Diagnostic Radiology from the Medical Center of UCLA, followed by a fellowship in Interventional Radiology from the Medical Center of UCLA.

    As Principal and Co-Principal Investigator, Dr. Halbach and his colleagues of the Interventional Neurovascular Radiology Section developed clinical and basic science research protocols designed to perfect innovative techniques to treat life threatening neurovascular disorders. Dr. Halbach and his group have pioneered many current techniques and developed many of the devices utilized in the expanding field of interventional neuroradiology.

    Dr. Halbach has published over 240 scientific articles on stroke, dural fistulae, ateriovenous malformations and related topics and authored over 87 book chapters. His articles have appeared in the American Journal of Neuroradiology, Radiology, the Journal of Neurosurgery, Neurosurgery, the Journal of Endovascular Surgery, Lancet, Stroke, Neurology, and the Journal of the American Medical Association.

    Expertise:
    Neuro Interventional Radiology

    Specialty:
    Neurovascular disorders

    Professional Interests:
    Interventional neuroradiological procedures in hemorrhagic and ischemic stroke and dural and direct fistulae

    Education and Training:
    • Medical School: University of California, Los Angeles School of Medicine
    • Internship: Sepulveda Veterans Hospital, California - Internal Medicine
    • Residency: University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center - Diagnostic Radiology
    • Fellowship: University of California, Los Angeles Medical Center - Interventional Radiology
    • American Board of Radiology (Certified)
    • Basic Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
    • Advanced Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
    • Added Qualifications in Neuroradiology


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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Alexander MD, Rebhun JM, Hetts SW, Amans MR, Settecase F, Darflinger RJ, Dowd CF, Halbach V, Higashida RT, Cooke DL. Technical factors affecting outcomes following endovascular treatment of posterior circulation atherosclerotic lesions. Surg Neurol Int. 2017; 8:284. PMID: 29279801.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Hightower JS, Phelps A, Halbach V, Kohi MP. Collateral Damage: Catheterization of the Epidural Space during Deep Venous Thrombosis Thrombolysis. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2017 Sep; 28(9):1332-1334. PMID: 28841958.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Kao E, Kefayati S, Amans MR, Faraji F, Ballweber M, Halbach V, Saloner D. Flow patterns in the jugular veins of pulsatile tinnitus patients. J Biomech. 2017 02 08; 52:61-67. PMID: 28057349.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Kefayati S, Amans M, Faraji F, Ballweber M, Kao E, Ahn S, Meisel K, Halbach V, Saloner D. The manifestation of vortical and secondary flow in the cerebral venous outflow tract: An in vivo MR velocimetry study. J Biomech. 2017 01 04; 50:180-187. PMID: 27894675.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Hetts SW, Moftakhar P, Maluste N, Fullerton HJ, Cooke DL, Amans MR, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach V. Pediatric intracranial dural arteriovenous fistulas: age-related differences in clinical features, angioarchitecture, and treatment outcomes. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Nov; 18(5):602-610. PMID: 27540826.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Alexander MD, Halbach V, Nicholson A, Settecase F, Darflinger RJ, Amans MR. Transvenous ethanol sclerotherapy of feeding arteries for treatment of a dural arteriovenous fistula. J Neurointerv Surg. 2017 Mar; 9(3):e12. PMID: 27439888.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Alexander MD, Halbach V, Nicholson A, Settecase F, Darflinger RJ, Amans MR. Transvenous ethanol sclerotherapy of feeding arteries for treatment of a dural arteriovenous fistula. BMJ Case Rep. 2016 Jul 15; 2016. PMID: 27432825.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Lawton MT, Abla AA, Rutledge WC, Benet A, Zador Z, Rayz VL, Saloner D, Halbach V. Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Dolichoectatic Basilar Trunk Aneurysms: A Work in Progress. Neurosurgery. 2016 07; 79(1):83-99. PMID: 26671632; PMCID: PMC4956413 [Available on 07/01/17].
    9. Lee SK, Hetts SW, Halbach V, terBrugge K, Ansari SA, Albani B, Abruzzo T, Arthur A, Alexander MJ, Albuquerque FC, Baxter B, Bulsara KR, Chen M, Delgado Almandoz JE, Fraser JF, Frei D, Gandhi CD, Heck D, Hussain MS, Kelly M, Klucznik R, Leslie-Mazwi T, McTaggart RA, Meyers PM, Patsalides A, Prestigiacomo C, Pride GL, Starke R, Sunenshine P, Rasmussen P, Jayaraman MV. Standard and Guidelines: Intracranial Dural Arteriovenous Shunts. J Neurointerv Surg. 2017 05; 9(5):516-523. PMID: 26614491.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Settecase F, Nicholson AD, Amans MR, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Cooke DL, Dowd CF, Hetts SW. Onyx embolization of an intraosseous pseudoaneurysm of the middle meningeal artery in a patient with meningiomatosis, McCune-Albright syndrome, and gray platelet syndrome. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2016 Mar; 17(3):324-9. PMID: 26588455.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Narvid J, Amans MR, Cooke DL, Hetts SW, Dillon WP, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach V. Spontaneous retroclival hematoma: a case series. J Neurosurg. 2016 Mar; 124(3):716-9. PMID: 26252463.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Sun Z, Lawson DA, Sinclair E, Wang CY, Lai MD, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach V, Werb Z, Su H, Cooke DL. Endovascular biopsy: Strategy for analyzing gene expression profiles of individual endothelial cells obtained from human vessels?. Biotechnol Rep (Amst). 2015 Sep; 7:157-165. PMID: 26989654.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Acevedo-Bolton G, Amans MR, Kefayati S, Halbach V, Saloner D. Four dimensional magnetic resonance velocimetry for complex flow in the jugular vein. Quant Imaging Med Surg. 2015 Aug; 5(4):635-7. PMID: 26435930; PMCID: PMC4559987.
    14. Seymour ZA, Sneed PK, Gupta N, Lawton MT, Molinaro AM, Young W, Dowd CF, Halbach V, Higashida RT, McDermott MW. Volume-staged radiosurgery for large arteriovenous malformations: an evolving paradigm. J Neurosurg. 2016 Jan; 124(1):163-74. PMID: 26140495.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Alexander MD, Rebhun JM, Hetts SW, Kim AS, Nelson J, Kim H, Amans MR, Settecase F, Dowd CF, Halbach V, Higashida RT, Cooke DL. Lesion location, stability, and pretreatment management: factors affecting outcomes of endovascular treatment for vertebrobasilar atherosclerosis. J Neurointerv Surg. 2016 May; 8(5):466-70. PMID: 25795438.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Cooke DL, Bauer D, Sun Z, Stillson C, Nelson J, Barry D, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach V, Su H, Saeed MM. Endovascular biopsy: Technical feasibility of novel endothelial cell harvesting devices assessed in a rabbit aneurysm model. Interv Neuroradiol. 2015 Feb; 21(1):120-8. PMID: 25934786.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Moftakhar P, Cooke DL, Fullerton HJ, Ko NU, Amans MR, Narvid JA, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Hetts SW. Extent of collateralization predicting symptomatic cerebral vasospasm among pediatric patients: correlations among angiography, transcranial Doppler ultrasonography, and clinical findings. J Neurosurg Pediatr. 2015 Mar; 15(3):282-90. PMID: 25555113.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Sun Z, Su H, Long B, Sinclair E, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach V, Cooke DL. Endothelial cell high-enrichment from endovascular biopsy sample by laser capture microdissection and fluorescence activated cell sorting. J Biotechnol. 2014 Dec 20; 192 Pt A:34-9. PMID: 25450638; PMCID: PMC4654108.
    19. Amans MR, Narvid J, Halbach V. Intra-arterial chemotherapy for bilateral retinoblastoma via left ophthalmic artery and right anterior deep temporal artery. BMJ Case Rep. 2014 Sep 19; 2014. PMID: 25240013; PMCID: PMC4170497.
    20. Rutledge WC, Abla AA, Nelson J, Halbach V, Kim H, Lawton MT. Treatment and outcomes of ARUBA-eligible patients with unruptured brain arteriovenous malformations at a single institution. Neurosurg Focus. 2014 Sep; 37(3):E8. PMID: 25175446; PMCID: PMC4420142.
    21. Cooke DL, Stout CE, Kim WT, Kansagra AP, Yu JP, Gu A, Jewell NP, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach V. Cerebral arterial fenestrations. Interv Neuroradiol. 2014 May-Jun; 20(3):261-74. PMID: 24976087; PMCID: PMC4178766.
    22. Chow ML, Cooke DL, Fullerton HJ, Amans MR, Narvid J, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Hetts SW. Radiological and clinical features of vein of Galen malformations. J Neurointerv Surg. 2015 Jun; 7(6):443-8. PMID: 24789593.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Amans MR, Cooke DL, Vella M, Dowd CF, Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hetts SW. Contrast staining on CT after DSA in ischemic stroke patients progresses to infarction and rarely hemorrhages. Interv Neuroradiol. 2014 Jan-Feb; 20(1):106-15. PMID: 24556308; PMCID: PMC3971133.
    24. Cooke DL, Stout CE, Kim WT, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Gould RG. Radiation dose reduction in intra-arterial chemotherapy infusion for intraocular retinoblastoma. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Dec; 6(10):785-9. PMID: 24385553.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Cooke DL, Su H, Sun Z, Guo Y, Guo D, Saeed MM, Hetts SW, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Young WL, Halbach V. Endovascular biopsy: evaluating the feasibility of harvesting endothelial cells using detachable coils. Interv Neuroradiol. 2013 Dec; 19(4):399-408. PMID: 24355142; PMCID: PMC3902737.
    26. Amans MR, Stout C, Fox C, Narvid J, Hetts SW, Cooke DL, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, McSwain H, Halbach V. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Nov; 6(9):e46. PMID: 24353327.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Hetts SW, English JD, Stiver SI, Singh V, Yee EJ, Cooke DL, Halbach V. Bilateral cervical spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas with intracranial venous drainage mimicking a foramen magnum dural arteriovenous fistula. Interv Neuroradiol. 2013 Dec; 19(4):483-8. PMID: 24355154; PMCID: PMC3902749.
    28. Amans MR, Stout C, Fox C, Narvid J, Hetts SW, Cooke DL, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, McSwain H, Halbach V. Cerebral arteriopathy associated with Arg179His ACTA2 mutation. BMJ Case Rep. 2013 Nov 29; 2013. PMID: 24293535; PMCID: PMC3847515.
    29. Meisel K, Yee A, Stout C, Kim W, Cooke D, Halbach V. Arteriovenous fistula after ventriculostomy in aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Neurology. 2013 Jun 04; 80(23):2168. PMID: 23733553.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Losey AD, Lillaney P, Martin AJ, Halbach V, Cooke DL, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Saloner DA, Wilson MW, Saeed M, Hetts SW. Safety of retained microcatheters: an evaluation of radiofrequency heating in endovascular microcatheters with nitinol, tungsten, and polyetheretherketone braiding at 1.5 T and 3 T. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 May; 6(4):314-9. PMID: 23685793; PMCID: PMC3796159.
    31. Kansagra AP, Cooke DL, English JD, Sincic RM, Amans MR, Dowd CF, Halbach V, Higashida RT, Hetts SW. Current trends in endovascular management of traumatic cerebrovascular injury. J Neurointerv Surg. 2014 Jan; 6(1):47-50. PMID: 23322749.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Moftakhar P, English JD, Cooke DL, Kim WT, Stout C, Smith WS, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach V, Hetts SW. Density of thrombus on admission CT predicts revascularization efficacy in large vessel occlusion acute ischemic stroke. Stroke. 2013 Jan; 44(1):243-5. PMID: 23111438.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Cooke DL, Meisel KM, Kim WT, Stout CE, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Serial angiographic appearance of segmental arterial mediolysis manifesting as vertebral, internal mammary and intra-abdominal visceral artery aneurysms in a patient presenting with subarachnoid hemorrhage and review of the literature. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013 Sep 01; 5(5):478-82. PMID: 22693248.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Hetts SW, Moftakhar P, English JD, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Lawton MT, Douglas VC, Halbach V. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulas and intrathecal venous drainage: correlation between digital subtraction angiography, magnetic resonance imaging, and clinical findings. J Neurosurg Spine. 2012 May; 16(5):433-40. PMID: 22324803.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Tatum J, Farid H, Cooke D, Fullerton H, Smith W, Higashida R, Halbach V, Dowd C. Mechanical embolectomy for treatment of large vessel acute ischemic stroke in children. J Neurointerv Surg. 2013 Mar; 5(2):128-34. PMID: 22307540.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Alexander MD, Hetts SW, Young WL, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, English JD. Supernova hemorrhage: obliterative hemorrhage of brain arteriovenous malformations following ? knife radiosurgery. J Neurointerv Surg. 2012 Sep; 4(5):364-7. PMID: 21990534.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Cooke D, Farid H, Kim W, Dowd C, Higashida R, Halbach V. Zygomatico-orbital intra-arterial melphalan infusion for intraocular retinoblastoma. J Neurointerv Surg. 2012 Jul; 4(4):e16. PMID: 21990490.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Cooke D, Tatum J, Farid H, Dowd C, Higashida R, Halbach V. Transvenous embolization of a pediatric pial arteriovenous fistula. J Neurointerv Surg. 2012 Jul; 4(4):e14. PMID: 21990498.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Waldron JS, Halbach V, Lawton MT. Microsurgical management of incompletely coiled and recurrent aneurysms: trends, techniques, and observations on coil extrusion. Neurosurgery. 2009 May; 64(5 Suppl 2):301-15; discussion 315-7. PMID: 19404109.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Singh V, Smith WS, Lawton MT, Halbach V, Young WL. Risk factors for hemorrhagic presentation in patients with dural arteriovenous fistulae. Neurosurgery. 2008 Mar; 62(3):628-35; discussion 628-35. PMID: 18425010.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Lawton MT, Sanchez-Mejia RO, Pham D, Tan J, Halbach V. Tentorial dural arteriovenous fistulae: operative strategies and microsurgical results for six types. Neurosurgery. 2008 Mar; 62(3 Suppl 1):110-24; discussion 124-5. PMID: 18424975.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Narvid J, Hetts SW, Larsen D, Neuhaus J, Singh TP, McSwain H, Lawton MT, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Halbach V. Spinal dural arteriovenous fistulae: clinical features and long-term results. Neurosurgery. 2008 Jan; 62(1):159-66; discussion 166-7. PMID: 18300903.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Dispensa BP, Saloner DA, Acevedo-Bolton G, Achrol AS, Jou LD, McCulloch CE, Johnston SC, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach V, Ko NU, Lawton MT, Martin AJ, Quinnine N, Young WL. Estimation of fusiform intracranial aneurysm growth by serial magnetic resonance imaging. J Magn Reson Imaging. 2007 Jul; 26(1):177-83. PMID: 17659544.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Caragine LP, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Intraorbital arteriovenous fistulae of the ophthalmic veins treated by transvenous endovascular occlusion: technical case report. Neurosurgery. 2006 Feb; 58(1 Suppl):ONS-E170; discussion ONS-E170. PMID: 16462623.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Higashida RT, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Juravsky L, Meagher S. Initial clinical experience with a new self-expanding nitinol stent for the treatment of intracranial cerebral aneurysms: the Cordis Enterprise stent. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Aug; 26(7):1751-6. PMID: 16091525.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Martin AJ, Saloner DA, Roberts TP, Roberts H, Weber OM, Dillon W, Cullen S, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Carotid stent delivery in an XMR suite: immediate assessment of the physiologic impact of extracranial revascularization. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2005 Mar; 26(3):531-7. PMID: 15760861.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Smith WS, Dowd CF, Johnston SC, Ko NU, DeArmond SJ, Dillon WP, Setty D, Lawton MT, Young WL, Higashida RT, Halbach V. Neurotoxicity of intra-arterial papaverine preserved with chlorobutanol used for the treatment of cerebral vasospasm after aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage. Stroke. 2004 Nov; 35(11):2518-22. PMID: 15472097.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Chun JY, Gulati M, Halbach V, Lawton MT. Thrombosis of a spinal arteriovenous malformation after hemorrhage: case report. Surg Neurol. 2004 Jan; 61(1):92-4. PMID: 14706393.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Ng PP, Higashida RT, Cullen SP, Malek R, Dowd CF, Halbach V. Intraarterial thrombolysis trials in acute ischemic stroke. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2004 Jan; 15(1 Pt 2):S77-85. PMID: 15101517.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Caragine LP, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Ng PP, Higashida RT. Parallel venous channel as the recipient pouch in transverse/sigmoid sinus dural fistulae. Neurosurgery. 2003 Dec; 53(6):1261-6; discussion 1266-7. PMID: 14633292.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Stefanutto TB, Halbach V. Bronchospasm precipitated by ethanol injection in arteriovenous malformation. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003 Nov-Dec; 24(10):2050-1. PMID: 14625231.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Ng PP, Higashida RT, Cullen S, Malek R, Halbach V, Dowd CF. Endovascular strategies for carotid cavernous and intracerebral dural arteriovenous fistulas. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Oct 15; 15(4):ECP1. PMID: 15344900.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Dowd CF, Halbach V, Higashida RT. Meningiomas: the role of preoperative angiography and embolization. Neurosurg Focus. 2003 Jul 15; 15(1):E10. PMID: 15355012.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Du R, Binder DK, Halbach V, Fischbein N, Barbaro NM. Trigeminal neuralgia in a patient with a dural arteriovenous fistula in Meckel's cave: case report. Neurosurgery. 2003 Jul; 53(1):216-21; discussion 221. PMID: 12823893.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Ng PP, Halbach V, Quinn R, Balousek P, Caragine LP, Dowd CF, Higashida RT, Wilson C. Endovascular treatment for dural arteriovenous fistulae of the superior petrosal sinus. Neurosurgery. 2003 Jul; 53(1):25-32; discussion 32-3. PMID: 12823870.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Ng PP, Halbach V, Caragine LP, Dowd CF, Higashida RT. Guglielmi detachable coil extraction: suction generated by pusher-wire withdrawal after coil detachment within an intracranial aneurysm. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2003 May; 24(5):982-4. PMID: 12748107.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Hashimoto T, Wen G, Lawton MT, Boudreau NJ, Bollen AW, Yang GY, Barbaro NM, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach V, Young WL. Abnormal expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases in brain arteriovenous malformations. Stroke. 2003 Apr; 34(4):925-31. PMID: 12649522.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Vates GE, Lawton MT, Wilson CB, McDermott MW, Halbach V, Roberts TP, Rowley HA. Magnetic source imaging demonstrates altered cortical distribution of function in patients with arteriovenous malformations. Neurosurgery. 2002 Sep; 51(3):614-23; discussion 623-7. PMID: 12188939.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Meyers PM, Halbach V, Dowd CF, Lempert TE, Malek AM, Phatouros CC, Lefler JE, Higashida RT. Dural carotid cavernous fistula: definitive endovascular management and long-term follow-up. Am J Ophthalmol. 2002 Jul; 134(1):85-92. PMID: 12095813.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Caragine LP, Halbach V, Ng PP, Dowd CF. Vascular myelopathies-vascular malformations of the spinal cord: presentation and endovascular surgical management. Semin Neurol. 2002 Jun; 22(2):123-32. PMID: 12524557.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Singh V, Gress DR, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach V, Johnston SC. The learning curve for coil embolization of unruptured intracranial aneurysms. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2002 May; 23(5):768-71. PMID: 12006274.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Halim AX, Singh V, Johnston SC, Higashida RT, Dowd CF, Halbach V, Lawton MT, Gress DR, McCulloch CE, Young WL. Characteristics of brain arteriovenous malformations with coexisting aneurysms: a comparison of two referral centers. Stroke. 2002 Mar; 33(3):675-9. PMID: 11872886.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Phatouros CC, Meyers PM, Higashida RT, Malek AM, Lempert TE, Dowd CF, Halbach V. Intracranial hemorrhage and cerebral hyperperfusion syndrome after extracranial carotid artery angioplasty and stent placement. AJNR Am J Neuroradiol. 2002 Mar; 23(3):503-4. PMID: 11901031.
      View in: PubMed