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David Irby, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Phone415-514-8035
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0001-5753-8918 Additional info
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Graceland UniversityBA1966History and Religion
    Union Theological SeminaryMDiv1970Religion
    University of WashingtonPhD1977Education
    Harvard Medical SchoolPost doctoral Fellowship1983Medical School Leadership
    University of California, San Francisco, CA2018Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Champion Training
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    Association of American Medical Colleges2011Abraham Flexner Award for Distinguished Service to Medical Education
    Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden2010Karolinska Institutet Prize for Research in Medical Education
    American Educational Research Association2009Fellow of the American Educational Research Association, for substantial research accomplishments
    Vanderbilt University School of Medicine2007The John E. Chapman Medal Award, for transformative contributions to biomedical education
    Graceland University2006Distinguished Service Award
    University of California, San Francisco2005The Haile T. Debas Academy of Medical Educators
    Harvard Medical School and Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center2004Daniel C. Tosteson Award for Leadership in Medical Education
    National Board of Medical Examiners2001John P. Hubbard Award, for distinguished contributions to research on evaluation of medicine
    American Educational Research Association, Division I Professions Education1997Distinguished Scholar Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    David M. Irby, PhD is a professor emeritus of medicine in the Division of General Internal Medicine and a senior scholar in the Center for Faculty Educators at UCSF. From 1997-2011, he served as vice dean for education and director of the Office of Medical Education in the UCSF School of Medicine. In addition, he was a senior scholar at The Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching, where he co-directed a national study on the professional preparation of physicians that culminated in the 2010 publication: Educating Physicians: A Call for Reform of Medical School and Residency. From 1972-1997, he was on the faculty of the University of Washington Department of Medical Education.

    Over the past 40 years, his research has focused on clinical teaching (identifying and evaluating the characteristics, knowledge, reasoning, and actions of distinguished clinical teachers in medicine), faculty development, and curriculum change.

    For his research and leadership in academic medicine, he has received awards from the Karolinska Institutet in Stockholm, the Association of American Medical Colleges, the American Educational Research Association, and the National Board of Medical Examiners among others.

    He earned a doctorate in education from the University of Washington in 1977, a Masters of Divinity from Union Theological Seminary in 1970, and completed a postdoctoral fellowship in academic administration at Harvard Medical School in 1983.

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    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Bowen JL, Boscardin CK, Chiovaro J, Ten Cate O, Regehr G, Irby DM, O'Brien BC. A view from the sender side of feedback: anticipated receptivity to clinical feedback when changing prior physicians' clinical decisions-a mixed methods study. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2019 Sep 24. PMID: 31552531.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Steinert Y, O'Sullivan PS, Irby DM. Strengthening Teachers' Professional Identities Through Faculty Development. Acad Med. 2019 Jul; 94(7):963-968. PMID: 30844931.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Gruppen LD, Irby DM, Durning SJ, Maggio LA. Conceptualizing Learning Environments in the Health Professions. Acad Med. 2019 Jul; 94(7):969-974. PMID: 30870148.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Bowen JL, Ilgen JS, Regehr G, Ten Cate O, Irby DM, O'Brien BC. Reflections From the Rearview Mirror: Internal Medicine Physicians' Reactions to Clinical Feedback After Transitions of Responsibility. Acad Med. 2019 Jun 11. PMID: 31192795.
      View in: PubMed
    5. O'Brien BC, Irby DM, Durning SJ, Hamstra SJ, Hu WCY, Gruppen LD, Varpio L. Boyer and Beyond: An Interview Study of Health Professions Education Scholarship Units in the United States and a Synthetic Framework for Scholarship at the Unit Level. Acad Med. 2019 Jun; 94(6):893-901. PMID: 30720531.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Yang M, O'Sullivan PS, Irby DM, Chen Z, Lin C, Lin C. Challenges and adaptations in implementing an English-medium medical program:a case study in China. BMC Med Educ. 2019 Jan 09; 19(1):15. PMID: 30626387.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Shinkai K, Chen CA, Schwartz BS, Loeser H, Ashe C, Irby DM. Rethinking the Educator Portfolio: An Innovative Criteria-Based Model. Acad Med. 2018 07; 93(7):1024-1028. PMID: 29116980.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Floren LC, Donesky D, Whitaker E, Irby DM, Ten Cate O, O'Brien BC. Are We on the Same Page? Shared Mental Models to Support Clinical Teamwork Among Health Professions Learners: A Scoping Review. Acad Med. 2018 03; 93(3):498-509. PMID: 29028635.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Bowen JL, O'Brien BC, Ilgen JS, Irby DM, Ten Cate O. Chart stalking, list making, and physicians' efforts to track patients' outcomes after transitioning responsibility. Med Educ. 2018 04; 52(4):404-413. PMID: 29383741.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Young JQ, Irby DM, Kusz M, O'Sullivan PS. Performance Assessment of Pharmacotherapy: Results from a Content Validity Survey of the Psychopharmacotherapy-Structured Clinical Observation (P-SCO) Tool. Acad Psychiatry. 2018 Dec; 42(6):765-772. PMID: 29380145.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Bowen JL, Ilgen JS, Irby DM, Ten Cate O, O'Brien BC. "You Have to Know the End of the Story": Motivations to Follow Up After Transitions of Clinical Responsibility. Acad Med. 2017 11; 92(11S Association of American Medical Colleges Learn Serve Lead: Proceedings of the 56th Annual Research in Medical Education Sessions):S48-S54. PMID: 29065023.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Irby DM, O'Sullivan PS. Developing and rewarding teachers as educators and scholars: remarkable progress and daunting challenges. Med Educ. 2018 Jan; 52(1):58-67. PMID: 28771776.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Varpio L, O'Brien B, J Durning S, van der Vleuten C, Gruppen L, Ten Cate O, Humphrey-Murto S, Irby DM, Hamstra SJ, Hu W. Health Professions Education Scholarship Unit Leaders as Institutional Entrepreneurs. Acad Med. 2017 08; 92(8):1189-1195. PMID: 28121653.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Young JQ, O'Sullivan PS, Ruddick V, Irby DM, Cate OT. Improving Handoffs Curricula: Instructional Techniques From Cognitive Load Theory. Acad Med. 2017 May; 92(5):719. PMID: 28296650.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Varpio L, O'Brien B, Hu W, Ten Cate O, Durning SJ, van der Vleuten C, Gruppen L, Irby D, Humphrey-Murto S, Hamstra SJ. Exploring the institutional logics of health professions education scholarship units. Med Educ. 2017 Jul; 51(7):755-767. PMID: 28418162.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Varpio L, Gruppen L, Hu W, O'Brien B, Ten Cate O, Humphrey-Murto S, Irby DM, van der Vleuten C, Hamstra SJ, Durning SJ. Working Definitions of the Roles and an Organizational Structure in Health Professions Education Scholarship: Initiating an International Conversation. Acad Med. 2017 02; 92(2):205-208. PMID: 27580432.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Young JQ, Boscardin CK, van Dijk SM, Abdullah R, Irby DM, Sewell JL, Ten Cate O, O'Sullivan PS. Performance of a cognitive load inventory during simulated handoffs: Evidence for validity. SAGE Open Med. 2016; 4:2050312116682254. PMID: 28348737.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Irby DM, Hamstra SJ. Parting the Clouds: Three Professionalism Frameworks in Medical Education. Acad Med. 2016 12; 91(12):1606-1611. PMID: 27119331.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Chen HC, Wamsley MA, Azzam A, Julian K, Irby DM, O'Sullivan PS. The Health Professions Education Pathway: Preparing Students, Residents, and Fellows to Become Future Educators. Teach Learn Med. 2017 Apr-Jun; 29(2):216-227. PMID: 27813688.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Young JQ, van Dijk SM, O'Sullivan PS, Custers EJ, Irby DM, Ten Cate O. Influence of learner knowledge and case complexity on handover accuracy and cognitive load: results from a simulation study. Med Educ. 2016 Sep; 50(9):969-78. PMID: 27562896.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Shekarchian S, Schwartz BS, Teherani A, Irby D, Chin-Hong PV. Is It Time for a Coordinated and Longitudinal Approach to Antibiotic Stewardship Education? Clin Infect Dis. 2016 09 15; 63(6):848-9. PMID: 27343546.
      View in: PubMed
    22. van Schaik SM, Regehr G, Eva KW, Irby DM, O'Sullivan PS. Perceptions of Peer-to-Peer Interprofessional Feedback Among Students in the Health Professions. Acad Med. 2016 06; 91(6):807-12. PMID: 26556298.
      View in: PubMed
    23. O'Sullivan PS, Mkony C, Beard J, Irby DM. Identity formation and motivation of new faculty developers: A replication study in a resource constrained university. Med Teach. 2016 Sep; 38(9):879-85. PMID: 26855161.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Young JQ, Irby DM, Barilla-LaBarca ML, Ten Cate O, O'Sullivan PS. Measuring cognitive load: mixed results from a handover simulation for medical students. Perspect Med Educ. 2016 Feb; 5(1):24-32. PMID: 26759306.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Young JQ, Wachter RM, Ten Cate O, O'Sullivan PS, Irby DM. Advancing the next generation of handover research and practice with cognitive load theory. BMJ Qual Saf. 2016 Feb; 25(2):66-70. PMID: 26786521.
      View in: PubMed
    26. van Schaik SM, O'Sullivan PS, Eva KW, Irby DM, Regehr G. Does source matter? Nurses' and Physicians' perceptions of interprofessional feedback. Med Educ. 2016 Feb; 50(2):181-8. PMID: 26812997.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Young JQ, Ten Cate O, O'Sullivan PS, Irby DM. Unpacking the Complexity of Patient Handoffs Through the Lens of Cognitive Load Theory. Teach Learn Med. 2016; 28(1):88-96. PMID: 26787089.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Maggio LA, ten Cate O, Chen HC, Irby DM, O'Brien BC. Challenges to Learning Evidence-Based Medicine and Educational Approaches to Meet These Challenges: A Qualitative Study of Selected EBM Curricula in U.S. and Canadian Medical Schools. Acad Med. 2016 Jan; 91(1):101-6. PMID: 26200580.
      View in: PubMed
    29. O'Sullivan PS, Irby DM. What motivates occasional faculty developers to lead faculty development workshops? A qualitative study. Acad Med. 2015 Nov; 90(11):1536-40. PMID: 26017353.
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    30. Maggio LA, Cate OT, Irby DM, O'Brien BC. Designing evidence-based medicine training to optimize the transfer of skills from the classroom to clinical practice: applying the four component instructional design model. Acad Med. 2015 Nov; 90(11):1457-61. PMID: 25993279.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Irby DM, O'sullivan PS, Steinert Y. Is it time to recognize excellence in faculty development programs? Med Teach. 2015 Aug; 37(8):705-706. PMID: 26023750.
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    32. Lin SY, Schillinger E, Irby DM. Value-added medical education: engaging future doctors to transform health care delivery today. J Gen Intern Med. 2015 Feb; 30(2):150-1. PMID: 25217209.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Chan LK, Yang J, Irby DM. Application of the one-minute preceptor technique by novice teachers in the gross anatomy laboratory. Anat Sci Educ. 2015 Nov-Dec; 8(6):539-46. PMID: 25573139.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Maggio LA, Cate OT, Moorhead LL, van Stiphout F, Kramer BM, Ter Braak E, Posley K, Irby D, O'Brien BC. Characterizing physicians' information needs at the point of care. Perspect Med Educ. 2014 Nov; 3(5):332-42. PMID: 24865885.
      View in: PubMed
    35. O'Sullivan PS, Irby DM. Identity formation of occasional faculty developers in medical education: a qualitative study. Acad Med. 2014 Nov; 89(11):1467-73. PMID: 24979283.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Irby DM. Excellence in clinical teaching: knowledge transformation and development required. Med Educ. 2014 Aug; 48(8):776-84. PMID: 25039734.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Hauer KE, Ten Cate O, Boscardin C, Irby DM, Iobst W, O'Sullivan PS. Understanding trust as an essential element of trainee supervision and learning in the workplace. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2014 Aug; 19(3):435-56. PMID: 23892689.
      View in: PubMed
    38. O'Brien BC, Irby DM. Enacting the Carnegie Foundation call for reform of medical school and residency. Teach Learn Med. 2013; 25 Suppl 1:S1-8. PMID: 24246101.
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    39. Teherani A, Irby DM, Loeser H. Outcomes of different clerkship models: longitudinal integrated, hybrid, and block. Acad Med. 2013 Jan; 88(1):35-43. PMID: 23165275.
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    40. O'Sullivan PS, Irby DM. Reframing research on faculty development. Acad Med. 2011 Apr; 86(4):421-8. PMID: 21346505.
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    41. Hemmer PA, Busing N, Boulet JR, Burdick WP, McKillop J, Irby D, Ann Farmer E, Duvivier R. AMEE 2010 symposium: medical student education in the twenty-first century - a new Flexnerian era? Med Teach. 2011; 33(7):541-6. PMID: 21696279.
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    42. Irby D. Educating physicians for the future: Carnegie's calls for reform. Med Teach. 2011; 33(7):547-50. PMID: 21696280.
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    43. Loeser H, Irby DM. University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine. Acad Med. 2010 Sep; 85(9 Suppl):S97-9. PMID: 20736658.
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    44. Glick SB, Fernandez L, Irby DM, Harleman E, Fernandez A. Teaching about health care disparities in the clinical setting. J Gen Intern Med. 2010 May; 25 Suppl 2:S95-101. PMID: 20352501.
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    45. Irby DM, Cooke M, O'Brien BC. Calls for reform of medical education by the Carnegie Foundation for the Advancement of Teaching: 1910 and 2010. Acad Med. 2010 Feb; 85(2):220-7. PMID: 20107346.
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    46. Hauer KE, Ciccone A, Henzel TR, Katsufrakis P, Miller SH, Norcross WA, Papadakis MA, Irby DM. Remediation of the deficiencies of physicians across the continuum from medical school to practice: a thematic review of the literature. Acad Med. 2009 Dec; 84(12):1822-32. PMID: 19940595.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Saxena V, O'Sullivan PS, Teherani A, Irby DM, Hauer KE. Remediation techniques for student performance problems after a comprehensive clinical skills assessment. Acad Med. 2009 May; 84(5):669-76. PMID: 19704207.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Hauer KE, Teherani A, Kerr KM, Irby DM, O'Sullivan PS. Consequences within medical schools for students with poor performance on a medical school standardized patient comprehensive assessment. Acad Med. 2009 May; 84(5):663-8. PMID: 19704205.
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    49. O'Sullivan PS, Niehaus B, Lockspeiser TM, Irby DM. Becoming an academic doctor: perceptions of scholarly careers. Med Educ. 2009 Apr; 43(4):335-41. PMID: 19335575.
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    50. Muller JH, Jain S, Loeser H, Irby DM. Lessons learned about integrating a medical school curriculum: perceptions of students, faculty and curriculum leaders. Med Educ. 2008 Aug; 42(8):778-85. PMID: 18627445.
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    51. Irby DM, Wilkerson L. Teaching when time is limited. BMJ. 2008 Feb 16; 336(7640):384-7. PMID: 18276715.
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    52. Hauer KE, Teherani A, Irby DM, Kerr KM, O'Sullivan PS. Approaches to medical student remediation after a comprehensive clinical skills examination. Med Educ. 2008 Jan; 42(1):104-12. PMID: 18042183.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Hauer KE, Teherani A, Kerr KM, O'Sullivan PS, Irby DM. Student performance problems in medical school clinical skills assessments. Acad Med. 2007 Oct; 82(10 Suppl):S69-72. PMID: 17895695.
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    54. O'Brien B, Cooke M, Irby DM. Perceptions and attributions of third-year student struggles in clerkships: do students and clerkship directors agree? Acad Med. 2007 Oct; 82(10):970-8. PMID: 17895662.
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    55. Simpson D, Fincher RM, Hafler JP, Irby DM, Richards BF, Rosenfeld GC, Viggiano TR. Advancing educators and education by defining the components and evidence associated with educational scholarship. Med Educ. 2007 Oct; 41(10):1002-9. PMID: 17822412.
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    56. Autry A, Irby D, Hodgson C. Faculty attrition in obstetrics and gynecology. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Jun; 196(6):603.e1-4; discussion 603.e5. PMID: 17547915.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Teherani A, O'Sullivan P, Aagaard EM, Morrison EH, Irby DM. Student perceptions of the one minute preceptor and traditional preceptor models. Med Teach. 2007 May; 29(4):323-7. PMID: 17786745.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Loeser H, O'Sullivan P, Irby DM. Leadership lessons from curricular change at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine. Acad Med. 2007 Apr; 82(4):324-30. PMID: 17414186.
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    59. Irby DM. Educational continuity in clinical clerkships. N Engl J Med. 2007 Feb 22; 356(8):856-7. PMID: 17314347.
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    60. Muller JH, Irby DM. Developing educational leaders: the teaching scholars program at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine. Acad Med. 2006 Nov; 81(11):959-64. PMID: 17065856.
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    61. Gruppen LD, Simpson D, Searle NS, Robins L, Irby DM, Mullan PB. Educational fellowship programs: common themes and overarching issues. Acad Med. 2006 Nov; 81(11):990-4. PMID: 17065863.
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    62. Hauer KE, Teherani A, Kerr KM, O'sullivan PS, Irby DM. Impact of the United States Medical Licensing Examination Step 2 Clinical Skills exam on medical school clinical skills assessment. Acad Med. 2006 Oct; 81(10 Suppl):S13-6. PMID: 17001124.
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    63. Cooke M, Irby DM, Sullivan W, Ludmerer KM. American medical education 100 years after the Flexner report. N Engl J Med. 2006 Sep 28; 355(13):1339-44. PMID: 17005951.
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    64. Hauer KE, Hodgson CS, Kerr KM, Teherani A, Irby DM. A national study of medical student clinical skills assessment. Acad Med. 2005 Oct; 80(10 Suppl):S25-9. PMID: 16199452.
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    65. Bland CJ, Irby DM. Frank T. Stritter, PH.D. Educationist: teacher, coach and researcher. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2005; 10(2):157-67. PMID: 16078100.
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    66. Irby DM, Hodgson CS, Muller JH. Promoting research in medical education at the University of California, San Francisco, School of Medicine. Acad Med. 2004 Oct; 79(10):981-4. PMID: 15383359.
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    67. Irby DM, Cooke M, Lowenstein D, Richards B. The academy movement: a structural approach to reinvigorating the educational mission. Acad Med. 2004 Aug; 79(8):729-36. PMID: 15277127.
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    68. Aagaard E, Teherani A, Irby DM. Effectiveness of the one-minute preceptor model for diagnosing the patient and the learner: proof of concept. Acad Med. 2004 Jan; 79(1):42-9. PMID: 14690996.
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    69. Irby DM, Aagaard E, Teherani A. Teaching points identified by preceptors observing one-minute preceptor and traditional preceptor encounters. Acad Med. 2004 Jan; 79(1):50-5. PMID: 14690997.
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    70. Cooke M, Irby DM, Debas HT. The UCSF Academy of Medical Educators. Acad Med. 2003 Jul; 78(7):666-72. PMID: 12857682.
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    71. Irby DM, Wilkerson L. Educational innovations in academic medicine and environmental trends. J Gen Intern Med. 2003 May; 18(5):370-6. PMID: 12795736.
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    72. Irby DM, Wilkerson L. Charles W. Dohner, PhD: an evaluator and mentor in medical education. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 2003; 8(1):63-73. PMID: 12652169.
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    73. Hollander H, Loeser H, Irby D. An anticipatory quality improvement process for curricular reform. Acad Med. 2002 Sep; 77(9):930. PMID: 12228101.
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    74. Ogrinc G, Mutha S, Irby DM. Evidence for longitudinal ambulatory care rotations: a review of the literature. Acad Med. 2002 Jul; 77(7):688-93. PMID: 12114141.
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    75. Bowen JL, Irby DM. Assessing quality and costs of education in the ambulatory setting: a review of the literature. Acad Med. 2002 Jul; 77(7):621-80. PMID: 12114139.
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    76. Cooke M, Irby DM. The UCSF Academy of Medical Educators. Acad Med. 2002 May; 77(5):455-6. PMID: 12010710.
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    77. Furney SL, Orsini AN, Orsetti KE, Stern DT, Gruppen LD, Irby DM. Teaching the one-minute preceptor. A randomized controlled trial. J Gen Intern Med. 2001 Sep; 16(9):620-4. PMID: 11556943.
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    78. Irby DM. Where have all the preceptors gone? Erosion of the volunteer clinical faculty. West J Med. 2001 Apr; 174(4):246. PMID: 11290677.
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    79. DeWitt DE, Migeon M, LeBlond R, Carline JD, Francis L, Irby DM. Insights from outstanding rural internal medicine residency rotations at the University of Washington. Acad Med. 2001 Mar; 76(3):273-81. PMID: 11242581.
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    80. Irby DM, Papadakis M. Does good clinical teaching really make a difference? Am J Med. 2001 Feb 15; 110(3):231-2. PMID: 11182114.
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    81. Loeser H, Irby DM. University of California at San Francisco School of Medicine. Acad Med. 2000 Sep; 75(9 Suppl):S27-9. PMID: 10995632.
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    82. Usatine RP, Tremoulet PT, Irby D. Time-efficient preceptors in ambulatory care settings. Acad Med. 2000 Jun; 75(6):639-42. PMID: 10875509.
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    83. Boex JR, Boll AA, Franzini L, Hogan AJ, Irby D, Meservey PM, Rubin RM, Seifer SD, Veloski JJ. Measuring the costs of primary care education in the ambulatory setting. Acad Med. 2000 May; 75(5):419-25. PMID: 10824763.
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    84. Irby DM. Primary care: beyond disciplines. Am J Med. 1999 May; 106(5):596-7. PMID: 10335734.
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    85. Burack JH, Irby DM, Carline JD, Root RK, Larson EB. Teaching compassion and respect. Attending physicians' responses to problematic behaviors. J Gen Intern Med. 1999 Jan; 14(1):49-55. PMID: 9893091.
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    86. Brock DM, Schaad DC, Guo J, Hunt DD, Samson W, Irby DM. Development and psychometric properties of the Washington Primary Care Interest Inventory. Acad Med. 1998 Dec; 73(12):1299-304. PMID: 9883208.
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    87. Bordage G, Burack JH, Irby DM, Stritter FT. Education in ambulatory settings: developing valid measures of educational outcomes, and other research priorities. Acad Med. 1998 Jul; 73(7):743-50. PMID: 9679462.
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    88. Wilkerson L, Irby DM. Strategies for improving teaching practices: a comprehensive approach to faculty development. Acad Med. 1998 Apr; 73(4):387-96. PMID: 9580715.
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    89. Carline JD, Patterson DG, Davis LA, Irby DM, Oakes-Borremo P. Precollege enrichment programs intended to increase the representation of minorities in medicine. Acad Med. 1998 Mar; 73(3):288-98. PMID: 9526456.
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    90. Pinsky LE, Monson D, Irby DM. How Excellent Teachers Are Made: Reflecting on Success to Improve Teaching. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 1998; 3(3):207-215. PMID: 12386442.
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    91. Ellsbury KE, Carline JD, Irby DM, Stritter FT. Influence of Third-Year Clerkships on Medical Student Specialty Preferences. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 1998; 3(3):177-186. PMID: 12386439.
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    92. Ambrozy DM, Irby DM, Bowen JL, Burack JH, Carline JD, Stritter FT. Role models' perceptions of themselves and their influence on students' specialty choices. Acad Med. 1997 Dec; 72(12):1119-21. PMID: 9435723.
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    93. Anderson WA, Carline JD, Ambrozy DM, Irby DM. Faculty development for ambulatory care education. Acad Med. 1997 Dec; 72(12):1072-5. PMID: 9435713.
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    94. Pinsky LE, Irby DM. "If at first you don't succeed": using failure to improve teaching. Acad Med. 1997 Nov; 72(11):973-6; discussion 972. PMID: 9387819.
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    95. Irby DM. Ideas for medical education. Acad Med. 1997 Oct; 72(10):875. PMID: 9376039.
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    96. Usatine RP, Nguyen K, Randall J, Irby DM. Four exemplary preceptors' strategies for efficient teaching in managed care settings. Acad Med. 1997 Sep; 72(9):766-9. PMID: 9311317.
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    97. Skeff KM, Bowen JL, Irby DM. Protecting time for teaching in the ambulatory care setting. Acad Med. 1997 Aug; 72(8):694-7; discussion 693. PMID: 9282144.
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    98. Burack JH, Irby DM, Carline JD, Ambrozy DM, Ellsbury KE, Stritter FT. A study of medical students' specialty-choice pathways: trying on possible selves. Acad Med. 1997 Jun; 72(6):534-41. PMID: 9200589.
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    99. Simpson D, Irby DM. Ideas for medical education. Introduction. Acad Med. 1997 Jun; 72(6):505. PMID: 9200581.
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    100. Irby DM, Simpson D. Ideas for medical education. Acad Med. 1997 May; 72(5):357. PMID: 9159579.
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    101. McGee SR, Irby DM. Teaching in the outpatient clinic. Practical tips. J Gen Intern Med. 1997 Apr; 12 Suppl 2:S34-40. PMID: 9127242.
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    102. Irby DM, Hekelman FP. Future directions for research on faculty development. Fam Med. 1997 Apr; 29(4):287-9. PMID: 9110167.
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    103. Irby DM. Ideas for medical education. Acad Med. 1997 Mar; 72(3):186. PMID: 9131900.
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    104. Smith CS, Irby DM. The roles of experience and reflection in ambulatory care education. Acad Med. 1997 Jan; 72(1):32-5. PMID: 9008565.
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    105. Ellsbury KE, Burack JH, Irby DM, Stritter FT, Ambrozy D, Carline JD, Guo J, Schaad DC. The shift to primary care: emerging influences on specialty choice. Acad Med. 1996 Oct; 71(10 Suppl):S16-8. PMID: 8940922.
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    106. Irby DM. Center for Medical Education Research. Acad Med. 1996 May; 71(5):519-20. PMID: 10676248.
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    107. Irby DM. Models of faculty development for problem-based learning. Adv Health Sci Educ Theory Pract. 1996 Jan; 1(1):69-81. PMID: 24178995.
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    108. Hekelman FP, Harris DL, Irby DM. Rethinking faculty development. Acad Med. 1995 Nov; 70(11):946-7; author reply 947-9. PMID: 7575940.
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    109. Irby DM. Teaching and learning in ambulatory care settings: a thematic review of the literature. Acad Med. 1995 Oct; 70(10):898-931. PMID: 7575922.
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    110. Irby DM. Three exemplary models of case-based teaching. Acad Med. 1994 Dec; 69(12):947-53. PMID: 7999181.
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    111. Irby DM. What clinical teachers in medicine need to know. Acad Med. 1994 May; 69(5):333-42. PMID: 8166912.
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    112. Ramsbottom-Lucier MT, Gillmore GM, Irby DM, Ramsey PG. Evaluation of clinical teaching by general internal medicine faculty in outpatient and inpatient settings. Acad Med. 1994 Feb; 69(2):152-4. PMID: 8311888.
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    113. Irby DM. Faculty development and academic vitality. Acad Med. 1993 Oct; 68(10):760-3. PMID: 8397601.
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    114. Irby DM. Evaluating instructional scholarship in medicine. J Am Podiatr Med Assoc. 1993 Jun; 83(6):332-7. PMID: 8315587.
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    115. Irby DM. How attending physicians make instructional decisions when conducting teaching rounds. Acad Med. 1992 Oct; 67(10):630-8. PMID: 1388522.
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    116. Irby DM, Ramsey PG, Gillmore GM, Schaad D. Characteristics of effective clinical teachers of ambulatory care medicine. Acad Med. 1991 Jan; 66(1):54-5. PMID: 1985681.
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    117. Irby DM. Shifting paradigms of research in medical education. Acad Med. 1990 Oct; 65(10):622-3. PMID: 2261033.
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    118. Irby DM, Milam S. The legal context for evaluating and dismissing medical students and residents. Acad Med. 1989 Nov; 64(11):639-43. PMID: 2803418.
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    119. Ramsey PG, Gillmore GM, Irby DM. Evaluating clinical teaching in the medicine clerkship: relationship of instructor experience and training setting to ratings of teaching effectiveness. J Gen Intern Med. 1988 Jul-Aug; 3(4):351-5. PMID: 3404296.
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    120. Irby DM, Gillmore GM, Ramsey PG. Factors affecting ratings of clinical teachers by medical students and residents. J Med Educ. 1987 Jan; 62(1):1-7. PMID: 3795239.
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    121. Irby DM. Clinical teaching and the clinical teacher. J Med Educ. 1986 Sep; 61(9 Pt 2):35-45. PMID: 3746867.
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    122. Irby DM. Evaluating teaching skills. Diabetes Educ. 1985 Dec; 11 Suppl:37-46. PMID: 3853980.
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    123. Strand DA, Vontver LA, Stenchever MA, Hadac RR, Irby DM. Longitudinal analysis of a multisite clerkship. Obstet Gynecol. 1985 Nov; 66(5):723-6. PMID: 4058830.
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    124. Rakestraw PG, Vontver LA, Irby DM. Utilization of an anthropomorphic model in pelvic examination instruction. J Med Educ. 1985 Apr; 60(4):343-5. PMID: 3981599.
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    125. Irby DM, Stenchever MA, Vontver LA. Using personality style preferences to enhance teaching in obstetrics and gynecology. Obstet Gynecol. 1984 Sep; 64(3):436-9. PMID: 6462576.
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    126. Featherstone HJ, Beitman BD, Irby DM. Distorted learning from unusual medical anecdotes. Med Educ. 1984 May; 18(3):155-8. PMID: 6717307.
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    127. Irby DM. Evaluating instruction in medical education. J Med Educ. 1983 Nov; 58(11):844-9. PMID: 6631922.
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    128. Irby DM. Peer review of teaching in medicine. J Med Educ. 1983 Jun; 58(6):457-61. PMID: 6854607.
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    129. Rakestraw PG, Irby DM, Vontver LA. The use of mental practice in pelvic examination instruction. J Med Educ. 1983 Apr; 58(4):335-40. PMID: 6834412.
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    130. Stritter FT, Kappelman MM, Irby DM, Skeff KM. Symposium: The study and improvement of clinical instruction. Proc Annu Conf Res Med Educ. 1983; 22:262-9. PMID: 6564871.
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    131. Irby DM, Vontver LA, Stenchever MA. Improving teaching in a multisite clerkship. Faculty-development workshops. J Reprod Med. 1982 Jun; 27(6):307-10. PMID: 7120207.
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    132. Hunt DD, Irby D, Bauer R, Loebel JP. An appraisal of methods of evaluating training in psychiatry. Med Educ. 1981 Sep; 15(5):332-4. PMID: 7266398.
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    133. Irby D, Rakestraw P. Evaluating clinical teaching in medicine. J Med Educ. 1981 Mar; 56(3):181-6. PMID: 7205919.
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    134. Irby DM, Fantel JI, Milam SD, Schwarz MR. Legal guidelines for evaluating and dismissing medical students. N Engl J Med. 1981 Jan 15; 304(3):180-4. PMID: 7442743.
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    135. Vontver LA, Irby DM, Stenchever MA. Impact of family practice residents on obstetrics and gynecology basic clerkship: medical students' perceptions. J Fam Pract. 1980 Dec; 11(7):1071-5. PMID: 7452165.
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    136. Vontver L, Irby D, Rakestraw P, Haddock M, Prince E, Stenchever M. The effects of two methods of pelvic examination instruction on student performance and anxiety. J Med Educ. 1980 Sep; 55(9):778-85. PMID: 7441695.
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    137. Irby DM, Vontver LA, Stenchever MA. Evaluation of student performance in a multi-site clinical clerkship. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1980 Apr 15; 136(8):1020-3. PMID: 7369253.
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    138. Stenchever MA, Irby D, O'Toole B. A national survey of undergraduate teaching in obstetrics and gynecology. J Med Educ. 1979 Jun; 54(6):467-70. PMID: 448696.
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    139. Stenchever MA, O'Toole B, Irby D. Evaluating student performance in an obstetrics and gynecology clerkship. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1979 Jun 01; 134(3):235-7. PMID: 453255.
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    140. Irby DM. Teaching and learning style preferences of family medicine preceptors and residents. J Fam Pract. 1979 May; 8(5):1065-7. PMID: 438746.
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    141. Irby DM. Clinical teacher effectiveness in medicine. J Med Educ. 1978 Oct; 53(10):808-15. PMID: 712768.
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    142. Irby DM, Shannon NF, Scher M, Peckham P, Ko G, Davis E. The use of student ratings in multiinstructor courses. J Med Educ. 1977 Aug; 52(8):668-73. PMID: 886574.
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    143. Irby DM. Clinical teacher effectiveness in medicine. Annu Conf Res Med Educ. 1977; 16:161-6. PMID: 606071.
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    144. Irby DM, Demers JL, Scher M, Matthews D. Letter: Faculty development. J Med Educ. 1976 Sep; 51(09):789. PMID: 957399.
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    145. Irby D, DeMers J, Scher M, Matthews D. A model for the improvement of medical faculty lecturing. J Med Educ. 1976 May; 51(5):403-9. PMID: 1263230.
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