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    Allan Balmain, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentHDF Comprehensive Cancer Ctr
    Address1450 3rd Street
    San Francisco CA 94158
    Phone415-502-4192
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      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Halliwill KD, Quigley DA, Kang HC, Del Rosario R, Ginzinger D, Balmain A. Panx3 links body mass index and tumorigenesis in a genetically heterogeneous mouse model of carcinogen-induced cancer. Genome Med. 2016; 8(1):83. PMID: 27506198.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Quigley DA, Kandyba E, Huang P, Halliwill KD, Sjölund J, Pelorosso F, Wong CE, Hirst GL, Wu D, Delrosario R, Kumar A, Balmain A, et al. Gene Expression Architecture of Mouse Dorsal and Tail Skin Reveals Functional Differences in Inflammation and Cancer. Cell Rep. 2016 Jul 14. PMID: 27425619.
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      3. Wang MT, Holderfield M, Galeas J, Delrosario R, To MD, Balmain A, McCormick F. K-Ras Promotes Tumorigenicity through Suppression of Non-canonical Wnt Signaling. Cell. 2015 Nov 19; 163(5):1237-51. PMID: 26590425.
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      4. McCreery MQ, Halliwill KD, Chin D, Delrosario R, Hirst G, Vuong P, Jen KY, Hewinson J, Adams DJ, Balmain A. Evolution of metastasis revealed by mutational landscapes of chemically induced skin cancers. Nat Med. 2015 Dec; 21(12):1514-20. PMID: 26523969.
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      5. Adams CJ, Yu JS, Mao JH, Jen KY, Costes SV, Wade M, Shoemake J, Aina OH, Del Rosario R, Menchavez PT, Cardiff RD, Wahl GM, Balmain A. The Trp53 delta proline (Trp53?P) mouse exhibits increased genome instability and susceptibility to radiation-induced, but not spontaneous, tumor development. Mol Carcinog. 2016 Sep; 55(9):1387-96. PMID: 26310697.
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      6. Hiraoka K, Inoue T, Taylor RD, Watanabe T, Koshikawa N, Yoda H, Shinohara K, Takatori A, Sugimoto H, Maru Y, Denda T, Fujiwara K, Balmain A, Ozaki T, Bando T, Sugiyama H, Nagase H. Inhibition of KRAS codon 12 mutants using a novel DNA-alkylating pyrrole-imidazole polyamide conjugate. Nat Commun. 2015; 6:6706. PMID: 25913614.
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      7. Letteboer TG, Benzinou M, Merrick CB, Quigley DA, Zhau K, Kim IJ, To MD, Jablons DM, van Amstel JK, Westermann CJ, Giraud S, Dupuis-Girod S, Lesca G, Berg JH, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. Genetic variation in the functional ENG allele inherited from the non-affected parent associates with presence of pulmonary arteriovenous malformation in hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia 1 (HHT1) and may influence expression of PTPN14. Front Genet. 2015; 6:67. PMID: 25815003; PMCID: PMC4357294.
      8. Chen J, Hackett CS, Zhang S, Song YK, Bell RJ, Molinaro AM, Quigley DA, Balmain A, Song JS, Costello JF, Gustafson WC, Van Dyke T, Kwok PY, Khan J, Weiss WA. The genetics of splicing in neuroblastoma. Cancer Discov. 2015 Apr; 5(4):380-95. PMID: 25637275; PMCID: PMC4390477.
      9. Westcott PM, Halliwill KD, To MD, Rashid M, Rust AG, Keane TM, Delrosario R, Jen KY, Gurley KE, Kemp CJ, Fredlund E, Quigley DA, Adams DJ, Balmain A. The mutational landscapes of genetic and chemical models of Kras-driven lung cancer. Nature. 2015 Jan 22; 517(7535):489-92. PMID: 25363767; PMCID: PMC4304785.
      10. Quigley D, Silwal-Pandit L, Dannenfelser R, Langerød A, Vollan HK, Vaske C, Siegel JU, Troyanskaya O, Chin SF, Caldas C, Balmain A, Børresen-Dale AL, Kristensen V. Lymphocyte Invasion in IC10/Basal-Like Breast Tumors Is Associated with Wild-Type TP53. Mol Cancer Res. 2015 Mar; 13(3):493-501. PMID: 25351767; PMCID: PMC4465579.
      11. Hackett CS, Quigley DA, Wong RA, Chen J, Cheng C, Song YK, Wei JS, Pawlikowska L, Bao Y, Goldenberg DD, Nguyen K, Gustafson WC, Rallapalli SK, Cho YJ, Cook JM, Kozlov S, Mao JH, Van Dyke T, Kwok PY, Khan J, Balmain A, Fan Q, Weiss WA. Expression quantitative trait loci and receptor pharmacology implicate Arg1 and the GABA-A receptor as therapeutic targets in neuroblastoma. Cell Rep. 2014 Nov 6; 9(3):1034-46. PMID: 25437558; PMCID: PMC4251494.
      12. Balmain A, Yuspa SH. Milestones in skin carcinogenesis: the biology of multistage carcinogenesis. J Invest Dermatol. 2014; 134(e1):E2-7. PMID: 25302469.
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      13. Huang PY, Balmain A. Modeling cutaneous squamous carcinoma development in the mouse. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Med. 2014 Sep; 4(9):a013623. PMID: 25183851.
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      14. Hiatt RA, Porco TC, Liu F, Balke K, Balmain A, Barlow J, Braithwaite D, Diez-Roux AV, Kushi LH, Moasser MM, Werb Z, Windham GC, Rehkopf DH. A multilevel model of postmenopausal breast cancer incidence. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2014 Oct; 23(10):2078-92. PMID: 25017248.
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      15. Sjölund J, Pelorosso FG, Quigley DA, DelRosario R, Balmain A. Identification of Hipk2 as an essential regulator of white fat development. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 May 20; 111(20):7373-8. PMID: 24785298; PMCID: PMC4034214.
      16. Song IY, Balmain A. Cellular reprogramming in skin cancer. Semin Cancer Biol. 2015 Jun; 32:32-9. PMID: 24721247; PMCID: PMC4467683 [Available on 06/01/16].
      17. Quigley DA, Fiorito E, Nord S, Van Loo P, Alnæs GG, Fleischer T, Tost J, Moen Vollan HK, Tramm T, Overgaard J, Bukholm IR, Hurtado A, Balmain A, Børresen-Dale AL, Kristensen V. The 5p12 breast cancer susceptibility locus affects MRPS30 expression in estrogen-receptor positive tumors. Mol Oncol. 2014 Mar; 8(2):273-84. PMID: 24388359; PMCID: PMC3964809.
      18. Lessard JC, Piña-Paz S, Rotty JD, Hickerson RP, Kaspar RL, Balmain A, Coulombe PA. Keratin 16 regulates innate immunity in response to epidermal barrier breach. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 26; 110(48):19537-42. PMID: 24218583; PMCID: PMC3845144.
      19. Saunders SP, Goh CS, Brown SJ, Palmer CN, Porter RM, Cole C, Campbell LE, Gierlinski M, Barton GJ, Schneider G, Balmain A, Prescott AR, Weidinger S, Baurecht H, Kabesch M, Gieger C, Lee YA, Tavendale R, Mukhopadhyay S, Turner SW, Madhok VB, Sullivan FM, Relton C, Burn J, Meggitt S, Smith CH, Allen MA, Barker JN, Reynolds NJ, Cordell HJ, Irvine AD, McLean WH, Sandilands A, Fallon PG. Tmem79/Matt is the matted mouse gene and is a predisposing gene for atopic dermatitis in human subjects. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Nov; 132(5):1121-9. PMID: 24084074; PMCID: PMC3834151.
      20. Wong CE, Yu JS, Quigley DA, To MD, Jen KY, Huang PY, Del Rosario R, Balmain A. Inflammation and Hras signaling control epithelial-mesenchymal transition during skin tumor progression. Genes Dev. 2013 Mar 15; 27(6):670-82. PMID: 23512660; PMCID: PMC3613613.
      21. Kang HC, Quigley DA, Kim IJ, Wakabayashi Y, Ferguson-Smith MA, D'Alessandro M, Birgitte Lane E, Akhurst RJ, Goudie DR, Balmain A. Multiple self-healing squamous epithelioma (MSSE): rare variants in an adjacent region of chromosome 9q22.3 to known TGFBR1 mutations suggest a digenic or multilocus etiology. J Invest Dermatol. 2013 Jul; 133(7):1907-10. PMID: 23358096; PMCID: PMC3664264.
      22. Nguyen DH, Fredlund E, Zhao W, Perou CM, Balmain A, Mao JH, Barcellos-Hoff MH. Murine microenvironment metaprofiles associate with human cancer etiology and intrinsic subtypes. Clin Cancer Res. 2013 Mar 15; 19(6):1353-62. PMID: 23339125; PMCID: PMC3732211.
      23. Kim IJ, Quigley D, To MD, Pham P, Lin K, Jo B, Jen KY, Raz D, Kim J, Mao JH, Jablons D, Balmain A. Rewiring of human lung cell lineage and mitotic networks in lung adenocarcinomas. Nat Commun. 2013; 4:1701. PMID: 23591868; PMCID: PMC4450149.
      24. Kang HC, Wakabayashi Y, Jen KY, Mao JH, Zoumpourlis V, Del Rosario R, Balmain A. Ptch1 overexpression drives skin carcinogenesis and developmental defects in K14Ptch(FVB) mice. J Invest Dermatol. 2013 May; 133(5):1311-20. PMID: 23223138; PMCID: PMC3610826.
      25. To MD, Rosario RD, Westcott PM, Banta KL, Balmain A. Interactions between wild-type and mutant Ras genes in lung and skin carcinogenesis. Oncogene. 2013 Aug 22; 32(34):4028-33. PMID: 22945650; PMCID: PMC3515692.
      26. Kwon YW, Kim IJ, Wu D, Lu J, Stock WA, Liu Y, Huang Y, Kang HC, DelRosario R, Jen KY, Perez-Losada J, Wei G, Balmain A, Mao JH. Pten regulates Aurora-A and cooperates with Fbxw7 in modulating radiation-induced tumor development. Mol Cancer Res. 2012 Jun; 10(6):834-44. PMID: 22513362; PMCID: PMC3388112.
      27. Perez-Losada J, Wu D, DelRosario R, Balmain A, Mao JH. Allele-specific deletions in mouse tumors identify Fbxw7 as germline modifier of tumor susceptibility. PLoS One. 2012; 7(2):e31301. PMID: 22348067; PMCID: PMC3278431.
      28. Jen KY, Song IY, Banta KL, Wu D, Mao JH, Balmain A. Sequential mutations in Notch1, Fbxw7, and Tp53 in radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphomas. Blood. 2012 Jan 19; 119(3):805-9. PMID: 22117044; PMCID: PMC3265203.
      29. To MD, Quigley DA, Mao JH, Del Rosario R, Hsu J, Hodgson G, Jacks T, Balmain A. Progressive genomic instability in the FVB/Kras(LA2) mouse model of lung cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2011 Oct; 9(10):1339-45. PMID: 21807965; PMCID: PMC3196775.
      30. Mao JH, Wu D, Kim IJ, Kang HC, Wei G, Climent J, Kumar A, Pelorosso FG, DelRosario R, Huang EJ, Balmain A. Hipk2 cooperates with p53 to suppress ?-ray radiation-induced mouse thymic lymphoma. Oncogene. 2012 Mar 1; 31(9):1176-80. PMID: 21785465; PMCID: PMC3307058.
      31. Wang YV, Leblanc M, Fox N, Mao JH, Tinkum KL, Krummel K, Engle D, Piwnica-Worms D, Piwnica-Worms H, Balmain A, Kaushansky K, Wahl GM. Fine-tuning p53 activity through C-terminal modification significantly contributes to HSC homeostasis and mouse radiosensitivity. Genes Dev. 2011 Jul 1; 25(13):1426-38. PMID: 21724834; PMCID: PMC3134085.
      32. Quigley DA, To MD, Kim IJ, Lin KK, Albertson DG, Sjolund J, Pérez-Losada J, Balmain A. Network analysis of skin tumor progression identifies a rewired genetic architecture affecting inflammation and tumor susceptibility. Genome Biol. 2011; 12(1):R5. PMID: 21244661; PMCID: PMC3091303.
      33. Pelorosso FG, Balmain A. C/EBPd: friend or foe? a novel role for C/EBPd in metastasis. EMBO J. 2010 Dec 15; 29(24):4063-5. PMID: 21157479; PMCID: PMC3018802.
      34. Chun MG, Mao JH, Chiu CW, Balmain A, Hanahan D. Polymorphic genetic control of tumor invasion in a mouse model of pancreatic neuroendocrine carcinogenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Oct 5; 107(40):17268-73. PMID: 20855625; PMCID: PMC2951397.
      35. Climent J, Perez-Losada J, Quigley DA, Kim IJ, Delrosario R, Jen KY, Bosch A, Lluch A, Mao JH, Balmain A. Deletion of the PER3 gene on chromosome 1p36 in recurrent ER-positive breast cancer. J Clin Oncol. 2010 Aug 10; 28(23):3770-8. PMID: 20625127; PMCID: PMC2917310.
      36. Workman P, Aboagye EO, Balkwill F, Balmain A, Bruder G, Chaplin DJ, Double JA, Everitt J, Farningham DA, Glennie MJ, Kelland LR, Robinson V, Stratford IJ, Tozer GM, Watson S, Wedge SR, Eccles SA. Guidelines for the welfare and use of animals in cancer research. Br J Cancer. 2010 May 25; 102(11):1555-77. PMID: 20502460; PMCID: PMC2883160.
      37. Rocher-Ros V, Marco S, Mao JH, Gines S, Metzger D, Chambon P, Balmain A, Saura CA. Presenilin modulates EGFR signaling and cell transformation by regulating the ubiquitin ligase Fbw7. Oncogene. 2010 May 20; 29(20):2950-61. PMID: 20208556; PMCID: PMC4162408.
      38. Li Z, Zhang Q, Mao JH, Weise A, Mrasek K, Fan X, Zhang X, Liehr T, Lu KH, Balmain A, Cai WW. An HDAC1-binding domain within FATS bridges p21 turnover to radiation-induced tumorigenesis. Oncogene. 2010 May 6; 29(18):2659-71. PMID: 20154723.
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      39. Rauen KA, Schoyer L, McCormick F, Lin AE, Allanson JE, Stevenson DA, Gripp KW, Neri G, Carey JC, Legius E, Tartaglia M, Schubbert S, Roberts AE, Gelb BD, Shannon K, Gutmann DH, McMahon M, Guerra C, Fagin JA, Yu B, Aoki Y, Neel BG, Balmain A, Drake RR, Nolan GP, Zenker M, Bollag G, Sebolt-Leopold J, Gibbs JB, Silva AJ, Patton EE, Viskochil DH, Kieran MW, Korf BR, Hagerman RJ, Packer RJ, Melese T. Proceedings from the 2009 genetic syndromes of the Ras/MAPK pathway: From bedside to bench and back. Am J Med Genet A. 2010 Jan; 152A(1):4-24. PMID: 20014119; PMCID: PMC4051786.
      40. Quigley D, Balmain A. Systems genetics analysis of cancer susceptibility: from mouse models to humans. Nat Rev Genet. 2009 Sep; 10(9):651-7. PMID: 19636343.
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      41. Adorno M, Cordenonsi M, Montagner M, Dupont S, Wong C, Hann B, Solari A, Bobisse S, Rondina MB, Guzzardo V, Parenti AR, Rosato A, Bicciato S, Balmain A, Piccolo S. A Mutant-p53/Smad complex opposes p63 to empower TGFbeta-induced metastasis. Cell. 2009 Apr 3; 137(1):87-98. PMID: 19345189.
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      42. Quigley DA, To MD, Pérez-Losada J, Pelorosso FG, Mao JH, Nagase H, Ginzinger DG, Balmain A. Genetic architecture of mouse skin inflammation and tumour susceptibility. Nature. 2009 Mar 26; 458(7237):505-8. PMID: 19136944; PMCID: PMC4460995.
      43. Mahler KL, Fleming JL, Dworkin AM, Gladman N, Cho HY, Mao JH, Balmain A, Toland AE. Sequence divergence of Mus spretus and Mus musculus across a skin cancer susceptibility locus. BMC Genomics. 2008; 9:626. PMID: 19105829; PMCID: PMC2628916.
      44. Mao JH, Kim IJ, Wu D, Climent J, Kang HC, DelRosario R, Balmain A. FBXW7 targets mTOR for degradation and cooperates with PTEN in tumor suppression. Science. 2008 Sep 12; 321(5895):1499-502. PMID: 18787170; PMCID: PMC2849753.
      45. To MD, Wong CE, Karnezis AN, Del Rosario R, Di Lauro R, Balmain A. Kras regulatory elements and exon 4A determine mutation specificity in lung cancer. Nat Genet. 2008 Oct; 40(10):1240-4. PMID: 18758463; PMCID: PMC2654781.
      46. Mao JH, Wu D, DelRosario R, Castellanos A, Balmain A, Perez-Losada J. Atm heterozygosity does not increase tumor susceptibility to ionizing radiation alone or in a p53 heterozygous background. Oncogene. 2008 Nov 20; 27(51):6596-600. PMID: 18679420.
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      47. Chiaverotti T, Couto SS, Donjacour A, Mao JH, Nagase H, Cardiff RD, Cunha GR, Balmain A. Dissociation of epithelial and neuroendocrine carcinoma lineages in the transgenic adenocarcinoma of mouse prostate model of prostate cancer. Am J Pathol. 2008 Jan; 172(1):236-46. PMID: 18156212; PMCID: PMC2189611.
      48. Wei G, Ku S, Ma GK, Saito S, Tang AA, Zhang J, Mao JH, Appella E, Balmain A, Huang EJ. HIPK2 represses beta-catenin-mediated transcription, epidermal stem cell expansion, and skin tumorigenesis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2007 Aug 7; 104(32):13040-5. PMID: 17666529; PMCID: PMC1936219.
      49. de Koning JP, Wakabayashi Y, Nagase H, Mao JH, Balmain A. Convergence of congenic mapping and allele-specific alterations in tumors for the resolution of the Skts1 skin tumor susceptibility locus. Oncogene. 2007 Jun 14; 26(28):4171-8. PMID: 17311004.
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      50. Mao JH, Wu D, Perez-Losada J, Jiang T, Li Q, Neve RM, Gray JW, Cai WW, Balmain A. Crosstalk between Aurora-A and p53: frequent deletion or downregulation of Aurora-A in tumors from p53 null mice. Cancer Cell. 2007 Feb; 11(2):161-73. PMID: 17292827; PMCID: PMC2730519.
      51. Wakabayashi Y, Mao JH, Brown K, Girardi M, Balmain A. Promotion of Hras-induced squamous carcinomas by a polymorphic variant of the Patched gene in FVB mice. Nature. 2007 Feb 15; 445(7129):761-5. PMID: 17230190.
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      52. To MD, Perez-Losada J, Mao JH, Hsu J, Jacks T, Balmain A. A functional switch from lung cancer resistance to susceptibility at the Pas1 locus in Kras2LA2 mice. Nat Genet. 2006 Aug; 38(8):926-30. PMID: 16823377; PMCID: PMC4461000.
      53. Mao JH, Saunier EF, de Koning JP, McKinnon MM, Higgins MN, Nicklas K, Yang HT, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. Genetic variants of Tgfb1 act as context-dependent modifiers of mouse skin tumor susceptibility. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 23; 103(21):8125-30. PMID: 16702541; PMCID: PMC1472440.
      54. Lacher MD, Tiirikainen MI, Saunier EF, Christian C, Anders M, Oft M, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ, Korn WM. Transforming growth factor-beta receptor inhibition enhances adenoviral infectability of carcinoma cells via up-regulation of Coxsackie and Adenovirus Receptor in conjunction with reversal of epithelial-mesenchymal transition. Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 1; 66(3):1648-57. PMID: 16452224.
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      55. Mao JH, Li J, Jiang T, Li Q, Wu D, Perez-Losada J, DelRosario R, Peterson L, Balmain A, Cai WW. Genomic instability in radiation-induced mouse lymphoma from p53 heterozygous mice. Oncogene. 2005 Nov 24; 24(53):7924-34. PMID: 16116484.
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      56. To MD, Perez-Losada J, Mao JH, Balmain A. Crosstalk between Pten and Ras signaling pathways in tumor development. Cell Cycle. 2005 Sep; 4(9):1185-8. PMID: 16123588.
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      57. Perez-Losada J, Wu D, DelRosario R, Balmain A, Mao JH. p63 and p73 do not contribute to p53-mediated lymphoma suppressor activity in vivo. Oncogene. 2005 Aug 18; 24(35):5521-4. PMID: 16007185.
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      58. Perez-Losada J, Mao JH, Balmain A. Control of genomic instability and epithelial tumor development by the p53-Fbxw7/Cdc4 pathway. Cancer Res. 2005 Aug 1; 65(15):6488-92. PMID: 16061623.
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      59. Ewart-Toland A, Dai Q, Gao YT, Nagase H, Dunlop MG, Farrington SM, Barnetson RA, Anton-Culver H, Peel D, Ziogas A, Lin D, Miao X, Sun T, Ostrander EA, Stanford JL, Langlois M, Chan JM, Yuan J, Harris CC, Bowman ED, Clayman GL, Lippman SM, Lee JJ, Zheng W, Balmain A. Aurora-A/STK15 T+91A is a general low penetrance cancer susceptibility gene: a meta-analysis of multiple cancer types. Carcinogenesis. 2005 Aug; 26(8):1368-73. PMID: 15802297.
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      60. Snijders AM, Nowak NJ, Huey B, Fridlyand J, Law S, Conroy J, Tokuyasu T, Demir K, Chiu R, Mao JH, Jain AN, Jones SJ, Balmain A, Pinkel D, Albertson DG. Mapping segmental and sequence variations among laboratory mice using BAC array CGH. Genome Res. 2005 Feb; 15(2):302-11. PMID: 15687294; PMCID: PMC546532.
      61. Mao JH, Perez-Losada J, Wu D, Delrosario R, Tsunematsu R, Nakayama KI, Brown K, Bryson S, Balmain A. Fbxw7/Cdc4 is a p53-dependent, haploinsufficient tumour suppressor gene. Nature. 2004 Dec 9; 432(7018):775-9. PMID: 15592418.
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      62. Dai Q, Cai QY, Shu XO, Ewart-Toland A, Wen WQ, Balmain A, Gao YT, Zheng W. Synergistic effects of STK15 gene polymorphisms and endogenous estrogen exposure in the risk of breast cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 Dec; 13(12):2065-70. PMID: 15598762.
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      63. Hsu SJ, Nagase H, Balmain A. Identification of Fetuin-B as a member of a cystatin-like gene family on mouse chromosome 16 with tumor suppressor activity. Genome. 2004 Oct; 47(5):931-46. PMID: 15499407.
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      64. Hirst GL, Balmain A. Forty years of cancer modelling in the mouse. Eur J Cancer. 2004 Sep; 40(13):1974-80. PMID: 15315806.
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      65. Li J, Jiang T, Mao JH, Balmain A, Peterson L, Harris C, Rao PH, Havlak P, Gibbs R, Cai WW. Genomic segmental polymorphisms in inbred mouse strains. Nat Genet. 2004 Sep; 36(9):952-4. PMID: 15322544.
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      66. Mao JH, To MD, Perez-Losada J, Wu D, Del Rosario R, Balmain A. Mutually exclusive mutations of the Pten and ras pathways in skin tumor progression. Genes Dev. 2004 Aug 1; 18(15):1800-5. PMID: 15289454; PMCID: PMC517400.
      67. Ewart-Toland A, Chan JM, Yuan J, Balmain A, Ma J. A gain of function TGFB1 polymorphism may be associated with late stage prostate cancer. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2004 May; 13(5):759-64. PMID: 15159307.
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      68. Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. Cancer: dangerous liaisons. Nature. 2004 Mar 18; 428(6980):271-2. PMID: 15029181.
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      69. Girardi M, Oppenheim D, Glusac EJ, Filler R, Balmain A, Tigelaar RE, Hayday AC. Characterizing the protective component of the alphabeta T cell response to transplantable squamous cell carcinoma. J Invest Dermatol. 2004 Mar; 122(3):699-706. PMID: 15086556.
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      70. Ewart-Toland A, Balmain A. The genetics of cancer susceptibility: from mouse to man. Toxicol Pathol. 2004 Mar-Apr; 32 Suppl 1:26-30. PMID: 15209400.
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      71. Mao JH, Wu D, Perez-Losada J, Nagase H, DelRosario R, Balmain A. Genetic interactions between Pten and p53 in radiation-induced lymphoma development. Oncogene. 2003 Nov 20; 22(52):8379-85. PMID: 14627978.
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      72. Hann B, Balmain A. Replication of an E1B 55-kilodalton protein-deficient adenovirus (ONYX-015) is restored by gain-of-function rather than loss-of-function p53 mutants. J Virol. 2003 Nov; 77(21):11588-95. PMID: 14557644; PMCID: PMC229311.
      73. Nagase H, Mao JH, Balmain A. Allele-specific Hras mutations and genetic alterations at tumor susceptibility loci in skin carcinomas from interspecific hybrid mice. Cancer Res. 2003 Aug 15; 63(16):4849-53. PMID: 12941805.
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      74. Ewart-Toland A, Briassouli P, de Koning JP, Mao JH, Yuan J, Chan F, MacCarthy-Morrogh L, Ponder BA, Nagase H, Burn J, Ball S, Almeida M, Linardopoulos S, Balmain A. Identification of Stk6/STK15 as a candidate low-penetrance tumor-susceptibility gene in mouse and human. Nat Genet. 2003 Aug; 34(4):403-12. PMID: 12881723.
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      75. Perez-Losada J, Balmain A. Stem-cell hierarchy in skin cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2003 Jun; 3(6):434-43. PMID: 12778133.
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      76. Balmain A, Gray J, Ponder B. The genetics and genomics of cancer. Nat Genet. 2003 Mar; 33 Suppl:238-44. PMID: 12610533.
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      77. Yan W, Kitzes G, Dormishian F, Hawkins L, Sampson-Johannes A, Watanabe J, Holt J, Lee V, Dubensky T, Fattaey A, Hermiston T, Balmain A, Shen Y. Developing novel oncolytic adenoviruses through bioselection. J Virol. 2003 Feb; 77(4):2640-50. PMID: 12552003; PMCID: PMC141112.
      78. Mao JH, Balmain A. Genomic approaches to identification of tumour-susceptibility genes using mouse models. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2003 Feb; 13(1):14-9. PMID: 12573430.
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      79. de Koning JP, Mao JH, Balmain A. Novel approaches to identify low-penetrance cancer susceptibility genes using mouse models. Recent Results Cancer Res. 2003; 163:19-27; discussion 264-6. PMID: 12903840.
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      80. Oft M, Akhurst RJ, Balmain A. Metastasis is driven by sequential elevation of H-ras and Smad2 levels. Nat Cell Biol. 2002 Jul; 4(7):487-94. PMID: 12105419.
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      81. Psichari E, Balmain A, Plows D, Zoumpourlis V, Pintzas A. High activity of serum response factor in the mesenchymal transition of epithelial tumor cells is regulated by RhoA signaling. J Biol Chem. 2002 Aug 16; 277(33):29490-5. PMID: 12039949.
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      82. Balmain A. Cancer: new-age tumour suppressors. Nature. 2002 May 16; 417(6886):235-7. PMID: 12015584.
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      83. Cai WW, Mao JH, Chow CW, Damani S, Balmain A, Bradley A. Genome-wide detection of chromosomal imbalances in tumors using BAC microarrays. Nat Biotechnol. 2002 Apr; 20(4):393-6. PMID: 11923847.
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      84. Balmain A. Cancer as a complex genetic trait: tumor susceptibility in humans and mouse models. Cell. 2002 Jan 25; 108(2):145-52. PMID: 11832205.
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      85. Bergo MO, Ambroziak P, Gregory C, George A, Otto JC, Kim E, Nagase H, Casey PJ, Balmain A, Young SG. Absence of the CAAX endoprotease Rce1: effects on cell growth and transformation. Mol Cell Biol. 2002 Jan; 22(1):171-81. PMID: 11739732; PMCID: PMC134215.
      86. Hann B, Balmain A. Building 'validated' mouse models of human cancer. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 2001 Dec; 13(6):778-84. PMID: 11698196.
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      87. Balmain A. Cancer genetics: from Boveri and Mendel to microarrays. Nat Rev Cancer. 2001 Oct; 1(1):77-82. PMID: 11900254.
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      88. Derynck R, Akhurst RJ, Balmain A. TGF-beta signaling in tumor suppression and cancer progression. Nat Genet. 2001 Oct; 29(2):117-29. PMID: 11586292.
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      89. Papathoma AS, Zoumpourlis V, Balmain A, Pintzas A. Role of matrix metalloproteinase-9 in progression of mouse skin carcinogenesis. Mol Carcinog. 2001 Jun; 31(2):74-82. PMID: 11429784.
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      90. Ganly I, Kim YT, Hann B, Balmain A, Brown R. Replication and cytolysis of an E1B-attenuated adenovirus in drug-resistant ovarian tumour cells is associated with reduced apoptosis. Gene Ther. 2001 Mar; 8(5):369-75. PMID: 11313813.
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      91. Nagase H, Mao JH, de Koning JP, Minami T, Balmain A. Epistatic interactions between skin tumor modifier loci in interspecific (spretus/musculus) backcross mice. Cancer Res. 2001 Feb 15; 61(4):1305-8. PMID: 11245425.
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      92. Petritsch C, Beug H, Balmain A, Oft M. TGF-beta inhibits p70 S6 kinase via protein phosphatase 2A to induce G(1) arrest. Genes Dev. 2000 Dec 15; 14(24):3093-101. PMID: 11124802; PMCID: PMC317138.
      93. Linardopoulos S, Silva S, Klein G, Balmain A. Allele-specific loss or imbalance of chromosomes 9, 15, and 16 in B-cell tumors from interspecific F1 hybrid mice carrying Emu-c-myc or N-myc transgenes. Int J Cancer. 2000 Dec 15; 88(6):920-7. PMID: 11093815.
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      94. Zoumpourlis V, Papassava P, Linardopoulos S, Gillespie D, Balmain A, Pintzas A. High levels of phosphorylated c-Jun, Fra-1, Fra-2 and ATF-2 proteins correlate with malignant phenotypes in the multistage mouse skin carcinogenesis model. Oncogene. 2000 Aug 17; 19(35):4011-21. PMID: 10962557.
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      95. Ganly I, Mautner V, Balmain A. Productive replication of human adenoviruses in mouse epidermal cells. J Virol. 2000 Mar; 74(6):2895-9. PMID: 10684307; PMCID: PMC111781.
      96. Balmain A, Harris CC. Carcinogenesis in mouse and human cells: parallels and paradoxes. Carcinogenesis. 2000 Mar; 21(3):371-7. PMID: 10688857.
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      97. Frame S, Balmain A. Integration of positive and negative growth signals during ras pathway activation in vivo. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2000 Feb; 10(1):106-13. PMID: 10679397.
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      98. Nagase H, Mao JH, Balmain A. A subset of skin tumor modifier loci determines survival time of tumor-bearing mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Dec 21; 96(26):15032-7. PMID: 10611333; PMCID: PMC24768.
      99. Frame S, Balmain A. Target genes and target cells in carcinogenesis. Br J Cancer. 1999 Jul; 80 Suppl 1:28-33. PMID: 10466758.
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      100. Dyson N, Balmain A. Oncogenes and cell proliferation. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 1999 Feb; 9(1):11-4. PMID: 10206674.
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      101. Akhurst RJ, Balmain A. Genetic events and the role of TGF beta in epithelial tumour progression. J Pathol. 1999 Jan; 187(1):82-90. PMID: 10341708.
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      102. Frame S, Crombie R, Liddell J, Stuart D, Linardopoulos S, Nagase H, Portella G, Brown K, Street A, Akhurst R, Balmain A. Epithelial carcinogenesis in the mouse: correlating the genetics and the biology. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 1998 Jun 29; 353(1370):839-45. PMID: 9684281; PMCID: PMC1692278.
      103. Portella G, Cumming SA, Liddell J, Cui W, Ireland H, Akhurst RJ, Balmain A. Transforming growth factor beta is essential for spindle cell conversion of mouse skin carcinoma in vivo: implications for tumor invasion. Cell Growth Differ. 1998 May; 9(5):393-404. PMID: 9607560.
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      104. Brown K, Strathdee D, Bryson S, Lambie W, Balmain A. The malignant capacity of skin tumours induced by expression of a mutant H-ras transgene depends on the cell type targeted. Curr Biol. 1998 Apr 23; 8(9):516-24. PMID: 9560338.
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      105. Balmain A, Nagase H. Cancer resistance genes in mice: models for the study of tumour modifiers. Trends Genet. 1998 Apr; 14(4):139-44. PMID: 9594661.
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      106. Mao JH, Lindsay KA, Balmain A, Wheldon TE. Stochastic modelling of tumorigenesis in p53 deficient mice. Br J Cancer. 1998; 77(2):243-52. PMID: 9460995; PMCID: PMC2151221.
      107. Gause PR, Lluria-Prevatt M, Keith WN, Balmain A, Linardopolous S, Warneke J, Powell MB. Chromosomal and genetic alterations of 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced melanoma from TP-ras transgenic mice. Mol Carcinog. 1997 Sep; 20(1):78-87. PMID: 9328438.
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      108. Holden PR, McGuire B, Stoler A, Balmain A, Pitts JD. Changes in gap junctional intercellular communication in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Carcinogenesis. 1997 Jan; 18(1):15-21. PMID: 9054584.
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      109. MacCallum DE, Hupp TR, Midgley CA, Stuart D, Campbell SJ, Harper A, Walsh FS, Wright EG, Balmain A, Lane DP, Hall PA. The p53 response to ionising radiation in adult and developing murine tissues. Oncogene. 1996 Dec 19; 13(12):2575-87. PMID: 9000131.
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      110. Cui W, Fowlis DJ, Bryson S, Duffie E, Ireland H, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. TGFbeta1 inhibits the formation of benign skin tumors, but enhances progression to invasive spindle carcinomas in transgenic mice. Cell. 1996 Aug 23; 86(4):531-42. PMID: 8752208.
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      111. Fowlis DJ, Cui W, Johnson SA, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. Altered epidermal cell growth control in vivo by inducible expression of transforming growth factor beta 1 in the skin of transgenic mice. Cell Growth Differ. 1996 May; 7(5):679-87. PMID: 8732677.
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      112. Cano A, Gamallo C, Kemp CJ, Benito N, Palacios J, Quintanilla M, Balmain A. Expression pattern of the cell adhesion molecules. E-cadherin, P-cadherin and alpha 6 beta 4 intergrin is altered in pre-malignant skin tumors of p53-deficient mice. Int J Cancer. 1996 Jan 17; 65(2):254-62. PMID: 8567126.
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      113. Nagase H, Bryson S, Fee F, Balmain A. Multigenic control of skin tumour development in mice. Ciba Found Symp. 1996; 197:156-68; discussion 168-80. PMID: 8827373.
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      114. Brown K, Burns PA, Balmain A. Transgenic approaches to understanding the mechanisms of chemical carcinogenesis in mouse skin. Toxicol Lett. 1995 Dec; 82-83:123-30. PMID: 8597039.
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      115. Linardopoulos S, Street AJ, Quelle DE, Parry D, Peters G, Sherr CJ, Balmain A. Deletion and altered regulation of p16INK4a and p15INK4b in undifferentiated mouse skin tumors. Cancer Res. 1995 Nov 15; 55(22):5168-72. PMID: 7585567.
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      116. Bouffler SD, Kemp CJ, Balmain A, Cox R. Spontaneous and ionizing radiation-induced chromosomal abnormalities in p53-deficient mice. Cancer Res. 1995 Sep 1; 55(17):3883-9. PMID: 7641208.
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      117. Balmain A. Cancer. Exploring the bowels of DNA methylation. Curr Biol. 1995 Sep 1; 5(9):1013-6. PMID: 8542276.
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      118. Nagase H, Bryson S, Cordell H, Kemp CJ, Fee F, Balmain A. Distinct genetic loci control development of benign and malignant skin tumours in mice. Nat Genet. 1995 Aug; 10(4):424-9. PMID: 7670492.
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      119. Brown K, Balmain A. Transgenic mice and squamous multistage skin carcinogenesis. Cancer Metastasis Rev. 1995 Jun; 14(2):113-24. PMID: 7554029.
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      120. Cui W, Fowlis DJ, Cousins FM, Duffie E, Bryson S, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. Concerted action of TGF-beta 1 and its type II receptor in control of epidermal homeostasis in transgenic mice. Genes Dev. 1995 Apr 15; 9(8):945-55. PMID: 7774812.
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      121. Telliez JB, Plumb M, Balmain A, Bailleul B. Regulatory elements in the first intron of the mouse Ha-ras gene. Mol Carcinog. 1995 Mar; 12(3):137-45. PMID: 7893367.
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      122. Powell MB, Hyman P, Bell OD, Balmain A, Brown K, Alberts D, Bowden GT. Hyperpigmentation and melanocytic hyperplasia in transgenic mice expressing the human T24 Ha-ras gene regulated by a mouse tyrosinase promoter. Mol Carcinog. 1995 Feb; 12(2):82-90. PMID: 7662120.
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      123. Cui W, Kemp CJ, Duffie E, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. Lack of transforming growth factor-beta 1 expression in benign skin tumors of p53null mice is prognostic for a high risk of malignant conversion. Cancer Res. 1994 Nov 15; 54(22):5831-6. PMID: 7954410.
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      124. Bremner R, Kemp CJ, Balmain A. Induction of different genetic changes by different classes of chemical carcinogens during progression of mouse skin tumors. Mol Carcinog. 1994 Oct; 11(2):90-7. PMID: 7916997.
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      125. Kemp CJ, Wheldon T, Balmain A. p53-deficient mice are extremely susceptible to radiation-induced tumorigenesis. Nat Genet. 1994 Sep; 8(1):66-9. PMID: 7987394.
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      126. Wright JH, McDonnell S, Portella G, Bowden GT, Balmain A, Matrisian LM. A switch from stromal to tumor cell expression of stromelysin-1 mRNA associated with the conversion of squamous to spindle carcinomas during mouse skin tumor progression. Mol Carcinog. 1994 Aug; 10(4):207-15. PMID: 8068181.
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      127. Ah-See KW, Cooke TG, Pickford IR, Soutar D, Balmain A. An allelotype of squamous carcinoma of the head and neck using microsatellite markers. Cancer Res. 1994 Apr 1; 54(7):1617-21. PMID: 8137268.
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      128. Merritt AJ, Potten CS, Kemp CJ, Hickman JA, Balmain A, Lane DP, Hall PA. The role of p53 in spontaneous and radiation-induced apoptosis in the gastrointestinal tract of normal and p53-deficient mice. Cancer Res. 1994 Feb 1; 54(3):614-7. PMID: 8306319.
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      129. Portella G, Liddell J, Crombie R, Haddow S, Clarke M, Stoler AB, Balmain A. Molecular mechanisms of invasion and metastasis during mouse skin tumour progression. Invasion Metastasis. 1994-1995; 14(1-6):7-16. PMID: 7657534.
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      130. Brown K, Kemp C, Burns P, Balmain A. Importance of genetic alterations in tumour development. Arch Toxicol Suppl. 1994; 16:253-60. PMID: 8192588.
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      131. Kemp CJ, Burns PA, Brown K, Nagase H, Balmain A. Transgenic approaches to the analysis of ras and p53 function in multistage carcinogenesis. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1994; 59:427-34. PMID: 7587097.
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      132. Kemp CJ, Fee F, Balmain A. Allelotype analysis of mouse skin tumors using polymorphic microsatellites: sequential genetic alterations on chromosomes 6, 7, and 11. Cancer Res. 1993 Dec 15; 53(24):6022-7. PMID: 7903201.
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      133. Kemp CJ, Donehower LA, Bradley A, Balmain A. Reduction of p53 gene dosage does not increase initiation or promotion but enhances malignant progression of chemically induced skin tumors. Cell. 1993 Sep 10; 74(5):813-22. PMID: 8374952.
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      134. Stoler AB, Stenback F, Balmain A. The conversion of mouse skin squamous cell carcinomas to spindle cell carcinomas is a recessive event. J Cell Biol. 1993 Sep; 122(5):1103-17. PMID: 7689080; PMCID: PMC2119621.
      135. Kemp CJ, Bremner R, Balmain A. A revised map position for the Ha-ras gene on mouse chromosome 7: implications for analysis of genetic alterations in rodent tumors. Mol Carcinog. 1993; 7(3):147-50. PMID: 8098216.
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      136. Fowlis DJ, Balmain A. Oncogenes and tumour suppressor genes in transgenic mouse models of neoplasia. Eur J Cancer. 1993; 29A(4):638-45. PMID: 8435223.
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      137. Brown K, Kemp CJ, Burns PA, Stoler AB, Fowlis DJ, Akhurst RJ, Balmain A. Positive and negative growth control in multistage skin carcinogenesis. Recent Results Cancer Res. 1993; 128:309-21. PMID: 8356328.
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      138. Burns PA, Balmain A. Potential therapeutic targets in multistep oncogenesis. Semin Cancer Biol. 1992 Dec; 3(6):335-41. PMID: 1286154.
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      139. Diaz-Guerra M, Haddow S, Bauluz C, Jorcano JL, Cano A, Balmain A, Quintanilla M. Expression of simple epithelial cytokeratins in mouse epidermal keratinocytes harboring Harvey ras gene alterations. Cancer Res. 1992 Feb 1; 52(3):680-7. PMID: 1370649.
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      140. Fowlis DJ, Flanders KC, Duffie E, Balmain A, Akhurst RJ. Discordant transforming growth factor beta 1 RNA and protein localization during chemical carcinogenesis of the skin. Cell Growth Differ. 1992 Feb; 3(2):81-91. PMID: 1504019.
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      141. Burns PA, Kemp CJ, Gannon JV, Lane DP, Bremner R, Balmain A. Loss of heterozygosity and mutational alterations of the p53 gene in skin tumours of interspecific hybrid mice. Oncogene. 1991 Dec; 6(12):2363-9. PMID: 1766680.
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      142. Burns PA, Jack A, Neilson F, Haddow S, Balmain A. Transformation of mouse skin endothelial cells in vivo by direct application of plasmid DNA encoding the human T24 H-ras oncogene. Oncogene. 1991 Nov; 6(11):1973-8. PMID: 1945407.
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      143. Quintanilla M, Haddow S, Jonas D, Jaffe D, Bowden GT, Balmain A. Comparison of ras activation during epidermal carcinogenesis in vitro and in vivo. Carcinogenesis. 1991 Oct; 12(10):1875-81. PMID: 1934268.
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      144. Haddow S, Fowlis DJ, Parkinson K, Akhurst RJ, Balmain A. Loss of growth control by TGF-beta occurs at a late stage of mouse skin carcinogenesis and is independent of ras gene activation. Oncogene. 1991 Aug; 6(8):1465-70. PMID: 1886717.
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      145. Buchmann A, Ruggeri B, Klein-Szanto AJ, Balmain A. Progression of squamous carcinoma cells to spindle carcinomas of mouse skin is associated with an imbalance of H-ras alleles on chromosome 7. Cancer Res. 1991 Aug 1; 51(15):4097-101. PMID: 1855225.
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      146. Burns PA, Bremner R, Balmain A. Genetic changes during mouse skin tumorigenesis. Environ Health Perspect. 1991 Jun; 93:41-4. PMID: 1685445; PMCID: PMC1568051.
      147. Burns PA, Brown K, Bremner R, Clarke M, Balmain A. Molecular alterations in oncogenes or tumor suppressor genes during chemical carcinogenesis. Prog Histochem Cytochem. 1991; 23(1-4):100-6. PMID: 1947131.
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      148. Plumb M, Telliez JB, Fee F, Daubersies P, Bailleul B, Balmain A. Structural analysis of the mouse c-Ha-ras gene promoter. Mol Carcinog. 1991; 4(2):103-11. PMID: 2043251.
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      149. Balmain A, Kemp CJ, Burns PA, Stoler AB, Fowlis DJ, Akhurst RJ. Functional loss of tumour suppressor genes in multistage chemical carcinogenesis. Princess Takamatsu Symp. 1991; 22:97-108. PMID: 1844254.
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      150. Bailleul B, Surani MA, White S, Barton SC, Brown K, Blessing M, Jorcano J, Balmain A. Skin hyperkeratosis and papilloma formation in transgenic mice expressing a ras oncogene from a suprabasal keratin promoter. Cell. 1990 Aug 24; 62(4):697-708. PMID: 1696852.
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      151. Bremner R, Balmain A. Genetic changes in skin tumor progression: correlation between presence of a mutant ras gene and loss of heterozygosity on mouse chromosome 7. Cell. 1990 May 4; 61(3):407-17. PMID: 2185890.
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      152. Parkinson K, Balmain A. Chalones revisited--a possible role for transforming growth factor beta in tumour promotion. Carcinogenesis. 1990 Feb; 11(2):195-8. PMID: 2137380.
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      153. Balmain A, Brown K, Bremner R. The interplay between ras oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes in experimental carcinogenesis. Immunol Ser. 1990; 51:75-88. PMID: 2128916.
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      154. Brown K, Buchmann A, Balmain A. Carcinogen-induced mutations in the mouse c-Ha-ras gene provide evidence of multiple pathways for tumor progression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1990 Jan; 87(2):538-42. PMID: 2105486; PMCID: PMC53300.
      155. Giancotti V, Buratti E, Perissin L, Zorzet S, Balmain A, Portella G, Fusco A, Goodwin GH. Analysis of the HMGI nuclear proteins in mouse neoplastic cells induced by different procedures. Exp Cell Res. 1989 Oct; 184(2):538-45. PMID: 2806403.
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      156. Bailleul B, Brown K, Ramsden M, Akhurst RJ, Fee F, Balmain A. Chemical induction of oncogene mutations and growth factor activity in mouse skin carcinogenesis. Environ Health Perspect. 1989 May; 81:23-7. PMID: 2667981; PMCID: PMC1567527.
      157. Bailleul B, Brown K, Ramsden M, Fee F, Balmain A. Initiation of skin carcinogenesis can occur by induction of carcinogen-specific point mutations in the Harvey-ras gene. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1989; 298:137-45. PMID: 2664807.
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      158. Akhurst R, Bailleul B, Brown K, Ramsden M, Fee F, Balmain A. The action of oncogenes and growth factors in tumour initiation and promotion. Carcinog Compr Surv. 1989; 11:243-55. PMID: 2493336.
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      159. Balmain A, Brown K, Akhurst RJ, Fee FM. Molecular analysis of chemical carcinogenesis in the skin. Br J Cancer Suppl. 1988 Dec; 9:72-5. PMID: 3076069; PMCID: PMC2149109.
      160. Akhurst RJ, Fee F, Balmain A. Localized production of TGF-beta mRNA in tumour promoter-stimulated mouse epidermis. Nature. 1988 Jan 28; 331(6154):363-5. PMID: 3422343.
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      161. Balmain A, Brown K. Oncogene activation in chemical carcinogenesis. Adv Cancer Res. 1988; 51:147-82. PMID: 3066145.
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      162. Brown K, Bailleul B, Ramsden M, Fee F, Krumlauf R, Balmain A. Isolation and characterization of the 5' flanking region of the mouse c-Harvey-ras gene. Mol Carcinog. 1988; 1(3):161-70. PMID: 3074812.
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      163. Brown K, Quintanilla M, Ramsden M, Kerr IB, Young S, Balmain A. v-ras genes from Harvey and BALB murine sarcoma viruses can act as initiators of two-stage mouse skin carcinogenesis. Cell. 1986 Aug 1; 46(3):447-56. PMID: 3015415.
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      164. Quintanilla M, Brown K, Ramsden M, Balmain A. Carcinogen-specific mutation and amplification of Ha-ras during mouse skin carcinogenesis. Nature. 1986 Jul 3-9; 322(6074):78-80. PMID: 3014349.
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      165. Balmain A, Quintanilla M, Brown K, Ramsden M. An approach to the molecular mechanisms of cancer induction. J Pathol. 1986 May; 149(1):3-8. PMID: 3088239.
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      166. Kerr IB, Lee FD, Quintanilla M, Balmain A. Immunocytochemical demonstration of p21 ras family oncogene product in normal mucosa and in premalignant and malignant tumours of the colorectum. Br J Cancer. 1985 Nov; 52(5):695-700. PMID: 3904802; PMCID: PMC1977216.
      167. Ramsden M, Cole G, Smith J, Balmain A. Differential methylation of the c-H-ras gene in normal mouse cells and during skin tumour progression. EMBO J. 1985 Jun; 4(6):1449-54. PMID: 4029120; PMCID: PMC554366.
      168. Balmain A. Transforming ras oncogenes and multistage carcinogenesis. Br J Cancer. 1985 Jan; 51(1):1-7. PMID: 3881118; PMCID: PMC1976808.
      169. Balmain A, Ramsden M, Bowden GT, Smith J. Activation of the mouse cellular Harvey-ras gene in chemically induced benign skin papillomas. Nature. 1984 Feb 16-22; 307(5952):658-60. PMID: 6694757.
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      170. Balmain A, Pragnell IB. Mouse skin carcinomas induced in vivo by chemical carcinogens have a transforming Harvey-ras oncogene. Nature. 1983 May 5-11; 303(5912):72-4. PMID: 6843661.
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      171. Koury MJ, Balmain A, Pragnell IB. Induction of granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating activity in mouse skin by inflammatory agents and tumor promoters. EMBO J. 1983; 2(11):1877-82. PMID: 6605850; PMCID: PMC555383.
      172. Balmain A, Alonso A, Fischer J. Histone phosphorylation and synthesis of DNA and RNA during phases of proliferation and differentiation induced in mouse epidermis by the tumor promoter 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate. Cancer Res. 1977 May; 37(5):1548-55. PMID: 851963.
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      173. Balmain A, Hecker E. On the biochemical mechanism of tumorigenesis in mouse skin. VII. The effects of tumor promoters on 3H-choline and 3H-glycerol incorporation into mouse epidermal phosphatidylcholine in relation to their effects on 3H-thymidine incorporation into DNA. Z Krebsforsch Klin Onkol Cancer Res Clin Oncol. 1976 Aug 30; 86(3):251-61. PMID: 136100.
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      174. Balmain A. The synthesis of specific proteins in adult mouse epidermis during phases of proliferation and differentiation induced by the tumor promoter TPA, and in basal and differentiating layers of neonatal mouse epidermis. J Invest Dermatol. 1976 Aug; 67(2):246-53. PMID: 950489.
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