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    Craig Cohen, MD, MPH

    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentOb/Gyn, Reproductive Sciences
    Address550 16th Street
    San Francisco CA 94158
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      Craig Cohen, MD, MPH, is a Professor in the UCSF Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, an Attending Physician at San Francisco General Hospital and co-Director of the University of California Global Health Institute (UCGHI: Center of Expertise in Women's Health & Empowerment. He conducts clinical and implementation research in two major areas: HIV and sexually transmitted infection prevention and HIV/AIDS care and support in developing countries.

      In 1994, Dr. Cohen and his colleague Dr. Elizabeth Bukusi at the Kenya Medical Research Institute (KEMRI) established the Research Care and Treatment Program (RCTP) a collaboration with projects in Nairobi and Kisumu, Kenya. In addition to conducting research, the goal of the program is to enhance local capacity to conduct biomedical research through training and infrastructure development. RCTP employs over 700 full-time staff in Kenya including epidemiologists, physicians, nurse-counselors, laboratory technologists, field workers, data managers, biostatisticians and administrative staff.

      Dr. Cohen is the Founding Director of the Family AIDS Care and Education Services (FACES: since its creation in 2004. FACES is a CDC/PEPFAR-funded HIV/AIDS care and treatment program in Western Kenya and Nairobi. As part of FACES, Dr. Cohen has also developed the Student Training Elective Program (STEP), which allows medical students and residents to do research and clinical electives at FACES sites.

      Additionally, Dr. Cohen directs the UCSF Reproductive Infectious Disease (RID) Fellowship, which aims to provide Ob/Gyn and post-doctoral trainees with the tools and experience necessary to develop into independent investigators and launch productive careers in the field of RID. He also co-directs the newly established University of California Global Health Institute (UCGHI) GloCal Health Fellowship which plans to train 50-60 fellows in global health research between 2012-17 in collaboration with 24 international collaborating institutions. Overall, Dr. Cohen has directly mentored more than 60 doctoral/professional students, residents and post-doctoral fellows, most of who have conducted research in Kenya.

      Areas of Interest:
      •Prevention of HIV and sexually transmitted infections (STI)
      •Microbicides, live biotherapeutic products to prevent HIV/STI
      *Integration of reproductive health and HIV services
      •Improvement of care to HIV infected persons living in resource poor settings
      *Multisectoral interventions to improve the lives of families affected by HIV
      •Research training and infrastructure development in developing countries

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      Implementation Science, Socioeconomically marginalized groups, Kenya, Clinic, Hospital, Community-based organization, International (public health), International (medical), Practice guidelines, Advice lines, Support groups, HIV care and treatment, HIV/STI prevention, Women's Health, Capacity Building, Mentoring junior faculty or trainees, Interdisciplinary research collaboration, Works-in-progress seminars, Implementation & dissemination science listservs, Global Health interest goup

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      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Mmeje O, Njoroge B, Cohen CR, Temmerman M, Vermund SH, van der Poel S. Achieving Pregnancy Safely in HIV-Affected Individuals and Couples: An Important Strategy to Eliminate HIV Transmission From Mother-To-Child and Between Sexual Partners. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Dec 1; 70(4):e155-9.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Patel RC, Onono M, Gandhi M, Blat C, Hagey J, Shade SB, Vittinghoff E, Bukusi EA, Newmann SJ, Cohen CR. Pregnancy rates in HIV-positive women using contraceptives and efavirenz-based or nevirapine-based antiretroviral therapy in Kenya: a retrospective cohort study. Lancet HIV. 2015 Nov; 2(11):e474-82.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Hagey JM, Akama E, Ayieko J, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Patel RC. Barriers and facilitators adolescent females living with HIV face in accessing contraceptive services: a qualitative assessment of providers' perceptions in western Kenya. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015; 18(1):20123.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Weiser SD, Bukusi EA, Steinfeld RL, Frongillo EA, Weke E, Dworkin SL, Pusateri K, Shiboski S, Scow K, Butler LM, Cohen CR. Shamba Maisha: randomized controlled trial of an agricultural and finance intervention to improve HIV health outcomes. AIDS. 2015 Sep 10; 29(14):1889-94.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Turan JM, Onono M, Steinfeld RL, Shade SB, Owuor K, Washington S, Bukusi EA, Ackers ML, Kioko J, Interis EC, Cohen CR. Implementation and Operational Research: Effects of Antenatal Care and HIV Treatment Integration on Elements of the PMTCT Cascade: Results From the SHAIP Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial in Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Aug 15; 69(5):e172-81.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Washington S, Owuor K, Turan JM, Steinfeld RL, Onono M, Shade SB, Bukusi EA, Ackers ML, Cohen CR. Implementation and Operational Research: Effect of Integration of HIV Care and Treatment Into Antenatal Care Clinics on Mother-to-Child HIV Transmission and Maternal Outcomes in Nyanza, Kenya: Results From the SHAIP Cluster Randomized Controlled Trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Aug 15; 69(5):e164-71.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Hickey MD, Salmen CR, Omollo D, Mattah B, Fiorella KJ, Geng EH, Bacchetti P, Blat C, Ouma GB, Zoughbie D, Tessler RA, Salmen MR, Campbell H, Gandhi M, Shade S, Njoroge B, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Implementation and Operational Research: Pulling the Network Together: Quasiexperimental Trial of a Patient-Defined Support Network Intervention for Promoting Engagement in HIV Care and Medication Adherence on Mfangano Island, Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Aug 1; 69(4):e127-34.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Kwena ZA, Njoroge BW, Cohen CR, Oyaro P, Shikari R, Kibaara CK, Bukusi EA. The feasibility, time savings and economic impact of a designated time appointment system at a busy HIV care clinic in Kenya: a randomized controlled trial. J Int AIDS Soc. 2015; 18(1):19876.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Withers M, Dworkin SL, Zakaras JM, Onono M, Oyier B, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Grossman D, Newmann SJ. 'Women now wear trousers': men's perceptions of family planning in the context of changing gender relations in western Kenya. Cult Health Sex. 2015 Oct; 17(9):1132-46.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Withers M, Dworkin SL, Onono M, Oyier B, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Newmann SJ. Men's Perspectives on Their Role in Family Planning in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Stud Fam Plann. 2015 Jun; 46(2):201-15.
        View in: PubMed
      11. Huchko MJ, Leslie H, Maloba M, Zakaras J, Bukusi E, Cohen CR. Outcomes Up to 12 Months After Treatment With Loop Electrosurgical Excision Procedure for Cervical Intraepithelial Neoplasia Among HIV-Infected Women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 Jun 1; 69(2):200-5.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Huchko MJ, Sneden J, Zakaras JM, Smith-McCune K, Sawaya G, Maloba M, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. A Randomized Trial Comparing the Diagnostic Accuracy of Visual Inspection with Acetic Acid to Visual Inspection with Lugol's Iodine for Cervical Cancer Screening in HIV-Infected Women. PLoS One. 2015; 10(4):e0118568.
        View in: PubMed
      13. Cohen CR, Steinfeld RL, Weke E, Bukusi EA, Hatcher AM, Shiboski S, Rheingans R, Scow KM, Butler LM, Otieno P, Dworkin SL, Weiser SD. Shamba Maisha: Pilot agricultural intervention for food security and HIV health outcomes in Kenya: design, methods, baseline results and process evaluation of a cluster-randomized controlled trial. Springerplus. 2015; 4:122.
        View in: PubMed
      14. Onono M, Owuor K, Turan J, Bukusi EA, Gray GE, Cohen CR. The Role of Maternal, Health System, and Psychosocial Factors in Prevention of Mother-to-Child Transmission Failure in the Era of Programmatic Scale Up in Western Kenya: A Case Control Study. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2015 Apr; 29(4):204-11.
        View in: PubMed
      15. Nagata JM, Fiorella KJ, Salmen CR, Hickey MD, Mattah B, Magerenge R, Milner EM, Weiser SD, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Around the Table: Food Insecurity, Socioeconomic Status, and Instrumental Social Support among Women Living in a Rural Kenyan Island Community. Ecol Food Nutr. 2015 Jul-Aug; 54(4):358-69.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Onono M, Guzé MA, Grossman D, Steinfeld R, Bukusi EA, Shade S, Cohen CR, Newmann SJ. Integrating family planning and HIV services in western Kenya: the impact on HIV-infected patients' knowledge of family planning and male attitudes toward family planning. AIDS Care. 2015 Jun; 27(6):743-52.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Zunner B, Dworkin SL, Neylan TC, Bukusi EA, Oyaro P, Cohen CR, Abwok M, Meffert SM. HIV, violence and women: Unmet mental health care needs. J Affect Disord. 2015; 174:619-26.
        View in: PubMed
      18. Turan B, Stringer KL, Onono M, Bukusi EA, Weiser SD, Cohen CR, Turan JM. Linkage to HIV care, postpartum depression, and HIV-related stigma in newly diagnosed pregnant women living with HIV in Kenya: a longitudinal observational study. BMC Pregnancy Childbirth. 2014; 14(1):400.
        View in: PubMed
      19. Spangler SA, Onono M, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Turan JM. HIV-Positive Status Disclosure and Use of Essential PMTCT and Maternal Health Services in Rural Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Dec 1; 67 Suppl 4:S235-42.
        View in: PubMed PMC4251910
      20. Kahle EM, Bolton M, Hughes JP, Donnell D, Celum C, Lingappa JR, Ronald A, Cohen CR, de Bruyn G, Fong Y, Katabira E, McElrath MJ, Baeten JM. Plasma Cytokine Levels and Risk of HIV Type 1 (HIV-1) Transmission and Acquisition: A Nested Case-Control Study Among HIV-1-Serodiscordant Couples. J Infect Dis. 2015 May 1; 211(9):1451-60.
        View in: PubMed
      21. Wolf HT, Halpern-Felsher BL, Bukusi EA, Agot KE, Cohen CR, Auerswald CL. "It is all about the fear of being discriminated [against]…the person suffering from HIV will not be accepted": a qualitative study exploring the reasons for loss to follow-up among HIV-positive youth in Kisumu, Kenya. BMC Public Health. 2014; 14:1154.
        View in: PubMed PMC4232620
      22. Pintye J, Baeten JM, Manhart LE, Celum C, Ronald A, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Cohen C, Were E, Bukusi E, Kiarie J, Heffron R. Association between male circumcision and incidence of syphilis in men and women: a prospective study in HIV-1 serodiscordant heterosexual African couples. Lancet Glob Health. 2014 Nov; 2(11):e664-71.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Tao AR, Onono M, Baum S, Grossman D, Steinfeld R, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Newmann SJ. Providers' perspectives on male involvement in family planning in the context of a cluster-randomized controlled trial evaluating integrating family planning into HIV care in Nyanza Province, Kenya. AIDS Care. 2015 Jan; 27(1):31-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC4228374
      24. Baeten JM, Donnell D, Mugo NR, Ndase P, Thomas KK, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Coombs RW, Hendrix C, Marzinke MA, Frenkel L, Haberer JE, Bangsberg D, Celum C. Single-agent tenofovir versus combination emtricitabine plus tenofovir for pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 acquisition: an update of data from a randomised, double-blind, phase 3 trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2014 Nov; 14(11):1055-64.
        View in: PubMed PMC4252589
      25. Odeny TA, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Yuhas K, Camlin CS, McClelland RS. Texting improves testing: a randomized trial of two-way SMS to increase postpartum prevention of mother-to-child transmission retention and infant HIV testing. AIDS. 2014 Sep 24; 28(15):2307-12.
        View in: PubMed
      26. Odeny TA, Newman M, Bukusi EA, McClelland RS, Cohen CR, Camlin CS. Developing content for a mHealth intervention to promote postpartum retention in prevention of mother-to-child HIV transmission programs and early infant diagnosis of HIV: a qualitative study. PLoS One. 2014; 9(9):e106383.
        View in: PubMed PMC4152282
      27. Matthews LT, Heffron R, Mugo NR, Cohen CR, Hendrix CW, Celum C, Bangsberg DR, Baeten JM. High medication adherence during periconception periods among HIV-1-uninfected women participating in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Sep 1; 67(1):91-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC4149628
      28. Mmeje O, van der Poel S, Workneh M, Njoroge B, Bukusi E, Cohen CR. Achieving pregnancy safely: perspectives on timed vaginal insemination among HIV-serodiscordant couples and health-care providers in Kisumu, Kenya. AIDS Care. 2015 Jan; 27(1):10-6.
        View in: PubMed PMC4221525
      29. Hickey MD, Salmen CR, Tessler RA, Omollo D, Bacchetti P, Magerenge R, Mattah B, Salmen MR, Zoughbie D, Fiorella KJ, Geng E, Njoroge B, Jin C, Huang Y, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Gandhi M. Antiretroviral concentrations in small hair samples as a feasible marker of adherence in rural Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Jul 1; 66(3):311-5.
        View in: PubMed PMC4146734
      30. Patel R, Baum S, Grossman D, Steinfeld R, Onono M, Cohen C, Bukusi E, Newmann S. HIV-positive men's experiences with integrated family planning and HIV services in western Kenya: integration fosters male involvement. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2014 Aug; 28(8):418-24.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Huchko MJ, Sneden J, Sawaya G, Smith-McCune K, Maloba M, Abdulrahim N, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Accuracy of visual inspection with acetic acid to detect cervical cancer precursors among HIV-infected women in Kenya. Int J Cancer. 2015 Jan 15; 136(2):392-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC4214890
      32. Huchko MJ, Leslie H, Maloba M, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Factors associated with recurrence of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2+ after treatment among HIV-infected women in Western Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Jun 1; 66(2):188-92.
        View in: PubMed PMC4166547
      33. Onono MA, Cohen CR, Jerop M, Bukusi EA, Turan JM. HIV serostatus and disclosure: implications for infant feeding practice in rural south Nyanza, Kenya. BMC Public Health. 2014; 14:390.
        View in: PubMed PMC4041135
      34. Owiti PO, Penner J, Oyanga A, Huchko M, Onchiri FM, Cohen C, Bukusi EA. World Health Organization's stage 4 conditions among adults accessing outpatient HIV care: a retrospective cohort study in Kisumu, Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Apr 1; 65(4):e152-5.
        View in: PubMed PMC3939608
      35. Nagata JM, Cohen CR, Young SL, Wamuyu C, Armes MN, Otieno BO, Leslie HH, Dandu M, Stewart CC, Bukusi EA, Weiser SD. Descriptive characteristics and health outcomes of the food by prescription nutrition supplementation program for adults living with HIV in Nyanza Province, Kenya. PLoS One. 2014; 9(3):e91403.
        View in: PubMed PMC3960130
      36. Huchko MJ, Sneden J, Leslie HH, Abdulrahim N, Maloba M, Bukusi E, Cohen CR. A comparison of two visual inspection methods for cervical cancer screening among HIV-infected women in Kenya. Bull World Health Organ. 2014 Mar 1; 92(3):195-203.
        View in: PubMed PMC3949589
      37. Onono M, Blat C, Miles S, Steinfeld R, Wekesa P, Bukusi EA, Owuor K, Grossman D, Cohen CR, Newmann SJ. Impact of family planning health talks by lay health workers on contraceptive knowledge and attitudes among HIV-infected patients in rural Kenya. Patient Educ Couns. 2014 Mar; 94(3):438-41.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Cohen CR, Bukusi E, Rees H, Blanchard K. Intersection of HIV and Reproductive Health. AIDS Res Treat. 2013; 2013:418918.
        View in: PubMed PMC3857734
      39. Camlin CS, Kwena ZA, Dworkin SL, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA. "She mixes her business": HIV transmission and acquisition risks among female migrants in western Kenya. Soc Sci Med. 2014 Feb; 102:146-56.
        View in: PubMed PMC3935174
      40. Shade SB, Kevany S, Onono M, Ochieng G, Steinfeld RL, Grossman D, Newmann SJ, Blat C, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Cost, cost-efficiency and cost-effectiveness of integrated family planning and HIV services. AIDS. 2013 Oct; 27 Suppl 1:S87-92.
        View in: PubMed
      41. Grossman D, Onono M, Newmann SJ, Blat C, Bukusi EA, Shade SB, Steinfeld RL, Cohen CR. Integration of family planning services into HIV care and treatment in Kenya: a cluster-randomized trial. AIDS. 2013 Oct; 27 Suppl 1:S77-85.
        View in: PubMed
      42. Huchko MJ, Leslie H, Sneden J, Maloba M, Abdulrahim N, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Risk factors for cervical precancer detection among previously unscreened HIV-infected women in Western Kenya. Int J Cancer. 2014 Feb 1; 134(3):740-5.
        View in: PubMed PMC3839664
      43. Mungo C, Cohen CR, Maloba M, Bukusi EA, Huchko MJ. Prevalence, characteristics, and outcomes of HIV-positive women diagnosed with invasive cancer of the cervix in Kenya. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013 Dec; 123(3):231-5.
        View in: PubMed PMC4151462
      44. Cettomai D, Kwasa JK, Birbeck GL, Price RW, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Kendi C, Meyer AC. Screening for HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy in resource-limited settings. Muscle Nerve. 2013 Oct; 48(4):516-24.
        View in: PubMed PMC4019398
      45. Newmann SJ, Grossman D, Blat C, Onono M, Steinfeld R, Bukusi EA, Shade S, Cohen CR. Does integrating family planning into HIV care and treatment impact intention to use contraception? Patient perspectives from HIV-infected individuals in Nyanza Province, Kenya. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2013 Nov; 123 Suppl 1:e16-23.
        View in: PubMed PMC3842365
      46. Withers M, Dworkin S, Harrington E, Kwena Z, Onono M, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Grossman D, Newmann SJ. Fertility intentions among HIV-infected, sero-concordant couples in Nyanza province, Kenya. Cult Health Sex. 2013; 15(10):1175-90.
        View in: PubMed PMC3835420
      47. Huchko MJ, Woo V, Liegler T, Leddy A, Smith-McCune K, Sawaya GF, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Is there an association between HIV-1 genital shedding and cervical intraepithelial neoplasia 2/3 among women on antiretroviral therapy? J Low Genit Tract Dis. 2013 Jul; 17(3):354-60.
        View in: PubMed PMC3690152
      48. Coleman JS, Mwachari C, Balkus J, Sanguli L, Muliro A, Agnew K, Coombs RW, Cohen CR, Hitti J. Effect of the levonorgestrel intrauterine device on genital HIV-1 RNA shedding among HIV-1-infected women not taking antiretroviral therapy in Nairobi, Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Jun 1; 63(2):245-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC3668353
      49. Woo VG, Liegler T, Cohen CR, Sawaya GF, Smith-McCune K, Bukusi EA, Huchko MJ. Association of cervical biopsy with HIV type 1 genital shedding among women on highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Jul; 29(7):1000-5.
        View in: PubMed PMC3685685
      50. Odeny TA, Penner J, Lewis-Kulzer J, Leslie HH, Shade SB, Adero W, Kioko J, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA. Integration of HIV Care with Primary Health Care Services: Effect on Patient Satisfaction and Stigma in Rural Kenya. AIDS Res Treat. 2013; 2013:485715.
        View in: PubMed PMC3664481
      51. Newmann SJ, Mishra K, Onono M, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Gage O, Odeny R, Schwartz KD, Grossman D. Providers' Perspectives on Provision of Family Planning to HIV-Positive Individuals in HIV Care in Nyanza Province, Kenya. AIDS Res Treat. 2013; 2013:915923.
        View in: PubMed PMC3659431
      52. Steinfeld RL, Newmann SJ, Onono M, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Grossman D. Overcoming Barriers to Family Planning through Integration: Perspectives of HIV-Positive Men in Nyanza Province, Kenya. AIDS Res Treat. 2013; 2013:861983.
        View in: PubMed PMC3657396
      53. Nagata JM, Fiorella KJ, Young SL, Otieno OD, Kapule I, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Socio-demographic and health associations with body mass index at the time of enrollment in HIV care in Nyanza Province, Kenya. AIDS Care. 2013; 25(12):1491-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC3708981
      54. Mitchell C, Balkus JE, McKernan-Mullin J, Cohn SE, Luque AE, Mwachari C, Cohen CR, Coombs R, Frenkel LM, Hitti J. Associations between genital tract infections, genital tract inflammation, and cervical cytobrush HIV-1 DNA in US versus Kenyan women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Feb 1; 62(2):143-8.
        View in: PubMed PMC3549039
      55. Woo VG, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Huchko MJ. Direct questioning is more effective than patient-initiated report for the detection of sexually transmitted infections in a primary care HIV clinic in Western Kenya. Sex Transm Dis. 2013 Feb; 40(2):158-61.
        View in: PubMed PMC3644217
      56. Medema-Wijnveen JS, Onono M, Bukusi EA, Miller S, Cohen CR, Turan JM. How perceptions of HIV-related stigma affect decision-making regarding childbirth in rural Kenya. PLoS One. 2012; 7(12):e51492.
        View in: PubMed PMC3520801
      57. Mitchell C, Balkus JE, Fredricks D, Liu C, McKernan-Mullin J, Frenkel LM, Mwachari C, Luque A, Cohn SE, Cohen CR, Coombs R, Hitti J. Interaction between lactobacilli, bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria, and HIV Type 1 RNA and DNA Genital shedding in U.S. and Kenyan women. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Jan; 29(1):13-9.
        View in: PubMed PMC3537306
      58. Kendi C, Penner J, Koech J, Nyonda M, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Ngugi E, Meyer AC. Predictors of outcome in routine care for Cryptococcal meningitis in Western Kenya: lessons for HIV outpatient care in resource-limited settings. Postgrad Med J. 2013 Feb; 89(1048):73-7.
        View in: PubMed PMC3722584
      59. Cohen CR, Cheng SC, Shiboski S, Chipato T, Matu M, Mwangi J, Mutimutema ME, Tuveson J, Kamba M, Padian N, van der Straten A. Diaphragm used with replens gel and risk of bacterial vaginosis: results from a randomized controlled trial. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 2012:921519.
        View in: PubMed PMC3485870
      60. Turan JM, Steinfeld RL, Onono M, Bukusi EA, Woods M, Shade SB, Washington S, Marima R, Penner J, Ackers ML, Mbori-Ngacha D, Cohen CR. The study of HIV and antenatal care integration in pregnancy in Kenya: design, methods, and baseline results of a cluster-randomized controlled trial. PLoS One. 2012; 7(9):e44181.
        View in: PubMed PMC3435393
      61. Hemmerling A, Harrison WG, Brown JM, Moscicki B, Oziemkowska M, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Trypan blue staining to determine vaginal exposure in two types of plastic vaginal applicators containing two different microbicide formulations. Sex Transm Dis. 2012 Sep; 39(9):710-2.
        View in: PubMed PMC3726043
      62. Turan JM, Hatcher AH, Medema-Wijnveen J, Onono M, Miller S, Bukusi EA, Turan B, Cohen CR. The role of HIV-related stigma in utilization of skilled childbirth services in rural Kenya: a prospective mixed-methods study. PLoS Med. 2012; 9(8):e1001295.
        View in: PubMed PMC3424253
      63. Mmeje O, Cohen CR, Cohan D. Evaluating safer conception options for HIV-serodiscordant couples (HIV-infected female/HIV-uninfected male): a closer look at vaginal insemination. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 2012:587651.
        View in: PubMed PMC3423871
      64. Harrington EK, Newmann SJ, Onono M, Schwartz KD, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Grossman D. Fertility intentions and interest in integrated family planning services among women living with HIV in Nyanza Province, Kenya: a qualitative study. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2012; 2012:809682.
        View in: PubMed PMC3403353
      65. Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kakia A, Odoyo J, Mucunguzi A, Nakku-Joloba E, Twesigye R, Ngure K, Apaka C, Tamooh H, Gabona F, Mujugira A, Panteleeff D, Thomas KK, Kidoguchi L, Krows M, Revall J, Morrison S, Haugen H, Emmanuel-Ogier M, Ondrejcek L, Coombs RW, Frenkel L, Hendrix C, Bumpus NN, Bangsberg D, Haberer JE, Stevens WS, Lingappa JR, Celum C. Antiretroviral prophylaxis for HIV prevention in heterosexual men and women. N Engl J Med. 2012 Aug 2; 367(5):399-410.
        View in: PubMed PMC3770474
      66. Hatcher AM, Turan JM, Leslie HH, Kanya LW, Kwena Z, Johnson MO, Shade SB, Bukusi EA, Doyen A, Cohen CR. Predictors of linkage to care following community-based HIV counseling and testing in rural Kenya. AIDS Behav. 2012 Jul; 16(5):1295-307.
        View in: PubMed PMC3590795
      67. Cohen CR, Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, Ngayo MO, Spiegel CA, Hong T, Donnell D, Celum C, Kapiga S, Delany S, Bukusi EA. Bacterial vaginosis associated with increased risk of female-to-male HIV-1 transmission: a prospective cohort analysis among African couples. PLoS Med. 2012; 9(6):e1001251.
        View in: PubMed PMC3383741
      68. Yamey G, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA. Meeting an unmet need for family planning. BMJ. 2012; 344:e4160.
        View in: PubMed
      69. Macklaim JM, Cohen CR, Donders G, Gloor GB, Hill JE, Parham GP, Ravel J, Spear G, van de Wijgert J, Reid G. Exploring a road map to counter misconceptions about the cervicovaginal microbiome and disease. Reprod Sci. 2012 Nov; 19(11):1154-62.
        View in: PubMed PMC4051403
      70. Dillabaugh LL, Lewis Kulzer J, Owuor K, Ndege V, Oyanga A, Ngugi E, Shade SB, Bukusi E, Cohen CR. Towards Elimination of Mother-to-Child Transmission of HIV: The Impact of a Rapid Results Initiative in Nyanza Province, Kenya. AIDS Res Treat. 2012; 2012:602120.
        View in: PubMed PMC3324880
      71. Kwasa J, Cettomai D, Lwanya E, Osiemo D, Oyaro P, Birbeck GL, Price RW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Meyer AC. Lessons learned developing a diagnostic tool for HIV-associated dementia feasible to implement in resource-limited settings: pilot testing in Kenya. PLoS One. 2012; 7(3):e32898.
        View in: PubMed PMC3296754
      72. Lewis Kulzer J, Penner JA, Marima R, Oyaro P, Oyanga AO, Shade SB, Blat CC, Nyabiage L, Mwachari CW, Muttai HC, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Family model of HIV care and treatment: a retrospective study in Kenya. J Int AIDS Soc. 2012; 15(1):8.
        View in: PubMed PMC3298805
      73. Ngure K, Heffron R, Mugo NR, Celum C, Cohen CR, Odoyo J, Rees H, Kiarie JN, Were E, Baeten JM. Contraceptive method and pregnancy incidence among women in HIV-1-serodiscordant partnerships. AIDS. 2012 Feb 20; 26(4):513-8.
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      74. Vo BN, Cohen CR, Smith RM, Bukusi EA, Onono MA, Schwartz K, Washington S, Turan JM. Patient satisfaction with integrated HIV and antenatal care services in rural Kenya. AIDS Care. 2012; 24(11):1442-7.
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      75. Moscicki AB, Kaul R, Ma Y, Scott ME, Daud II, Bukusi EA, Shiboski S, Rebbapragada A, Huibner S, Cohen CR. Measurement of mucosal biomarkers in a phase 1 trial of intravaginal 3% StarPharma LTD 7013 gel (VivaGel) to assess expanded safety. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Feb 1; 59(2):134-40.
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      76. Nagata JM, Magerenge RO, Young SL, Oguta JO, Weiser SD, Cohen CR. Social determinants, lived experiences, and consequences of household food insecurity among persons living with HIV/AIDS on the shore of Lake Victoria, Kenya. AIDS Care. 2012; 24(6):728-36.
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      77. Adudans MK, Montandon M, Kwena Z, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Prevalence of forced sex and associated factors among women and men in Kisumu, Kenya. Afr J Reprod Health. 2011 Dec; 15(4):87-97.
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      78. Weiser SD, Young SL, Cohen CR, Kushel MB, Tsai AC, Tien PC, Hatcher AM, Frongillo EA, Bangsberg DR. Conceptual framework for understanding the bidirectional links between food insecurity and HIV/AIDS. Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec; 94(6):1729S-1739S.
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      79. Ngugi BM, Hemmerling A, Bukusi EA, Kikuvi G, Gikunju J, Shiboski S, Fredricks DN, Cohen CR. Effects of bacterial vaginosis-associated bacteria and sexual intercourse on vaginal colonization with the probiotic Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05. Sex Transm Dis. 2011 Nov; 38(11):1020-7.
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      80. Winestone LE, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Kwaro D, Schmidt NC, Turan JM. Acceptability and feasibility of integration of HIV care services into antenatal clinics in rural Kenya: a qualitative provider interview study. Glob Public Health. 2012; 7(2):149-63.
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      81. Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Donnell D, Ndase P, Mugo NR, Barnes L, Campbell JD, Wangisi J, Tappero JW, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Tumwesigye E, Were E, Fife KH, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, John-Stewart G, Kidoguchi L, Panteleeff D, Krows M, Shah H, Revall J, Morrison S, Ondrejcek L, Ingram C, Coombs RW, Lingappa JR, Celum C. Characteristics of HIV-1 serodiscordant couples enrolled in a clinical trial of antiretroviral pre-exposure prophylaxis for HIV-1 prevention. PLoS One. 2011; 6(10):e25828.
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      82. Kaul R, Cohen CR, Anzala O, Kimani J. Author's reply: most HIV Transmission in sub-Saharan Africa occurs through sex. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011 Oct; 66(4):250-1.
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      83. Geng EH, Hunt PW, Diero LO, Kimaiyo S, Somi GR, Okong P, Bangsberg DR, Bwana MB, Cohen CR, Otieno JA, Wabwire D, Elul B, Nash D, Easterbrook PJ, Braitstein P, Musick BS, Martin JN, Yiannoutsos CT, Wools-Kaloustian K. Trends in the clinical characteristics of HIV-infected patients initiating antiretroviral therapy in Kenya, Uganda and Tanzania between 2002 and 2009. J Int AIDS Soc. 2011; 14:46.
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      84. Mugo NR, Heffron R, Donnell D, Wald A, Were EO, Rees H, Celum C, Kiarie JN, Cohen CR, Kayintekore K, Baeten JM. Increased risk of HIV-1 transmission in pregnancy: a prospective study among African HIV-1-serodiscordant couples. AIDS. 2011 Sep 24; 25(15):1887-95.
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      85. Mugo NR, Kiehlbauch J, Kiviat N, Nguti R, Gichuhi JW, Stamm WE, Cohen CR. Endometrial histopathology in patients with laparoscopic proven salpingitis and HIV-1 infection. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2011; 2011:407057.
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      86. Woo VG, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Huchko MJ. Loop electrosurgical excision procedure: safety and tolerability among human immunodeficiency virus-positive Kenyan women. Obstet Gynecol. 2011 Sep; 118(3):554-9.
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      87. Turan JM, Bukusi EA, Onono M, Holzemer WL, Miller S, Cohen CR. HIV/AIDS stigma and refusal of HIV testing among pregnant women in rural Kenya: results from the MAMAS Study. AIDS Behav. 2011 Aug; 15(6):1111-20.
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      88. Smith RM, Carrico AW, Montandon M, Kwena Z, Bailey R, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Attitudes and beliefs about anti-retroviral therapy are associated with high risk sexual behaviors among the general population of Kisumu, Kenya. AIDS Care. 2011 Dec; 23(12):1668-75.
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      89. Bukusi E, Thomas KK, Nguti R, Cohen CR, Weiss N, Coombs RW, Holmes KK. Topical penile microbicide use by men to prevent recurrent bacterial vaginosis in sex partners: a randomized clinical trial. Sex Transm Dis. 2011 Jun; 38(6):483-9.
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      90. Huchko MJ, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Building capacity for cervical cancer screening in outpatient HIV clinics in the Nyanza province of western Kenya. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2011 Aug; 114(2):106-10.
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      91. Karari C, Tittle R, Penner J, Kulzer J, Bukusi EA, Marima R, Cohen CR. Evaluating the uptake, acceptability, and effectiveness of Uliza! clinicians' HIV hotline: a telephone consultation service in Kenya. Telemed J E Health. 2011 Jul-Aug; 17(6):420-6.
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      92. Huchko MJ, Montandon M, Nguti R, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. The association of HIV counseling and testing with HIV risk behaviors in a random population-based survey in Kisumu, Kenya. AIDS Behav. 2011 May; 15(4):718-24.
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      93. Nagata JM, Jew AR, Kimeu JM, Salmen CR, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Medical pluralism on Mfangano Island: use of medicinal plants among persons living with HIV/AIDS in Suba District, Kenya. J Ethnopharmacol. 2011 May 17; 135(2):501-9.
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      94. Hemmerling A, Cohen CR. Probiotics: the potential for a live microbicide to prevent HIV. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Mar 1; 56(3):e98-101.
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      95. Cohen CR, Brown J, Moscicki AB, Bukusi EA, Paull JR, Price CF, Shiboski S. A phase I randomized placebo controlled trial of the safety of 3% SPL7013 Gel (VivaGel®) in healthy young women administered twice daily for 14 days. PLoS One. 2011; 6(1):e16258.
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      96. Kaul R, Cohen CR, Chege D, Yi TJ, Tharao W, McKinnon LR, Remis R, Anzala O, Kimani J. Biological factors that may contribute to regional and racial disparities in HIV prevalence. Am J Reprod Immunol. 2011 Mar; 65(3):317-24.
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      97. Westercamp M, Bailey RC, Bukusi EA, Montandon M, Kwena Z, Cohen CR. Male circumcision in the general population of Kisumu, Kenya: beliefs about protection, risk behaviors, HIV, and STIs. PLoS One. 2010; 5(12):e15552.
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      98. Cettomai D, Kwasa J, Kendi C, Birbeck GL, Price RW, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Meyer AC. Utility of quantitative sensory testing and screening tools in identifying HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy in Western Kenya: pilot testing. PLoS One. 2010; 5(12):e14256.
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      99. Hemmerling A, Harrison W, Schroeder A, Park J, Korn A, Shiboski S, Foster-Rosales A, Cohen CR. Phase 2a study assessing colonization efficiency, safety, and acceptability of Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 in women with bacterial vaginosis. Sex Transm Dis. 2010 Dec; 37(12):745-50.
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      100. Cohen CR, Moscicki AB, Scott ME, Ma Y, Shiboski S, Bukusi E, Daud I, Rebbapragada A, Brown J, Kaul R. Increased levels of immune activation in the genital tract of healthy young women from sub-Saharan Africa. AIDS. 2010 Aug 24; 24(13):2069-74.
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      101. Kwena ZA, Cohen CR, Sang NM, Ng'ayo MO, Ochieng JH, Bukusi EA. Fishermen as a Suitable Population for HIV Intervention Trials. AIDS Res Treat. 2010; 2010:865903.
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      102. Rahangdale L, Banandur P, Sreenivas A, Turan JM, Washington R, Cohen CR. Stigma as experienced by women accessing prevention of parent-to-child transmission of HIV services in Karnataka, India. AIDS Care. 2010 Jul; 22(7):836-42.
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      103. Donnell D, Baeten JM, Kiarie J, Thomas KK, Stevens W, Cohen CR, McIntyre J, Lingappa JR, Celum C. Heterosexual HIV-1 transmission after initiation of antiretroviral therapy: a prospective cohort analysis. Lancet. 2010 Jun 12; 375(9731):2092-8.
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      104. Pandit JA, Sirotin N, Tittle R, Onjolo E, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR. Shamba Maisha: a pilot study assessing impacts of a micro-irrigation intervention on the health and economic wellbeing of HIV patients. BMC Public Health. 2010; 10:245.
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      105. Lingappa JR, Baeten JM, Wald A, Hughes JP, Thomas KK, Mujugira A, Mugo N, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Kidoguchi L, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L, Celum C. Daily acyclovir for HIV-1 disease progression in people dually infected with HIV-1 and herpes simplex virus type 2: a randomised placebo-controlled trial. Lancet. 2010 Mar 6; 375(9717):824-33.
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      106. Celum C, Wald A, Lingappa JR, Magaret AS, Wang RS, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Baeten JM, Mullins JI, Hughes JP, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife KH, de Bruyn G, Gray GE, McIntyre JA, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Stevens W, Campbell MS, Thomas KK, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington WL, McElrath MJ, Barnes L, Ridzon R, Corey L. Acyclovir and transmission of HIV-1 from persons infected with HIV-1 and HSV-2. N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb 4; 362(5):427-39.
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      107. Matu MN, Orinda GO, Njagi EN, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA. In vitro inhibitory activity of human vaginal lactobacilli against pathogenic bacteria associated with bacterial vaginosis in Kenyan women. Anaerobe. 2010 Jun; 16(3):210-5.
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      108. Hemmerling A, Harrison W, Schroeder A, Park J, Korn A, Shiboski S, Cohen CR. Phase 1 dose-ranging safety trial of Lactobacillus crispatus CTV-05 for the prevention of bacterial vaginosis. Sex Transm Dis. 2009 Sep; 36(9):564-9.
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      109. Ondondo BO, Brunham RC, Harrison WG, Kinyari T, Sheth PM, Mugo NR, Cohen CR. Frequency and magnitude of Chlamydia trachomatis elementary body- and heat shock protein 60-stimulated interferon gamma responses in peripheral blood mononuclear cells and endometrial biopsy samples from women with high exposure to infection. J Infect Dis. 2009 Jun 15; 199(12):1771-9.
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      110. Lingappa JR, Kahle E, Mugo N, Mujugira A, Magaret A, Baeten J, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Katabira E, Ronald A, Kiarie J, Farquhar C, Stewart GJ, Makhema J, Essex M, Were E, Fife K, Debruyn G, Gray G, McIntyre J, Manongi R, Kapiga S, Coetzee D, Allen S, Inambao M, Kayitenkore K, Karita E, Kanweka W, Delany S, Rees H, Vwalika B, Coombs RW, Morrow R, Whittington W, Corey L, Wald A, Celum C. Characteristics of HIV-1 discordant couples enrolled in a trial of HSV-2 suppression to reduce HIV-1 transmission: the partners study. PLoS One. 2009; 4(4):e5272.
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      111. Cohen CR, Montandon M, Carrico AW, Shiboski S, Bostrom A, Obure A, Kwena Z, Bailey RC, Nguti R, Bukusi EA. Association of attitudes and beliefs towards antiretroviral therapy with HIV-seroprevalence in the general population of Kisumu, Kenya. PLoS One. 2009; 4(3):e4573.
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      112. Montandon M, Sahin-Hodoglugil NN, Bukusi E, Agot K, Boland B, Cohen CR. Sexuality, HIV risk and potential acceptability of involving adolescent girls in microbicide research in Kisumu, Kenya. Sex Health. 2008 Dec; 5(4):339-46.
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      113. Pandis GK, Saridogan E, Windsor AC, Gulumser C, Cohen CR, Cutner AS. Short-term outcome of fertility-sparing laparoscopic excision of deeply infiltrating pelvic endometriosis performed in a tertiary referral center. Fertil Steril. 2010 Jan; 93(1):39-45.
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      114. Turan JM, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Sande J, Miller S. Effects of HIV/AIDS on maternity care providers in Kenya. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs. 2008 Sep-Oct; 37(5):588-95.
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      115. Turan JM, Miller S, Bukusi EA, Sande J, Cohen CR. HIV/AIDS and maternity care in Kenya: how fears of stigma and discrimination affect uptake and provision of labor and delivery services. AIDS Care. 2008 Sep; 20(8):938-45.
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      116. Nduba VN, Mwachari CW, Magaret AS, Park DR, Kigo A, Hooton TM, Cohen CR. Placebo found equivalent to amoxicillin for treatment of acute bronchitis in Nairobi, Kenya: a triple blind, randomised, equivalence trial. Thorax. 2008 Nov; 63(11):999-1005.
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      117. Madhivanan P, Krupp K, Chandrasekaran V, Karat C, Arun A, Cohen CR, Reingold AL, Klausner JD. Prevalence and correlates of bacterial vaginosis among young women of reproductive age in Mysore, India. Indian J Med Microbiol. 2008 Apr-Jun; 26(2):132-7.
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      118. Sharma A, Bukusi E, Gorbach P, Cohen CR, Muga C, Kwena Z, Holmes KK. Sexual identity and risk of HIV/STI among men who have sex with men in Nairobi. Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Apr; 35(4):352-4.
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      119. Bolton M, van der Straten A, Cohen CR. Probiotics: potential to prevent HIV and sexually transmitted infections in women. Sex Transm Dis. 2008 Mar; 35(3):214-25.
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      120. Mwachari C, Nduba V, Nguti R, Park DR, Sanguli L, Cohen CR. Validation of a new clinical scoring system for acute bronchitis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2007 Nov; 11(11):1253-9.
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      121. Iverson-Cabral SL, Astete SG, Cohen CR, Totten PA. mgpB and mgpC sequence diversity in Mycoplasma genitalium is generated by segmental reciprocal recombination with repetitive chromosomal sequences. Mol Microbiol. 2007 Oct; 66(1):55-73.
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      122. Ngugi EN, Chakkalackal M, Sharma A, Bukusi E, Njoroge B, Kimani J, MacDonald KS, Bwayo JJ, Cohen CR, Moses S, Kaul R. Sustained changes in sexual behavior by female sex workers after completion of a randomized HIV prevention trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Aug 15; 45(5):588-94.
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      123. Cohen CR, Nosek M, Meier A, Astete SG, Iverson-Cabral S, Mugo NR, Totten PA. Mycoplasma genitalium infection and persistence in a cohort of female sex workers in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Dis. 2007 May; 34(5):274-9.
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      124. Becker ML, Cohen CR, Cheang M, Washington RG, Blanchard JF, Moses S. Diarrheal disease among HIV-infected adults in Karnataka, India: evaluation of risk factors and etiology. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2007 Apr; 76(4):718-22.
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      125. Bukusi EA, Steele M, Cohen CR, Nguti R, Maingi CW, Thomas KK, Holmes KK. Safety, acceptability, and tolerability of 3 topical microbicides among heterosexual Kenyan men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Apr 1; 44(4):423-8.
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      126. Coleman JS, Hitti J, Bukusi EA, Mwachari C, Muliro A, Nguti R, Gausman R, Jensen S, Patton D, Lockhart D, Coombs R, Cohen CR. Infectious correlates of HIV-1 shedding in the female upper and lower genital tracts. AIDS. 2007 Mar 30; 21(6):755-9.
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      127. Steele MS, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Shell-Duncan BA, Holmes KK. The ABCs of HIV prevention in men: associations with HIV risk and protective behaviors. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Dec 15; 43(5):571-6.
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      128. Sharma A, Bukusi E, Posner S, Feldman D, Ngugi E, Cohen CR. Sex preparation and diaphragm acceptability in sex work in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Health. 2006 Dec; 3(4):261-8.
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      129. Meier AS, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Holmes KK. Independent association of hygiene, socioeconomic status, and circumcision with reduced risk of HIV infection among Kenyan men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Sep; 43(1):117-8.
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      130. Iverson-Cabral SL, Astete SG, Cohen CR, Rocha EP, Totten PA. Intrastrain heterogeneity of the mgpB gene in Mycoplasma genitalium is extensive in vitro and in vivo and suggests that variation is generated via recombination with repetitive chromosomal sequences. Infect Immun. 2006 Jul; 74(7):3715-26.
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      131. Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Meier AS, Waiyaki PG, Nguti R, Njeri JN, Holmes KK. Bacterial vaginosis: risk factors among Kenyan women and their male partners. Sex Transm Dis. 2006 Jun; 33(6):361-7.
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      132. Mwachari CW, Nduba VN, Park DR, Meier AS, Kariuki JN, Muyodi JA, Karimi F, Kigo A, Holmes KK, Cohen CR. Clinical presentation among HIV-infected and non-infected adults with community acquired pneumonia in Nairobi. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 May; 10(5):516-22.
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      133. Mugo NR, Kiehlbauch JA, Nguti R, Meier A, Gichuhi JW, Stamm WE, Cohen CR. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus-1 infection on treatment outcome of acute salpingitis. Obstet Gynecol. 2006 Apr; 107(4):807-12.
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      134. Cohen CR, Mugo NR, Astete SG, Odondo R, Manhart LE, Kiehlbauch JA, Stamm WE, Waiyaki PG, Totten PA. Detection of Mycoplasma genitalium in women with laparoscopically diagnosed acute salpingitis. Sex Transm Infect. 2005 Dec; 81(6):463-6.
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      135. Cohen CR, Koochesfahani KM, Meier AS, Shen C, Karunakaran K, Ondondo B, Kinyari T, Mugo NR, Nguti R, Brunham RC. Immunoepidemiologic profile of Chlamydia trachomatis infection: importance of heat-shock protein 60 and interferon- gamma. J Infect Dis. 2005 Aug 15; 192(4):591-9.
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      136. Baeten JM, Lavreys L, Sagar M, Kreiss JK, Richardson BA, Chohan B, Panteleeff D, Mandaliya K, Ndinya-Achola JO, Overbaugh J, Farley T, Mwachari C, Cohen C, Chipato T, Jaisamrarn U, Kiriwat O, Duerr A. Effect of contraceptive methods on natural history of HIV: studies from the Mombasa cohort. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Mar; 38 Suppl 1:S18-21.
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      137. Steele MS, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Shell-Duncan BA, Holmes KK. Male genital hygiene beliefs and practices in Nairobi, Kenya. Sex Transm Infect. 2004 Dec; 80(6):471-6.
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      138. Hebb JK, Cohen CR, Astete SG, Bukusi EA, Totten PA. Detection of novel organisms associated with salpingitis, by use of 16S rDNA polymerase chain reaction. J Infect Dis. 2004 Dec 15; 190(12):2109-20.
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      139. Mwachari CW, Shepherd BE, Cleopa O, Odhiambo JA, Cohen CR. Mortality and burden of disease in a cohort of HIV-seropositive adults in Nairobi, Kenya. Int J STD AIDS. 2004 Feb; 15(2):120-6.
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      140. Criniti A, Mwachari CW, Meier AS, Nduba V, Sanguli L, Ngumo JK, Cohen CR. Association of hormonal contraception and HIV-seroprevalence in Nairobi, Kenya. AIDS. 2003 Dec 5; 17(18):2667-9.
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      141. Mwachari CW, Meier AS, Muyodi J, Gatei W, Waiyaki P, Cohen CR. Chronic diarrhoea in HIV-1-infected adults in Nairobi, Kenya: evaluation of risk factors and the WHO treatment algorithm. AIDS. 2003 Sep 26; 17(14):2124-6.
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      142. Cohen CR, Gichui J, Rukaria R, Sinei SS, Gaur LK, Brunham RC. Immunogenetic correlates for Chlamydia trachomatis-associated tubal infertility. Obstet Gynecol. 2003 Mar; 101(3):438-44.
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      143. Penner J, Meier AS, Mwachari C, Ayuka F, Muchina B, Odhiambo J, Cohen CR. Risk factors for pneumonia in urban-dwelling HIV-infected women: a case-control study in Nairobi, Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2003 Feb 1; 32(2):223-8.
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      144. Cohen CR, Gravelle L, Symekher S, Waiyaki P, Stamm WE, Kiehlbauch JA. Etiology of persistent tubo-ovarian abscess in Nairobi, Kenya. Infect Dis Obstet Gynecol. 2003; 11(1):45-51.
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      145. Buchanan G, Halligan S, Williams A, Cohen CR, Tarroni D, Phillips RK, Bartram CI. Effect of MRI on clinical outcome of recurrent fistula-in-ano. Lancet. 2002 Nov 23; 360(9346):1661-2.
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      146. Cohen CR, Manhart LE, Bukusi EA, Astete S, Brunham RC, Holmes KK, Sinei SK, Bwayo JJ, Totten PA. Association between Mycoplasma genitalium and acute endometritis. Lancet. 2002 Mar 2; 359(9308):765-6.
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      147. Mwachari CW, Cohen CR, Meier AS, Nganga LW, Kimari JN, Odhiambo JA. Respiratory tract infection in HIV-1-infected adults in Nairobi, Kenya: evaluation of risk factors and the world health organization treatment algorithm. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001 Aug 1; 27(4):365-71.
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      148. Cohen CR, Nguti R, Bukusi EA, Lu H, Shen C, Luo M, Sinei S, Plummer F, Bwayo J, Brunham RC. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected women exhibit reduced interferon-gamma secretion after Chlamydia trachomatis stimulation of peripheral blood lymphocytes. J Infect Dis. 2000 Dec; 182(6):1672-7.
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      149. Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Stevens CE, Sinei S, Reilly M, Grieco V, Eschenbach DA, Holmes KK, Bwayo J, Ndinya-Achola JO, Kreiss J. Effects of human immunodeficiency virus 1 infection on microbial origins of pelvic inflammatory disease and on efficacy of ambulatory oral therapy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1999 Dec; 181(6):1374-81.
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      150. Cohen CR, Plummer FA, Mugo N, Maclean I, Shen C, Bukusi EA, Irungu E, Sinei S, Bwayo J, Brunham RC. Increased interleukin-10 in the the endocervical secretions of women with non-ulcerative sexually transmitted diseases: a mechanism for enhanced HIV-1 transmission? AIDS. 1999 Feb 25; 13(3):327-32.
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      151. Cohen CR, Sinei S, Reilly M, Bukusi E, Eschenbach D, Holmes KK, Ndinya-Achola JO, Bwayo J, Grieco V, Stamm W, Karanja J, Kreiss J. Effect of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection upon acute salpingitis: a laparoscopic study. J Infect Dis. 1998 Nov; 178(5):1352-8.
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      152. Cohen CR, Duerr A, Pruithithada N, Rugpao S, Hillier S, Garcia P, Nelson K. Bacterial vaginosis and HIV seroprevalence among female commercial sex workers in Chiang Mai, Thailand. AIDS. 1995 Sep; 9(9):1093-7.
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