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Edwin Charlebois, PhD, MPH

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentMedicine
Address550 16th. Street
San Francisco CA 94158
Phone415-476-6241
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    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    As a senior scientist at the UCSF Center for AIDS Prevention Studies (CAPS) my research program focuses on the epidemiology and prevention of HIV infection and its consequences. Overarching this focus are translational science efforts to improve the methodology and evaluation of research and interventions aimed at controlling and eventually eliminating the domestic and international spread of HIV.

    Domestic HIV Research: My most recent domestic HIV prevention research is an evaluation of the potential effect of expanded ART and HIV testing strategies on reducing the number of new HIV infections in San Francisco. In this computational biology modeling paper published in CID in 2011 (with an accompanying editorial) we estimated significant reductions in new HIV infections are likely with expanded HIV treatment of those already in care and even greater gains with more frequent at-risk community HIV testing. This research along with the results of recent clinical trials were cited as evidence for a change in treatment policy in San Francisco to offer ART to all HIV infected persons. Our studies relate well with a recent editorial we published in 2010 in Archives of Internal Medicine wherein we highlight the importance of linking HIV infected persons into care and the associated potential HIV prevention benefits.

    Another priority research area for me is the development of methods for the evaluation of combination HIV prevention interventions. Combination HIV prevention interventions are specifically called for in the US National HIV/AIDS Strategy (NHAS) and specific evaluation methods for them have been identified as significant scientific gap in our recently published 2011 editorial in JAIDS on setting the NIH research agenda for the NHAS. Specifically, I have received developmental funding to pursue novel evaluation methods for community-level combination HIV prevention interventions that involve surveillance measurements of community HIV viral load, intervention process measures and structural equation modeling. In addition I will be co-directing a research team assisting in the evaluation of the San Francisco implementation of the HRSA and CDC’s 12-city project – a combination HIV prevention intervention comprising 14 interventions. In the fall of 2011 I will be leading a national round-table on the state-of-the-art and future research directions for evaluation methods for combination HIV prevention interventions to be hosted by the UCSF Center for AIDS Prevention Studies.

    International HIV Research: Internationally, my research focus is on HIV and co-infections/interaction with Tuberculosis and Malaria. Primarily working in East Africa, I am Principal Investigator of three NIH sponsored grants and co-investigator on several more. I am currently studying effective strategies for diagnosing HIV among outpatient TB evaluation patients and their family and household members in a 2,000 person randomized trial of home-based versus TB clinic based HIV testing and utilization of same-day rapid HIV tests. I am also involved in studying interactions between HIV protease inhibitor treatment and malaria incidence in two additional randomized HIV treatment trials among HIV infected children and HIV infected pregnant women. On a broader scale I am co-leading the development of a three country research collaboration, SEARCH (Sustainable East Africa Research in Community Health) to study the community level effectiveness of a program of community-wide HIV testing and universal HIV treatment to all HIV infected persons and its effect on HIV, TB, Malaria incidence and community economic and educational productivity. My area of research within the collaboration focuses on the 40 community-cluster randomized design, its HIV specific end-points of HIV incidence and community HIV viral load, and the development and evaluation of streamlined HIV care and evaluation.

    Training the Next Generation of HIV Scientists: An important part of my research program is training and mentoring the next generation of HIV scientists. As the principal investigator of 2 large international data management and statistical support cores (one for a NICHD supported program project, and one for a NIAID funded International Center for Excellence in Malaria Research, ICEMR) – I am able to organize and support the cores as a resource for training and mentoring post-doctoral researchers and medical students in international HIV and clinical research. Through individual level research mentorship, a weekly international investigators seminar held in the US, the UCSF CAPS Traineeship in AIDS Prevention Studies (TAPS) program, and affiliated NIH K training grants, I supervise and assist between 3-5 trainees annually in the development of individual research projects, and epidemiologic and biostatistical training.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Novel Evaluation Methods for Multi-Level/Combination HIV Prevention Interventions
    NIH/NIMH R21MH098811Sep 11, 2012 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Structural Alcohol Intervention to Reduce HIV Risk Behavior
    NIH/NIAAA R21AA020467Sep 1, 2012 - Aug 31, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Program for Resistance, Immunology, Surveillance & Modeling of Malaria in Uganda
    NIH U19AI089674Jul 1, 2010 - Jun 30, 2017
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Novel Strategies to Prevent Malaria and Improve Maternal-Child Health in Africa
    NIH/NICHD P01HD059454Aug 1, 2008 - Jun 30, 2018
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Family-Based HIV VCT in Patients at Risk for TB
    NIH/NIMH R01MH075637May 10, 2006 - Dec 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    General Clinical Research Center
    NIH/NCRR M01RR000083Oct 1, 1974 - Nov 30, 2007
    Role: Co-Investigator

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    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Faculty Mentoring
    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Global Health

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Tram KH, Mwangwa F, Atukunda M, Owaraganise A, Ayieko J, Plenty A, Kwariisima D, Clark TD, Kamya MR, Petersen ML, Charlebois E, Chamie G, Havlir DV, Marquez C. Isoniazid Preventive Therapy Completion in the Era of Differentiated HIV Care. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Sep 06. PMID: 28885271.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Brown LB, Ayieko J, Mwangwa F, Owaraganise A, Kwarisiima D, Jain V, Ruel T, Clark T, Black D, Chamie G, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Kamya MR, Petersen ML, Charlebois E, Havlir DV. Predictors of Retention in HIV Care Among Youth (15-24) in a Universal Test-and-Treat Setting in Rural Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Sep 01; 76(1):e15-e18. PMID: 28394821.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Charlebois E, Plenty AH, Lin J, Ayala A, Hecht J. Impact of a Structural Intervention to Address Alcohol Use Among Gay Bar Patrons in San Francisco: The PACE Study. AIDS Behav. 2017 Aug 24. PMID: 28840396.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Kwarisiima D, Kamya MR, Owaraganise A, Mwangwa F, Byonanebye DM, Ayieko J, Plenty A, Black D, Clark TD, Nzarubara B, Snyman K, Brown L, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Geng EH, Charlebois E, Ruel TD, Petersen ML, Havlir D, Jain V. High rates of viral suppression in adults and children with high CD4+ counts using a streamlined ART delivery model in the SEARCH trial in rural Uganda and Kenya. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017 07 21; 20(Suppl 4):21673. PMID: 28770596.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Natureeba P, Kakuru A, Muhindo M, Littmann E, Ochieng T, Ategeka J, Koss CA, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Clark TD, Nzarubara B, Nakalembe M, Cohan D, Rizzuto G, Muehlenbachs A, Ruel T, Jagannathan P, Havlir DV, Kamya MR, Dorsey G. Intermittent Preventive Treatment With Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for the Prevention of Malaria Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women. J Infect Dis. 2017 Jul 01; 216(1):29-35. PMID: 28329368.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Petersen M, Balzer L, Kwarsiima D, Sang N, Chamie G, Ayieko J, Kabami J, Owaraganise A, Liegler T, Mwangwa F, Kadede K, Jain V, Plenty A, Brown L, Lavoy G, Schwab J, Black D, van der Laan M, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Clark TD, Charlebois E, Kamya M, Havlir D. Association of Implementation of a Universal Testing and Treatment Intervention With HIV Diagnosis, Receipt of Antiretroviral Therapy, and Viral Suppression in East Africa. JAMA. 2017 Jun 06; 317(21):2196-2206. PMID: 28586888.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Koss CA, Natureeba P, Kwarisiima D, Ogena M, Clark TD, Olwoch P, Cohan D, Okiring J, Charlebois E, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Viral Suppression and Retention in Care up to 5 Years After Initiation of Lifelong ART During Pregnancy (Option B+) in Rural Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 Mar 01; 74(3):279-284. PMID: 27828878.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Jain V, Petersen ML, Liegler T, Byonanebye DM, Kwarisiima D, Chamie G, Sang N, Black D, Clark TD, Ladai A, Plenty A, Kabami J, Ssemmondo E, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Charlebois E, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Population levels and geographical distribution of HIV RNA in rural Ugandan and Kenyan communities, including serodiscordant couples: a cross-sectional analysis. Lancet HIV. 2017 Mar; 4(3):e122-e133. PMID: 27989576.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Achan J, Kakuru A, Ikilezi G, Mwangwa F, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Young S, Havlir D, Kamya M, Ruel T. Growth Recovery Among HIV-infected Children Randomized to Lopinavir/Ritonavir or NNRTI-based Antiretroviral Therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016 Dec; 35(12):1329-1332. PMID: 27580060.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Brown LB, Havlir DV, Ayieko J, Mwangwa F, Owaraganise A, Kwarisiima D, Jain V, Ruel T, Clark T, Chamie G, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Kamya MR, Petersen ML, Charlebois E, et al. High levels of retention in care with streamlined care and universal test and treat in East Africa. AIDS. 2016 Nov 28; 30(18):2855-2864. PMID: 27603290.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Chang W, Chamie G, Mwai D, Clark TD, Thirumurthy H, Charlebois E, Petersen M, Kabami J, Ssemmondo E, Kadede K, Kwarisiima D, Sang N, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Kamya M, Havlir DV, Kahn JG. Implementation and Operational Research: Cost and Efficiency of a Hybrid Mobile Multidisease Testing Approach With High HIV Testing Coverage in East Africa. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Nov 01; 73(3):e39-e45. PMID: 27741031.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Ssemmondo E, Mwangwa F, Kironde JL, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Marquez C, Charlebois E, Petersen ML, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Chamie G. Implementation and Operational Research: Population-Based Active Tuberculosis Case Finding During Large-Scale Mobile HIV Testing Campaigns in Rural Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Nov 01; 73(3):e46-e50. PMID: 27741032.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Kadede K, Ruel T, Kabami J, Ssemmondo E, Sang N, Kwarisiima D, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Liegler T, Clark TD, Charlebois E, Petersen ML, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Chamie G. Increased adolescent HIV testing with a hybrid mobile strategy in Uganda and Kenya. AIDS. 2016 Sep 10; 30(14):2121-6. PMID: 27258399; PMCID: PMC5007167 [Available on 09/10/17].
    14. Amanyire G, Semitala FC, Namusobya J, Katuramu R, Kampiire L, Wallenta J, Charlebois E, Camlin C, Kahn J, Chang W, Glidden D, Kamya M, Havlir D, Geng E. Effects of a multicomponent intervention to streamline initiation of antiretroviral therapy in Africa: a stepped-wedge cluster-randomised trial. Lancet HIV. 2016 Nov; 3(11):e539-e548. PMID: 27658873.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Ssemmondo E, Mwangwa F, Kironde JL, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Marquez C, Charlebois E, Petersen ML, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Chamie G, et al. Population-based active TB case finding during large-scale mobile HIV testing campaigns in rural Uganda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Jul 29. PMID: 27509252.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Marquez C, Chamie G, Achan J, Luetkemeyer AF, Kyohere M, Okiring J, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Charlebois E, Havlir DV. Tuberculosis Infection in Early Childhood and the Association with HIV-exposure in HIV-uninfected Children in Rural Uganda. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016 May; 35(5):524-9. PMID: 26771662; PMCID: PMC4829461 [Available on 05/01/17].
    17. Camlin CS, Seeley J, Viljoen L, Vernooij E, Simwinga M, Reynolds L, Reis R, Plank R, Orne-Gliemann J, McGrath N, Larmarange J, Hoddinott G, Getahun M, Charlebois E, Bond V. Strengthening universal HIV 'test-and-treat' approaches with social science research. AIDS. 2016 Mar 27; 30(6):969-70. PMID: 26959355; PMCID: PMC4794132.
    18. Kakuru A, Jagannathan P, Muhindo MK, Natureeba P, Awori P, Nakalembe M, Opira B, Olwoch P, Ategeka J, Nayebare P, Clark TD, Feeney ME, Charlebois E, Rizzuto G, Muehlenbachs A, Havlir DV, Kamya MR, Dorsey G. Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for the Prevention of Malaria in Pregnancy. N Engl J Med. 2016 Mar 10; 374(10):928-39. PMID: 26962728; PMCID: PMC4847718.
    19. Koss CA, Natureeba P, Nyafwono D, Plenty A, Mwesigwa J, Nzarubara B, Clark TD, Ruel TD, Achan J, Charlebois E, Cohan D, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Young SL. Brief Report: Food Insufficiency Is Associated With Lack of Sustained Viral Suppression Among HIV-Infected Pregnant and Breastfeeding Ugandan Women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Mar 01; 71(3):310-5. PMID: 26397935; PMCID: PMC4752388.
    20. Chamie G, Clark TD, Kabami J, Kadede K, Ssemmondo E, Steinfeld R, Lavoy G, Kwarisiima D, Sang N, Jain V, Thirumurthy H, Liegler T, Balzer LB, Petersen ML, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Charlebois E. A hybrid mobile approach for population-wide HIV testing in rural east Africa: an observational study. Lancet HIV. 2016 Mar; 3(3):e111-9. PMID: 26939734; PMCID: PMC4780220 [Available on 03/01/17].
    21. Maeri I, El Ayadi A, Getahun M, Charlebois E, Akatukwasa C, Tumwebaze D, Itiakorit H, Owino L, Kwarisiima D, Ssemmondo E, Sang N, Kabami J, Clark TD, Petersen M, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Kamya M, Havlir D, Camlin CS. "How can I tell?" Consequences of HIV status disclosure among couples in eastern African communities in the context of an ongoing HIV "test-and-treat" trial. AIDS Care. 2016; 28 Suppl 3:59-66. PMID: 27421052.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Camlin CS, Ssemmondo E, Chamie G, El Ayadi AM, Kwarisiima D, Sang N, Kabami J, Charlebois E, Petersen M, Clark TD, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, R Kamya M, Havlir D. Men "missing" from population-based HIV testing: insights from qualitative research. AIDS Care. 2016; 28 Suppl 3:67-73. PMID: 27421053.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Thirumurthy H, Jakubowski A, Camlin C, Kabami J, Ssemmondo E, Elly A, Mwai D, Clark T, Cohen C, Bukusi E, Kamya M, Petersen M, Havlir D, Charlebois E. Expectations about future health and longevity in Kenyan and Ugandan communities receiving a universal test-and-treat intervention in the SEARCH trial. AIDS Care. 2016; 28 Suppl 3:90-8. PMID: 27421056.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Gutierrez JB, Harb OS, Zheng J, Tisch DJ, Charlebois E, Stoeckert CJ, Sullivan SA. A Framework for Global Collaborative Data Management for Malaria Research. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2015 Sep; 93(3 Suppl):124-32. PMID: 26259944; PMCID: PMC4574270.
    25. Young S, Natamba B, Luwedde F, Nyafwono D, Okia B, Osterbauer B, Natureeba P, Johnson L, Michel C, Zheng A, Robine M, Achan J, Charlebois E, Cohan D, Havlir D. "I Have Remained Strong Because of That Food": Acceptability and Use of Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplements Among Pregnant HIV-Infected Ugandan Women Receiving Combination Antiretroviral Therapy. AIDS Behav. 2015 Aug; 19(8):1535-47. PMID: 25416075; PMCID: PMC4441598.
    26. Evans D, Van Gorder D, Morin SF, Steward WT, Gaffney S, Charlebois E. Acceptance of the use of HIV surveillance data for care engagement: national and local community perspectives. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 May 01; 69 Suppl 1:S31-6. PMID: 25867776; PMCID: PMC4530777.
    27. Christopoulos KA, Scheer S, Steward WT, Barnes R, Hartogensis W, Charlebois E, Morin SF, Truong HH, Geng EH. Examining clinic-based and public health approaches to ascertainment of HIV care status. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2015 May 01; 69 Suppl 1:S56-62. PMID: 25867779; PMCID: PMC4495955.
    28. Koss CA, Natureeba P, Mwesigwa J, Cohan D, Nzarubara B, Bacchetti P, Horng H, Clark TD, Plenty A, Ruel TD, Achan J, Charlebois E, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Gandhi M. Hair concentrations of antiretrovirals predict viral suppression in HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding Ugandan women. AIDS. 2015 Apr 24; 29(7):825-30. PMID: 25985404; PMCID: PMC4438773.
    29. Chamie G, Charlebois E. Authors' response. Trop Med Int Health. 2015 Jul; 20(7):965-6. PMID: 25778797.
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    30. Bartelink IH, Savic RM, Dorsey G, Ruel T, Gingrich D, Scherpbier HJ, Capparelli E, Jullien V, Young SL, Achan J, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Kamya M, Havlir D, Aweeka F. The effect of malnutrition on the pharmacokinetics and virologic outcomes of lopinavir, efavirenz and nevirapine in food insecure HIV-infected children in Tororo, Uganda. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 Mar; 34(3):e63-70. PMID: 25742090; PMCID: PMC4351793.
    31. Chamie G, Wandera B, Marquez C, Kato-Maeda M, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Charlebois E. Identifying locations of recent TB transmission in rural Uganda: a multidisciplinary approach. Trop Med Int Health. 2015 Apr; 20(4):537-45. PMID: 25583212; PMCID: PMC4355181.
    32. Cohan D, Natureeba P, Koss CA, Plenty A, Luwedde F, Mwesigwa J, Ades V, Charlebois E, Gandhi M, Clark TD, Nzarubara B, Achan J, Ruel T, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected pregnant Ugandan women. AIDS. 2015 Jan 14; 29(2):183-91. PMID: 25426808; PMCID: PMC4428759.
    33. Young SL, Plenty AH, Luwedde FA, Natamba BK, Natureeba P, Achan J, Mwesigwa J, Ruel TD, Ades V, Osterbauer B, Clark TD, Dorsey G, Charlebois E, Kamya M, Havlir DV, Cohan DL. Household food insecurity, maternal nutritional status, and infant feeding practices among HIV-infected Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. Matern Child Health J. 2014 Nov; 18(9):2044-53. PMID: 24585398; PMCID: PMC4419705.
    34. Koss CA, Natureeba P, Plenty A, Luwedde F, Mwesigwa J, Ades V, Charlebois E, Clark TD, Achan J, Ruel T, Nzarubara B, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D. Risk factors for preterm birth among HIV-infected pregnant Ugandan women randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir- or efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Oct 01; 67(2):128-35. PMID: 25072616; PMCID: PMC4414017.
    35. Jain V, Byonanebye DM, Amanyire G, Kwarisiima D, Black D, Kabami J, Chamie G, Clark TD, Rooney JF, Charlebois E, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Successful antiretroviral therapy delivery and retention in care among asymptomatic individuals with high CD4+ T-cell counts above 350 cells/µl in rural Uganda. AIDS. 2014 Sep 24; 28(15):2241-9. PMID: 25022596; PMCID: PMC4894849.
    36. Marquez C, Davis JL, Katamba A, Haguma P, Ochom E, Ayakaka I, Chamie G, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Cattamanchi A. Assessing the quality of tuberculosis evaluation for children with prolonged cough presenting to routine community health care settings in rural Uganda. PLoS One. 2014; 9(8):e105935. PMID: 25170875; PMCID: PMC4149493.
    37. Marquez C, Okiring J, Chamie G, Ruel TD, Achan J, Kakuru A, Kamya MR, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Dorsey G. Increased morbidity in early childhood among HIV-exposed uninfected children in Uganda is associated with breastfeeding duration. J Trop Pediatr. 2014 Dec; 60(6):434-41. PMID: 25145704; PMCID: PMC4303769.
    38. Natureeba P, Ades V, Luwedde F, Mwesigwa J, Plenty A, Okong P, Charlebois E, Clark TD, Nzarubara B, Havlir DV, Achan J, Kamya MR, Cohan D, Dorsey G. Lopinavir/ritonavir-based antiretroviral treatment (ART) versus efavirenz-based ART for the prevention of malaria among HIV-infected pregnant women. J Infect Dis. 2014 Dec 15; 210(12):1938-45. PMID: 24958908; PMCID: PMC4296178.
    39. Kakuru A, Achan J, Muhindo MK, Ikilezi G, Arinaitwe E, Mwangwa F, Ruel T, Clark TD, Charlebois E, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Tappero JW, Dorsey G. Artemisinin-based combination therapies are efficacious and safe for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 01; 59(3):446-53. PMID: 24759826; PMCID: PMC4155440.
    40. Ruel TD, Kakuru A, Ikilezi G, Mwangwa F, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Kamya M, Achan J. Virologic and immunologic outcomes of HIV-infected Ugandan children randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Apr 15; 65(5):535-41. PMID: 24326597; PMCID: PMC3999287.
    41. Jain V, Byonanebye DM, Liegler T, Kwarisiima D, Chamie G, Kabami J, Petersen ML, Balzer LB, Clark TD, Black D, Thirumurthy H, Geng EH, Charlebois E, Amanyire G, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Changes in population HIV RNA levels in Mbarara, Uganda, during scale-up of HIV antiretroviral therapy access. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2014 Mar 01; 65(3):327-32. PMID: 24146022; PMCID: PMC4172444.
    42. Kotwani P, Balzer L, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Kabami J, Byonanebye D, Bainomujuni B, Black D, Chamie G, Jain V, Thirumurthy H, Kamya MR, Geng EH, Petersen ML, Havlir DV, Charlebois E. Evaluating linkage to care for hypertension after community-based screening in rural Uganda. Trop Med Int Health. 2014 Apr; 19(4):459-68. PMID: 24495307; PMCID: PMC4118739.
    43. Chamie G, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Kabami J, Jain V, Geng E, Balzer LB, Petersen ML, Thirumurthy H, Charlebois E, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Uptake of community-based HIV testing during a multi-disease health campaign in rural Uganda. PLoS One. 2014; 9(1):e84317. PMID: 24392124; PMCID: PMC3879307.
    44. Kotwani P, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Kabami J, Geng EH, Jain V, Chamie G, Petersen ML, Thirumurthy H, Kamya MR, Charlebois E, Havlir DV. Epidemiology and awareness of hypertension in a rural Ugandan community: a cross-sectional study. BMC Public Health. 2013 Dec 09; 13:1151. PMID: 24321133; PMCID: PMC3890617.
    45. Das M, Christopoulos KA, Geckeler D, Huriaux E, Cohen SE, Philip S, Shade S, Moss NJ, Morin SF, Charlebois E. Linkage to HIV care in San Francisco: implications of measure selection. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Nov 01; 64 Suppl 1:S27-32. PMID: 24126446; PMCID: PMC4078743.
    46. Tsai AC, Mimiaga MJ, Dilley JW, Hammer GP, Karasic DH, Charlebois E, Sorensen JL, Safren SA, Bangsberg DR. Does effective depression treatment alone reduce secondary HIV transmission risk? Equivocal findings from a randomized controlled trial. AIDS Behav. 2013 Oct; 17(8):2765-72. PMID: 23975476; PMCID: PMC3805275.
    47. Bartelink IH, Savic RM, Mwesigwa J, Achan J, Clark T, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Kamya M, Young SL, Gandhi M, Havlir D, Cohan D, Aweeka F. Pharmacokinetics of lopinavir/ritonavir and efavirenz in food insecure HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding women in Tororo, Uganda. J Clin Pharmacol. 2014 Feb; 54(2):121-32. PMID: 24038035; PMCID: PMC3933454.
    48. Gandhi M, Mwesigwa J, Aweeka F, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel TD, Huang Y, Clark T, Ades V, Natureeba P, Luwedde FA, Achan J, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D. Hair and plasma data show that lopinavir, ritonavir, and efavirenz all transfer from mother to infant in utero, but only efavirenz transfers via breastfeeding. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Aug 15; 63(5):578-84. PMID: 24135775; PMCID: PMC3800282.
    49. Kim LH, Arinaitwe E, Nzarubara B, Kamya MR, Clark TD, Okong P, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Cohan D. Acceptability and feasibility of serial HIV antibody testing during pregnancy/postpartum and male partner testing in Tororo, Uganda. AIDS Care. 2014; 26(3):360-6. PMID: 23909832.
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    50. Namusobya J, Semitala FC, Amanyire G, Kabami J, Chamie G, Bogere J, Jain V, Clark TD, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Kamya M, Geng EH. High retention in care among HIV-infected patients entering care with CD4 levels >350 cells/µL under routine program conditions in Uganda. Clin Infect Dis. 2013 Nov; 57(9):1343-50. PMID: 23899683; PMCID: PMC3792723.
    51. Ades V, Mwesigwa J, Natureeba P, Clark TD, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Achan J, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D, Ruel TD. Neonatal mortality in HIV-exposed infants born to women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Rural Uganda. J Trop Pediatr. 2013 Dec; 59(6):441-6. PMID: 23764539; PMCID: PMC3842848.
    52. Chamie G, Wandera B, Luetkemeyer A, Bogere J, Mugerwa RD, Havlir DV, Charlebois E. Household ventilation and tuberculosis transmission in Kampala, Uganda. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2013 Jun; 17(6):764-70. PMID: 23676159.
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    53. Thirumurthy H, Chamie G, Jain V, Kabami J, Kwarisiima D, Clark TD, Geng E, Petersen ML, Charlebois E, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. Improved employment and education outcomes in households of HIV-infected adults with high CD4 cell counts: evidence from a community health campaign in Uganda. AIDS. 2013 Feb 20; 27(4):627-34. PMID: 23169332; PMCID: PMC3809760.
    54. Ikilezi G, Achan J, Kakuru A, Ruel T, Charlebois E, Clark TD, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Dorsey G. Prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia among HIV-infected Ugandan children randomized to receive different antiretroviral therapies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Apr; 88(4):744-6. PMID: 23358639; PMCID: PMC3617863.
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    56. Achan J, Kakuru A, Ikilezi G, Ruel T, Clark TD, Nsanzabana C, Charlebois E, Aweeka F, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR. Antiretroviral agents and prevention of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 29; 367(22):2110-8. PMID: 23190222; PMCID: PMC3664297.
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    58. Young S, Murray K, Mwesigwa J, Natureeba P, Osterbauer B, Achan J, Arinaitwe E, Clark T, Ades V, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel T, Kamya M, Havlir D, Cohan D. Maternal nutritional status predicts adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected rural Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e41934. PMID: 22879899; PMCID: PMC3413694.
    59. Tsai AC, Karasic DH, Hammer GP, Charlebois E, Ragland K, Moss AR, Sorensen JL, Dilley JW, Bangsberg DR. Directly observed antidepressant medication treatment and HIV outcomes among homeless and marginally housed HIV-positive adults: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Public Health. 2013 Feb; 103(2):308-15. PMID: 22720766; PMCID: PMC3558777.
    60. Ruel TD, Boivin MJ, Boal HE, Bangirana P, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Achan J, Akello C, Kamya MR, Wong JK. Neurocognitive and motor deficits in HIV-infected Ugandan children with high CD4 cell counts. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr; 54(7):1001-9. PMID: 22308272; PMCID: PMC3297647.
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    62. Nanteza MW, Mayanja-Kizza H, Charlebois E, Srikantiah P, Lin R, Mupere E, Mugyenyi P, Boom WH, Mugerwa RD, Havlir DV, Whalen CC. A randomized trial of punctuated antiretroviral therapy in Ugandan HIV-seropositive adults with pulmonary tuberculosis and CD4? T-cell counts of = 350 cells/µL. J Infect Dis. 2011 Sep 15; 204(6):884-92. PMID: 21849285; PMCID: PMC3156928.
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    64. Morin SF, Kelly JA, Charlebois E, Remien RH, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Cleary PD. Responding to the National HIV/AIDS Strategy-setting the research agenda. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Jul 01; 57(3):175-80. PMID: 21606844; PMCID: PMC3159729.
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    66. Lancioni CL, Mahan CS, Johnson DF, Walusimbi M, Chervenak KA, Nalukwago S, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Mayanja-Kizza H, Whalen CC, Boom WH. Effects of antiretroviral therapy on immune function of HIV-infected adults with pulmonary tuberculosis and CD4+ >350 cells/mm3. J Infect Dis. 2011 Apr 01; 203(7):992-1001. PMID: 21402550; PMCID: PMC3068037.
    67. Carrico AW, Riley ED, Johnson MO, Charlebois E, Neilands TB, Remien RH, Lightfoot MA, Steward WT, Weinhardt LS, Kelly JA, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Morin SF, Chesney MA. Psychiatric risk factors for HIV disease progression: the role of inconsistent patterns of antiretroviral therapy utilization. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2011 Feb 01; 56(2):146-50. PMID: 21116186; PMCID: PMC3494991.
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    73. Bebell LM, Pilcher CD, Dorsey G, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Busch MP, Dunn Williams J, Nugent CT, Bentsen C, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois E. Acute HIV-1 infection is highly prevalent in Ugandan adults with suspected malaria. AIDS. 2010 Jul 31; 24(12):1945-52. PMID: 20543656; PMCID: PMC2909782.
    74. Gasasira AF, Kamya MR, Ochong EO, Vora N, Achan J, Charlebois E, Ruel T, Kateera F, Meya DN, Havlir D, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. Effect of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole on the risk of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children living in an area of widespread antifolate resistance. Malar J. 2010 Jun 23; 9:177. PMID: 20573194; PMCID: PMC2903607.
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    76. Chamie G, Luetkemeyer A, Charlebois E, Havlir DV. Tuberculosis as part of the natural history of HIV infection in developing countries. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 May 15; 50 Suppl 3:S245-54. PMID: 20397955; PMCID: PMC3032796.
    77. Mahan CS, Walusimbi M, Johnson DF, Lancioni C, Charlebois E, Baseke J, Chervenak KA, Mugerwa RD, Havlir DV, Mayanja-Kizza H, Whalen CC, Boom WH. Tuberculosis treatment in HIV infected Ugandans with CD4 counts>350 cells/mm reduces immune activation with no effect on HIV load or CD4 count. PLoS One. 2010 Feb 22; 5(2):e9138. PMID: 20179751; PMCID: PMC2825253.
    78. German P, Parikh S, Lawrence J, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Charlebois E, Hanpithakpong W, Lindegardh N, Aweeka FT. Lopinavir/ritonavir affects pharmacokinetic exposure of artemether/lumefantrine in HIV-uninfected healthy volunteers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Aug 01; 51(4):424-9. PMID: 19506482.
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    81. Davis JL, Huang L, Kovacs JA, Masur H, Murray P, Havlir DV, Worodria WO, Charlebois E, Srikantiah P, Cattamanchi A, Huber C, Shea YR, Chow Y, Fischer SH. Polymerase chain reaction of secA1 on sputum or oral wash samples for the diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Mar 15; 48(6):725-32. PMID: 19207077; PMCID: PMC2657807.
    82. Ssewanyana I, Baker CA, Ruel T, Bousheri S, Kamya M, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Cao H. The Distribution and Immune Profile of T Cell Subsets in HIV-Infected Children from Uganda. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009 Jan; 25(1):65-71. PMID: 19182922; PMCID: PMC2858297.
    83. Morin SF, Shade SB, Steward WT, Carrico AW, Remien RH, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Kelly JA, Charlebois E, Johnson MO, Chesney MA. A behavioral intervention reduces HIV transmission risk by promoting sustained serosorting practices among HIV-infected men who have sex with men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Dec 15; 49(5):544-51. PMID: 18989221; PMCID: PMC2659703.
    84. Srikantiah P, Wong JK, Liegler T, Walusimbi M, Mayanja-Kizza H, Kayanja HK, Mugerwa RD, Charlebois E, Boom WH, Whalen CC, Havlir DV. Unexpected low-level viremia among HIV-infected Ugandan adults with untreated active tuberculosis. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Dec 01; 49(4):458-60. PMID: 19011423; PMCID: PMC4752197.
    85. Khumalo-Sakutukwa G, Morin SF, Fritz K, Charlebois E, van Rooyen H, Chingono A, Modiba P, Mrumbi K, Visrutaratna S, Singh B, Sweat M, Celentano DD, Coates TJ. Project Accept (HPTN 043): a community-based intervention to reduce HIV incidence in populations at risk for HIV in sub-Saharan Africa and Thailand. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Dec 01; 49(4):422-31. PMID: 18931624; PMCID: PMC2664736.
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    88. Gasasira AF, Kamya MR, Achan J, Mebrahtu T, Kalyango JN, Ruel T, Charlebois E, Staedke SG, Kekitiinwa A, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Dorsey G. High risk of neutropenia in HIV-infected children following treatment with artesunate plus amodiaquine for uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Apr 01; 46(7):985-91. PMID: 18444813.
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    91. Ssewanyana I, Elrefaei M, Dorsey G, Ruel T, Jones NG, Gasasira A, Kamya M, Nakiwala J, Achan J, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Cao H. Profile of T cell immune responses in HIV-infected children from Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2007 Dec 01; 196(11):1667-70. PMID: 18008251.
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    92. Carrico AW, Johnson MO, Moskowitz JT, Neilands TB, Morin SF, Charlebois E, Steward WT, Remien RH, Wong FL, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Lightfoot MA, Chesney MA. Affect regulation, stimulant use, and viral load among HIV-positive persons on anti-retroviral therapy. Psychosom Med. 2007 Nov; 69(8):785-92. PMID: 17942835.
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    93. Kamya MR, Gasasira AF, Achan J, Mebrahtu T, Ruel T, Kekitiinwa A, Charlebois E, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Dorsey G. Effects of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and insecticide-treated bednets on malaria among HIV-infected Ugandan children. AIDS. 2007 Oct 01; 21(15):2059-66. PMID: 17885296.
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    96. Carrico AW, Johnson MO, Morin SF, Remien RH, Charlebois E, Steward WT, Chesney MA. Correlates of suicidal ideation among HIV-positive persons. AIDS. 2007 May 31; 21(9):1199-203. PMID: 17502730.
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    97. German P, Greenhouse B, Coates C, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois E, Lindegardh N, Havlir D, Aweeka FT. Hepatotoxicity due to a drug interaction between amodiaquine plus artesunate and efavirenz. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Mar 15; 44(6):889-91. PMID: 17304470.
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    99. Luetkemeyer AF, Charlebois E, Flores LL, Bangsberg DR, Deeks SG, Martin JN, Havlir DV. Comparison of an interferon-gamma release assay with tuberculin skin testing in HIV-infected individuals. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2007 Apr 01; 175(7):737-42. PMID: 17218620; PMCID: PMC1899289.
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    102. Johnson JL, Hadad DJ, Boom WH, Daley CL, Peloquin CA, Eisenach KD, Jankus DD, Debanne SM, Charlebois E, Maciel E, Palaci M, Dietze R. Early and extended early bactericidal activity of levofloxacin, gatifloxacin and moxifloxacin in pulmonary tuberculosis. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis. 2006 Jun; 10(6):605-12. PMID: 16776446.
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    105. Morin SF, Khumalo-Sakutukwa G, Charlebois E, Routh J, Fritz K, Lane T, Vaki T, Fiamma A, Coates TJ. Removing barriers to knowing HIV status: same-day mobile HIV testing in Zimbabwe. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Feb 01; 41(2):218-24. PMID: 16394855.
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    106. Koester KA, Maiorana A, Vernon K, Charlebois E, Gaffney S, Lane T, Morin SF. HIV surveillance in theory and practice: assessing the acceptability of California's non-name HIV surveillance regulations. Health Policy. 2006 Aug 22; 78(1):101-10. PMID: 16256243.
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    108. Pan ES, Diep BA, Charlebois E, Auerswald C, Carleton HA, Sensabaugh GF, Perdreau-Remington F. Population dynamics of nasal strains of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus--and their relation to community-associated disease activity. J Infect Dis. 2005 Sep 01; 192(5):811-8. PMID: 16088830.
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    110. Frazee BW, Lynn J, Charlebois E, Lambert L, Lowery D, Perdreau-Remington F. High prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in emergency department skin and soft tissue infections. Ann Emerg Med. 2005 Mar; 45(3):311-20. PMID: 15726056.
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    127. Porco TC, Martin JN, Page-Shafer KA, Cheng A, Charlebois E, Grant RM, Osmond DH. Decline in HIV infectivity following the introduction of highly active antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2004 Jan 02; 18(1):81-8. PMID: 15090833; PMCID: PMC2442908.
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    129. Johnson MO, Catz SL, Remien RH, Rotheram-Borus MJ, Morin SF, Charlebois E, Gore-Felton C, Goldsten RB, Wolfe H, Lightfoot M, Chesney MA. Theory-guided, empirically supported avenues for intervention on HIV medication nonadherence: findings from the Healthy Living Project. AIDS Patient Care STDS. 2003 Dec; 17(12):645-56. PMID: 14746658.
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    130. Pan ES, Diep BA, Carleton HA, Charlebois E, Sensabaugh GF, Haller BL, Perdreau-Remington F. Increasing prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus infection in California jails. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Nov 15; 37(10):1384-8. PMID: 14583874.
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    131. Bangsberg DR, Charlebois E, Grant RM, Holodniy M, Deeks SG, Perry S, Conroy KN, Clark R, Guzman D, Zolopa A, Moss A. High levels of adherence do not prevent accumulation of HIV drug resistance mutations. AIDS. 2003 Sep 05; 17(13):1925-32. PMID: 12960825.
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    132. Winston LG, Bangsberg DR, Chambers HF, Felt SC, Rosen JI, Charlebois E, Wong M, Steele L, Gerberding JL, Perdreau-Remington F. Epidemiology of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium under a selective isolation policy at an urban county hospital. Am J Infect Control. 2002 Nov; 30(7):400-6. PMID: 12410216.
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    133. Charlebois E, Bangsberg DR, Moss NJ, Moore MR, Moss AR, Chambers HF, Perdreau-Remington F. Population-based community prevalence of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in the urban poor of San Francisco. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Feb 15; 34(4):425-33. PMID: 11797167.
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    134. Staedke SG, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Gasasira A, Ndeezi G, Charlebois E, Rosenthal PJ. Amodiaquine, sulfadoxine/pyrimethamine, and combination therapy for treatment of uncomplicated falciparum malaria in Kampala, Uganda: a randomised trial. Lancet. 2001 Aug 04; 358(9279):368-74. PMID: 11502317.
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    135. Bangsberg DR, Perry S, Charlebois E, Clark RA, Roberston M, Zolopa AR, Moss A. Non-adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy predicts progression to AIDS. AIDS. 2001 Jun 15; 15(9):1181-3. PMID: 11416722.
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    136. Bangsberg DR, Hecht FM, Clague H, Charlebois E, Ciccarone D, Chesney M, Moss A. Provider assessment of adherence to HIV antiretroviral therapy. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2001 Apr 15; 26(5):435-42. PMID: 11391162.
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    137. Bangsberg DR, Hecht FM, Charlebois E, Zolopa AR, Holodniy M, Sheiner L, Bamberger JD, Chesney MA, Moss A. Adherence to protease inhibitors, HIV-1 viral load, and development of drug resistance in an indigent population. AIDS. 2000 Mar 10; 14(4):357-66. PMID: 10770537.
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    138. Elbeik T, Charlebois E, Nassos P, Kahn J, Hecht FM, Yajko D, Ng V, Hadley K. Quantitative and cost comparison of ultrasensitive human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA viral load assays: Bayer bDNA quantiplex versions 3.0 and 2.0 and Roche PCR Amplicor monitor version 1.5. J Clin Microbiol. 2000 Mar; 38(3):1113-20. PMID: 10699005; PMCID: PMC86352.
    139. Morin SF, Charlebois E. Expanding access to early HIV care: new challenges for federal health policy. AIDS Public Policy J. 2000; 15(2):65-74. PMID: 11519368.
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    140. Kohl S, Charlebois E, Sigouroudinia M, Goldbeck C, Hartog K, Sekulovich RE, Langenberg AG, Burke RL. Limited antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity antibody response induced by a herpes simplex virus type 2 subunit vaccine. J Infect Dis. 2000 Jan; 181(1):335-9. PMID: 10608784.
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    141. Grant RW, Charlebois E, Wachter RM. Risk factors for early hospital readmission in patients with AIDS and pneumonia. J Gen Intern Med. 1999 Sep; 14(9):531-6. PMID: 10491241; PMCID: PMC1496743.
    142. Slome LR, Mitchell TF, Charlebois E, Benevedes JM, Abrams DI. Physician-assisted suicide and patients with human immunodeficiency virus disease. N Engl J Med. 1997 Feb 06; 336(6):417-21. PMID: 9010149.
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    143. Stansell JD, Osmond DH, Charlebois E, LaVange L, Wallace JM, Alexander BV, Glassroth J, Kvale PA, Rosen MJ, Reichman LB, Turner JR, Hopewell PC. Predictors of Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia in HIV-infected persons. Pulmonary Complications of HIV Infection Study Group. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 1997 Jan; 155(1):60-6. PMID: 9001290.
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    144. Osmond DH, Charlebois E, Moss AR. Bias in observational studies of treatment. Ann Intern Med. 1996 Dec 01; 125(11):941. PMID: 8967684.
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    145. Kohl S, Sigaroudinia M, Charlebois E, Jacobson MA. Interleukin-12 administered in vivo decreases human NK cell cytotoxicity and antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity to human immunodeficiency virus-infected cells. J Infect Dis. 1996 Nov; 174(5):1105-8. PMID: 8896517.
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    146. Brosgart CL, Mitchell T, Charlebois E, Coleman R, Mehalko S, Young J, Abrams DI. Off-label drug use in human immunodeficiency virus disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1996 May 01; 12(1):56-62. PMID: 8624761.
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    147. Wachter RM, Luce JM, Safrin S, Berrios DC, Charlebois E, Scitovsky AA. Cost and outcome of intensive care for patients with AIDS, Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia, and severe respiratory failure. JAMA. 1995 Jan 18; 273(3):230-5. PMID: 7807663.
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    148. Northfelt DW, Charlebois E, Mirda MI, Child C, Kaplan LD, Abrams DI. Continuous low-dose interferon-alpha therapy for HIV-related immune thrombocytopenic purpura. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Jan 01; 8(1):45-50. PMID: 8548345.
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    149. Veugelers PJ, Page KA, Tindall B, Schechter MT, Moss AR, Winkelstein WW, Cooper DA, Craib KJ, Charlebois E, Coutinho RA. Determinants of HIV disease progression among homosexual men registered in the Tricontinental Seroconverter Study. Am J Epidemiol. 1994 Oct 15; 140(8):747-58. PMID: 7942776.
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    150. Jenkins M, Landers D, Williams-Herman D, Wara D, Viscarello RR, Hammill HA, Kline MW, Shearer WT, Charlebois E, Kohl S. Association between anti-human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity antibody titers at birth and vertical transmission of HIV-1. J Infect Dis. 1994 Aug; 170(2):308-12. PMID: 8035015.
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    151. Osmond D, Charlebois E, Lang W, Shiboski S, Moss A. Changes in AIDS survival time in two San Francisco cohorts of homosexual men, 1983 to 1993. JAMA. 1994 Apr 13; 271(14):1083-7. PMID: 7908703.
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    152. Stanley HD, Charlebois E, Harb G, Jacobson MA. Central venous catheter infections in AIDS patients receiving treatment for cytomegalovirus disease. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 1994 Mar; 7(3):272-8. PMID: 8106966.
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    153. Busch MP, Valinsky JE, Paglieroni T, Prince HE, Crutcher GJ, Gjerset GF, Operskalski EA, Charlebois E, Bianco C, Holland PV. Screening of blood donors for idiopathic CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia. Transfusion. 1994 Mar; 34(3):192-7. PMID: 7908469.
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    154. Sanchez-Pescador L, Pereira L, Charlebois E, Kohl S. Antibodies to epitopes of herpes simplex virus type 1 glycoprotein B (gB) in human sera: analysis of functional gB epitopes defined by inhibition of murine monoclonal antibodies. J Infect Dis. 1993 Oct; 168(4):844-53. PMID: 7690824.
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    155. Veugelers PJ, Schechter MT, Tindall B, Moss AR, Page KA, Craib KJ, Cooper DA, Coutinho RA, Charlebois E, Winkelstein W. Differences in time from HIV seroconversion to CD4+ lymphocyte end-points and AIDS in cohorts of homosexual men. AIDS. 1993 Oct; 7(10):1325-9. PMID: 7903540.
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    156. Jacobson MA, Yajko D, Northfelt D, Charlebois E, Gary D, Brosgart C, Sanders CA, Hadley WK. Randomized, placebo-controlled trial of rifampin, ethambutol, and ciprofloxacin for AIDS patients with disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex infection. J Infect Dis. 1993 Jul; 168(1):112-9. PMID: 8515098.
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    157. Sheppard H, Winkelstein W, Lang W, Charlebois E. CD4+ T-lymphocytopenia without HIV infection. N Engl J Med. 1993 Jun 24; 328(25):1847-8. PMID: 8099196.
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    158. Osmond DH, Charlebois E, Sheppard HW, Page K, Winkelstein W, Moss AR, Reingold A. Comparison of risk factors for hepatitis C and hepatitis B virus infection in homosexual men. J Infect Dis. 1993 Jan; 167(1):66-71. PMID: 8418184.
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