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Theodore Ruel, MD

Title(s)Professor, Pediatrics
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address550 16th. Street
San Francisco CA 94158
Phone415-476-9197
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Yale University, School of Medicine, New Haven, CTM.D.06/2000Medicine
    University of California, San Francisco, San Francisco, CAResidency 06/2003Pediatrics
    University of California, San Francisco , San Francisco, CAFellowship06/2009Pediatric Infectious Disease

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    My long-term career goal is to optimize the health outcomes of infant and children living in resource limited settings. The current focus of my research is the optimization of treatment outcomes of children born with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. I continue to work broader issues of maternal child health through an NGO that I co-founded, now called Global Strategies. I am interested in advancing new agents for the treatment of children and infants living with HIV. I serve as vice-chair of the NIH/DHHS Panel on Antiretroviral Therapy and Medical Management of HIV-Infected Children that publishes treatment guidelines for children in the USA, and an advisor to the Pediatric AIDS Working Group at the World Health Organization, Within the International Maternal Pediatric Adolescent AIDS Clinical Trials (IMPAACT), I serve as vice-chair of the Treatment Scientific Committee and co-chair of P1093, the protocol establishing dosing and safety of Dolutegravir in children. I have also become interested in the potential impact of very early treatment on outcomes in perinatally infected infants. I am an investigator on the IMPAACT P1115 that is enrolling early-treated in utero HIV-infected infants from network sites through the world and treating with an aggressive 4 drug regimen. I am also the principal investigator of the NICHD-funded study called The Treating Infants Early Study (TIES), which that enrolling infants who start treatment within the first weeks of life to look at safety, virologic decay, latent reservoir establishment. In Africa, I have been involved several trials looking that treatment of malaria and HIV in children, and now lead pediatric studies in the SEARCH trial, which tests strategies to diagnosis and successfully treat individuals living with HIV in rural Kenya and Uganda. I continue to work closely with our NGO Global Strategies continues to innovate new ways to optimize HIV and neonatal care in limited resource settings.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Treating Infants Early Study (TIES)
    NIH/NICHD HHSN275201300003CApr 1, 2015 - Nov 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    LOC-IMPAACT Leadership Group
    NIH/NIAID UM1 AI068632Jan 1, 2014 - Nov 30, 2020
    Role: Local site PI for international trials network IMPAACT (Nachman PI)
    Role Description: Vice Chair of Treatment scientific Committee, and Co-chair of P1093 Protocol
    Novel Strategies to Prevent Malaria and Improve HIV Outcomes in Africa
    NIH/NICHD P01 HD059454Aug 1, 2008 - Jun 30, 2018
    Role: Co-investigator
    Role Description: Lead on pediatrics

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Clinical Trials
    Collapse Global Health
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Impact of intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine versus sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine on the incidence of malaria in infancy: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Med. 2020 Aug 10; 18(1):207. Kakuru A, Jagannathan P, Kajubi R, Ochieng T, Ochokoru H, Nakalembe M, Clark TD, Ruel T, Staedke SG, Chandramohan D, Havlir DV, Kamya MR, Dorsey G. PMID: 32772921.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Population-level viral suppression among pregnant and postpartum women in a universal test and treat trial. AIDS. 2020 07 15; 34(9):1407-1415. Kabami J, Balzer LB, Saddiki H, Ayieko J, Kwarisiima D, Atukunda M, Charlebois ED, Clark TD, Koss CA, Ruel T, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Musoke P, Petersen ML, Havlir DV, Kamya MR, Chamie G. PMID: 32472768.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Long-Term Safety and Efficacy of Dolutegravir in Treatment-Experienced Adolescents With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection: Results of the IMPAACT P1093 Study. J Pediatric Infect Dis Soc. 2020 Apr 30; 9(2):159-165. Viani RM, Ruel T, Alvero C, Fenton T, Acosta EP, Hazra R, Townley E, Palumbo P, Buchanan AM, Vavro C, Singh R, Graham B, Anthony P, George K, Wiznia A. PMID: 30951600.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    
    4. Anemia and Micronutrient Status during Pregnancy, and Their Associations with Obstetric and Infant Outcomes among HIV-Infected Ugandan Women Receiving Antiretroviral Therapy. Curr Dev Nutr. 2020 May; 4(5):nzaa075. Finkelstein JL, Herman HS, Plenty A, Mehta S, Natureeba P, Clark TD, Kamya MR, Ruel T, Charlebois ED, Cohan D, Havlir D, Young SL. PMID: 32440638.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    5. Uptake, engagement, and adherence to pre-exposure prophylaxis offered after population HIV testing in rural Kenya and Uganda: 72-week interim analysis of observational data from the SEARCH study. Lancet HIV. 2020 04; 7(4):e249-e261. Koss CA, Charlebois ED, Ayieko J, Kwarisiima D, Kabami J, Balzer LB, Atukunda M, Mwangwa F, Peng J, Mwinike Y, Owaraganise A, Chamie G, Jain V, Sang N, Olilo W, Brown LB, Marquez C, Zhang K, Ruel TD, Camlin CS, Rooney JF, Black D, Clark TD, Gandhi M, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Petersen ML, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. PMID: 32087152.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    6. The age-specific burden and household and school-based predictors of child and adolescent tuberculosis infection in rural Uganda. PLoS One. 2020; 15(1):e0228102. Marquez C, Atukunda M, Balzer LB, Chamie G, Kironde J, Ssemmondo E, Ruel TD, Mwangwa F, Tram KH, Clark TD, Kwarisiima D, Petersen M, Kamya MR, Charlebois ED, Havlir DV. PMID: 31995631.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. Prioritising the most needed paediatric antiretroviral formulations: the PADO4 list. Lancet HIV. 2019 09; 6(9):e623-e631. Penazzato M, Townsend CL, Rakhmanina N, Cheng Y, Archary M, Cressey TR, Kim MH, Musiime V, Turkova A, Ruel TD, Rabie H, Sugandhi N, Rojo P, Doherty M, Abrams EJ. PMID: 31498110.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    8. Monthly Sulfadoxine–Pyrimethamine Versus Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for Intermittent Preventive Treatment of Malaria in Pregnancy. Obstetrical & Gynecological Survey. 2019 Sep 1; 74(9):514-516. Richard Kajubi, Teddy Ochieng, Abel Kakuru, Prasanna Jagannathan, Miriam Nakalembe, Theodore Ruel, Bishop Opira, Harriet Ochokoru, John Ategeka, Patience Nayebare, Tamara D. Clark, Diane V. Havlir, Moses R. Kamya, Grant Dorsey. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    9. HIV Testing and Treatment with the Use of a Community Health Approach in Rural Africa. N Engl J Med. 2019 07 18; 381(3):219-229. Havlir DV, Balzer LB, Charlebois ED, Clark TD, Kwarisiima D, Ayieko J, Kabami J, Sang N, Liegler T, Chamie G, Camlin CS, Jain V, Kadede K, Atukunda M, Ruel T, Shade SB, Ssemmondo E, Byonanebye DM, Mwangwa F, Owaraganise A, Olilo W, Black D, Snyman K, Burger R, Getahun M, Achando J, Awuonda B, Nakato H, Kironde J, Okiror S, Thirumurthy H, Koss C, Brown L, Marquez C, Schwab J, Lavoy G, Plenty A, Mugoma Wafula E, Omanya P, Chen YH, Rooney JF, Bacon M, van der Laan M, Cohen CR, Bukusi E, Kamya MR, Petersen M. PMID: 31314966.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    10. Intermittent preventive treatment with dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine and risk of malaria following cessation in young Ugandan children: a double-blind, randomised, controlled trial. Lancet Infect Dis. 2019 09; 19(9):962-972. Muhindo MK, Jagannathan P, Kakuru A, Opira B, Olwoch P, Okiring J, Nalugo N, Clark TD, Ruel T, Charlebois E, Feeney ME, Havlir DV, Dorsey G, Kamya MR. PMID: 31307883.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    11. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing of samples from pediatric febrile illness in Tororo, Uganda. PLoS One. 2019; 14(6):e0218318. Ramesh A, Nakielny S, Hsu J, Kyohere M, Byaruhanga O, de Bourcy C, Egger R, Dimitrov B, Juan YF, Sheu J, Wang J, Kalantar K, Langelier C, Ruel T, Mpimbaza A, Wilson MR, Rosenthal PJ, DeRisi JL. PMID: 31220115.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    12. WYZ: a pilot study protocol for designing and developing a mobile health application for engagement in HIV care and medication adherence in youth and young adults living with HIV. BMJ Open. 2019 05 05; 9(5):e030473. Erguera XA, Johnson MO, Neilands TB, Ruel T, Berrean B, Thomas S, Saberi P. PMID: 31061063.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Monthly sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine versus dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy: a double-blind, randomised, controlled, superiority trial. Lancet. 2019 Apr 06; 393(10179):1428-1439. Kajubi R, Ochieng T, Kakuru A, Jagannathan P, Nakalembe M, Ruel T, Opira B, Ochokoru H, Ategeka J, Nayebare P, Clark TD, Havlir DV, Kamya MR, Dorsey G. PMID: 30910321.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Eliminating perinatal HIV in the United States: mission possible? AIDS. 2019 03 01; 33(3):377-385. Gnanashanmugam D, Rakhmanina N, Crawford KW, Nesheim S, Ruel T, Birkhead GS, Chakraborty R, Lawrence R, Jean-Philippe P, Jayashankar L, Hoover A, Statton A, D'Souza P, Fitzgibbon J, Hazra R, Warren B, Smith S, Abrams EJ. PMID: 30475262.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    15. Mobile, Population-wide, Hybrid HIV Testing Strategy Increases Number of Children Tested in Rural Kenya and Uganda. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2018 12; 37(12):1279-1281. Ayieko J, Chamie G, Balzer L, Kwarisiima D, Kabami J, Sang N, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Clark TD, Plenty A, Charlebois ED, Petersen M, Kamya M, Havlir DV, Ruel T. PMID: 30199482.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic HealthCTClinical Trials
    16. Early Adopters of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Preexposure Prophylaxis in a Population-based Combination Prevention Study in Rural Kenya and Uganda. Clin Infect Dis. 2018 11 28; 67(12):1853-1860. Koss CA, Ayieko J, Mwangwa F, Owaraganise A, Kwarisiima D, Balzer LB, Plenty A, Sang N, Kabami J, Ruel TD, Black D, Camlin CS, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Clark TD, Charlebois ED, Petersen ML, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. PMID: 29741594.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    17. Gaps in the Child Tuberculosis Care Cascade in 32 Rural Communities in Uganda and Kenya. J Clin Tuberc Other Mycobact Dis. 2017 Dec; 9:24-29. Mwangwa F, Chamie G, Kwarisiima D, Ayieko J, Owaraganise A, Ruel TD, Plenty A, Tram KH, Clark TD, Cohen CR, Bukusi EA, Petersen M, Kamya MR, Charlebois ED, Havlir DV, Marquez C. PMID: 29291251.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    18. Absence of neurocognitive disadvantage associated with paediatric HIV subtype A infection in children on antiretroviral therapy. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017 10; 20(2). Bangirana P, Ruel TD, Boivin MJ, Pillai SK, Giron LB, Sikorskii A, Banik A, Achan J. PMID: 29052340.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    19. Predictors of Retention in HIV Care Among Youth (15-24) in a Universal Test-and-Treat Setting in Rural Kenya. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2017 09 01; 76(1):e15-e18. Brown LB, Ayieko J, Mwangwa F, Owaraganise A, Kwarisiima D, Jain V, Ruel T, Clark T, Black D, Chamie G, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Kamya MR, Petersen ML, Charlebois ED, Havlir DV. PMID: 28394821.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    20. High rates of viral suppression in adults and children with high CD4+ counts using a streamlined ART delivery model in the SEARCH trial in rural Uganda and Kenya. J Int AIDS Soc. 2017 07 21; 20(Suppl 4):21673. Kwarisiima D, Kamya MR, Owaraganise A, Mwangwa F, Byonanebye DM, Ayieko J, Plenty A, Black D, Clark TD, Nzarubara B, Snyman K, Brown L, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Geng EH, Charlebois ED, Ruel TD, Petersen ML, Havlir D, Jain V. PMID: 28770596.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Intermittent Preventive Treatment With Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine for the Prevention of Malaria Among HIV-Infected Pregnant Women. J Infect Dis. 2017 07 01; 216(1):29-35. Natureeba P, Kakuru A, Muhindo M, Ochieng T, Ategeka J, Koss CA, Plenty A, Charlebois ED, Clark TD, Nzarubara B, Nakalembe M, Cohan D, Rizzuto G, Muehlenbachs A, Ruel T, Jagannathan P, Havlir DV, Kamya MR, Dorsey G. PMID: 28329368.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Antiretroviral Therapy With Efavirenz Accentuates Pregnancy-Associated Reduction of Dihydroartemisinin-Piperaquine Exposure During Malaria Chemoprevention. Clin Pharmacol Ther. 2017 Sep; 102(3):520-528. Kajubi R, Huang L, Jagannathan P, Chamankhah N, Were M, Ruel T, Koss CA, Kakuru A, Mwebaza N, Kamya M, Havlir D, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Aweeka FT. PMID: 28187497.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Growth Recovery Among HIV-infected Children Randomized to Lopinavir/Ritonavir or NNRTI-based Antiretroviral Therapy. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016 12; 35(12):1329-1332. Achan J, Kakuru A, Ikilezi G, Mwangwa F, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Young S, Havlir D, Kamya M, Ruel T. PMID: 27580060.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. High levels of retention in care with streamlined care and universal test and treat in East Africa. AIDS. 2016 11 28; 30(18):2855-2864. Brown LB, Havlir DV, Ayieko J, Mwangwa F, Owaraganise A, Kwarisiima D, Jain V, Ruel T, Clark T, Chamie G, Bukusi EA, Cohen CR, Kamya MR, Petersen ML, Charlebois ED. PMID: 27603290.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Malaria burden in a birth cohort of HIV-exposed uninfected Ugandan infants living in a high malaria transmission setting. Malar J. 2016 Oct 18; 15(1):500. Kakuru A, Natureeba P, Muhindo MK, Clark TD, Havlir DV, Cohan D, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Ruel T. PMID: 27756308.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    26. Increased adolescent HIV testing with a hybrid mobile strategy in Uganda and Kenya. AIDS. 2016 09 10; 30(14):2121-6. Kadede K, Ruel T, Kabami J, Ssemmondo E, Sang N, Kwarisiima D, Bukusi E, Cohen CR, Liegler T, Clark TD, Charlebois ED, Petersen ML, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Chamie G. PMID: 27258399.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    27. Implementation of a neonatal transcutaneous bilirubin screening programme in rural India. Paediatr Int Child Health. 2016 May; 36(2):122-6. Morgan MC, Kumar GS, Kaiser SV, Seetharam S, Ruel TD. PMID: 25844503.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    28. Brief Report: Food Insufficiency Is Associated With Lack of Sustained Viral Suppression Among HIV-Infected Pregnant and Breastfeeding Ugandan Women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Mar 01; 71(3):310-5. Koss CA, Natureeba P, Nyafwono D, Plenty A, Mwesigwa J, Nzarubara B, Clark TD, Ruel TD, Achan J, Charlebois ED, Cohan D, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Young SL. PMID: 26397935.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    29. Implementation of a neonatal transcutaneous bilirubin screening programme in rural India. Paediatrics and International Child Health. 2016 Jan 1; 1-5. Melissa C. Morgan, G. S. Kumar, Sunitha V. Kaiser, Sridevi Seetharam, Theodore D. Ruel. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    30. A clinical approach to elimination of perinatal HIV transmission in resource-rich settings. Int J Gynaecol Obstet. 2015 Dec; 131(3):309-10. Seidman D, Ruel T, Rahangdale L, Mittal P, Pecci C, Weber S, Goldschmidt R, Cohan D, Levison J. PMID: 26381200.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. Quality of inpatient pediatric case management for four leading causes of child mortality at six government-run Ugandan hospitals. PLoS One. 2015; 10(5):e0127192. Sears D, Mpimbaza A, Kigozi R, Sserwanga A, Chang MA, Kapella BK, Yoon S, Kamya MR, Dorsey G, Ruel T. PMID: 25992620.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    32. Hair concentrations of antiretrovirals predict viral suppression in HIV-infected pregnant and breastfeeding Ugandan women. AIDS. 2015 Apr 24; 29(7):825-30. Koss CA, Natureeba P, Mwesigwa J, Cohan D, Nzarubara B, Bacchetti P, Horng H, Clark TD, Plenty A, Ruel TD, Achan J, Charlebois ED, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Gandhi M. PMID: 25985404.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. The effect of malnutrition on the pharmacokinetics and virologic outcomes of lopinavir, efavirenz and nevirapine in food insecure HIV-infected children in Tororo, Uganda. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2015 Mar; 34(3):e63-70. Bartelink IH, Savic RM, Dorsey G, Ruel T, Gingrich D, Scherpbier HJ, Capparelli E, Jullien V, Young SL, Achan J, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Kamya M, Havlir D, Aweeka F. PMID: 25742090.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Efficacy and safety of lopinavir/ritonavir versus efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy in HIV-infected pregnant Ugandan women. AIDS. 2015 Jan 14; 29(2):183-91. Cohan D, Natureeba P, Koss CA, Plenty A, Luwedde F, Mwesigwa J, Ades V, Charlebois ED, Gandhi M, Clark TD, Nzarubara B, Achan J, Ruel T, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. PMID: 25426808.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    35. Household food insecurity, maternal nutritional status, and infant feeding practices among HIV-infected Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. Matern Child Health J. 2014 Nov; 18(9):2044-53. Young SL, Plenty AH, Luwedde FA, Natamba BK, Natureeba P, Achan J, Mwesigwa J, Ruel TD, Ades V, Osterbauer B, Clark TD, Dorsey G, Charlebois ED, Kamya M, Havlir DV, Cohan DL. PMID: 24585398.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. Risk factors for preterm birth among HIV-infected pregnant Ugandan women randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir- or efavirenz-based antiretroviral therapy. . 2014 Oct 01; 67(2):128-35. Koss CA, Natureeba P, Plenty A, Luwedde F, Mwesigwa J, Ades V, Charlebois ED, Clark TD, Achan J, Ruel T, Nzarubara B, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D. PMID: 25072616.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    37. Increased morbidity in early childhood among HIV-exposed uninfected children in Uganda is associated with breastfeeding duration. J Trop Pediatr. 2014 Dec; 60(6):434-41. Marquez C, Okiring J, Chamie G, Ruel TD, Achan J, Kakuru A, Kamya MR, Charlebois ED, Havlir DV, Dorsey G. PMID: 25145704.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Artemisinin-based combination therapies are efficacious and safe for treatment of uncomplicated malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children. Clin Infect Dis. 2014 Aug 01; 59(3):446-53. Kakuru A, Achan J, Muhindo MK, Ikilezi G, Arinaitwe E, Mwangwa F, Ruel T, Clark TD, Charlebois E, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Tappero JW, Dorsey G. PMID: 24759826.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    39. Virologic and immunologic outcomes of HIV-infected Ugandan children randomized to lopinavir/ritonavir or nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor therapy. . 2014 Apr 15; 65(5):535-41. Ruel TD, Kakuru A, Ikilezi G, Mwangwa F, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Kamya M, Achan J. PMID: 24326597.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    40. Maternal or neonatal infection: association with neonatal encephalopathy outcomes. Pediatr Res. 2014 Jul; 76(1):93-9. Jenster M, Bonifacio SL, Ruel T, Rogers EE, Tam EW, Partridge JC, Barkovich AJ, Ferriero DM, Glass HC. PMID: 24713817.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    41. Hair and plasma data show that lopinavir, ritonavir, and efavirenz all transfer from mother to infant in utero, but only efavirenz transfers via breastfeeding. . 2013 Aug 15; 63(5):578-84. Gandhi M, Mwesigwa J, Aweeka F, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel TD, Huang Y, Clark T, Ades V, Natureeba P, Luwedde FA, Achan J, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D. PMID: 24135775.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    42. Neonatal mortality in HIV-exposed infants born to women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy in Rural Uganda. J Trop Pediatr. 2013 Dec; 59(6):441-6. Ades V, Mwesigwa J, Natureeba P, Clark TD, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Achan J, Kamya MR, Havlir DV, Cohan D, Ruel TD. PMID: 23764539.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    43. Prevalence of asymptomatic parasitemia and gametocytemia among HIV-infected Ugandan children randomized to receive different antiretroviral therapies. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 2013 Apr; 88(4):744-6. Ikilezi G, Achan J, Kakuru A, Ruel T, Charlebois E, Clark TD, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR, Dorsey G. PMID: 23358639.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    44. Antiretroviral agents and prevention of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children. N Engl J Med. 2012 Nov 29; 367(22):2110-8. Achan J, Kakuru A, Ikilezi G, Ruel T, Clark TD, Nsanzabana C, Charlebois E, Aweeka F, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Kamya MR. PMID: 23190222.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    45. 289 The Effect of Perinatal Infection on Neurodevelopmental outcome in Newborns with Hypoxic-Ischemic Encephalopathy. Archives of Disease in Childhood. 2012 Oct 1; 97(Suppl 2):a84. M Jenster, T Ruel, SL Bonifacio, EE Rogers, EW Tam, AJ Barkovich, DM Ferriero, HC Glass. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    46. Maternal nutritional status predicts adverse birth outcomes among HIV-infected rural Ugandan women receiving combination antiretroviral therapy. PLoS One. 2012; 7(8):e41934. Young S, Murray K, Mwesigwa J, Natureeba P, Osterbauer B, Achan J, Arinaitwe E, Clark T, Ades V, Plenty A, Charlebois E, Ruel T, Kamya M, Havlir D, Cohan D. PMID: 22879899.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Neurocognitive and motor deficits in HIV-infected Ugandan children with high CD4 cell counts. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr; 54(7):1001-9. Ruel TD, Boivin MJ, Boal HE, Bangirana P, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Achan J, Akello C, Kamya MR, Wong JK. PMID: 22308272.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 56     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    48. Virologic suppression in nevirapine-exposed HIV-infected infants initiating antiretroviral therapy in rural Uganda. J Trop Pediatr. 2012 Jun; 58(3):194-9. Kay J, Wanzira H, Sandison T, Kakuru A, Bigira V, Kamya M, Homsy J, Tappero JW, Havlir D, Dorsey G, Ruel T. PMID: 21930666.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    49. Sex differences in HIV RNA level and CD4 cell percentage during childhood. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Sep; 53(6):592-9. Ruel TD, Zanoni BC, Ssewanyana I, Cao H, Havlir DV, Kamya M, Achan J, Charlebois ED, Feeney ME. PMID: 21840929.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    50. Early virologic failure and the development of antiretroviral drug resistance mutations in HIV-infected Ugandan children. . 2011 Jan 01; 56(1):44-50. Ruel TD, Kamya MR, Li P, Pasutti W, Charlebois ED, Liegler T, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir DV, Wong JK, Achan J. PMID: 21099693.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    51. Short-term risk of HIV disease progression and death in Ugandan children not eligible for antiretroviral therapy. . 2010 Nov; 55(3):330-5. Charlebois ED, Ruel TD, Gasasira AF, Achan J, Kateera F, Akello C, Cao H, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Ssewanyana I, Kamya MR, Havlir DV. PMID: 20592617.
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    52. Novel application of Locked Nucleic Acid chemistry for a Taqman assay for measuring diverse human immunodeficiency virus type 1 subtypes. J Virol Methods. 2010 Dec; 170(1-2):115-20. Li P, Ruel T, Fujimoto K, Hatano H, Yukl S, Eller LA, Liegler T, Kamya M, Gassasira A, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir DV, Wong JK. PMID: 20863855.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    53. Effect of trimethoprim-sulphamethoxazole on the risk of malaria in HIV-infected Ugandan children living in an area of widespread antifolate resistance. Malar J. 2010 Jun 23; 9:177. Gasasira AF, Kamya MR, Ochong EO, Vora N, Achan J, Charlebois E, Ruel T, Kateera F, Meya DN, Havlir D, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G. PMID: 20573194.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    54. HIV-subtype A is associated with poorer neuropsychological performance compared with subtype D in antiretroviral therapy-naive Ugandan children. AIDS. 2010 May 15; 24(8):1163-70. Boivin MJ, Ruel TD, Boal HE, Bangirana P, Cao H, Eller LA, Charlebois E, Havlir DV, Kamya MR, Achan J, Akello C, Wong JK. PMID: 20425886.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    55. Dynamics of T cell activation accompanying CD4 recovery in antiretroviral treated HIV-infected Ugandan children. Clin Immunol. 2009 Jun; 131(3):410-4. Ruel T, Ssewanyana I, Achan J, Gasasira A, Kamya MR, Kekitiinwa A, Wong JK, Cao H, Havlir D, Charlebois ED. PMID: 19303366.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    56. The Distribution and Immune Profile of T Cell Subsets in HIV-Infected Children from Uganda. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2009 Jan; 25(1):65-71. Ssewanyana I, Baker CA, Ruel T, Bousheri S, Kamya M, Dorsey G, Rosenthal PJ, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Cao H. PMID: 19182922.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    57. HIV RNA suppression among HIV-infected Ugandan children with measles. . 2008 Jun 01; 48(2):225-7. Ruel TD, Achan J, Gasasira AF, Charlebois ED, Mehbratu T, Rosenthal PJ, Dorsey G, Kamya MR, Kekitiinwa A, Wong J, Havlir DV. PMID: 18520684.
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    58. High risk of neutropenia in HIV-infected children following treatment with artesunate plus amodiaquine for uncomplicated malaria in Uganda. Clin Infect Dis. 2008 Apr 01; 46(7):985-91. Gasasira AF, Kamya MR, Achan J, Mebrahtu T, Kalyango JN, Ruel T, Charlebois E, Staedke SG, Kekitiinwa A, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Dorsey G. PMID: 18444813.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    59. Profile of T cell immune responses in HIV-infected children from Uganda. J Infect Dis. 2007 Dec 01; 196(11):1667-70. Ssewanyana I, Elrefaei M, Dorsey G, Ruel T, Jones NG, Gasasira A, Kamya M, Nakiwala J, Achan J, Charlebois E, Havlir D, Cao H. PMID: 18008251.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    60. Effects of trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole and insecticide-treated bednets on malaria among HIV-infected Ugandan children. AIDS. 2007 Oct 01; 21(15):2059-66. Kamya MR, Gasasira AF, Achan J, Mebrahtu T, Ruel T, Kekitiinwa A, Charlebois ED, Rosenthal PJ, Havlir D, Dorsey G. PMID: 17885296.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    61. The potential role of rodents in the enzootic cycle of Rift Valley fever virus in Senegal. Microbes Infect. 2000 Apr; 2(4):343-6. Gora D, Yaya T, Jocelyn T, Didier F, Maoulouth D, Amadou S, Ruel TD, Gonzalez JP. PMID: 10817634.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    62. Tissue distribution and prevalence of Wolbachia infections in tsetse flies, Glossina spp. Med Vet Entomol. 2000 Mar; 14(1):44-50. Cheng Q, Ruel TD, Zhou W, Moloo SK, Majiwa P, O'Neill SL, Aksoy S. PMID: 10759311.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 58     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    63. Facilitation at the sexually differentiated laryngeal synapse of Xenopus laevis. J Comp Physiol A. 1998 Jan; 182(1):35-42. Ruel TD, Kelley DB, Tobias ML. PMID: 9447712.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
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