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    Morton Cowan, MD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentPediatrics
    Address555 Mission Bay Blvd South
    San Francisco CA 94158
    Phone415-476-2188
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      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Education and Training
      University of California, San Francisco FellowshipImmunology/Allergy/Rheumatology1979
      University of California, San FranciscoResidency Pediatrics1977
      Duke UniversityResidencySurgery1972
      University of PennsylvaniaM.D.School of Medicine1970
      Massachusetts Institute of TechnologyB.S.1966

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      Current Non-NIH Awards:
      TR3-05535 Cowan (PI) 11/01/2012-10/31/2015
      California Institute of Regenerative Medicine vGene Correction of Autologous Hematopoietic Stem Cells in Artemis Deficient SCID
      Goal is to complete the preclinical testing necessary for a clinical gene therapy trial in children with Artemis-SCID. The focus is on optimizing non-chemotherapy approaches to opening marrow niches, studying potential genotoxicity, and demonstrating that gene transduced Artemis deficient hematopoietic stem cells mature in vitro and in vivo into T and B cells.
      Role: PI

      DR2A-05365 Shizuru (PI) 07/01/2013-06/30/2017
      California Institute of Regenerative Medicine vA monoclonal antibody that depletes blood stem cells and enables chemotherapy free transplants
      Goal is to bring to a clinical trial a monoclonal antibody that targets hematopoietic stem cells. The antibody will be evaluated in a non-human primate model followed by a prospective phase I/II clinical trial in children with SCID.
      Role: Co-PI

      Overview:
      I am a pediatric immunologist, Professor of Pediatrics and Chief, Allergy Immunology and BMT Division at UCSF. I led the planning for what ultimately became the Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC), an NIH-funded group of 43 centers in the US and Canada focused on PID in which I am the PI and UCSF is the lead institution since 2009. I am on the Steering and Executive Committees of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium (PBMTC) and established and led for three years the Pediatric Special Interest Group within the American Society of Blood and Marrow Transplantation. My career has focused on children with PID, with over 180 peer-reviewed publications. My major research interests include SCID in Athabascan-speaking Native Americans (SCIDA), gene therapy for children with Artemis-deficient SCID, non-chemotherapy approaches to opening marrow niches, and the use of haploidentical donors and reduced-toxicity transplantation for childhood diseases. I performed one of the initial haplocompatible T cell depleted marrow transplants for SCID in North America in 1982 and reported one of the first in utero transplants in the world, the first patient with multiple biotin-dependent carboxylase deficiencies and immune deficiency, and the first children with HIV infection. I have treated the largest cohort of children with SCIDA and the largest number of babies diagnosed through newborn screening with SCID in North America, mapped the genetic locus of the gene for SCIDA and radiation sensitive SCID (RS-SCID), and identified the mutation in DCLRE1C responsible for SCIDA in Navajo and Apache children. I designed and completed one of the few prospective single institution trials of haplocompatible HCT for children with SCID and initiated and completed the first large study of children with SCID transplanted in North America and reported by the PIDTC.

      Collapse Interests
      gene therapy for primary immune deficiency / hematopoietic cell transplant biology, immunology, gene therapy, primary immunodeficiency, transplantation.

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      Collapse In The News
      Collapse Awarded Grants
      Collapse Clinical Trials
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      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
      List All   |   Timeline
      1. Walter JE, Rosen LB, Csomos K, Rosenberg JM, Mathew D, Keszei M, Ujhazi B, Chen K, Lee YN, Tirosh I, Dobbs K, Al-Herz W, Cowan MJ, Puck J, Bleesing JJ, Grimley MS, Malech H, De Ravin SS, Gennery AR, Abraham RS, Joshi AY, Boyce TG, Butte MJ, Nadeau KC, Balboni I, Sullivan KE, Akhter J, Adeli M, El-Feky RA, El-Ghoneimy DH, Dbaibo G, Wakim R, Azzari C, Palma P, Cancrini C, Capuder K, Condino-Neto A, Costa-Carvalho BT, Oliveira JB, Roifman C, Buchbinder D, Kumanovics A, Franco JL, Niehues T, Schuetz C, Kuijpers T, Yee C, Chou J, Masaad MJ, Geha R, Uzel G, Gelman R, Holland SM, Recher M, Utz PJ, Browne SK, Notarangelo LD. Broad-spectrum antibodies against self-antigens and cytokines in RAG deficiency. J Clin Invest. 2016 Nov 1; 126(11):4389. PMID: 27801680.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Dietz AC, Duncan CN, Alter BP, Bresters D, Cowan MJ, Notarangelo L, Rosenberg PS, Shenoy S, Skinner R, Walters MC, Wagner J, Baker KS, Pulsipher MA. The Second Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium International Consensus Conference on Late Effects after Pediatric Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Defining the Unique Late Effects of Children Undergoing Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation for Immune Deficiencies, Inherited Marrow Failure Disorders, and Hemoglobinopathies. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2016 Oct 11. PMID: 27737772.
        View in: PubMed
      3. John T, Walter JE, Schuetz C, Chen K, Abraham RS, Bonfim C, Boyce TG, Joshi AY, Kang E, Carvalho BT, Mahajerin A, Nugent D, Puthenveetil G, Soni A, Su H, Cowan MJ, Notarangelo L, Buchbinder D. Unrelated Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation in a Patient with Combined Immunodeficiency with Granulomatous Disease and Autoimmunity Secondary to RAG Deficiency. J Clin Immunol. 2016 Oct; 36(7):725-32. PMID: 27539235.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Cowan MJ. The Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium: how can it improve definitive therapy for PID? Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2016 Oct; 12(10):1007-9. PMID: 27454438.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Geerlinks AV, Issekutz T, Wahlstrom JT, Sullivan KE, Cowan MJ, Dvorak CC, Fernandez CV, et al. Severe, persistent, and fatal T-cell immunodeficiency following therapy for infantile leukemia. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2016 Jun 29. PMID: 27354010.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Wahlstrom J, Patel K, Eckhert E, Kong D, Horn B, Cowan MJ, Dvorak CC, et al. Transplacental maternal engraftment and posttransplantation graft-versus-host disease in children with severe combined immunodeficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Jun 16. PMID: 27444177.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Griffith LM, Cowan MJ, Notarangelo LD, Kohn DB, Puck JM, Shearer WT, Burroughs LM, Torgerson TR, Decaluwe H, Haddad E. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) update. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2016 Aug; 138(2):375-85. PMID: 27262745.
        View in: PubMed
      8. Levy ER, Musick L, Zinter MS, Lang T, Cowan MJ, Weintrub PS, Dvorak CC. Safe and Effective Prophylaxis with Bimonthly Intravenous Pentamidine in the Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Population. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2016 Feb; 35(2):135-41. PMID: 26418240.
        View in: PubMed
      9. Chan AY, Punwani D, Kadlecek TA, Cowan MJ, Olson JL, Mathes EF, Sunderam U, Fu SM, Srinivasan R, Kuriyan J, Brenner SE, Weiss A, Puck JM. A novel human autoimmune syndrome caused by combined hypomorphic and activating mutations in ZAP-70. J Exp Med. 2016 Feb 8; 213(2):155-65. PMID: 26783323.
        View in: PubMed
      10. Walter JE, Rosen LB, Csomos K, Rosenberg JM, Mathew D, Keszei M, Ujhazi B, Chen K, Lee YN, Tirosh I, Dobbs K, Al-Herz W, Cowan MJ, Puck J, Bleesing JJ, Grimley MS, Malech H, De Ravin SS, Gennery AR, Abraham RS, Joshi AY, Boyce TG, Butte MJ, Nadeau KC, Balboni I, Sullivan KE, Akhter J, Adeli M, El-Feky RA, El-Ghoneimy DH, Dbaibo G, Wakim R, Azzari C, Palma P, Cancrini C, Capuder K, Condino-Neto A, Costa-Carvalho BT, Oliveira JB, Roifman C, Buchbinder D, Kumanovics A, Franco JL, Niehues T, Schuetz C, Kuijpers T, Yee C, Chou J, Masaad MJ, Geha R, Uzel G, Gelman R, Holland SM, Recher M, Utz PJ, Browne SK, Notarangelo LD. Broad-spectrum antibodies against self-antigens and cytokines in RAG deficiency. J Clin Invest. 2015 Nov 2; 125(11):4135-48. PMID: 26457731; PMCID: PMC4639965 [Available on 02/02/16].
      11. Zinter MS, Dvorak CC, Spicer A, Cowan MJ, Sapru A. New Insights Into Multicenter PICU Mortality Among Pediatric Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplant Patients. Crit Care Med. 2015 Sep; 43(9):1986-94. PMID: 26035280.
        View in: PubMed
      12. Shapiro EG, Nestrasil I, Rudser K, Delaney K, Kovac V, Ahmed A, Yund B, Orchard PJ, Eisengart J, Niklason GR, Raiman J, Mamak E, Cowan MJ, Bailey-Olson M, Harmatz P, Shankar SP, Cagle S, Ali N, Steiner RD, Wozniak J, Lim KO, Whitley CB. Neurocognition across the spectrum of mucopolysaccharidosis type I: Age, severity, and treatment. Mol Genet Metab. 2015 Sep-Oct; 116(1-2):61-8. PMID: 26095521; PMCID: PMC4561597 [Available on 09/01/16].
      13. Cowan MJ, Gennery AR. Radiation-sensitive severe combined immunodeficiency: The arguments for and against conditioning before hematopoietic cell transplantation-what to do? J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2015 Nov; 136(5):1178-85. PMID: 26055221; PMCID: PMC4641002 [Available on 11/01/16].
      14. Multhaup MM, Podetz-Pedersen KM, Karlen AD, Olson ER, Gunther R, Somia NV, Blazar BR, Cowan MJ, McIvor RS. Role of transgene regulation in ex vivo lentiviral correction of artemis deficiency. Hum Gene Ther. 2015 Apr; 26(4):232-43. PMID: 25738323; PMCID: PMC4410190 [Available on 04/01/16].
      15. Long-Boyle JR, Savic R, Yan S, Bartelink I, Musick L, French D, Law J, Horn B, Cowan MJ, Dvorak CC. Population pharmacokinetics of busulfan in pediatric and young adult patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplant: a model-based dosing algorithm for personalized therapy and implementation into routine clinical use. Ther Drug Monit. 2015 Apr; 37(2):236-45. PMID: 25162216; PMCID: PMC4342323 [Available on 04/01/16].
      16. Horn B, Petrovic A, Wahlstrom J, Dvorak CC, Kong D, Hwang J, Expose-Spencer J, Gates M, Cowan MJ. Chimerism-based pre-emptive immunotherapy with fast withdrawal of immunosuppression and donor lymphocyte infusions after allogeneic stem cell transplantation for pediatric hematologic malignancies. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2015 Apr; 21(4):729-37. PMID: 25644958.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Punwani D, Wang H, Chan AY, Cowan MJ, Mallott J, Sunderam U, Mollenauer M, Srinivasan R, Brenner SE, Mulder A, Claas FH, Weiss A, Puck JM. Combined immunodeficiency due to MALT1 mutations, treated by hematopoietic cell transplantation. J Clin Immunol. 2015 Feb; 35(2):135-46. PMID: 25627829; PMCID: PMC4352191.
      18. Pai SY, Cowan MJ. Stem cell transplantation for primary immunodeficiency diseases: the North American experience. Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Dec; 14(6):521-6. PMID: 25259542; PMCID: PMC4238389 [Available on 12/01/15].
      19. Kwan A, Abraham RS, Currier R, Brower A, Andruszewski K, Abbott JK, Baker M, Ballow M, Bartoshesky LE, Bonilla FA, Brokopp C, Brooks E, Caggana M, Celestin J, Church JA, Comeau AM, Connelly JA, Cowan MJ, Cunningham-Rundles C, Dasu T, Dave N, De La Morena MT, Duffner U, Fong CT, Forbes L, Freedenberg D, Gelfand EW, Hale JE, Hanson IC, Hay BN, Hu D, Infante A, Johnson D, Kapoor N, Kay DM, Kohn DB, Lee R, Lehman H, Lin Z, Lorey F, Abdel-Mageed A, Manning A, McGhee S, Moore TB, Naides SJ, Notarangelo LD, Orange JS, Pai SY, Porteus M, Rodriguez R, Romberg N, Routes J, Ruehle M, Rubenstein A, Saavedra-Matiz CA, Scott G, Scott PM, Secord E, Seroogy C, Shearer WT, Siegel S, Silvers SK, Stiehm ER, Sugerman RW, Sullivan JL, Tanksley S, Tierce ML, Verbsky J, Vogel B, Walker R, Walkovich K, Walter JE, Wasserman RL, Watson MS, Weinberg GA, Weiner LB, Wood H, Yates AB, Puck JM. Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency in 11 screening programs in the United States. JAMA. 2014 Aug 20; 312(7):729-38. PMID: 25138334; PMCID: PMC4492158.
      20. Dvorak CC, Hassan A, Slatter MA, Hönig M, Lankester AC, Buckley RH, Pulsipher MA, Davis JH, Güngör T, Gabriel M, Bleesing JH, Bunin N, Sedlacek P, Connelly JA, Crawford DF, Notarangelo LD, Pai SY, Hassid J, Veys P, Gennery AR, Cowan MJ. Comparison of outcomes of hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without chemotherapy conditioning by using matched sibling and unrelated donors for treatment of severe combined immunodeficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Oct; 134(4):935-943.e15. PMID: 25109802; PMCID: PMC4186906.
      21. Pai SY, Logan BR, Griffith LM, Buckley RH, Parrott RE, Dvorak CC, Kapoor N, Hanson IC, Filipovich AH, Jyonouchi S, Sullivan KE, Small TN, Burroughs L, Skoda-Smith S, Haight AE, Grizzle A, Pulsipher MA, Chan KW, Fuleihan RL, Haddad E, Loechelt B, Aquino VM, Gillio A, Davis J, Knutsen A, Smith AR, Moore TB, Schroeder ML, Goldman FD, Connelly JA, Porteus MH, Xiang Q, Shearer WT, Fleisher TA, Kohn DB, Puck JM, Notarangelo LD, Cowan MJ, O'Reilly RJ. Transplantation outcomes for severe combined immunodeficiency, 2000-2009. N Engl J Med. 2014 Jul 31; 371(5):434-46. PMID: 25075835; PMCID: PMC4183064.
      22. Dvorak CC, Horn BN, Puck JM, Adams S, Veys P, Czechowicz A, Cowan MJ. A trial of alemtuzumab adjunctive therapy in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with minimal conditioning for severe combined immunodeficiency. Pediatr Transplant. 2014 Sep; 18(6):609-16. PMID: 24977928.
        View in: PubMed
      23. Dvorak CC, Horn BN, Puck JM, Czechowicz A, Shizuru JA, Ko RM, Cowan MJ. A trial of plerixafor adjunctive therapy in allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation with minimal conditioning for severe combined immunodeficiency. Pediatr Transplant. 2014 Sep; 18(6):602-8. PMID: 24977650; PMCID: PMC4134761.
      24. Soni S, Boulad F, Cowan MJ, Scaradavou A, Dahake J, Edwards S, Walters MC. Combined umbilical cord blood and bone marrow from HLA-identical sibling donors for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation in children with hemoglobinopathies. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2014 Sep; 61(9):1690-4. PMID: 24803091.
        View in: PubMed
      25. Haddad E, Allakhverdi Z, Griffith LM, Cowan MJ, Notarangelo LD. Survey on retransplantation criteria for patients with severe combined immunodeficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Feb; 133(2):597-9. PMID: 24331379; PMCID: PMC3960313.
      26. Shearer WT, Dunn E, Notarangelo LD, Dvorak CC, Puck JM, Logan BR, Griffith LM, Kohn DB, O'Reilly RJ, Fleisher TA, Pai SY, Martinez CA, Buckley RH, Cowan MJ. Establishing diagnostic criteria for severe combined immunodeficiency disease (SCID), leaky SCID, and Omenn syndrome: the Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium experience. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Apr; 133(4):1092-8. PMID: 24290292; PMCID: PMC3972266.
      27. Schuetz C, Neven B, Dvorak CC, Leroy S, Ege MJ, Pannicke U, Schwarz K, Schulz AS, Hoenig M, Sparber-Sauer M, Gatz SA, Denzer C, Blanche S, Moshous D, Picard C, Horn BN, de Villartay JP, Cavazzana M, Debatin KM, Friedrich W, Fischer A, Cowan MJ. SCID patients with ARTEMIS vs RAG deficiencies following HCT: increased risk of late toxicity in ARTEMIS-deficient SCID. Blood. 2014 Jan 9; 123(2):281-9. PMID: 24144642; PMCID: PMC3953035.
      28. Griffith LM, Cowan MJ, Notarangelo LD, Kohn DB, Puck JM, Pai SY, Ballard B, Bauer SC, Bleesing JJ, Boyle M, Brower A, Buckley RH, van der Burg M, Burroughs LM, Candotti F, Cant AJ, Chatila T, Cunningham-Rundles C, Dinauer MC, Dvorak CC, Filipovich AH, Fleisher TA, Bobby Gaspar H, Gungor T, Haddad E, Hovermale E, Huang F, Hurley A, Hurley M, Iyengar S, Kang EM, Logan BR, Long-Boyle JR, Malech HL, McGhee SA, Modell F, Modell V, Ochs HD, O'Reilly RJ, Parkman R, Rawlings DJ, Routes JM, Shearer WT, Small TN, Smith H, Sullivan KE, Szabolcs P, Thrasher A, Torgerson TR, Veys P, Weinberg K, Zuniga-Pflucker JC. Primary Immune Deficiency Treatment Consortium (PIDTC) report. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2014 Feb; 133(2):335-47. PMID: 24139498; PMCID: PMC3960312.
      29. Savic RM, Cowan MJ, Dvorak CC, Pai SY, Pereira L, Bartelink IH, Boelens JJ, Bredius RG, Wynn RF, Cuvelier GD, Shaw PJ, Slatter MA, Long-Boyle J. Effect of weight and maturation on busulfan clearance in infants and small children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2013 Nov; 19(11):1608-14. PMID: 24029650; PMCID: PMC3848313.
      30. Mangurian C, Cowan MJ. The missing vital sign. BMJ. 2013; 347:f4163. PMID: 23833077.
        View in: PubMed
      31. Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Logan BR, Notarangelo LD, Griffith LM, Puck JM, Kohn DB, Shearer WT, O'Reilly RJ, Fleisher TA, Pai SY, Hanson IC, Pulsipher MA, Fuleihan R, Filipovich A, Goldman F, Kapoor N, Small T, Smith A, Chan KW, Cuvelier G, Heimall J, Knutsen A, Loechelt B, Moore T, Buckley RH. The natural history of children with severe combined immunodeficiency: baseline features of the first fifty patients of the primary immune deficiency treatment consortium prospective study 6901. J Clin Immunol. 2013 Oct; 33(7):1156-64. PMID: 23818196; PMCID: PMC3784642.
      32. Kwan A, Church JA, Cowan MJ, Agarwal R, Kapoor N, Kohn DB, Lewis DB, McGhee SA, Moore TB, Stiehm ER, Porteus M, Aznar CP, Currier R, Lorey F, Puck JM. Newborn screening for severe combined immunodeficiency and T-cell lymphopenia in California: results of the first 2 years. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 Jul; 132(1):140-50. PMID: 23810098; PMCID: PMC3759317.
      33. Giangreco GJ, Campbell D, Cowan MJ. A 32-Year-Old Female with AIDS, Pneumocystis jiroveci Pneumonia, and Methemoglobinemia. Case Rep Crit Care. 2013; 2013:980589. PMID: 24829836; PMCID: PMC4010018.
      34. Horn B, Cowan MJ. Unresolved issues in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency: need for safer conditioning and reduced late effects. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2013 May; 131(5):1306-11. PMID: 23622119.
        View in: PubMed
      35. Danaei G, Singh GM, Paciorek CJ, Lin JK, Cowan MJ, Finucane MM, Farzadfar F, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Lu Y, Rao M, Ezzati M. The global cardiovascular risk transition: associations of four metabolic risk factors with national income, urbanization, and Western diet in 1980 and 2008. Circulation. 2013 Apr 9; 127(14):1493-502, 1502e1-8. PMID: 23481623; PMCID: PMC4181853.
      36. Di Cesare M, Khang YH, Asaria P, Blakely T, Cowan MJ, Farzadfar F, Guerrero R, Ikeda N, Kyobutungi C, Msyamboza KP, Oum S, Lynch JW, Marmot MG, Ezzati M. Inequalities in non-communicable diseases and effective responses. Lancet. 2013 Feb 16; 381(9866):585-97. PMID: 23410608.
        View in: PubMed
      37. Dvorak CC, Gilman AL, Horn B, Oon CY, Dunn EA, Baxter-Lowe LA, Cowan MJ. Haploidentical related-donor hematopoietic cell transplantation in children using megadoses of CliniMACs-selected CD34(+) cells and a fixed CD3(+) dose. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2013 Apr; 48(4):508-13. PMID: 23178543.
        View in: PubMed
      38. Shah NG, Cowan MJ, Pickering E, Sareh H, Afshar M, Fox D, Marron J, Davis J, Herold K, Shanholtz CB, Hasday JD. Nonpharmacologic approach to minimizing shivering during surface cooling: a proof of principle study. J Crit Care. 2012 Dec; 27(6):746.e1-8. PMID: 22762936; PMCID: PMC3494806.
      39. Law J, Cowan MJ, Dvorak CC, Musick L, Long-Boyle JR, Baxter-Lowe LA, Horn B. Busulfan, fludarabine, and alemtuzumab as a reduced toxicity regimen for children with malignant and nonmalignant diseases improves engraftment and graft-versus-host disease without delaying immune reconstitution. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2012 Nov; 18(11):1656-63. PMID: 22609040.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Bao L, Cowan MJ, Dunham K, Horn B, McGuirk J, Gilman A, Lucas KG. Adoptive immunotherapy with CMV-specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes for stem cell transplant patients with refractory CMV infections. J Immunother. 2012 Apr; 35(3):293-8. PMID: 22421947; PMCID: PMC3306600.
      41. Eapen M, Ahn KW, Orchard PJ, Cowan MJ, Davies SM, Fasth A, Hassebroek A, Ayas M, Bonfim C, O'Brien TA, Gross TG, Horwitz M, Horwitz E, Kapoor N, Kurtzberg J, Majhail N, Ringden O, Szabolcs P, Veys P, Baker KS. Long-term survival and late deaths after hematopoietic cell transplantation for primary immunodeficiency diseases and inborn errors of metabolism. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2012 Sep; 18(9):1438-45. PMID: 22430083; PMCID: PMC3390445.
      42. Ackerman SL, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Dunn EA, Abrams DI, Horn BN, Degelman M, Cowan MJ, Mehling WE. Massage for children undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation: a qualitative report. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012:792042. PMID: 22474526; PMCID: PMC3296156.
      43. Mehling WE, Lown EA, Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn BN, Dunn EA, Acree M, Abrams DI, Hecht FM. Hematopoietic cell transplant and use of massage for improved symptom management: results from a pilot randomized control trial. Evid Based Complement Alternat Med. 2012; 2012:450150. PMID: 22454665; PMCID: PMC3292254.
      44. Recher M, Berglund LJ, Avery DT, Cowan MJ, Gennery AR, Smart J, Peake J, Wong M, Pai SY, Baxi S, Walter JE, Palendira U, Tangye GA, Rice M, Brothers S, Al-Herz W, Oettgen H, Eibel H, Puck JM, Cattaneo F, Ziegler JB, Giliani S, Tangye SG, Notarangelo LD. IL-21 is the primary common ? chain-binding cytokine required for human B-cell differentiation in vivo. Blood. 2011 Dec 22; 118(26):6824-35. PMID: 22039266; PMCID: PMC3338166.
      45. Xiao TZ, Singh K, Dunn E, Ramachandran R, Cowan MJ. T cell and B Cell immunity can be reconstituted with mismatched hematopoietic stem cell transplantation without alkylator therapy in artemis-deficient mice using anti-natural killer cell antibody and photochemically treated sensitized donor T cells. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2012 Feb; 18(2):200-9. PMID: 22015994; PMCID: PMC3258350.
      46. Yu GP, Nadeau KC, Berk DR, de Saint Basile G, Lambert N, Knapnougel P, Roberts J, Kavanau K, Dunn E, Stiehm ER, Lewis DB, Umetsu DT, Puck JM, Cowan MJ. Genotype, phenotype, and outcomes of nine patients with T-B+NK+ SCID. Pediatr Transplant. 2011 Nov; 15(7):733-41. PMID: 21883749; PMCID: PMC3196791.
      47. Marcus N, Takada H, Law J, Cowan MJ, Gil J, Regueiro JR, Plaza Lopez de Sabando D, Lopez-Granados E, Dalal J, Friedrich W, Manfred H, Hanson IC, Grunebaum E, Shearer WT, Roifman CM. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for CD3d deficiency. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2011 Nov; 128(5):1050-7. PMID: 21757226; PMCID: PMC4490832.
      48. Guthold R, Louazani SA, Riley LM, Cowan MJ, Bovet P, Damasceno A, Sambo BH, Tesfaye F, Armstrong TP. Physical activity in 22 African countries: results from the World Health Organization STEPwise approach to chronic disease risk factor surveillance. Am J Prev Med. 2011 Jul; 41(1):52-60. PMID: 21665063.
        View in: PubMed
      49. Danaei G, Finucane MM, Lu Y, Singh GM, Cowan MJ, Paciorek CJ, Lin JK, Farzadfar F, Khang YH, Stevens GA, Rao M, Ali MK, Riley LM, Robinson CA, Ezzati M. National, regional, and global trends in fasting plasma glucose and diabetes prevalence since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 370 country-years and 2·7 million participants. Lancet. 2011 Jul 2; 378(9785):31-40. PMID: 21705069.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Multhaup MM, Gurram S, Podetz-Pedersen KM, Karlen AD, Swanson DL, Somia NV, Hackett PB, Cowan MJ, McIvor RS. Characterization of the human artemis promoter by heterologous gene expression in vitro and in vivo. DNA Cell Biol. 2011 Oct; 30(10):751-61. PMID: 21663454; PMCID: PMC3183654.
      51. Moratto D, Giliani S, Bonfim C, Mazzolari E, Fischer A, Ochs HD, Cant AJ, Thrasher AJ, Cowan MJ, Albert MH, Small T, Pai SY, Haddad E, Lisa A, Hambleton S, Slatter M, Cavazzana-Calvo M, Mahlaoui N, Picard C, Torgerson TR, Burroughs L, Koliski A, Neto JZ, Porta F, Qasim W, Veys P, Kavanau K, Hönig M, Schulz A, Friedrich W, Notarangelo LD. Long-term outcome and lineage-specific chimerism in 194 patients with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome treated by hematopoietic cell transplantation in the period 1980-2009: an international collaborative study. Blood. 2011 Aug 11; 118(6):1675-84. PMID: 21659547; PMCID: PMC3156052.
      52. Kamani NR, Kumar S, Hassebroek A, Eapen M, LeRademacher J, Casper J, Cowan M, Sánchez de Toledo J, Ferster A, Szabolcs P, Wingard JR, Horwitz E, Filipovich AH. Malignancies after hematopoietic cell transplantation for primary immune deficiencies: a report from the Center for International Blood and Marrow Transplant Research. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2011 Dec; 17(12):1783-9. PMID: 21658461; PMCID: PMC3370408.
      53. Mynarek M, Tolar J, Albert MH, Escolar ML, Boelens JJ, Cowan MJ, Finnegan N, Glomstein A, Jacobsohn DA, Kühl JS, Yabe H, Kurtzberg J, Malm D, Orchard PJ, Klein C, Lücke T, Sykora KW. Allogeneic hematopoietic SCT for alpha-mannosidosis: an analysis of 17 patients. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2012 Mar; 47(3):352-9. PMID: 21552297.
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      54. Small TN, Cowan MJ. Immunization of hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients against vaccine-preventable diseases. Expert Rev Clin Immunol. 2011 Mar; 7(2):193-203. PMID: 21426257.
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      55. Farzadfar F, Finucane MM, Danaei G, Pelizzari PM, Cowan MJ, Paciorek CJ, Singh GM, Lin JK, Stevens GA, Riley LM, Ezzati M. National, regional, and global trends in serum total cholesterol since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 321 country-years and 3·0 million participants. Lancet. 2011 Feb 12; 377(9765):578-86. PMID: 21295847.
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      56. Finucane MM, Stevens GA, Cowan MJ, Danaei G, Lin JK, Paciorek CJ, Singh GM, Gutierrez HR, Lu Y, Bahalim AN, Farzadfar F, Riley LM, Ezzati M. National, regional, and global trends in body-mass index since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 960 country-years and 9·1 million participants. Lancet. 2011 Feb 12; 377(9765):557-67. PMID: 21295846; PMCID: PMC4472365.
      57. Danaei G, Finucane MM, Lin JK, Singh GM, Paciorek CJ, Cowan MJ, Farzadfar F, Stevens GA, Lim SS, Riley LM, Ezzati M. National, regional, and global trends in systolic blood pressure since 1980: systematic analysis of health examination surveys and epidemiological studies with 786 country-years and 5·4 million participants. Lancet. 2011 Feb 12; 377(9765):568-77. PMID: 21295844.
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      58. Segal BH, Veys P, Malech H, Cowan MJ. Chronic granulomatous disease: lessons from a rare disorder. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2011 Jan; 17(1 Suppl):S123-31. PMID: 21195301; PMCID: PMC3052948.
      59. Sabloff M, Chandy M, Wang Z, Logan BR, Ghavamzadeh A, Li CK, Irfan SM, Bredeson CN, Cowan MJ, Gale RP, Hale GA, Horan J, Hongeng S, Eapen M, Walters MC. HLA-matched sibling bone marrow transplantation for ß-thalassemia major. Blood. 2011 Feb 3; 117(5):1745-50. PMID: 21119108; PMCID: PMC3056598.
      60. Booth C, Gilmour KC, Veys P, Gennery AR, Slatter MA, Chapel H, Heath PT, Steward CG, Smith O, O'Meara A, Kerrigan H, Mahlaoui N, Cavazzana-Calvo M, Fischer A, Moshous D, Blanche S, Pachlopnik Schmid J, Pachlopnick-Schmid J, Latour S, de Saint-Basile G, Albert M, Notheis G, Rieber N, Strahm B, Ritterbusch H, Lankester A, Hartwig NG, Meyts I, Plebani A, Soresina A, Finocchi A, Pignata C, Cirillo E, Bonanomi S, Peters C, Kalwak K, Pasic S, Sedlacek P, Jazbec J, Kanegane H, Nichols KE, Hanson IC, Kapoor N, Haddad E, Cowan M, Choo S, Smart J, Arkwright PD, Gaspar HB. X-linked lymphoproliferative disease due to SAP/SH2D1A deficiency: a multicenter study on the manifestations, management and outcome of the disease. Blood. 2011 Jan 6; 117(1):53-62. PMID: 20926771; PMCID: PMC3374620.
      61. Multhaup M, Karlen AD, Swanson DL, Wilber A, Somia NV, Cowan MJ, McIvor RS. Cytotoxicity associated with artemis overexpression after lentiviral vector-mediated gene transfer. Hum Gene Ther. 2010 Jul; 21(7):865-75. PMID: 20163250; PMCID: PMC2938362.
      62. Walter JE, Rucci F, Patrizi L, Recher M, Regenass S, Paganini T, Keszei M, Pessach I, Lang PA, Poliani PL, Giliani S, Al-Herz W, Cowan MJ, Puck JM, Bleesing J, Niehues T, Schuetz C, Malech H, DeRavin SS, Facchetti F, Gennery AR, Andersson E, Kamani NR, Sekiguchi J, Alenezi HM, Chinen J, Dbaibo G, ElGhazali G, Fontana A, Pasic S, Detre C, Terhorst C, Alt FW, Notarangelo LD. Expansion of immunoglobulin-secreting cells and defects in B cell tolerance in Rag-dependent immunodeficiency. J Exp Med. 2010 Jul 5; 207(7):1541-54. PMID: 20547827; PMCID: PMC2901061.
      63. Miller JL, Velmurugan K, Cowan MJ, Briken V. The type I NADH dehydrogenase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis counters phagosomal NOX2 activity to inhibit TNF-alpha-mediated host cell apoptosis. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Apr; 6(4):e1000864. PMID: 20421951; PMCID: PMC2858756.
      64. Shah NG, Tulapurkar ME, Singh IS, Shelhamer JH, Cowan MJ, Hasday JD. Prostaglandin E2 potentiates heat shock-induced heat shock protein 72 expression in A549 cells. Prostaglandins Other Lipid Mediat. 2010 Sep; 93(1-2):1-7. PMID: 20382255; PMCID: PMC2919605.
      65. Guthold R, Cowan MJ, Autenrieth CS, Kann L, Riley LM. Physical activity and sedentary behavior among schoolchildren: a 34-country comparison. J Pediatr. 2010 Jul; 157(1):43-49.e1. PMID: 20304415.
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      66. Verneris MR, Eapen M, Duerst R, Carpenter PA, Burke MJ, Afanasyev BV, Cowan MJ, He W, Krance R, Li CK, Tan PL, Wagner JE, Davies SM. Reduced-intensity conditioning regimens for allogeneic transplantation in children with acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2010 Sep; 16(9):1237-44. PMID: 20302960; PMCID: PMC2904410.
      67. Kussmaul SC, Horn BN, Dvorak CC, Abramovitz L, Cowan MJ, Weintrub PS. Safety of the live, attenuated varicella vaccine in pediatric recipients of hematopoietic SCTs. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2010 Nov; 45(11):1602-6. PMID: 20190839.
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      68. Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ. Radiosensitive severe combined immunodeficiency disease. Immunol Allergy Clin North Am. 2010 Feb; 30(1):125-42. PMID: 20113890; PMCID: PMC2818388.
      69. Pulsipher MA, Horwitz EM, Haight AE, Kadota R, Chen AR, Frangoul H, Cooper LJ, Jacobsohn DA, Goyal RK, Mitchell D, Nieder ML, Yanik G, Cowan MJ, Soni S, Gardner S, Shenoy S, Taylor D, Cairo M, Schultz KR. Advancement of pediatric blood and marrow transplantation research in North America: priorities of the Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2010 Sep; 16(9):1212-21. PMID: 20079865; PMCID: PMC2891395.
      70. Griffith LM, Cowan MJ, Notarangelo LD, Puck JM, Buckley RH, Candotti F, Conley ME, Fleisher TA, Gaspar HB, Kohn DB, Ochs HD, O'Reilly RJ, Rizzo JD, Roifman CM, Small TN, Shearer WT. Improving cellular therapy for primary immune deficiency diseases: recognition, diagnosis, and management. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Dec; 124(6):1152-60.e12. PMID: 20004776; PMCID: PMC2831471.
      71. Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ, Horn B, Weintrub PS. Development of herpes simplex virus stomatitis during receipt of cidofovir therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2009 Oct 15; 49(8):e92-5. PMID: 19761410.
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      72. Dvorak CC, Gilman AL, Horn B, Jaroscak J, Dunn EA, Baxter-Lowe LA, Cowan MJ. Clinical and immunologic outcomes following haplocompatible donor lymphocyte infusions. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2009 Dec; 44(12):805-12. PMID: 19421175.
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      73. Strober J, Cowan MJ, Horn BN. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for refractory myasthenia gravis. Arch Neurol. 2009 May; 66(5):659-61. PMID: 19433668.
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      74. Dvorak CC, Gilman AL, Horn B, Cowan MJ. Primary graft failure after umbilical cord blood transplant rescued by parental haplocompatible stem cell transplantation. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2009 Apr; 31(4):300-3. PMID: 19346887.
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      75. Yeung AH, Cowan MJ, Horn B, Rosbe KW. Airway management in children with mucopolysaccharidoses. Arch Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2009 Jan; 135(1):73-9. PMID: 19153310.
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      76. Horn B, Bao L, Dunham K, Stamer M, Adler S, Cowan M, Lucas K. Infusion of cytomegalovirus specific cytotoxic T lymphocytes from a sero-negative donor can facilitate resolution of infection and immune reconstitution. Pediatr Infect Dis J. 2009 Jan; 28(1):65-7. PMID: 19034064.
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      77. Ochs HD, Filipovich AH, Veys P, Cowan MJ, Kapoor N. Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome: diagnosis, clinical and laboratory manifestations, and treatment. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2009 Jan; 15(1 Suppl):84-90. PMID: 19147084.
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      78. Xiao Z, Dunn E, Singh K, Khan IS, Yannone SM, Cowan MJ. A non-leaky Artemis-deficient mouse that accurately models the human severe combined immune deficiency phenotype, including resistance to hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2009 Jan; 15(1):1-11. PMID: 19135937; PMCID: PMC2648806.
      79. Ringdén O, Pavletic SZ, Anasetti C, Barrett AJ, Wang T, Wang D, Antin JH, Di Bartolomeo P, Bolwell BJ, Bredeson C, Cairo MS, Gale RP, Gupta V, Hahn T, Hale GA, Halter J, Jagasia M, Litzow MR, Locatelli F, Marks DI, McCarthy PL, Cowan MJ, Petersdorf EW, Russell JA, Schiller GJ, Schouten H, Spellman S, Verdonck LF, Wingard JR, Horowitz MM, Arora M. The graft-versus-leukemia effect using matched unrelated donors is not superior to HLA-identical siblings for hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Blood. 2009 Mar 26; 113(13):3110-8. PMID: 19059878; PMCID: PMC2662650.
      80. Griffith LM, Cowan MJ, Kohn DB, Notarangelo LD, Puck JM, Schultz KR, Buckley RH, Eapen M, Kamani NR, O'Reilly RJ, Parkman R, Roifman CM, Sullivan KE, Filipovich AH, Fleisher TA, Shearer WT. Allogeneic hematopoietic cell transplantation for primary immune deficiency diseases: current status and critical needs. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2008 Dec; 122(6):1087-96. PMID: 18992926; PMCID: PMC3357108.
      81. Horn B, Soni S, Khan S, Petrovic A, Breslin N, Cowan M, Pelle-Day G, Cooperstein E, Baxter-Lowe LA. Feasibility study of preemptive withdrawal of immunosuppression based on chimerism testing in children undergoing myeloablative allogeneic transplantation for hematologic malignancies. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2009 Mar; 43(6):469-76. PMID: 18955982.
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      82. Dvorak CC, Hung GY, Horn B, Dunn E, Oon CY, Cowan MJ. Megadose CD34(+) cell grafts improve recovery of T cell engraftment but not B cell immunity in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency disease undergoing haplocompatible nonmyeloablative transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2008 Oct; 14(10):1125-33. PMID: 18804042.
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      83. Xiao Z, Yannone SM, Dunn E, Cowan MJ. A novel missense RAG-1 mutation results in T-B-NK+ SCID in Athabascan-speaking Dine Indians from the Canadian Northwest Territories. Eur J Hum Genet. 2009 Feb; 17(2):205-12. PMID: 18701881; PMCID: PMC2986061.
      84. Dvorak CC, Sandford A, Fong A, Cowan MJ, George TI, Lewis DB. Maternal T-cell engraftment associated with severe hemophagocytosis of the bone marrow in untreated X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2008 May; 30(5):396-400. PMID: 18458578.
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      85. Ozyurek E, Cowan MJ, Koerper MA, Baxter-Lowe LA, Dvorak CC, Horn BN. Increasing mixed chimerism and the risk of graft loss in children undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for non-malignant disorders. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2008 Jul; 42(2):83-91. PMID: 18391990.
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      86. Cowan MJ, Neven B, Cavazanna-Calvo M, Fischer A, Puck J. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency diseases. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2008 Jan; 14(1 Suppl 1):73-5. PMID: 18162224.
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      87. Dvorak CC, Cowan MJ. Hematopoietic stem cell transplantation for primary immunodeficiency disease. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2008 Jan; 41(2):119-26. PMID: 17968328.
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      88. Eapen M, DeLaat CA, Baker KS, Cairo MS, Cowan MJ, Kurtzberg J, Steward CG, Veys PA, Filipovich AH. Hematopoietic cell transplantation for Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2007 Apr; 39(7):411-5. PMID: 17293882.
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      89. Taylor Z, Butani L, Blumberg D, Cowan M, Wara D, Gopal S, Gavrilita C, Da-Silva S. Index of suspicion. Pediatr Rev. 2006 Dec; 27(12):463-9. PMID: 17142468.
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      90. Povirk LF, Zhou T, Zhou R, Cowan MJ, Yannone SM. Processing of 3'-phosphoglycolate-terminated DNA double strand breaks by Artemis nuclease. J Biol Chem. 2007 Feb 9; 282(6):3547-58. PMID: 17121861.
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      91. Horn B, Baxter-Lowe LA, Englert L, McMillan A, Quinn M, Desantes K, Cowan M. Reduced intensity conditioning using intravenous busulfan, fludarabine and rabbit ATG for children with nonmalignant disorders and CML. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2006 Feb; 37(3):263-9. PMID: 16327813.
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      92. McGhee SA, Stiehm ER, Cowan M, Krogstad P, McCabe ER. Two-tiered universal newborn screening strategy for severe combined immunodeficiency. Mol Genet Metab. 2005 Dec; 86(4):427-30. PMID: 16260163.
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      93. Bhattacharyya S, Cowan MJ. B7.2-/- mature dendritic cells generate T-helper 2 and regulatory T donor cells in fetal mice after in utero allogeneic bone marrow transplantation. Biol Blood Marrow Transplant. 2005 Sep; 11(9):657-71. PMID: 16125636.
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      94. Wang J, Pluth JM, Cooper PK, Cowan MJ, Chen DJ, Yannone SM. Artemis deficiency confers a DNA double-strand break repair defect and Artemis phosphorylation status is altered by DNA damage and cell cycle progression. DNA Repair (Amst). 2005 May 2; 4(5):556-70. PMID: 15811628.
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      95. Li L, Salido E, Zhou Y, Bhattacharyya S, Yannone SM, Dunn E, Meneses J, Feeney AJ, Cowan MJ. Targeted disruption of the Artemis murine counterpart results in SCID and defective V(D)J recombination that is partially corrected with bone marrow transplantation. J Immunol. 2005 Feb 15; 174(4):2420-8. PMID: 15699179.
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      96. Lee CI, Cowan MJ, Kohn DB, Tarantal AF. Simian immunodeficiency virus infection of hematopoietic stem cells and bone marrow stromal cells. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 May 1; 36(1):553-61. PMID: 15097297.
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      97. Bhattacharyya S, Chawla A, Smith K, Zhou Y, Talib S, Wardwell B, Cowan MJ. Multilineage engraftment with minimal graft-versus-host disease following in utero transplantation of S-59 psoralen/ultraviolet a light-treated, sensitized T cells and adult T cell-depleted bone marrow in fetal mice. J Immunol. 2002 Dec 1; 169(11):6133-40. PMID: 12444116.
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      98. Reiss U, Cowan M, McMillan A, Horn B. Hepatic venoocclusive disease in blood and bone marrow transplantation in children and young adults: incidence, risk factors, and outcome in a cohort of 241 patients. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2002 Dec; 24(9):746-50. PMID: 12468917.
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      99. Li L, Zhou Y, Wang J, Hu D, Cowan MJ. Prenatal diagnosis and carrier detection for Athabascan severe combined immunodeficiency disease. Prenat Diagn. 2002 Sep; 22(9):763-8. PMID: 12224067.
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      100. Li L, Moshous D, Zhou Y, Wang J, Xie G, Salido E, Hu D, de Villartay JP, Cowan MJ. A founder mutation in Artemis, an SNM1-like protein, causes SCID in Athabascan-speaking Native Americans. J Immunol. 2002 Jun 15; 168(12):6323-9. PMID: 12055248.
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      101. Horn B, Reiss U, Matthay K, McMillan A, Cowan M. Veno-occlusive disease of the liver in children with solid tumors undergoing autologous hematopoietic progenitor cell transplantation: a high incidence in patients with neuroblastoma. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002 Mar; 29(5):409-15. PMID: 11919731.
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      102. Reed W, Kong DZ, Lee TH, Cowan MJ, Busch MP, Baxter-Lowe LA. Non-invasive determination of the paternal HLA haplotype of a fetus using kinetic PCR to detect fetal microchimerism in maternal plasma. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2002 Mar; 29(6):527-9. PMID: 11960275.
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      103. Chou SH, Chawla A, Lee TH, Zhou Y, Busch MP, Balassanian R, Ferrell L, Cowan MJ. Increased engraftment and GVHD after in utero transplantation of MHC-mismatched bone marrow cells and CD80low, CD86(-) dendritic cells in a fetal mouse model. Transplantation. 2001 Dec 15; 72(11):1768-76. PMID: 11740386.
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      104. Bolinger AM, Zangwill AB, Slattery JT, Risler LJ, Sultan DH, Glidden DV, Norstad D, Cowan MJ. Target dose adjustment of busulfan in pediatric patients undergoing bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001 Dec; 28(11):1013-8. PMID: 11781609.
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      105. Denianke KS, Frieden IJ, Cowan MJ, Williams ML, McCalmont TH. Cutaneous manifestations of maternal engraftment in patients with severe combined immunodeficiency: a clinicopathologic study. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001 Aug; 28(3):227-33. PMID: 11535989.
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      106. O'Marcaigh AS, DeSantes K, Hu D, Pabst H, Horn B, Li L, Cowan MJ. Bone marrow transplantation for T-B- severe combined immunodeficiency disease in Athabascan-speaking native Americans. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2001 Apr; 27(7):703-9. PMID: 11360109.
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      107. Cowan MJ, Chou SH, Tarantal AF. Tolerance induction post in utero stem cell transplantation. Ernst Schering Res Found Workshop. 2001; (33):145-71. PMID: 11105259.
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      108. Mentzer WC, Cowan MJ. Bone marrow transplantation for beta-thalassemia: the University of California San Francisco experience. J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 2000 Nov-Dec; 22(6):598-601. PMID: 11132237.
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      109. Bolinger AM, Zangwill AB, Slattery JT, Glidden D, DeSantes K, Heyn L, Risler LJ, Bostrom B, Cowan MJ. An evaluation of engraftment, toxicity and busulfan concentration in children receiving bone marrow transplantation for leukemia or genetic disease. Bone Marrow Transplant. 2000 May; 25(9):925-30. PMID: 10800058.
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      110. Horn B, Viele M, Mentzer W, Mogck N, DeSantes K, Cowan M. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia in patients with SCID after T cell-depleted BM and PBSC transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1999 Nov; 24(9):1009-13. PMID: 10556961.
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      111. Kwong PC, O'Marcaigh AS, Howard R, Cowan MJ, Frieden IJ. Oral and genital ulceration: a unique presentation of immunodeficiency in Athabascan-speaking American Indian children with severe combined immunodeficiency. Arch Dermatol. 1999 Aug; 135(8):927-31. PMID: 10456341.
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      112. Li L, Drayna D, Hu D, Hayward A, Gahagan S, Pabst H, Cowan MJ. The gene for severe combined immunodeficiency disease in Athabascan-speaking Native Americans is located on chromosome 10p. Am J Hum Genet. 1998 Jan; 62(1):136-44. PMID: 9443881; PMCID: PMC1376812.
      113. Carrier E, Lee TH, Busch MP, Cowan MJ. Recruitment of engrafted donor cells postnatally into the blood with cytokines after in utero transplantation in mice. Transplantation. 1997 Aug 27; 64(4):627-33. PMID: 9293877.
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      114. Packman WL, Crittenden MR, Schaeffer E, Bongar B, Fischer JB, Cowan MJ. Psychosocial consequences of bone marrow transplantation in donor and nondonor siblings. J Dev Behav Pediatr. 1997 Aug; 18(4):244-53. PMID: 9276831.
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      115. Mychaliska GB, Rice HE, Tarantal AF, Stock PG, Capper J, Garovoy MR, Olson JL, Cowan MJ, Harrison MR. In utero hematopoietic stem cell transplants prolong survival of postnatal kidney transplantation in monkeys. J Pediatr Surg. 1997 Jul; 32(7):976-81. PMID: 9247216.
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      116. Kramer JH, Crittenden MR, DeSantes K, Cowan MJ. Cognitive and adaptive behavior 1 and 3 years following bone marrow transplantation. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1997 Mar; 19(6):607-13. PMID: 9085740.
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      117. O'Marcaigh AS, Cowan MJ. Bone marrow transplantation for inherited diseases. Curr Opin Oncol. 1997 Mar; 9(2):126-30. PMID: 9161789.
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      118. O'Marcaigh AS, Puck JM, Pepper AE, De Santes K, Cowan MJ. Maternal mosaicism for a novel interleukin-2 receptor gamma-chain mutation causing X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency in a Navajo kindred. J Clin Immunol. 1997 Jan; 17(1):29-33. PMID: 9049783.
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      119. Hajdu K, Tanigawara S, McLean LK, Cowan MJ, Golbus MS. In utero allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation to induce tolerance. Fetal Diagn Ther. 1996 Jul-Aug; 11(4):241-8. PMID: 8823603.
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      120. De Santes KB, Lai SS, Cowan MJ. Haploidentical bone marrow transplants for two patients with reticular dysgenesis. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1996 Jun; 17(6):1171-3. PMID: 8807131.
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      121. Cowan MJ, Tarantal AF, Capper J, Harrison M, Garovoy M. Long-term engraftment following in utero T cell-depleted parental marrow transplantation into fetal rhesus monkeys. Bone Marrow Transplant. 1996 Jun; 17(6):1157-65. PMID: 8807129.
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      122. Brady KA, Cowan MJ, Leavitt AD. Circulating red cells usually remain of host origin after bone marrow transplantation for severe combined immunodeficiency. Transfusion. 1996 Apr; 36(4):314-7. PMID: 8623130.
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      123. Carrier E, Lee TH, Busch MP, Cowan MJ. Induction of tolerance in nondefective mice after in utero transplantation of major histocompatibility complex-mismatched fetal hematopoietic stem cells. Blood. 1995 Dec 15; 86(12):4681-90. PMID: 8541562.
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      124. Elder ME, Hope TJ, Parslow TG, Umetsu DT, Wara DW, Cowan MJ. Severe combined immunodeficiency with absence of peripheral blood CD8+ T cells due to ZAP-70 deficiency. Cell Immunol. 1995 Oct 1; 165(1):110-7. PMID: 7671314.
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      125. Sorof JM, Koerper MA, Portale AA, Potter D, DeSantes K, Cowan M. Renal transplantation without chronic immunosuppression after T cell-depleted, HLA-mismatched bone marrow transplantation. Transplantation. 1995 Jun 15; 59(11):1633-5. PMID: 7778182.
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      126. Benkerrou M, Wara DW, Elder M, Dror Y, Merino A, Colombe BW, Garovoy M, Cowan MJ. Anti-tetanus toxoid antibody production after mismatched T cell-depleted bone marrow transplantation. J Clin Immunol. 1994 Mar; 14(2):98-106. PMID: 8195318.
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      127. Cowan MJ, Golbus M. In utero hematopoietic stem cell transplants for inherited diseases. Am J Pediatr Hematol Oncol. 1994 Feb; 16(1):35-42. PMID: 7906103.
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      128. Dror Y, Gallagher R, Wara DW, Colombe BW, Merino A, Benkerrou M, Cowan MJ. Immune reconstitution in severe combined immunodeficiency disease after lectin-treated, T-cell-depleted haplocompatible bone marrow transplantation. Blood. 1993 Apr 15; 81(8):2021-30. PMID: 8471764.
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      129. Diukman R, Tanigawara S, Cowan MJ, Golbus MS. Prenatal diagnosis of Chediak-Higashi syndrome. Prenat Diagn. 1992 Nov; 12(11):877-85. PMID: 1494540.
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      130. Kramer JH, Crittenden MR, Halberg FE, Wara WM, Cowan MJ. A prospective study of cognitive functioning following low-dose cranial radiation for bone marrow transplantation. Pediatrics. 1992 Sep; 90(3):447-50. PMID: 1518705.
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      131. Duan DS, Smith W, Sadée W, Cowan MJ. Characterization of three T-lymphoid cell lines with distinct sensitivities to deoxyadenosine plus deoxycoformycin. Thymus. 1992 Feb; 19(1):1-11. PMID: 1373528.
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      132. Conrad DJ, Warnock M, Blanc P, Cowan M, Golden JA. Microgranulomatous aspergillosis after shoveling wood chips: report of a fatal outcome in a patient with chronic granulomatous disease. Am J Ind Med. 1992; 22(3):411-8. PMID: 1519622.
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      133. Weintrub PS, Veereman-Wauters G, Cowan MJ, Thaler MM. Hepatitis C virus infection in infants whose mothers took street drugs intravenously. J Pediatr. 1991 Dec; 119(6):869-74. PMID: 1660070.
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      134. Cowan MJ. Bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of genetic diseases. Clin Biochem. 1991 Aug; 24(4):375-81. PMID: 1959229.
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      135. Weintrub PS, Ulrich PP, Edwards JR, Boucher F, Levy JA, Cowan MJ, Vyas GN. Use of polymerase chain reaction for the early detection of HIV infection in the infants of HIV-seropositive women. AIDS. 1991 Jul; 5(7):881-4. PMID: 1892594.
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      136. Martin NL, Levy JA, Legg H, Weintrub PS, Cowan MJ, Wara DW. Detection of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 in infants by an anti-HIV immunoglobulin A assay using recombinant proteins. J Pediatr. 1991 Mar; 118(3):354-8. PMID: 1705583.
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      137. Cowan MJ. Bone marrow transplantation for the treatment of genetic disease. West J Med. 1990 Dec; 153(6):647-8. PMID: 2293473; PMCID: PMC1002646.
      138. Halberg FE, Wara WM, Weaver KE, Wara DW, Ablin AR, Matthay KK, Mentzer WC, O'Leary MC, Cowan MJ. Total body irradiation and bone marrow transplantation for immunodeficiency disorders in young children. Radiother Oncol. 1990; 18 Suppl 1:114-7. PMID: 2247633.
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      139. Cowan MJ, Smith W, Ammann AJ. Interleukin 2 responsive lymphocytes in patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1989 Oct; 53(1):59-67. PMID: 2569954.
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      140. Shannon KM, Turhan AG, Chang SS, Bowcock AM, Rogers PC, Carroll WL, Cowan MJ, Glader BE, Eaves CJ, Eaves AC. Familial bone marrow monosomy 7. Evidence that the predisposing locus is not on the long arm of chromosome 7. J Clin Invest. 1989 Sep; 84(3):984-9. PMID: 2569483; PMCID: PMC329745.
      141. Edwards JR, Ulrich PP, Weintrub PS, Cowan MJ, Levy JA, Wara DW, Vyas GN. Polymerase chain reaction compared with concurrent viral cultures for rapid identification of human immunodeficiency virus infection among high-risk infants and children. J Pediatr. 1989 Aug; 115(2):200-3. PMID: 2754549.
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      142. Culver KW, Smith WL, Cowan MJ. Allogeneic bone marrow transplantation in newborn mice treated pre- and post-natally with anti-THY 1.2 monoclonal antibody. Transplant Proc. 1989 Feb; 21(1 Pt 3):2939. PMID: 2565065.
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      143. Kletter R, Jeremy RJ, Rumsey C, Weintrub P, Cowan M. Developmental decline in infants born to HIV-infected intravenous drug-using mothers. NIDA Res Monogr. 1989; 95:409-10. PMID: 2641012.
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      144. Cowan MJ, Ammann AJ. Pediatric AIDS. Immunol Ser. 1989; 44:115-34. PMID: 2489110.
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      145. Cowan MJ, Walker C, Culver K, Weintrub PS, Wara DW, Levy JA. Maternally transmitted HIV infection in children. AIDS. 1988 Dec; 2(6):437-41. PMID: 3149491.
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      146. Cowan MJ, Shannon KM, Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Rejection of bone marrow transplant and resistance of alloantigen reactive cells to in vivo deoxyadenosine in adenosine deaminase deficiency. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1988 Nov; 49(2):242-50. PMID: 2971490.
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      147. Cowan, M.J., Walker, C., Culver, K., Wara, D., Weintrub, P.S., & Levy, J. . Human immuno-deficiency virus (HIV) infection in seronegative children of HIV infected mothers. AIDS. 1988; (2):437-441.
      148. Perkins HA, Samson S, Garner J, Echenberg D, Allen JR, Cowan M, Levy JA. Risk of AIDS for recipients of blood components from donors who subsequently developed AIDS. Blood. 1987 Nov; 70(5):1604-10. PMID: 3663947.
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      149. Culver KW, Ammann AJ, Partridge JC, Wong DF, Wara DW, Cowan MJ. Lymphocyte abnormalities in infants born to drug-abusing mothers. J Pediatr. 1987 Aug; 111(2):230-5. PMID: 3039102.
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      150. Cowan MJ, McHugh T, Smith W, Wara D, Matthay K, Ablin A, Casavant C, Stites D. Lymphocyte reconstitution in children receiving soybean agglutinin T-depleted bone marrow transplants. Transplant Proc. 1987 Feb; 19(1 Pt 3):2744. PMID: 3274585.
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      151. Matthay K, Wara DW, Ablin AJ, Cowan MJ. Haploidentical bone marrow transplantation using soybean agglutinin-processed, T-depleted marrow. Transplant Proc. 1987 Feb; 19(1 Pt 3):2678-9. PMID: 3274578.
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      152. Shannon, K., Cowan, M.J., & Matthay, K. . . Pediatric Bone Marrow Transplantation: Intensive Care Management. Journal of Intensive Care. 1987; (2):328-344.
      153. Geffner ME, Stiehm ER, Stephure D, Cowan MJ. Probable autoimmune thyroid disease and combined immunodeficiency disease. Am J Dis Child. 1986 Nov; 140(11):1194-6. PMID: 3490177.
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      154. Cowan MJ, Brady RO, Widder KJ. Elevated erythrocyte adenosine deaminase activity in patients with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Feb; 83(4):1089-91. PMID: 3006027; PMCID: PMC323016.
      155. Cowan MJ, Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Deoxycytidine therapy in two patients with adenosine deaminase deficiency and severe immunodeficiency disease. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1985 Oct; 37(1):30-6. PMID: 3161676.
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      156. Gaworski CL, Haun CC, MacEwen JD, Vernot EH, Bruner RH, Amster RL, Cowan MJ. A 90-day vapor inhalation toxicity study of decalin. Fundam Appl Toxicol. 1985 Aug; 5(4):785-93. PMID: 4043600.
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      157. Ammann AJ, Johnson A, Fyfe GA, Leonards R, Wara DW, Cowan MJ. Behçet syndrome. J Pediatr. 1985 Jul; 107(1):41-3. PMID: 4009339.
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      158. Shannon K, Cowan MJ, Ball E, Abrams D, Volberding P, Ammann AJ. Impaired mononuclear-cell proliferation in patients with the acquired immune deficiency syndrome results from abnormalities of both T lymphocytes and adherent mononuclear cells. J Clin Immunol. 1985 Jul; 5(4):239-45. PMID: 3876352.
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      159. Ammann, A.J., Lawrence, K., & Cowan, M.J. . . Antibodies to AIDS associated retrovirus distinguishes between primary and acquired immunodeficiency diseases. JAMA. 1985; (253):3116-3118.
      160. Ochs HD, Fischer SH, Wedgwood RJ, Wara DW, Cowan MJ, Ammann AJ, Saxon A, Budinger MD, Allred RU, Rousell RH. Comparison of high-dose and low-dose intravenous immunoglobulin therapy in patients with primary immunodeficiency diseases. Am J Med. 1984 Mar 30; 76(3A):78-82. PMID: 6424461.
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      161. Cowan MJ, Hellmann D, Chudwin D, Wara DW, Chang RS, Ammann AJ. Maternal transmission of acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Pediatrics. 1984 Mar; 73(3):382-6. PMID: 6608091.
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      162. Parkman, R., O'Donnell, R.E., Cairns, L., Rappeport, J.M., Cowan, M.J., Ammann, A.J., Kenney, D., Potter, N., & Rosen, F.S. . . Susceptibility to infections in patients lacking a T lymphocyte surface glycoprotein. Clin Immunol Immunopathology. 1984; (33):363-370.
      163. Wara, D.W., Cowan, M.J., & Ammann, A.J. . . Thymosin Fraction 5 treatment of patients with cellular immunodeficiency disorders. Thymic Hormones and Lymphokines. 1984.
      164. Chudwin DS, Ammann AJ, Cowan MJ, Wara DW. Significance of a positive antinuclear antibody test in a pediatric population. Am J Dis Child. 1983 Nov; 137(11):1103-6. PMID: 6356882.
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      165. Weintrub PS, Koerper MA, Addiego JE, Drew WL, Lennette ET, Miner R, Cowan MJ, Ammann AJ. Immunologic abnormalities in patients with hemophilia A. J Pediatr. 1983 Nov; 103(5):692-5. PMID: 6415259.
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      166. Hellmann D, Cowan MJ, Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Chudwin D, Chang RS. Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infections in two immunodeficient patients. J Pediatr. 1983 Oct; 103(4):585-8. PMID: 6312007.
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      167. Chudwin DS, Cowan MJ, Greenberg PL, Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Response of agranulocytosis to prolonged antithymocyte globulin therapy. J Pediatr. 1983 Aug; 103(2):223-7. PMID: 6875713.
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      168. Williams ML, Packman S, Cowan MJ. Alopecia and periorificial dermatitis in biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency. J Am Acad Dermatol. 1983 Jul; 9(1):97-103. PMID: 6886110.
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      169. Cowan MJ, Fraga M, Ammann AJ. Changes in purine nucleoside phosphorylase activity during thymosin-induced human null cell differentiation. Cell Immunol. 1983 Jun; 78(2):333-41. PMID: 6407760.
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      170. Savouret JF, Chudwin DS, Wara DW, Ammann AJ, Cowan MJ, Miller WL. Clinical and laboratory findings in childhood mixed connective tissue disease: presence of antibody to ribonucleoprotein containing the small nuclear ribonucleic acid U1. J Pediatr. 1983 Jun; 102(6):841-6. PMID: 6189985.
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      171. Ammann AJ, Abrams D, Conant M, Chudwin D, Cowan M, Volberding P, Lewis B, Casavant C. Acquired immune dysfunction in homosexual men: immunologic profiles. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1983 Jun; 27(3):315-25. PMID: 6223758.
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      172. Ammann AJ, Cowan MJ, Wara DW, Weintrub P, Dritz S, Goldman H, Perkins HA. Acquired immunodeficiency in an infant: possible transmission by means of blood products. Lancet. 1983 Apr 30; 1(8331):956-8. PMID: 6132270.
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      173. Chudwin DS, Cowan MJ, Wara DW, Ammann AJ. Patients with abnormal proportions of T-lymphocyte subsets have reduced in vitro cellular immunity. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1983 Jan; 26(1):126-36. PMID: 6223739.
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      174. Ammann AJ, Cowan MJ, Martin DW, Wara DW. Dipyridamole and intravenous deoxycytidine therapy in a patient with adenosine deaminase deficiency. Birth Defects Orig Artic Ser. 1983; 19(3):117-20. PMID: 6652234.
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      175. Unexplained immunodeficiency and opportunistic infections in infants--New York, New Jersey, California. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1982 Dec 17; 31(49):665-7. PMID: 6819445.
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      176. Possible transfusion-associated acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS) - California. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 1982 Dec 10; 31(48):652-4. PMID: 6819440.
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      177. Chudwin DS, Wara DW, Cowan MJ, Ammann AJ. Aspergillus pneumonia in chronic granulomatous disease: recurrence and long-term outcome. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1982 Nov; 71(6):915-7. PMID: 7158331.
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      178. Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Cowan MJ, Barrett DJ, Stiehm ER. The DiGeorge syndrome and the fetal alcohol syndrome. Am J Dis Child. 1982 Oct; 136(10):906-8. PMID: 6812410.
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      179. Chudwin DS, Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Cowan MJ, Phibbs RH. Posttransfusion syndrome. Rash, eosinophilia, and thrombocytopenia following intrauterine and exchange transfusions. Am J Dis Child. 1982 Jul; 136(7):612-4. PMID: 7201237.
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      180. Packman S, Cowan MJ, Golbus MS, Caswell NM, Sweetman L, Burri BJ, Nyhan WL, Baker H. Prenatal treatment of biotin responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency. Lancet. 1982 Jun 26; 1(8287):1435-8. PMID: 6123722.
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      181. Cowan MJ, Fraga M, Andrew J, Laméris-Martin N, Ammann AJ. Purine salvage pathway enzyme activities in human T-, B-, and null lymphocyte populations. Cell Immunol. 1982 Feb; 67(1):121-8. PMID: 6804097.
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      182. Cowan MJ, Cashman D, Ammann AJ. Effects of formycin B on human lymphocyte Deoxyribonucleic acid synthesis. Optimization of cell culture conditions. Biochem Pharmacol. 1981 Oct 1; 30(19):2651-6. PMID: 6794575.
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      183. Packman S, Sweetman L, Yoshino M, Baker H, Cowan M. Biotin-responsive multiple carboxylase deficiency of infantile onset. J Pediatr. 1981 Sep; 99(3):421-3. PMID: 7264799.
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      184. Barrett DJ, Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Cowan MJ, Fisher TJ, Stiehm ER. Clinical and immunologic spectrum of the DiGeorge syndrome. J Clin Lab Immunol. 1981 Jul; 6(1):1-6. PMID: 6973633.
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      185. Chudwin DS, Cowan MJ, Wara DW, Johnson AC. Lung involvement in progressive vaccinia. West J Med. 1981 May; 134(5):446-8. PMID: 6973241; PMCID: PMC1272785.
      186. Cowan MJ, Ammann AJ. Immunodeficiency syndromes associated with inherited metabolic disorders. Clin Haematol. 1981 Feb; 10(1):139-59. PMID: 6260406.
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      187. Cowan, M.J., Fujiwara, P., & Ammann, A.J. . . Aging and immunologic function: In vitro effects of thymosin on cellular immunity. Mech Aqinq and Development. 1981; (15):29-39.
      188. Chudwin, D.S., Daniels, T.E., Wara, D.W., Ammann, A.J., Barrett, D.J., Witcher, J.P., & Cowan, M.J. . . Sjogren's syndrome in the pediatric age group. J Pediat. 1981; (98):213-217.
      189. Ammann, A.J., Cowan, M.J., & Wara, D.W. . . Immunology. AAP. 1981.
      190. Cowan MJ, Fujiwara P, Ammann AJ. Cellular immune defect in selective IgA deficiency using a microculture method for PHA stimulation and limiting dilution. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1980 Dec; 17(4):595-605. PMID: 7002402.
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      191. Sander JE, Malamud N, Cowan MJ, Packman S, Amman AJ, Wara DW. Intermittent ataxia and immunodeficiency with multiple carboxylase deficiencies: a biotin-responsive disorder. Ann Neurol. 1980 Nov; 8(5):544-7. PMID: 7436398.
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      192. Fulmer JD, Bienkowski RS, Cowan MJ, Breul SD, Bradley KM, Ferrans VJ, Roberts WC, Crystal RG. Collagen concentration and rates of synthesis in idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1980 Aug; 122(2):289-301. PMID: 7416606.
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      193. Barrett DJ, Wara DW, Ammann AJ, Cowan MJ. Thymosin therapy in the DiGeorge syndrome. J Pediatr. 1980 Jul; 97(1):66-71. PMID: 7381650.
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      194. Cowan MJ, Wara DW, Packman S, Ammann AJ, Yoshino M, Sweetman L, Nyhan W. Multiple biotin-dependent carboxylase deficiencies associated with defects in T-cell and B-cell immunity. Lancet. 1979 Jul 21; 2(8134):115-8. PMID: 88554.
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      195. Wara DW, Barrett DJ, Ammann AJ, Cowan MJ. In vitro and in vivo enhancement of mixed lymphocyte culture reactivity by thymosin in patients with primary immunodeficiency disease. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1979; 332:128-34. PMID: 161150.
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      196. Cowan MJ, Ammann AJ, Wara DW, Howie VM, Schultz L, Doyle N, Kaplan M. Pneumococcal polysaccharide immunization in infants and children. Pediatrics. 1978 Nov; 62(5):721-7. PMID: 31592.
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      197. Bienkowski RS, Cowan MJ, McDonald JA, Crystal RG. Degradation of newly synthesized collagen. J Biol Chem. 1978 Jun 25; 253(12):4356-63. PMID: 659420.
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      198. Langston C, Sachdeva P, Cowan MJ, Haines J, Crystal RG, Thurlbeck WM. Alveolar multiplication in the contralateral lung after unilateral pneumonectomy in the rabbit. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1977 Jan; 115(1):7-13. PMID: 835893.
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      199. Hance AJ, Horwitz AL, Cowan MJ, Elson NA, Collins JF, Bienkowski RS, Bradley KH, McConnell-Breul S, Wagner WM, Crystal RG. Biochemical approaches to the investigation of fibrotic lung disease. Chest. 1976 Feb; 69(2 Suppl):257-61. PMID: 1248297.
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      200. Cowan MJ, Crystal RG. Lung growth after unilateral pneumonectomy: quantitation of collagen synthesis and content. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1975 Mar; 111(3):267-77. PMID: 1119740.
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      201. Crystal RG, Bradley KH, McConnell-Breu SD, Collins JF, Hanca AJ, Cowan MJ. Collagen in the lung: development of a technology applicable to human lung disease. Chest. 1975 Feb; 67(2 Suppl):30S-31S. PMID: 1167493.
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      202. Cowan MJ. Workshop on possible pharmacologic mechanisms for enhancement of lung maturation. Am Rev Respir Dis. 1974 Sep; 110(3):329-32. PMID: 4370559.
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