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Anthony Defranco, PhD

TitleProfessor Emeritus
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentMicrobiology and Immunology
Address513 Parnassus Ave
San Francisco CA 94143
Phone415-476-5488
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    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    B cell TLRs and germinal centers
    NIH/NIAID R21AI117378Jul 1, 2015 - Jun 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    BCR regulation of antibody responses
    NIH/NIAID R56AI108684Aug 1, 2014 - Jul 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The role of Apobec3 enzymes in regulation of marginal zone B cells
    NIH/NIAID R21AI107101Jul 1, 2013 - Jun 30, 2015
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Innate immune regulation of inflammation and adaptive immunity
    NIH/NIAID P01AI078869Jul 15, 2008 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Cell Type-Specific Roles of TLR Signaling In Immune Responses
    NIH/NIAID R01AI072058Jan 1, 2008 - Dec 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SELECTIVE GENE ABLATION IN MATURE B LYMPHOCYTES
    NIH/FIC F06TW002281Dec 4, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    TRANSFUSION BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
    NIH/NHLBI P50HL054476Feb 1, 1996 - Dec 31, 2006
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Cytoskeleton and Signal Transduction in Host Defense
    NIH/NIAID R01AI035811May 1, 1994 - Jan 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity
    NIH/NIAID P01AI035297Sep 30, 1993 - Jul 31, 2012
    Role: Co-Investigator
    LPS-INDUCED SIGNALING IN MACROPHAGES
    NIH/NIAID R01AI033442Aug 1, 1993 - Jul 31, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular and Cellular Immunology
    NIH/NIAID T32AI007334Sep 1, 1988 - Jul 31, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    REGULATION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM CELLS BY BACTERIAL PRODUCTS
    NIH/NIAID R01AI023864Apr 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regulation of B lymphocyte proliferation by antigen
    NIH/NIAID R56AI020038Jan 1, 1984 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regulation of B Lymphocyte Proliferation by Antigen
    NIH/NIAID R01AI020038Jan 1, 1984 - Nov 30, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    REGULATION OF B LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION BY ANTIGEN
    NIH/NIAID R37AI020038Jan 1, 1984 - Mar 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Costa S, Marini O, Bevilacqua D, DeFranco AL, Hou B, Lonardi S, Vermi W, Rodegher P, Panato A, Tagliaro F, Lowell CA, Cassatella MA, Girolomoni G, Scapini P. Role of MyD88 signaling in the imiquimod-induced mouse model of psoriasis: focus on innate myeloid cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2017 Sep; 102(3):791-803. PMID: 28642279.
      View in: PubMed
    2. DeFranco AL. Innate B cells cleave to the marginal zone. Nat Immunol. 2017 Feb 15; 18(3):248-250. PMID: 28198824.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Lee LM, Ji M, Sinha M, Dong MB, Ren X, Wang Y, Lowell CA, Ghosh S, Locksley RM, DeFranco AL. Determinants of Divergent Adaptive Immune Responses after Airway Sensitization with Ligands of Toll-Like Receptor 5 or Toll-Like Receptor 9. PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0167693. PMID: 27977701.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Proekt I, Miller CN, Jeanne M, Fasano KJ, Moon JJ, Lowell CA, Gould DB, Anderson MS, DeFranco AL. LYN- and AIRE-mediated tolerance checkpoint defects synergize to trigger organ-specific autoimmunity. J Clin Invest. 2016 Oct 03; 126(10):3758-3771. PMID: 27571405.
      View in: PubMed
    5. DeFranco AL. Germinal centers and autoimmune disease in humans and mice. Immunol Cell Biol. 2016 Nov; 94(10):918-924. PMID: 27562062.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Wang H, Li M, Hung CY, Sinha M, Lee LM, Wiesner DL, LeBert V, Lerksuthirat T, Galles K, Suresh M, DeFranco AL, Lowell CA, Klein BS, Wüthrich M. MyD88 Shapes Vaccine Immunity by Extrinsically Regulating Survival of CD4+ T Cells during the Contraction Phase. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Aug; 12(8):e1005787. PMID: 27542117; PMCID: PMC4991787.
    7. DeFranco AL. The germinal center antibody response in health and disease. F1000Res. 2016; 5. PMID: 27303636; PMCID: PMC4882753.
    8. Beck-Engeser GB, Winkelmann R, Wheeler ML, Shansab M, Yu P, Wünsche S, Walchhütter A, Metzner M, Vettermann C, Eilat D, DeFranco A, Jäck HM, Wabl M. APOBEC3 enzymes restrict marginal zone B cells. Eur J Immunol. 2015 Mar; 45(3):695-704. PMID: 25501566; PMCID: PMC4972502.
    9. Rookhuizen DC, DeFranco AL. Toll-like receptor 9 signaling acts on multiple elements of the germinal center to enhance antibody responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Aug 05; 111(31):E3224-33. PMID: 25053813; PMCID: PMC4128120.
    10. Yu M, Zhou H, Zhao J, Xiao N, Roychowdhury S, Schmitt D, Hu B, Ransohoff RM, Harding CV, Hise AG, Hazen SL, DeFranco AL, Fox PL, Morton RE, Dicorleto PE, Febbraio M, Nagy LE, Smith JD, Wang JA, Li X. MyD88-dependent interplay between myeloid and endothelial cells in the initiation and progression of obesity-associated inflammatory diseases. J Exp Med. 2014 May 05; 211(5):887-907. PMID: 24752299; PMCID: PMC4010914.
    11. Hua Z, Gross AJ, Lamagna C, Ramos-Hernández N, Scapini P, Ji M, Shao H, Lowell CA, Hou B, DeFranco AL. Requirement for MyD88 signaling in B cells and dendritic cells for germinal center anti-nuclear antibody production in Lyn-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2014 Feb 01; 192(3):875-85. PMID: 24379120; PMCID: PMC4101002.
    12. Lamagna C, Hu Y, DeFranco AL, Lowell CA. B cell-specific loss of Lyn kinase leads to autoimmunity. J Immunol. 2014 Feb 01; 192(3):919-28. PMID: 24376269; PMCID: PMC3900234.
    13. Wheeler ML, Dong MB, Brink R, Zhong XP, DeFranco AL. Diacylglycerol kinase ? limits B cell antigen receptor-dependent activation of ERK signaling to inhibit early antibody responses. Sci Signal. 2013 Oct 15; 6(297):ra91. PMID: 24129701; PMCID: PMC4108475.
    14. Lamagna C, Scapini P, van Ziffle JA, DeFranco AL, Lowell CA. Hyperactivated MyD88 signaling in dendritic cells, through specific deletion of Lyn kinase, causes severe autoimmunity and inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Aug 27; 110(35):E3311-20. PMID: 23940344; PMCID: PMC3761623.
    15. Han D, Walsh MC, Cejas PJ, Dang NN, Kim YF, Kim J, Charrier-Hisamuddin L, Chau L, Zhang Q, Bittinger K, Bushman FD, Turka LA, Shen H, Reizis B, Defranco A, Wu GD, Choi Y. Dendritic cell expression of the signaling molecule TRAF6 is critical for gut microbiota-dependent immune tolerance. Immunity. 2013 Jun 27; 38(6):1211-22. PMID: 23791643; PMCID: PMC3715143.
    16. Callahan JA, Hammer GE, Agelides A, Duong BH, Oshima S, North J, Advincula R, Shifrin N, Truong HA, Paw J, Barrera J, DeFranco A, Rosenblum MD, Malynn BA, Ma A. Cutting edge: ABIN-1 protects against psoriasis by restricting MyD88 signals in dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2013 Jul 15; 191(2):535-9. PMID: 23785118; PMCID: PMC3702626.
    17. Raetz M, Hwang SH, Wilhelm CL, Kirkland D, Benson A, Sturge CR, Mirpuri J, Vaishnava S, Hou B, Defranco A, Gilpin CJ, Hooper LV, Yarovinsky F. Parasite-induced TH1 cells and intestinal dysbiosis cooperate in IFN-?-dependent elimination of Paneth cells. Nat Immunol. 2013 Feb; 14(2):136-42. PMID: 23263554; PMCID: PMC3552073.
    18. Kim CC, Nelson CS, Wilson EB, Hou B, DeFranco AL, DeRisi JL. Splenic red pulp macrophages produce type I interferons as early sentinels of malaria infection but are dispensable for control. PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e48126. PMID: 23144737; PMCID: PMC3483282.
    19. Wheeler ML, Defranco A. Prolonged production of reactive oxygen species in response to B cell receptor stimulation promotes B cell activation and proliferation. J Immunol. 2012 Nov 01; 189(9):4405-16. PMID: 23024271; PMCID: PMC3515638.
    20. DeFranco AL, Rookhuizen DC, Hou B. Contribution of Toll-like receptor signaling to germinal center antibody responses. Immunol Rev. 2012 May; 247(1):64-72. PMID: 22500832; PMCID: PMC3334874.
    21. Thompson AL, Johnson BT, Sempowski GD, Gunn MD, Hou B, DeFranco AL, Staats HF. Maximal adjuvant activity of nasally delivered IL-1a requires adjuvant-responsive CD11c(+) cells and does not correlate with adjuvant-induced in vivo cytokine production. J Immunol. 2012 Mar 15; 188(6):2834-46. PMID: 22345651; PMCID: PMC3293937.
    22. Kirkland D, Benson A, Mirpuri J, Pifer R, Hou B, DeFranco AL, Yarovinsky F. B cell-intrinsic MyD88 signaling prevents the lethal dissemination of commensal bacteria during colonic damage. Immunity. 2012 Feb 24; 36(2):228-38. PMID: 22306056; PMCID: PMC3288553.
    23. Shahaf G, Gross AJ, Sternberg-Simon M, Kaplan D, DeFranco AL, Mehr R. Lyn deficiency affects B-cell maturation as well as survival. Eur J Immunol. 2012 Feb; 42(2):511-21. PMID: 22057631; PMCID: PMC3516919.
    24. Gross AJ, Proekt I, DeFranco AL. Elevated BCR signaling and decreased survival of Lyn-deficient transitional and follicular B cells. Eur J Immunol. 2011 Dec; 41(12):3645-55. PMID: 21928281; PMCID: PMC3517141.
    25. Hammer GE, Turer EE, Taylor KE, Fang CJ, Advincula R, Oshima S, Barrera J, Huang EJ, Hou B, Malynn BA, Reizis B, DeFranco A, Criswell LA, Nakamura MC, Ma A. Expression of A20 by dendritic cells preserves immune homeostasis and prevents colitis and spondyloarthritis. Nat Immunol. 2011 Oct 23; 12(12):1184-93. PMID: 22019834; PMCID: PMC3419270.
    26. Scapini P, Lamagna C, Hu Y, Lee K, Tang Q, DeFranco AL, Lowell CA. B cell-derived IL-10 suppresses inflammatory disease in Lyn-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Oct 11; 108(41):E823-32. PMID: 21911371; PMCID: PMC3193193.
    27. Ismail AS, Severson KM, Vaishnava S, Behrendt CL, Yu X, Benjamin JL, Ruhn KA, Hou B, DeFranco AL, Yarovinsky F, Hooper LV. Gammadelta intraepithelial lymphocytes are essential mediators of host-microbial homeostasis at the intestinal mucosal surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 May 24; 108(21):8743-8. PMID: 21555560; PMCID: PMC3102410.
    28. Hou B, Saudan P, Ott G, Wheeler ML, Ji M, Kuzmich L, Lee LM, Coffman RL, Bachmann MF, DeFranco AL. Selective utilization of Toll-like receptor and MyD88 signaling in B cells for enhancement of the antiviral germinal center response. Immunity. 2011 Mar 25; 34(3):375-84. PMID: 21353603; PMCID: PMC3064721.
    29. Rahman AH, Zhang R, Blosser CD, Hou B, Defranco A, Maltzman JS, Wherry EJ, Turka LA. Antiviral memory CD8 T-cell differentiation, maintenance, and secondary expansion occur independently of MyD88. Blood. 2011 Mar 17; 117(11):3123-30. PMID: 21233312; PMCID: PMC3062314.
    30. Hou B, Benson A, Kuzmich L, DeFranco AL, Yarovinsky F. Critical coordination of innate immune defense against Toxoplasma gondii by dendritic cells responding via their Toll-like receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jan 04; 108(1):278-83. PMID: 21173242; PMCID: PMC3017180.
    31. Scapini P, Hu Y, Chu CL, Migone TS, Defranco A, Cassatella MA, Lowell CA. Myeloid cells, BAFF, and IFN-gamma establish an inflammatory loop that exacerbates autoimmunity in Lyn-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 2010 Aug 02; 207(8):1757-73. PMID: 20624892; PMCID: PMC2916124.
    32. Mamchak AA, Thien CB, Dagger SA, Lyandres J, Jiang S, Langdon WY, DeFranco AL. Unaltered negative selection and Treg development of self-reactive thymocytes in TCR transgenic Fyn-deficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Feb; 40(2):539-47. PMID: 19904769; PMCID: PMC2976765.
    33. Gross AJ, Lyandres JR, Panigrahi AK, Prak ET, DeFranco AL. Developmental acquisition of the Lyn-CD22-SHP-1 inhibitory pathway promotes B cell tolerance. J Immunol. 2009 May 01; 182(9):5382-92. PMID: 19380785; PMCID: PMC2840041.
    34. DeFranco AL. "Dangerous crystals". Immunity. 2008 Nov 14; 29(5):670-1. PMID: 19006690.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Mamchak AA, Sullivan BM, Hou B, Lee LM, Gilden JK, Krummel MF, Locksley RM, DeFranco AL. Normal development and activation but altered cytokine production of Fyn-deficient CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 2008 Oct 15; 181(8):5374-85. PMID: 18832694; PMCID: PMC2657555.
    36. Hou B, Reizis B, DeFranco AL. Toll-like receptors activate innate and adaptive immunity by using dendritic cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms. Immunity. 2008 Aug 15; 29(2):272-82. PMID: 18656388; PMCID: PMC2847796.
    37. Gupta N, DeFranco AL. Lipid rafts and B cell signaling. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2007 Oct; 18(5):616-26. PMID: 17719248; PMCID: PMC2169358.
    38. Gupta N, Wollscheid B, Watts JD, Scheer B, Aebersold R, DeFranco AL. Quantitative proteomic analysis of B cell lipid rafts reveals that ezrin regulates antigen receptor-mediated lipid raft dynamics. Nat Immunol. 2006 Jun; 7(6):625-33. PMID: 16648854.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Nishiya T, Kajita E, Miwa S, Defranco A. TLR3 and TLR7 are targeted to the same intracellular compartments by distinct regulatory elements. J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 04; 280(44):37107-17. PMID: 16105838.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Tian MT, Gonzalez G, Scheer B, DeFranco AL. Bcl10 can promote survival of antigen-stimulated B lymphocytes. Blood. 2005 Sep 15; 106(6):2105-12. PMID: 15878976; PMCID: PMC1895143.
    41. Nishiya T, DeFranco AL. Ligand-regulated chimeric receptor approach reveals distinctive subcellular localization and signaling properties of the Toll-like receptors. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 30; 279(18):19008-17. PMID: 14976215.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Gupta N, DeFranco AL. Visualizing lipid raft dynamics and early signaling events during antigen receptor-mediated B-lymphocyte activation. Mol Biol Cell. 2003 Feb; 14(2):432-44. PMID: 12589045; PMCID: PMC149983.
    43. Yu CC, Mamchak AA, DeFranco AL. Signaling mutations and autoimmunity. Curr Dir Autoimmun. 2003; 6:61-88. PMID: 12408047.
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    44. Ohashi PS, DeFranco AL. Making and breaking tolerance. Curr Opin Immunol. 2002 Dec; 14(6):744-59. PMID: 12413525.
      View in: PubMed
    45. DeFranco AL. Vav and the B cell signalosome. Nat Immunol. 2001 Jun; 2(6):482-4. PMID: 11376331.
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    46. Tian MT, Chou CH, DeFranco AL. Apoptosis induced by the antigen receptor and Fas in a variant of the immature B cell line WEHI-231 and in splenic immature B cells. Int Immunol. 2001 Apr; 13(4):581-92. PMID: 11282997.
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    47. Richards JD, Davé SH, Chou CH, Mamchak AA, DeFranco AL. Inhibition of the MEK/ERK signaling pathway blocks a subset of B cell responses to antigen. J Immunol. 2001 Mar 15; 166(6):3855-64. PMID: 11238629.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Yu CC, Yen TS, Lowell CA, DeFranco AL. Lupus-like kidney disease in mice deficient in the Src family tyrosine kinases Lyn and Fyn. Curr Biol. 2001 Jan 09; 11(1):34-8. PMID: 11166177.
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    49. DeFranco AL. B-cell activation 2000. Immunol Rev. 2000 Aug; 176:5-9. PMID: 11043763.
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    50. Fujimoto M, Fujimoto Y, Poe JC, Jansen PJ, Lowell CA, DeFranco AL, Tedder TF. CD19 regulates Src family protein tyrosine kinase activation in B lymphocytes through processive amplification. Immunity. 2000 Jul; 13(1):47-57. PMID: 10933394.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Weinstein SL, Finn AJ, Davé SH, Meng F, Lowell CA, Sanghera JS, DeFranco AL. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mTOR mediate lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide production in macrophages via interferon-beta. J Leukoc Biol. 2000 Mar; 67(3):405-14. PMID: 10733102.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Fitzer-Attas CJ, Lowry M, Crowley MT, Finn AJ, Meng F, DeFranco AL, Lowell CA. Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages lacking the Src family tyrosine kinases Hck, Fgr, and Lyn. J Exp Med. 2000 Feb 21; 191(4):669-82. PMID: 10684859; PMCID: PMC2195832.
    53. Harmer SL, DeFranco AL. The src homology domain 2-containing inositol phosphatase SHIP forms a ternary complex with Shc and Grb2 in antigen receptor-stimulated B lymphocytes. J Biol Chem. 1999 Apr 23; 274(17):12183-91. PMID: 10207047.
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    54. MacKichan ML, DeFranco AL. Role of ceramide in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced signaling. LPS increases ceramide rather than acting as a structural homolog. J Biol Chem. 1999 Jan 15; 274(3):1767-75. PMID: 9880559.
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    55. DeFranco AL, Chan VW, Lowell CA. Positive and negative roles of the tyrosine kinase Lyn in B cell function. Semin Immunol. 1998 Aug; 10(4):299-307. PMID: 9695186.
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    56. Chan VW, Lowell CA, DeFranco AL. Defective negative regulation of antigen receptor signaling in Lyn-deficient B lymphocytes. Curr Biol. 1998 May 07; 8(10):545-53. PMID: 9601638.
      View in: PubMed
    57. DeFranco AL, Crowley MT, Finn A, Hambleton J, Weinstein SL. The role of tyrosine kinases and map kinases in LPS-induced signaling. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1998; 397:119-36. PMID: 9575553.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Crowley MT, Costello PS, Fitzer-Attas CJ, Turner M, Meng F, Lowell C, Tybulewicz VL, DeFranco AL. A critical role for Syk in signal transduction and phagocytosis mediated by Fcgamma receptors on macrophages. J Exp Med. 1997 Oct 06; 186(7):1027-39. PMID: 9314552; PMCID: PMC2199061.
    59. Harmer SL, DeFranco AL. Shc contains two Grb2 binding sites needed for efficient formation of complexes with SOS in B lymphocytes. Mol Cell Biol. 1997 Jul; 17(7):4087-95. PMID: 9199344; PMCID: PMC232262.
    60. Chan VW, Meng F, Soriano P, DeFranco AL, Lowell CA. Characterization of the B lymphocyte populations in Lyn-deficient mice and the role of Lyn in signal initiation and down-regulation. Immunity. 1997 Jul; 7(1):69-81. PMID: 9252121.
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    61. DeFranco AL. The complexity of signaling pathways activated by the BCR. Curr Opin Immunol. 1997 Jun; 9(3):296-308. PMID: 9203421.
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    62. Roth PE, DeFranco AL. Receptor tails unlock developmental checkpoints for B lymphocytes. Science. 1996 Jun 21; 272(5269):1752-4. PMID: 8650572.
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    63. DeFranco AL. The two-headed antigen. B-cell co-receptors. Curr Biol. 1996 May 01; 6(5):548-50. PMID: 8805272.
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    64. Hambleton J, Weinstein SL, Lem L, DeFranco AL. Activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase in bacterial lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Apr 02; 93(7):2774-8. PMID: 8610116; PMCID: PMC39708.
    65. Richards JD, Gold MR, Hourihane SL, DeFranco AL, Matsuuchi L. Reconstitution of B cell antigen receptor-induced signaling events in a nonlymphoid cell line by expressing the Syk protein-tyrosine kinase. J Biol Chem. 1996 Mar 15; 271(11):6458-66. PMID: 8626447.
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    66. Horne MC, Roth PE, DeFranco AL. Assembly of the truncated immunoglobulin heavy chain D mu into antigen receptor-like complexes in pre-B cells but not in B cells. Immunity. 1996 Feb; 4(2):145-58. PMID: 8624805.
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    67. Crowley MT, Harmer SL, DeFranco AL. Activation-induced association of a 145-kDa tyrosine-phosphorylated protein with Shc and Syk in B lymphocytes and macrophages. J Biol Chem. 1996 Jan 12; 271(2):1145-52. PMID: 8557643.
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    68. DeFranco AL, Richards JD, Blum JH, Stevens TL, Law DA, Chan VW, Datta SK, Foy SP, Hourihane SL, Gold MR. Signal transduction by the B-cell antigen receptor. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1995 Sep 07; 766:195-201. PMID: 7486656.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Hambleton J, McMahon M, DeFranco AL. Activation of Raf-1 and mitogen-activated protein kinase in murine macrophages partially mimics lipopolysaccharide-induced signaling events. J Exp Med. 1995 Jul 01; 182(1):147-54. PMID: 7790814; PMCID: PMC2192101.
    70. DeFranco AL, Law DA. Tyrosine phosphatases and the antibody response. Science. 1995 Apr 14; 268(5208):263-4. PMID: 7716518.
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    71. DeFranco AL. Transmembrane signaling by antigen receptors of B and T lymphocytes. Curr Opin Cell Biol. 1995 Apr; 7(2):163-75. PMID: 7612267.
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    72. Roth PE, DeFranco AL. Lymphocyte development. Intrinsic checkpoints for lineage progression. Curr Biol. 1995 Apr 01; 5(4):349-52. PMID: 7627545.
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    73. DeFranco AL, Hambleton J, McMahon M, Weinstein SL. Examination of the role of MAP kinase in the response of macrophages to lipopolysaccharide. Prog Clin Biol Res. 1995; 392:407-20. PMID: 8524948.
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    74. DeFranco AL. Signaling pathways activated by protein tyrosine phosphorylation in lymphocytes. Curr Opin Immunol. 1994 Jun; 6(3):364-71. PMID: 7917103.
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    75. Stevens TL, Blum JH, Foy SP, Matsuuchi L, DeFranco AL. A mutation of the mu transmembrane that disrupts endoplasmic reticulum retention. Effects on association with accessory proteins and signal transduction. J Immunol. 1994 May 01; 152(9):4397-406. PMID: 8157960.
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    76. DeFranco AL, Mittelstadt PR, Blum JH, Stevens TL, Law DA, Chan VW, Foy SP, Datta SK, Matsuuchi L. Mechanism of B cell antigen receptor function: transmembrane signaling and triggering of apoptosis. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1994; 365:9-22. PMID: 7887317.
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    77. DeFranco AL, Blum JH, Stevens TL, Law DA, Chan VW, Foy SP, Datta SK, Matsuuchi L. Structure and function of the B-cell antigen receptor. Chem Immunol. 1994; 59:156-72. PMID: 7945925.
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    78. Gold MR, DeFranco AL. Biochemistry of B lymphocyte activation. Adv Immunol. 1994; 55:221-95. PMID: 8304234.
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    79. Blum JH, Stevens TL, DeFranco AL. Role of the mu immunoglobulin heavy chain transmembrane and cytoplasmic domains in B cell antigen receptor expression and signal transduction. J Biol Chem. 1993 Dec 25; 268(36):27236-45. PMID: 8262964.
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    80. Law DA, Chan VW, Datta SK, DeFranco AL. B-cell antigen receptor motifs have redundant signalling capabilities and bind the tyrosine kinases PTK72, Lyn and Fyn. Curr Biol. 1993 Oct 01; 3(10):645-57. PMID: 15335855.
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    81. Weinstein SL, June CH, DeFranco AL. Lipopolysaccharide-induced protein tyrosine phosphorylation in human macrophages is mediated by CD14. J Immunol. 1993 Oct 01; 151(7):3829-38. PMID: 7690817.
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    82. DeFranco AL. Signaling the insulin receptor way. Curr Biol. 1993 Oct 01; 3(10):713-5. PMID: 15335869.
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    83. Shapiro AM, Schlissel MS, Baltimore D, DeFranco AL. Stimulation of kappa light-chain gene rearrangement by the immunoglobulin mu heavy chain in a pre-B-cell line. Mol Cell Biol. 1993 Sep; 13(9):5679-90. PMID: 8355709; PMCID: PMC360301.
    84. Mittelstadt PR, DeFranco AL. Induction of early response genes by cross-linking membrane Ig on B lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1993 Jun 01; 150(11):4822-32. PMID: 8388422.
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    85. Gold MR, Crowley MT, Martin GA, McCormick F, DeFranco AL. Targets of B lymphocyte antigen receptor signal transduction include the p21ras GTPase-activating protein (GAP) and two GAP-associated proteins. J Immunol. 1993 Jan 15; 150(2):377-86. PMID: 8419471.
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    86. DeFranco AL. Structure and function of the B cell antigen receptor. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1993; 9:377-410. PMID: 8280466.
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    87. DeFranco AL. Tyrosine phosphorylation and the mechanism of signal transduction by the B-lymphocyte antigen receptor. Eur J Biochem. 1992 Dec 01; 210(2):381-8. PMID: 1281096.
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    88. Weinstein SL, Sanghera JS, Lemke K, DeFranco AL, Pelech SL. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide induces tyrosine phosphorylation and activation of mitogen-activated protein kinases in macrophages. J Biol Chem. 1992 Jul 25; 267(21):14955-62. PMID: 1321821.
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    89. Law DA, Gold MR, DeFranco AL. Examination of B lymphoid cell lines for membrane immunoglobulin-stimulated tyrosine phosphorylation and src-family tyrosine kinase mRNA expression. Mol Immunol. 1992 Jul-Aug; 29(7-8):917-26. PMID: 1378935.
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    90. Hempel WM, Schatzman RC, DeFranco AL. Tyrosine phosphorylation of phospholipase C-gamma 2 upon cross-linking of membrane Ig on murine B lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1992 May 15; 148(10):3021-7. PMID: 1578127.
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    91. DeFranco AL. Autoimmunity. Hidden lymphocytes. Nature. 1992 May 07; 357(6373):14-5. PMID: 1574123.
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    92. Matsuuchi L, Gold MR, Travis A, Grosschedl R, DeFranco AL, Kelly RB. The membrane IgM-associated proteins MB-1 and Ig-beta are sufficient to promote surface expression of a partially functional B-cell antigen receptor in a nonlymphoid cell line. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Apr 15; 89(8):3404-8. PMID: 1373499; PMCID: PMC48876.
    93. Gold MR, Chan VW, Turck CW, DeFranco AL. Membrane Ig cross-linking regulates phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase in B lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1992 Apr 01; 148(7):2012-22. PMID: 1372019.
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    94. DeFranco AL. bcl-2 to the rescue. Curr Biol. 1992 Feb; 2(2):95-7. PMID: 15336006.
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    95. Gold MR, Gajewski TF, DeFranco AL. Regulation of anti-immunoglobulin-induced B lymphoma growth arrest by transforming growth factor beta 1 and dexamethasone. Int Immunol. 1991 Nov; 3(11):1091-8. PMID: 1760404.
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    96. DeFranco AL. All about B cells. Cancer Cells. 1991 Nov; 3(11):450-3. PMID: 1760246.
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    97. DeFranco AL. Signal transduction. Immunosuppressants at work. Nature. 1991 Aug 29; 352(6338):754-5. PMID: 1715515.
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    98. DeFranco AL. Between B cells and T cells. Nature. 1991 Jun 20; 351(6328):603-4. PMID: 1675766.
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    99. Hempel WM, DeFranco AL. Expression of phospholipase C isozymes by murine B lymphocytes. J Immunol. 1991 Jun 01; 146(11):3713-20. PMID: 2033248.
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    100. Weinstein SL, Gold MR, DeFranco AL. Bacterial lipopolysaccharide stimulates protein tyrosine phosphorylation in macrophages. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 May 15; 88(10):4148-52. PMID: 1709735; PMCID: PMC51615.
    101. Gold MR, Matsuuchi L, Kelly RB, DeFranco AL. Tyrosine phosphorylation of components of the B-cell antigen receptors following receptor crosslinking. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Apr 15; 88(8):3436-40. PMID: 1707541; PMCID: PMC51462.
    102. Page DM, Gold MR, Fahey KA, Matsuuchi L, DeFranco AL. Mutational analysis of antigen receptor regulation of B lymphocyte growth. Evidence for involvement of the phosphoinositide signaling pathway. J Biol Chem. 1991 Mar 25; 266(9):5563-74. PMID: 1848555.
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    103. Gold MR, Law DA, DeFranco AL. Stimulation of protein tyrosine phosphorylation by the B-lymphocyte antigen receptor. Nature. 1990 Jun 28; 345(6278):810-3. PMID: 1694265.
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    104. Page DM, DeFranco AL. Antigen receptor-induced cell cycle arrest in WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells depends on the duration of signaling before the G1 phase restriction point. Mol Cell Biol. 1990 Jun; 10(6):3003-12. PMID: 2342467; PMCID: PMC360664.
    105. DeFranco AL. Immunology. Tolerance: a second mechanism. Nature. 1989 Nov 23; 342(6248):340-1. PMID: 2586604.
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    106. DeFranco AL, Page DM, Blum JH, Gold MR. Signal transduction by the antigen receptor of B lymphocytes. Cold Spring Harb Symp Quant Biol. 1989; 54 Pt 2:733-40. PMID: 2561805.
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    107. DeFranco AL, Gold MR. Signal transduction via the B cell antigen receptor: involvement of a G protein and regulation of signaling. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1989; 254:101-12. PMID: 2554695.
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    108. DeFranco AL. Fate of self-reactive B cells. Nature. 1988 Aug 25; 334(6184):652-3. PMID: 3261840.
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    109. DeFranco AL. Cell-cell interactions in the antibody response. Nature. 1988 Jul 21; 334(6179):199-200. PMID: 2969459.
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    110. Page DM, DeFranco AL. Role of phosphoinositide-derived second messengers in mediating anti-IgM-induced growth arrest of WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells. J Immunol. 1988 Jun 01; 140(11):3717-26. PMID: 2836499.
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    111. Gold MR, Jakway JP, DeFranco AL. Involvement of a guanine-nucleotide-binding component in membrane IgM-stimulated phosphoinositide breakdown. J Immunol. 1987 Dec 01; 139(11):3604-13. PMID: 2824610.
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    112. Fahey KA, DeFranco AL. Cross-linking membrane IgM induces production of inositol trisphosphate and inositol tetrakisphosphate in WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells. J Immunol. 1987 Jun 01; 138(11):3935-42. PMID: 3035017.
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    113. DeFranco AL, Gold MR, Jakway JP. B-lymphocyte signal transduction in response to anti-immunoglobulin and bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Immunol Rev. 1987 Feb; 95:161-76. PMID: 3032773.
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    114. Gold MR, DeFranco AL. Phorbol esters and dioctanoylglycerol block anti-IgM-stimulated phosphoinositide hydrolysis in the murine B cell lymphoma WEHI-231. J Immunol. 1987 Feb 01; 138(3):868-76. PMID: 3027166.
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    115. DeFranco AL. Molecular aspects of B-lymphocyte activation. Annu Rev Cell Biol. 1987; 3:143-78. PMID: 2961351.
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    116. DeFranco AL. Transmembrane signaling reactions generated in B cells in response to anti-IgM or lipopolysaccharide. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1987; 213:189-93. PMID: 3498297.
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    117. Jakway JP, DeFranco AL. Pertussis toxin inhibition of B cell and macrophage responses to bacterial lipopolysaccharide. Science. 1986 Nov 07; 234(4777):743-6. PMID: 3095921.
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    118. Jakway JP, Usinger WR, Gold MR, Mishell RI, DeFranco AL. Growth regulation of the B lymphoma cell line WEHI-231 by anti-immunoglobulin, lipopolysaccharide, and other bacterial products. J Immunol. 1986 Oct 01; 137(7):2225-31. PMID: 3489760.
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    119. LaBaer J, Tsien RY, Fahey KA, DeFranco AL. Stimulation of the antigen receptor on WEHI-231 B lymphoma cells results in a voltage-independent increase in cytoplasmic calcium. J Immunol. 1986 Sep 15; 137(6):1836-44. PMID: 2427581.
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    120. DeFranco AL, Raveche ES, Paul WE. Separate control of B lymphocyte early activation and proliferation in response to anti-IgM antibodies. J Immunol. 1985 Jul; 135(1):87-94. PMID: 3873499.
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    121. Ashwell JD, DeFranco AL, Paul WE, Schwartz RH. Can resting B cells present antigen to T cells? Fed Proc. 1985 May; 44(8):2475-9. PMID: 3886434.
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    122. Ashwell JD, DeFranco AL, Paul WE, Schwartz RH. Antigen presentation by resting B cells. Radiosensitivity of the antigen-presentation function and two distinct pathways of T cell activation. J Exp Med. 1984 Mar 01; 159(3):881-905. PMID: 6607969; PMCID: PMC2187250.
    123. DeFranco AL, Ashwell JD, Schwartz RH, Paul WE. Polyclonal stimulation of resting B lymphocytes by antigen-specific T lymphocytes. J Exp Med. 1984 Mar 01; 159(3):861-80. PMID: 6199453; PMCID: PMC2187247.
    124. DeFranco AL. Growth regulation of a B-cell lymphoma via the antigen receptor. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1984; 113:92-5. PMID: 6332723.
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    125. Raveche ES, Steinberg AD, DeFranco AL, Tjio JH. Cell cycle analysis of lymphocyte activation in normal and autoimmune strains of mice. J Immunol. 1982 Sep; 129(3):1219-26. PMID: 6125541.
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    126. Defranco A, Raveche ES, Asofsky R, Paul WE. Frequency of B lymphocytes responsive to anti-immunoglobulin. J Exp Med. 1982 May 01; 155(5):1523-36. PMID: 6802927; PMCID: PMC2186672.
    127. DeFranco AL, Kung JT, Paul WE. Regulation of growth and proliferation in B cell subpopulations. Immunol Rev. 1982; 64:161-82. PMID: 6806172.
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    128. Paul WE, DeFranco A, Sredni B, Howard M. Long term growth of B-lymphocytes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1982; 399:105-11. PMID: 6984599.
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