Anthony Defranco, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Microbiology and Immunology
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address513 Parnassus Ave, HSE
San Francisco CA 94143
Phone415-476-5488
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    Organ-specific autoimmunity resulting from two genetic defects in tolerance
    NIH R01AI138479Mar 1, 2018 - Feb 28, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    B cell TLRs and germinal centers
    NIH R21AI117378Jul 1, 2015 - Jun 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    BCR regulation of antibody responses
    NIH R56AI108684Aug 1, 2014 - Jul 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The role of Apobec3 enzymes in regulation of marginal zone B cells
    NIH R21AI107101Jul 1, 2013 - Jun 30, 2016
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Innate immune regulation of inflammation and adaptive immunity
    NIH P01AI078869Jul 15, 2008 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Cell Type-Specific Roles of TLR Signaling In Immune Responses
    NIH R01AI072058Jan 1, 2008 - Dec 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SELECTIVE GENE ABLATION IN MATURE B LYMPHOCYTES
    NIH F06TW002281Dec 4, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity
    NIH P01AI035297Sep 1, 1997 - Jul 31, 2012
    Role: Co-Investigator
    TRANSFUSION BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
    NIH P50HL054476Feb 1, 1996 - Dec 31, 2006
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Cytoskeleton and Signal Transduction in Host Defense
    NIH R01AI035811May 1, 1994 - Jan 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    LPS-INDUCED SIGNALING IN MACROPHAGES
    NIH R01AI033442Aug 1, 1993 - Jul 31, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Molecular and Cellular Immunology
    NIH T32AI007334Sep 1, 1988 - Jul 31, 2024
    Role: Principal Investigator
    REGULATION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM CELLS BY BACTERIAL PRODUCTS
    NIH R01AI023864Apr 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regulation of B lymphocyte proliferation by antigen
    NIH R56AI020038Jan 1, 1984 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regulation of B Lymphocyte Proliferation by Antigen
    NIH R01AI020038Jan 1, 1984 - Nov 30, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    REGULATION OF B LYMPHOCYTE PROLIFERATION BY ANTIGEN
    NIH R37AI020038Jan 1, 1984 - Mar 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. The Role of MAP Kinases, Phosphatidylinositol 3-Kinase, and Ceramide in LPS-induced Signaling in Macrophages. . 2020 Oct 23; 473-482. Anthony L DeFranco, Alexander J Finn, Julie Hambleton, Mary T Crowley, Mary Lee MacKichan, Steven L Weinstein. .
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    2. Antigen Complexed with a TLR9 Agonist Bolsters c-Myc and mTORC1 Activity in Germinal Center B Lymphocytes. Immunohorizons. 2019 08 19; 3(8):389-401. Wigton EJ, DeFranco AL, Ansel KM. PMID: 31427364.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    3. Use of prasugrel vs clopidogrel and outcomes in patients with and without diabetes mellitus presenting with acute coronary syndrome undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. Int J Cardiol. 2019 Jan 15; 275:31-35. Faggioni M, Baber U, Chandrasekhar J, Sartori S, Claessen BE, Rao SV, Vogel B, Effron MB, Poddar K, Farhan S, Kini A, Weintraub W, Toma C, Sorrentino S, Weiss S, Snyder C, Muhlestein JB, Kapadia S, Keller S, Strauss C, Aquino M, Baker B, Defranco A, Pocock S, Henry T, Mehran R. PMID: 30391067.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. Multilayer Control of B Cell Activation by the B Cell Antigen Receptor: Following Themes Initiated With Bill Paul. Front Immunol. 2018; 9:739. DeFranco AL. PMID: 29740430.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    5. B Cell-Intrinsic MyD88 Signaling Promotes Initial Cell Proliferation and Differentiation To Enhance the Germinal Center Response to a Virus-like Particle. J Immunol. 2018 02 01; 200(3):937-948. Tian M, Hua Z, Hong S, Zhang Z, Liu C, Lin L, Chen J, Zhang W, Zhou X, Zhang F, DeFranco AL, Hou B. PMID: 29282308.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    6. Role of MyD88 signaling in the imiquimod-induced mouse model of psoriasis: focus on innate myeloid cells. J Leukoc Biol. 2017 09; 102(3):791-803. Costa S, Marini O, Bevilacqua D, DeFranco AL, Hou B, Lonardi S, Vermi W, Rodegher P, Panato A, Tagliaro F, Lowell CA, Cassatella MA, Girolomoni G, Scapini P. PMID: 28642279.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    7. Innate B cells cleave to the marginal zone. Nat Immunol. 2017 02 15; 18(3):248-250. DeFranco AL. PMID: 28198824.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    8. Determinants of Divergent Adaptive Immune Responses after Airway Sensitization with Ligands of Toll-Like Receptor 5 or Toll-Like Receptor 9. PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0167693. Lee LM, Ji M, Sinha M, Dong MB, Ren X, Wang Y, Lowell CA, Ghosh S, Locksley RM, DeFranco AL. PMID: 27977701.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    9. LYN- and AIRE-mediated tolerance checkpoint defects synergize to trigger organ-specific autoimmunity. J Clin Invest. 2016 10 03; 126(10):3758-3771. Proekt I, Miller CN, Jeanne M, Fasano KJ, Moon JJ, Lowell CA, Gould DB, Anderson MS, DeFranco AL. PMID: 27571405.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    10. Germinal centers and autoimmune disease in humans and mice. Immunol Cell Biol. 2016 11; 94(10):918-924. DeFranco AL. PMID: 27562062.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    11. MyD88 Shapes Vaccine Immunity by Extrinsically Regulating Survival of CD4+ T Cells during the Contraction Phase. PLoS Pathog. 2016 08; 12(8):e1005787. Wang H, Li M, Hung CY, Sinha M, Lee LM, Wiesner DL, LeBert V, Lerksuthirat T, Galles K, Suresh M, DeFranco AL, Lowell CA, Klein BS, Wüthrich M. PMID: 27542117.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. The germinal center antibody response in health and disease. F1000Res. 2016; 5. DeFranco AL. PMID: 27303636.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    
    13. Signaling Pathways Downstream of TLRs and IL-1 Family Receptors. Encyclopedia of Immunobiology. 2016 Jan 1; 106-114. Anthony L. DeFranco. .
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    14. B Lymphocytes: Receptors. eLS. 2015 Nov 16; 1-15. Anthony L DeFranco. .
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    15. APOBEC3 enzymes restrict marginal zone B cells. Eur J Immunol. 2015 Mar; 45(3):695-704. Beck-Engeser GB, Winkelmann R, Wheeler ML, Shansab M, Yu P, Wünsche S, Walchhütter A, Metzner M, Vettermann C, Eilat D, DeFranco A, Jäck HM, Wabl M. PMID: 25501566.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    16. Toll-like receptor 9 signaling acts on multiple elements of the germinal center to enhance antibody responses. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Aug 05; 111(31):E3224-33. Rookhuizen DC, DeFranco AL. PMID: 25053813.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 37     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. MyD88-dependent interplay between myeloid and endothelial cells in the initiation and progression of obesity-associated inflammatory diseases. Journal of Experimental Medicine. 2014 May 5; 211(5):1003-1003. Minjia Yu, Hao Zhou, Junjie Zhao, Nengming Xiao, Sanjoy Roychowdhury, David Schmitt, Bingqing Hu, Richard M. Ransohoff, Clifford V. Harding, Amy G. Hise, Stanley L. Hazen, Anthony L. DeFranco, Paul L. Fox, Richard E. Morton, Paul E. Dicorleto, Maria Febbraio, Laura E. Nagy, Jonathan D. Smith, Jian-an Wang, Xiaoxia Li. .
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    18. MyD88-dependent interplay between myeloid and endothelial cells in the initiation and progression of obesity-associated inflammatory diseases. J Exp Med. 2014 May 05; 211(5):887-907. Yu M, Zhou H, Zhao J, Xiao N, Roychowdhury S, Schmitt D, Hu B, Ransohoff RM, Harding CV, Hise AG, Hazen SL, DeFranco AL, Fox PL, Morton RE, Dicorleto PE, Febbraio M, Nagy LE, Smith JD, Wang JA, Li X. PMID: 24752299.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    19. Requirement for MyD88 signaling in B cells and dendritic cells for germinal center anti-nuclear antibody production in Lyn-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2014 Feb 01; 192(3):875-85. Hua Z, Gross AJ, Lamagna C, Ramos-Hernández N, Scapini P, Ji M, Shao H, Lowell CA, Hou B, DeFranco AL. PMID: 24379120.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 43     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    20. B cell-specific loss of Lyn kinase leads to autoimmunity. J Immunol. 2014 Feb 01; 192(3):919-28. Lamagna C, Hu Y, DeFranco AL, Lowell CA. PMID: 24376269.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 49     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    21. Diacylglycerol kinase ? limits B cell antigen receptor-dependent activation of ERK signaling to inhibit early antibody responses. Sci Signal. 2013 Oct 15; 6(297):ra91. Wheeler ML, Dong MB, Brink R, Zhong XP, DeFranco AL. PMID: 24129701.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    22. Hyperactivated MyD88 signaling in dendritic cells, through specific deletion of Lyn kinase, causes severe autoimmunity and inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Aug 27; 110(35):E3311-20. Lamagna C, Scapini P, van Ziffle JA, DeFranco AL, Lowell CA. PMID: 23940344.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 39     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    23. Dendritic cell expression of the signaling molecule TRAF6 is critical for gut microbiota-dependent immune tolerance. Immunity. 2013 Jun 27; 38(6):1211-22. Han D, Walsh MC, Cejas PJ, Dang NN, Kim YF, Kim J, Charrier-Hisamuddin L, Chau L, Zhang Q, Bittinger K, Bushman FD, Turka LA, Shen H, Reizis B, Defranco AL, Wu GD, Choi Y. PMID: 23791643.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 39     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    24. Cutting edge: ABIN-1 protects against psoriasis by restricting MyD88 signals in dendritic cells. J Immunol. 2013 Jul 15; 191(2):535-9. Callahan JA, Hammer GE, Agelides A, Duong BH, Oshima S, North J, Advincula R, Shifrin N, Truong HA, Paw J, Barrera J, DeFranco A, Rosenblum MD, Malynn BA, Ma A. PMID: 23785118.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Parasite-induced TH1 cells and intestinal dysbiosis cooperate in IFN-?-dependent elimination of Paneth cells. Nat Immunol. 2013 Feb; 14(2):136-42. Raetz M, Hwang SH, Wilhelm CL, Kirkland D, Benson A, Sturge CR, Mirpuri J, Vaishnava S, Hou B, Defranco AL, Gilpin CJ, Hooper LV, Yarovinsky F. PMID: 23263554.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 68     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    26. Splenic red pulp macrophages produce type I interferons as early sentinels of malaria infection but are dispensable for control. PLoS One. 2012; 7(10):e48126. Kim CC, Nelson CS, Wilson EB, Hou B, DeFranco AL, DeRisi JL. PMID: 23144737.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    27. Prolonged production of reactive oxygen species in response to B cell receptor stimulation promotes B cell activation and proliferation. J Immunol. 2012 Nov 01; 189(9):4405-16. Wheeler ML, Defranco AL. PMID: 23024271.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    28. Contribution of Toll-like receptor signaling to germinal center antibody responses. Immunol Rev. 2012 May; 247(1):64-72. DeFranco AL, Rookhuizen DC, Hou B. PMID: 22500832.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    29. Maximal adjuvant activity of nasally delivered IL-1a requires adjuvant-responsive CD11c(+) cells and does not correlate with adjuvant-induced in vivo cytokine production. J Immunol. 2012 Mar 15; 188(6):2834-46. Thompson AL, Johnson BT, Sempowski GD, Gunn MD, Hou B, DeFranco AL, Staats HF. PMID: 22345651.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCellsPHPublic Health
    30. B cell-intrinsic MyD88 signaling prevents the lethal dissemination of commensal bacteria during colonic damage. Immunity. 2012 Feb 24; 36(2):228-38. Kirkland D, Benson A, Mirpuri J, Pifer R, Hou B, DeFranco AL, Yarovinsky F. PMID: 22306056.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 58     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    31. Lyn deficiency affects B-cell maturation as well as survival. Eur J Immunol. 2012 Feb; 42(2):511-21. Shahaf G, Gross AJ, Sternberg-Simon M, Kaplan D, DeFranco AL, Mehr R. PMID: 22057631.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. Elevated BCR signaling and decreased survival of Lyn-deficient transitional and follicular B cells. Eur J Immunol. 2011 Dec; 41(12):3645-55. Gross AJ, Proekt I, DeFranco AL. PMID: 21928281.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    33. Expression of A20 by dendritic cells preserves immune homeostasis and prevents colitis and spondyloarthritis. Nat Immunol. 2011 Oct 23; 12(12):1184-93. Hammer GE, Turer EE, Taylor KE, Fang CJ, Advincula R, Oshima S, Barrera J, Huang EJ, Hou B, Malynn BA, Reizis B, DeFranco A, Criswell LA, Nakamura MC, Ma A. PMID: 22019834.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 112     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    34. B cell-derived IL-10 suppresses inflammatory disease in Lyn-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Oct 11; 108(41):E823-32. Scapini P, Lamagna C, Hu Y, Lee K, Tang Q, DeFranco AL, Lowell CA. PMID: 21911371.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    35. Gammadelta intraepithelial lymphocytes are essential mediators of host-microbial homeostasis at the intestinal mucosal surface. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 May 24; 108(21):8743-8. Ismail AS, Severson KM, Vaishnava S, Behrendt CL, Yu X, Benjamin JL, Ruhn KA, Hou B, DeFranco AL, Yarovinsky F, Hooper LV. PMID: 21555560.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 112     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    36. Selective utilization of Toll-like receptor and MyD88 signaling in B cells for enhancement of the antiviral germinal center response. Immunity. 2011 Mar 25; 34(3):375-84. Hou B, Saudan P, Ott G, Wheeler ML, Ji M, Kuzmich L, Lee LM, Coffman RL, Bachmann MF, DeFranco AL. PMID: 21353603.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 103     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. Antiviral memory CD8 T-cell differentiation, maintenance, and secondary expansion occur independently of MyD88. Blood. 2011 Mar 17; 117(11):3123-30. Rahman AH, Zhang R, Blosser CD, Hou B, Defranco AL, Maltzman JS, Wherry EJ, Turka LA. PMID: 21233312.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    38. The antibacterial C-type lectin RegIIIgamma maintains spatial segregation between microbiota and host in the intestine. Inflammatory Bowel Diseases. 2011 Jan 1; 17(suppl_1):s2-s3. S Vaishnava, K Severson, K Ruhn, J Benjamin, X Yu, B Hu, M Yamamoto, A Defranco, E Wakeland, L Hooper. .
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    39. Critical coordination of innate immune defense against Toxoplasma gondii by dendritic cells responding via their Toll-like receptors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Jan 04; 108(1):278-83. Hou B, Benson A, Kuzmich L, DeFranco AL, Yarovinsky F. PMID: 21173242.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 57     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    40. Myeloid cells, BAFF, and IFN-gamma establish an inflammatory loop that exacerbates autoimmunity in Lyn-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 2010 Aug 02; 207(8):1757-73. Scapini P, Hu Y, Chu CL, Migone TS, Defranco AL, Cassatella MA, Lowell CA. PMID: 20624892.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 58     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    41. The B-Cell Antigen Receptor. Topley \u0026 Wilson\u0027s Microbiology and Microbial Infections. 2010 Mar 15. Anthony L. DeFranco. .
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    42. Unaltered negative selection and Treg development of self-reactive thymocytes in TCR transgenic Fyn-deficient mice. Eur J Immunol. 2010 Feb; 40(2):539-47. Mamchak AA, Thien CB, Dagger SA, Lyandres J, Jiang S, Langdon WY, DeFranco AL. PMID: 19904769.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. Developmental acquisition of the Lyn-CD22-SHP-1 inhibitory pathway promotes B cell tolerance. J Immunol. 2009 May 01; 182(9):5382-92. Gross AJ, Lyandres JR, Panigrahi AK, Prak ET, DeFranco AL. PMID: 19380785.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    44. "Dangerous crystals". Immunity. 2008 Nov 14; 29(5):670-1. DeFranco AL. PMID: 19006690.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    45. Normal development and activation but altered cytokine production of Fyn-deficient CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 2008 Oct 15; 181(8):5374-85. Mamchak AA, Sullivan BM, Hou B, Lee LM, Gilden JK, Krummel MF, Locksley RM, DeFranco AL. PMID: 18832694.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    46. Toll-like receptors activate innate and adaptive immunity by using dendritic cell-intrinsic and -extrinsic mechanisms. Immunity. 2008 Aug 15; 29(2):272-82. Hou B, Reizis B, DeFranco AL. PMID: 18656388.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 156     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Lipid rafts and B cell signaling. Semin Cell Dev Biol. 2007 Oct; 18(5):616-26. Gupta N, DeFranco AL. PMID: 17719248.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 48     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    48. Quantitative proteomic analysis of B cell lipid rafts reveals that ezrin regulates antigen receptor-mediated lipid raft dynamics. Nat Immunol. 2006 Jun; 7(6):625-33. Gupta N, Wollscheid B, Watts JD, Scheer B, Aebersold R, DeFranco AL. PMID: 16648854.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 79     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    49. TLR3 and TLR7 are targeted to the same intracellular compartments by distinct regulatory elements. J Biol Chem. 2005 Nov 04; 280(44):37107-17. Nishiya T, Kajita E, Miwa S, Defranco AL. PMID: 16105838.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 69     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    50. Bcl10 can promote survival of antigen-stimulated B lymphocytes. Blood. 2005 Sep 15; 106(6):2105-12. Tian MT, Gonzalez G, Scheer B, DeFranco AL. PMID: 15878976.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    51. Ligand-regulated chimeric receptor approach reveals distinctive subcellular localization and signaling properties of the Toll-like receptors. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 30; 279(18):19008-17. Nishiya T, DeFranco AL. PMID: 14976215.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 69     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    52. Visualizing lipid raft dynamics and early signaling events during antigen receptor-mediated B-lymphocyte activation. Mol Biol Cell. 2003 Feb; 14(2):432-44. Gupta N, DeFranco AL. PMID: 12589045.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 63     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Signaling mutations and autoimmunity. Curr Dir Autoimmun. 2003; 6:61-88. Yu CC, Mamchak AA, DeFranco AL. PMID: 12408047.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    54. Making and breaking tolerance. Curr Opin Immunol. 2002 Dec; 14(6):744-59. Ohashi PS, DeFranco AL. PMID: 12413525.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Cell signaling and cytokine induction by lipopolysaccharide. Novel Cytokine Inhibitors. 2000 Jan 1; 9-42. Mary Lee MacKichan, Anthony L. DeFranco. .
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    56. Lymphocyte activation and effector functions Editorial overview. Current Opinion in Immunology. 1995 Jan 1; 7(3):303-305. Anthony L. DeFranco, Robert L. Coffman. .
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    57. Structure and Function of the B-Cell Antigen Receptor. Lymphocyte Activation. 1994 Aug 23; 59:156-172. Anthony L. DeFranco, Jonathan H. Blum, Tracy L. Stevens, Debbie A. Law, Vivien W.-F. Chan, Shaun P. Foy, Sandip K. Datta, Linda Matsuuchi. .
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    58. Tyrosine phosphorylation and the mechanism of signal transduction by the B-lymphocyte antigen receptor. EJB Reviews. 1993 Jan 1; 245-252. Anthony L. Defranco. .
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    59. B lymphocytes in human disease edited by Graham Bird and Jane E. Calvert, Oxford Medical Publications, 1988. £55.00 (xxviii + 513 pages) ISBN 0 19 2615734. Trends in Immunology. 1989 May 1; 10(5):176. Anthony L. DeFranco. .
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