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Clifford Lowell, MD, PhD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentLaboratory Medicine
Address521 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-476-5510
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    Other Positions
    TitleChair, Laboratory Medicine


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Stanford UniversityBS1979Biology
    Johns Hopkins UniversityMD - PhD1986School of Medicine
    Johns Hopkins HospitalOsler Medical House Officier1989Medicine
    University of California, San FranciscoClinical Fellowship 1992Oncology
    University of California, San FranciscoPost-Doctoral Research Fellowship1995Laboratory: Harold Varmus
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    LLS2001Leukemia/Lymphoma Society Scholar
    FASEB2009Elected FASEB conference organizer
    Universite du Quebec2014Elected Advisory Board Neutrophil Immunity
    UCSF2015Distinguished Professorship

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    The Lowell laboratory studies tyrosine kinase based signal transduction in innate immune cells. Our general approach involves examination of innate immune function in knockout mice lacking various members of the Src-family or Syk family of tyrosine kinases. Many of these studies also involve use of mice lacking these kinases in specific hematopoietic lineages, such as neutrophils, macrophages or DCs, generated through Cre/Lox technology. We have also used this approach to study other tyrosine kinases (Pyk2/Fak) and intracellular signaling molecules (WASp, STIM1) in innate immune cells. Our major findings have illuminated the function of Src-family and Syk kinases in leukocyte integrin signaling – loss of these kinases results in significant defects in inflammatory and host defense functions mediated by integrins. We have found that leukocyte integrin signaling utilizes the same intracellular pathways initiated by classical immunoreceptors (such as Fc?Rs) by co-opting ITAM-containing adapter proteins. We have also demonstrated the important ways these kinases regulate innate immune cells in the setting of autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, using the Lyn kinase-deficient model. Ongoing studies also involve examination of tyrosine phosphatases (mainly SHP-1) in the counter regulation tyrosine kinases, especially in the setting of hematopoietic malignancy, as well as studies of calcium signaling proteins, using mice lacking these genes specifically in myeloid lineage cells. Publications total = 191


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Regulation of Innate Immune Signaling by Lyn Kinase
    NIH/NIAID R01AI113272Feb 1, 2015 - Jan 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Signal Transduction in the Immune System-FASEB Summer Conference
    NIH/NIAID R13AI084313Jun 21, 2009 - Jun 29, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Innate immune regulation of inflammation and adaptive immunity
    NIH/NIAID P01AI078869Jul 15, 2008 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Co-Investigator
    FASEB Summer Conference on Signal Transduction in the Immune System
    NIH/NIAID R13AI074219Jun 1, 2007 - May 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Transfusion and Lung Injury
    NIH/NHLBI P50HL081027Sep 30, 2005 - Aug 31, 2011
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Mechanisms of Neutrophil Activation
    NIH/NIAID R01AI065495Jul 1, 2005 - Jan 31, 2018
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Proximal Signaling Events in Leukocyte Integrin Function
    NIH/FIC R03TW006831Aug 15, 2004 - Jul 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Signaling by Cytoplasmic Tyrosine Kinases in Leukocytes
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK058066Jul 1, 2001 - Jun 30, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Signaling by Cytoplasmic Tyrosine Kinases in Leukocytes
    NIH/NIAID R01AI068150Aug 1, 2000 - Jan 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    TRANSFUSION BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE
    NIH/NHLBI P50HL054476Feb 1, 1996 - Dec 31, 2006
    Role: Co-Investigator
    MURINE MODELS TO INVESTIGATE THE HEMATOLOGIC SYSTEM
    NIH/NIDDK P01DK050267Aug 15, 1995 - Jul 31, 2001
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse Global Health

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Lee LM, Ji M, Sinha M, Dong MB, Ren X, Wang Y, Lowell C, Ghosh S, Locksley RM, DeFranco AL. Determinants of Divergent Adaptive Immune Responses after Airway Sensitization with Ligands of Toll-Like Receptor 5 or Toll-Like Receptor 9. PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0167693. PMID: 27977701.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Iborra S, Martínez-López M, Cueto FJ, Conde-Garrosa R, Del Fresno C, Izquierdo HM, Abram CL, Mori D, Campos-Martín Y, Reguera RM, Kemp B, Yamasaki S, Robinson MJ, Soto M, Lowell C, Sancho D. Leishmania Uses Mincle to Target an Inhibitory ITAM Signaling Pathway in Dendritic Cells that Dampens Adaptive Immunity to Infection. Immunity. 2016 Oct 18; 45(4):788-801. PMID: 27742545.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Proekt I, Miller CN, Jeanne M, Fasano KJ, Moon JJ, Lowell C, Gould DB, Anderson MS, DeFranco AL. LYN- and AIRE-mediated tolerance checkpoint defects synergize to trigger organ-specific autoimmunity. J Clin Invest. 2016 Oct 03; 126(10):3758-3771. PMID: 27571405.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Hang L, Blum AM, Kumar S, Urban JF, Mitreva M, Geary TG, Jardim A, Stevenson MM, Lowell C, Weinstock JV. Downregulation of the Syk Signaling Pathway in Intestinal Dendritic Cells Is Sufficient To Induce Dendritic Cells That Inhibit Colitis. J Immunol. 2016 Oct 1; 197(7):2948-57. PMID: 27559049; PMCID: PMC5026942 [Available on 10/01/17].
    5. Wang H, Li M, Hung CY, Sinha M, Lee LM, Wiesner DL, LeBert V, Lerksuthirat T, Galles K, Suresh M, DeFranco AL, Lowell C, Klein BS, Wüthrich M. MyD88 Shapes Vaccine Immunity by Extrinsically Regulating Survival of CD4+ T Cells during the Contraction Phase. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Aug; 12(8):e1005787. PMID: 27542117.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Sinha M, Lowell C. Immune Defense Protein Expression in Highly Purified Mouse Lung Epithelial Cells. Am J Respir Cell Mol Biol. 2016 Jun; 54(6):802-13. PMID: 26574781.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Kerr SC, Fischer GJ, Sinha M, McCabe O, Palmer JM, Choera T, Yun Lim F, Wimmerova M, Carrington SD, Yuan S, Lowell C, Oscarson S, Keller NP, Fahy JV. FleA Expression in Aspergillus fumigatus Is Recognized by Fucosylated Structures on Mucins and Macrophages to Prevent Lung Infection. PLoS Pathog. 2016 Apr; 12(4):e1005555. PMID: 27058347.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Németh T, Mócsai A, Lowell C. Neutrophils in animal models of autoimmune disease. Semin Immunol. 2016 Apr; 28(2):174-86. PMID: 27067180.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Chen Z, Shojaee S, Buchner M, Geng H, Lee JW, Klemm L, Titz B, Graeber TG, Park E, Tan YX, Satterthwaite A, Paietta E, Hunger SP, Willman CL, Melnick A, Loh ML, Jung JU, Coligan JE, Bolland S, Mak TW, Limnander A, Jumaa H, Reth M, Weiss A, Lowell C, Müschen M. Corrigendum: Signalling thresholds and negative B-cell selection in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Nature. 2016 Jun 2; 534(7605):138. PMID: 26958840.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Rosales C, Demaurex N, Lowell C, Uribe-Querol E. Neutrophils: Their Role in Innate and Adaptive Immunity. J Immunol Res. 2016; 2016:1469780. PMID: 27006954.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Volmering S, Block H, Boras M, Lowell C, Zarbock A. The Neutrophil Btk Signalosome Regulates Integrin Activation during Sterile Inflammation. Immunity. 2016 Jan 19; 44(1):73-87. PMID: 26777396.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Freedman TS, Tan YX, Skrzypczynska KM, Manz BN, Sjaastad FV, Goodridge HS, Lowell C, Weiss A. LynA regulates an inflammation-sensitive signaling checkpoint in macrophages. Elife. 2015; 4. PMID: 26517880; PMCID: PMC4626889.
    13. Yi T, Li J, Chen H, Wu J, An J, Xu Y, Hu Y, Lowell C, Cyster JG. Splenic Dendritic Cells Survey Red Blood Cells for Missing Self-CD47 to Trigger Adaptive Immune Responses. Immunity. 2015 Oct 20; 43(4):764-75. PMID: 26453377; PMCID: PMC4618158 [Available on 10/20/16].
    14. Prakash A, Sundar SV, Zhu YG, Tran A, Lee JW, Lowell C, Hellman J. Lung Ischemia-Reperfusion is a Sterile Inflammatory Process Influenced by Commensal Microbiota in Mice. Shock. 2015 Sep; 44(3):272-9. PMID: 26196836; PMCID: PMC4537678 [Available on 09/01/16].
    15. Mazzi P, Caveggion E, Lapinet-Vera JA, Lowell C, Berton G. The Src-Family Kinases Hck and Fgr Regulate Early Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Myeloid Cell Recruitment into the Lung and Their Ability To Secrete Chemokines. J Immunol. 2015 Sep 1; 195(5):2383-95. PMID: 26232427; PMCID: PMC4546890 [Available on 09/01/16].
    16. Stadtmann A, Block H, Volmering S, Abram C, Sohlbach C, Boras M, Lowell C, Zarbock A. Cross-Talk between Shp1 and PIPKI? Controls Leukocyte Recruitment. J Immunol. 2015 Aug 1; 195(3):1152-61. PMID: 26101325; PMCID: PMC4506862 [Available on 08/01/16].
    17. Mócsai A, Walzog B, Lowell C. Intracellular signalling during neutrophil recruitment. Cardiovasc Res. 2015 Aug 1; 107(3):373-85. PMID: 25998986; PMCID: PMC4502828.
    18. Chen Z, Shojaee S, Buchner M, Geng H, Lee JW, Klemm L, Titz B, Graeber TG, Park E, Tan YX, Satterthwaite A, Paietta E, Hunger SP, Willman CL, Melnick A, Loh ML, Jung JU, Coligan JE, Bolland S, Mak TW, Limnander A, Jumaa H, Reth M, Weiss A, Lowell C, Müschen M. Signalling thresholds and negative B-cell selection in acute lymphoblastic leukaemia. Nature. 2015 May 21; 521(7552):357-61. PMID: 25799995; PMCID: PMC4441554 [Available on 11/21/15].
    19. Clemens RA, Lowell C. Store-operated calcium signaling in neutrophils. J Leukoc Biol. 2015 Oct; 98(4):497-502. PMID: 25714804.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Roubinian NH, Looney MR, Kor DJ, Lowell C, Gajic O, Hubmayr RD, Gropper MA, Koenigsberg M, Wilson GA, Matthay MA, Toy P, Murphy EL. Cytokines and clinical predictors in distinguishing pulmonary transfusion reactions. Transfusion. 2015 Aug; 55(8):1838-46. PMID: 25702590; PMCID: PMC4536135 [Available on 08/01/16].
    21. Toy P, Bacchetti P, Grimes B, Gajic O, Murphy EL, Winters JL, Gropper MA, Hubmayr RD, Matthay MA, Wilson G, Koenigsberg M, Lee DC, Hirschler NV, Lowell C, Schuller RM, Gandhi MJ, Norris PJ, Mair DC, Sanchez Rosen R, Looney MR. Recipient clinical risk factors predominate in possible transfusion-related acute lung injury. Transfusion. 2015 May; 55(5):947-52. PMID: 25488517; PMCID: PMC4428945 [Available on 05/01/16].
    22. Kovács M, Németh T, Jakus Z, Sitaru C, Simon E, Futosi K, Botz B, Helyes Z, Lowell C, Mócsai A. The Src family kinases Hck, Fgr, and Lyn are critical for the generation of the in vivo inflammatory environment without a direct role in leukocyte recruitment. J Exp Med. 2014 Sep 22; 211(10):1993-2011. PMID: 25225462; PMCID: PMC4172222.
    23. Looney MR, Roubinian N, Gajic O, Gropper MA, Hubmayr RD, Lowell C, Bacchetti P, Wilson G, Koenigsberg M, Lee DC, Wu P, Grimes B, Norris PJ, Murphy EL, Gandhi MJ, Winters JL, Mair DC, Schuller RM, Hirschler NV, Rosen RS, Matthay MA, Toy P. Prospective study on the clinical course and outcomes in transfusion-related acute lung injury*. Crit Care Med. 2014 Jul; 42(7):1676-87. PMID: 24776608; PMCID: PMC4284060.
    24. Jaumouillé V, Farkash Y, Jaqaman K, Das R, Lowell C, Grinstein S. Actin cytoskeleton reorganization by Syk regulates Fc? receptor responsiveness by increasing its lateral mobility and clustering. Dev Cell. 2014 Jun 9; 29(5):534-46. PMID: 24914558; PMCID: PMC4083245.
    25. Abram CL, Roberge GL, Hu Y, Lowell C. Comparative analysis of the efficiency and specificity of myeloid-Cre deleting strains using ROSA-EYFP reporter mice. J Immunol Methods. 2014 Jun; 408:89-100. PMID: 24857755; PMCID: PMC4105345.
    26. Acín-Pérez R, Carrascoso I, Baixauli F, Roche-Molina M, Latorre-Pellicer A, Fernández-Silva P, Mittelbrunn M, Sanchez-Madrid F, Pérez-Martos A, Lowell C, Manfredi G, Enríquez JA. ROS-triggered phosphorylation of complex II by Fgr kinase regulates cellular adaptation to fuel use. Cell Metab. 2014 Jun 3; 19(6):1020-33. PMID: 24856931; PMCID: PMC4274740.
    27. Suzuki R, Leach S, Liu W, Ralston E, Scheffel J, Zhang W, Lowell C, Rivera J. Molecular editing of cellular responses by the high-affinity receptor for IgE. Science. 2014 Feb 28; 343(6174):1021-5. PMID: 24505132; PMCID: PMC4188507.
    28. Zhang H, Clemens RA, Liu F, Hu Y, Baba Y, Theodore P, Kurosaki T, Lowell C. STIM1 calcium sensor is required for activation of the phagocyte oxidase during inflammation and host defense. Blood. 2014 Apr 3; 123(14):2238-49. PMID: 24493668; PMCID: PMC3975260.
    29. Hua Z, Gross AJ, Lamagna C, Ramos-Hernández N, Scapini P, Ji M, Shao H, Lowell C, Hou B, DeFranco AL. Requirement for MyD88 signaling in B cells and dendritic cells for germinal center anti-nuclear antibody production in Lyn-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2014 Feb 1; 192(3):875-85. PMID: 24379120; PMCID: PMC4101002.
    30. Lamagna C, Hu Y, DeFranco AL, Lowell C. B cell-specific loss of Lyn kinase leads to autoimmunity. J Immunol. 2014 Feb 1; 192(3):919-28. PMID: 24376269; PMCID: PMC3900234.
    31. Kadoch C, Li J, Wong VS, Chen L, Cha S, Munster P, Lowell C, Shuman MA, Rubenstein JL. Complement activation and intraventricular rituximab distribution in recurrent central nervous system lymphoma. Clin Cancer Res. 2014 Feb 15; 20(4):1029-41. PMID: 24190981; PMCID: PMC3944388.
    32. Han J, Zhang G, Welch EJ, Liang Y, Fu J, Vogel SM, Lowell C, Du X, Cheresh DA, Malik AB, Li Z. A critical role for Lyn kinase in strengthening endothelial integrity and barrier function. Blood. 2013 Dec 12; 122(25):4140-9. PMID: 24108461; PMCID: PMC3862279.
    33. Graham MT, Abram CL, Hu Y, Lowell C. Expression of the TEL-Syk fusion protein in hematopoietic stem cells leads to rapidly fatal myelofibrosis in mice. PLoS One. 2013; 8(10):e77542. PMID: 24116232; PMCID: PMC3792906.
    34. Mayadas TN, Cullere X, Lowell C. The multifaceted functions of neutrophils. Annu Rev Pathol. 2014; 9:181-218. PMID: 24050624; PMCID: PMC4277181.
    35. Albanesi M, Mancardi DA, Jönsson F, Iannascoli B, Fiette L, Di Santo JP, Lowell C, Bruhns P. Neutrophils mediate antibody-induced antitumor effects in mice. Blood. 2013 Oct 31; 122(18):3160-4. PMID: 23980063; PMCID: PMC3814733.
    36. Lamagna C, Scapini P, van Ziffle JA, DeFranco AL, Lowell C. Hyperactivated MyD88 signaling in dendritic cells, through specific deletion of Lyn kinase, causes severe autoimmunity and inflammation. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Aug 27; 110(35):E3311-20. PMID: 23940344; PMCID: PMC3761623.
    37. Vérollet C, Gallois A, Dacquin R, Lastrucci C, Pandruvada SN, Ortega N, Poincloux R, Behar A, Cougoule C, Lowell C, Al Saati T, Jurdic P, Maridonneau-Parini I. Hck contributes to bone homeostasis by controlling the recruitment of osteoclast precursors. FASEB J. 2013 Sep; 27(9):3608-18. PMID: 23742809; PMCID: PMC4046168.
    38. Rubenstein JL, Wong VS, Kadoch C, Gao HX, Barajas R, Chen L, Josephson SA, Scott B, Douglas V, Maiti M, Kaplan LD, Treseler PA, Cha S, Hwang JH, Cinque P, Cyster JG, Lowell C. CXCL13 plus interleukin 10 is highly specific for the diagnosis of CNS lymphoma. Blood. 2013 Jun 6; 121(23):4740-8. PMID: 23570798; PMCID: PMC3674672.
    39. Abram CL, Roberge GL, Pao LI, Neel BG, Lowell C. Distinct roles for neutrophils and dendritic cells in inflammation and autoimmunity in motheaten mice. Immunity. 2013 Mar 21; 38(3):489-501. PMID: 23521885; PMCID: PMC3613338.
    40. Fumagalli L, Campa CC, Germena G, Lowell C, Hirsch E, Berton G. Class I phosphoinositide-3-kinases and SRC kinases play a nonredundant role in regulation of adhesion-independent and -dependent neutrophil reactive oxygen species generation. J Immunol. 2013 Apr 1; 190(7):3648-60. PMID: 23447687; PMCID: PMC4280093.
    41. Heit B, Kim H, Cosío G, Castaño D, Collins R, Lowell C, Kain KC, Trimble WS, Grinstein S. Multimolecular signaling complexes enable Syk-mediated signaling of CD36 internalization. Dev Cell. 2013 Feb 25; 24(4):372-83. PMID: 23395392; PMCID: PMC3586299.
    42. Rubenstein JL, Li J, Chen L, Advani R, Drappatz J, Gerstner E, Batchelor T, Krouwer H, Hwang J, Auerback G, Kadoch C, Lowell C, Munster P, Cha S, Shuman MA, Damon LE. Multicenter phase 1 trial of intraventricular immunochemotherapy in recurrent CNS lymphoma. Blood. 2013 Jan 31; 121(5):745-51. PMID: 23197589; PMCID: PMC3563362.
    43. Jhingran A, Mar KB, Kumasaka DK, Knoblaugh SE, Ngo LY, Segal BH, Iwakura Y, Lowell C, Hamerman JA, Lin X, Hohl TM. Tracing conidial fate and measuring host cell antifungal activity using a reporter of microbial viability in the lung. Cell Rep. 2012 Dec 27; 2(6):1762-73. PMID: 23200858; PMCID: PMC3712646.
    44. Alenghat FJ, Baca QJ, Rubin NT, Pao LI, Matozaki T, Lowell C, Golan DE, Neel BG, Swanson KD. Macrophages require Skap2 and Sirpa for integrin-stimulated cytoskeletal rearrangement. J Cell Sci. 2012 Nov 15; 125(Pt 22):5535-45. PMID: 22976304; PMCID: PMC3561861.
    45. Ma J, Becker C, Lowell C, Underhill DM. Dectin-1-triggered recruitment of light chain 3 protein to phagosomes facilitates major histocompatibility complex class II presentation of fungal-derived antigens. J Biol Chem. 2012 Oct 5; 287(41):34149-56. PMID: 22902620; PMCID: PMC3464523.
    46. Séverin S, Nash CA, Mori J, Zhao Y, Abram C, Lowell C, Senis YA, Watson SP. Distinct and overlapping functional roles of Src family kinases in mouse platelets. J Thromb Haemost. 2012 Aug; 10(8):1631-45. PMID: 22694307; PMCID: PMC4280098.
    47. Block H, Herter JM, Rossaint J, Stadtmann A, Kliche S, Lowell C, Zarbock A. Crucial role of SLP-76 and ADAP for neutrophil recruitment in mouse kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury. J Exp Med. 2012 Feb 13; 209(2):407-21. PMID: 22291096; PMCID: PMC3280874.
    48. Weiskopf RB, Feiner J, Toy P, Twiford J, Shimabukuro D, Lieberman J, Looney MR, Lowell C, Gropper MA. Fresh and stored red blood cell transfusion equivalently induce subclinical pulmonary gas exchange deficit in normal humans. Anesth Analg. 2012 Mar; 114(3):511-9. PMID: 22262647; PMCID: PMC3927839.
    49. Lowell C, Mayadas TN. Overview: studying integrins in vivo. Methods Mol Biol. 2012; 757:369-97. PMID: 21909923; PMCID: PMC3248401.
    50. Ni M, MacFarlane AW, Toft M, Lowell C, Campbell KS, Hamerman JA. B-cell adaptor for PI3K (BCAP) negatively regulates Toll-like receptor signaling through activation of PI3K. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 Jan 3; 109(1):267-72. PMID: 22187458; PMCID: PMC3252908.
    51. Toy P, Gajic O, Bacchetti P, Looney MR, Gropper MA, Hubmayr R, Lowell C, Norris PJ, Murphy EL, Weiskopf RB, Wilson G, Koenigsberg M, Lee D, Schuller R, Wu P, Grimes B, Gandhi MJ, Winters JL, Mair D, Hirschler N, Sanchez Rosen R, Matthay MA. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: incidence and risk factors. Blood. 2012 Feb 16; 119(7):1757-67. PMID: 22117051; PMCID: PMC3286351.
    52. Zhu JW, Doan K, Park J, Chau AH, Zhang H, Lowell C, Weiss A. Receptor-like tyrosine phosphatases CD45 and CD148 have distinct functions in chemoattractant-mediated neutrophil migration and response to S. aureus. Immunity. 2011 Nov 23; 35(5):757-69. PMID: 22078799; PMCID: PMC3245876.
    53. Xu X, Zhang H, Song Y, Lynch SV, Lowell C, Wiener-Kronish JP, Caughey GH. Strain-dependent induction of neutrophil histamine production and cell death by Pseudomonas aeruginosa. J Leukoc Biol. 2012 Feb; 91(2):275-84. PMID: 22075928; PMCID: PMC3290427.
    54. Elliott ER, Van Ziffle JA, Scapini P, Sullivan BM, Locksley RM, Lowell C. Deletion of Syk in neutrophils prevents immune complex arthritis. J Immunol. 2011 Oct 15; 187(8):4319-30. PMID: 21918195; PMCID: PMC3186826.
    55. Scapini P, Lamagna C, Hu Y, Lee K, Tang Q, DeFranco AL, Lowell C. B cell-derived IL-10 suppresses inflammatory disease in Lyn-deficient mice. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Oct 11; 108(41):E823-32. PMID: 21911371; PMCID: PMC3193193.
    56. Andre P, Morooka T, Sim D, Abe K, Lowell C, Nanda N, Delaney S, Siu G, Yan Y, Hollenbach S, Pandey A, Gao H, Wang Y, Nakajima K, Parikh SA, Shi C, Phillips D, Owen W, Sinha U, Simon DI. Critical role for Syk in responses to vascular injury. Blood. 2011 Nov 3; 118(18):5000-10. PMID: 21881044; PMCID: PMC3208305.
    57. Guiet R, Van Goethem E, Cougoule C, Balor S, Valette A, Al Saati T, Lowell C, Le Cabec V, Maridonneau-Parini I. The process of macrophage migration promotes matrix metalloproteinase-independent invasion by tumor cells. J Immunol. 2011 Oct 1; 187(7):3806-14. PMID: 21880978; PMCID: PMC4276309.
    58. Cai H, Smith DA, Memarzadeh S, Lowell C, Cooper JA, Witte ON. Differential transformation capacity of Src family kinases during the initiation of prostate cancer. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2011 Apr 19; 108(16):6579-84. PMID: 21464326; PMCID: PMC3080985.
    59. Lowell C. Neutrophils give us a shock. J Clin Invest. 2011 Apr; 121(4):1260-3. PMID: 21436575; PMCID: PMC3069799.
    60. Ma G, Pan PY, Eisenstein S, Divino CM, Lowell C, Takai T, Chen SH. Paired immunoglobin-like receptor-B regulates the suppressive function and fate of myeloid-derived suppressor cells. Immunity. 2011 Mar 25; 34(3):385-95. PMID: 21376641; PMCID: PMC3064726.
    61. Lowell C. Src-family and Syk kinases in activating and inhibitory pathways in innate immune cells: signaling cross talk. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2011 Mar; 3(3). PMID: 21068150; PMCID: PMC3039931.
    62. Nelson MP, Christmann BS, Werner JL, Metz AE, Trevor JL, Lowell C, Steele C. IL-33 and M2a alveolar macrophages promote lung defense against the atypical fungal pathogen Pneumocystis murina. J Immunol. 2011 Feb 15; 186(4):2372-81. PMID: 21220696; PMCID: PMC4274743.
    63. Kamen LA, Schlessinger J, Lowell C. Pyk2 is required for neutrophil degranulation and host defense responses to bacterial infection. J Immunol. 2011 Feb 1; 186(3):1656-65. PMID: 21187437; PMCID: PMC3248398.
    64. Yamada M, Gomez JC, Chugh PE, Lowell C, Dinauer MC, Dittmer DP, Doerschuk CM. Interferon-? production by neutrophils during bacterial pneumonia in mice. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 May 15; 183(10):1391-401. PMID: 21169470; PMCID: PMC3114063.
    65. Tavares RM, Turer EE, Liu CL, Advincula R, Scapini P, Rhee L, Barrera J, Lowell C, Utz PJ, Malynn BA, Ma A. The ubiquitin modifying enzyme A20 restricts B cell survival and prevents autoimmunity. Immunity. 2010 Aug 27; 33(2):181-91. PMID: 20705491; PMCID: PMC2931361.
    66. Scapini P, Hu Y, Chu CL, Migone TS, Defranco AL, Cassatella MA, Lowell C. Myeloid cells, BAFF, and IFN-gamma establish an inflammatory loop that exacerbates autoimmunity in Lyn-deficient mice. J Exp Med. 2010 Aug 2; 207(8):1757-73. PMID: 20624892; PMCID: PMC2916124.
    67. Li Z, Zhang G, Liu J, Stojanovic A, Ruan C, Lowell C, Du X. An important role of the SRC family kinase Lyn in stimulating platelet granule secretion. J Biol Chem. 2010 Apr 23; 285(17):12559-70. PMID: 20189992; PMCID: PMC2857081.
    68. Nedunuri KV, Lowell C, Meade W, Vonderheide AP, Shann JR. Management practices and phytoremediation by native grasses. Int J Phytoremediation. 2010 Feb; 12(2):200-14. PMID: 20734616.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Baruzzi A, Iacobucci I, Soverini S, Lowell C, Martinelli G, Berton G. c-Abl and Src-family kinases cross-talk in regulation of myeloid cell migration. FEBS Lett. 2010 Jan 4; 584(1):15-21. PMID: 19903482; PMCID: PMC4454382.
    70. Cougoule C, Le Cabec V, Poincloux R, Al Saati T, Mège JL, Tabouret G, Lowell C, Laviolette-Malirat N, Maridonneau-Parini I. Three-dimensional migration of macrophages requires Hck for podosome organization and extracellular matrix proteolysis. Blood. 2010 Feb 18; 115(7):1444-52. PMID: 19897576.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Hamerman JA, Ni M, Killebrew JR, Chu CL, Lowell C. The expanding roles of ITAM adapters FcRgamma and DAP12 in myeloid cells. Immunol Rev. 2009 Nov; 232(1):42-58. PMID: 19909355; PMCID: PMC3248395.
    72. Looney MR, Nguyen JX, Hu Y, Van Ziffle JA, Lowell C, Matthay MA. Platelet depletion and aspirin treatment protect mice in a two-event model of transfusion-related acute lung injury. J Clin Invest. 2009 Nov; 119(11):3450-61. PMID: 19809160.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Van Ziffle JA, Lowell C. Neutrophil-specific deletion of Syk kinase results in reduced host defense to bacterial infection. Blood. 2009 Nov 26; 114(23):4871-82. PMID: 19797524; PMCID: PMC2786293.
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    76. Kadoch C, Dinca EB, Voicu R, Chen L, Nguyen D, Parikh S, Karrim J, Shuman MA, Lowell C, Treseler PA, James CD, Rubenstein JL. Pathologic correlates of primary central nervous system lymphoma defined in an orthotopic xenograft model. Clin Cancer Res. 2009 Mar 15; 15(6):1989-97. PMID: 19276270; PMCID: PMC4372389.
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    82. Sarantos MR, Zhang H, Schaff UY, Dixit N, Hayenga HN, Lowell C, Simon SI. Transmigration of neutrophils across inflamed endothelium is signaled through LFA-1 and Src family kinase. J Immunol. 2008 Dec 15; 181(12):8660-9. PMID: 19050286; PMCID: PMC4457456.
    83. Ng G, Sharma K, Ward SM, Desrosiers MD, Stephens LA, Schoel WM, Li T, Lowell C, Ling CC, Amrein MW, Shi Y. Receptor-independent, direct membrane binding leads to cell-surface lipid sorting and Syk kinase activation in dendritic cells. Immunity. 2008 Nov 14; 29(5):807-18. PMID: 18993083; PMCID: PMC2642965.
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    85. Liu J, Joglekar M, Ware J, Fitzgerald ME, Lowell C, Berndt MC, Gartner TK. Evaluation of the physiological significance of botrocetin/ von Willebrand factor in vitro signaling. J Thromb Haemost. 2008 Nov; 6(11):1915-22. PMID: 18752568; PMCID: PMC2982674.
    86. Paul R, Obermaier B, Van Ziffle J, Angele B, Pfister HW, Lowell C, Koedel U. Myeloid Src kinases regulate phagocytosis and oxidative burst in pneumococcal meningitis by activating NADPH oxidase. J Leukoc Biol. 2008 Oct; 84(4):1141-50. PMID: 18625913; PMCID: PMC2538596.
    87. Yin H, Liu J, Li Z, Berndt MC, Lowell C, Du X. Src family tyrosine kinase Lyn mediates VWF/GPIb-IX-induced platelet activation via the cGMP signaling pathway. Blood. 2008 Aug 15; 112(4):1139-46. PMID: 18550847; PMCID: PMC2515128.
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    89. Xiao W, Hong H, Kawakami Y, Lowell C, Kawakami T. Regulation of myeloproliferation and M2 macrophage programming in mice by Lyn/Hck, SHIP, and Stat5. J Clin Invest. 2008 Mar; 118(3):924-34. PMID: 18246197; PMCID: PMC2214849.
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    94. Zarbock A, Lowell C, Ley K. Spleen tyrosine kinase Syk is necessary for E-selectin-induced alpha(L)beta(2) integrin-mediated rolling on intercellular adhesion molecule-1. Immunity. 2007 Jun; 26(6):773-83. PMID: 17543554; PMCID: PMC2600878.
    95. Hong H, Kitaura J, Xiao W, Horejsi V, Ra C, Lowell C, Kawakami Y, Kawakami T. The Src family kinase Hck regulates mast cell activation by suppressing an inhibitory Src family kinase Lyn. Blood. 2007 Oct 1; 110(7):2511-9. PMID: 17513616; PMCID: PMC1988937.
    96. Guo B, Blair D, Chiles TC, Lowell C, Rothstein TL. Cutting Edge: B cell receptor (BCR) cross-talk: the IL-4-induced alternate pathway for BCR signaling operates in parallel with the classical pathway, is sensitive to Rottlerin, and depends on Lyn. J Immunol. 2007 Apr 15; 178(8):4726-30. PMID: 17404251.
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    100. Evangelista V, Pamuklar Z, Piccoli A, Manarini S, Dell'elba G, Pecce R, Martelli N, Federico L, Rojas M, Berton G, Lowell C, Totani L, Smyth SS. Src family kinases mediate neutrophil adhesion to adherent platelets. Blood. 2007 Mar 15; 109(6):2461-9. PMID: 17095622; PMCID: PMC1852189.
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    106. Looney MR, Su X, Van Ziffle JA, Lowell C, Matthay MA. Neutrophils and their Fc gamma receptors are essential in a mouse model of transfusion-related acute lung injury. J Clin Invest. 2006 Jun; 116(6):1615-23. PMID: 16710475; PMCID: PMC1462945.
    107. Karur VG, Lowell C, Besmer P, Agosti V, Wojchowski DM. Lyn kinase promotes erythroblast expansion and late-stage development. Blood. 2006 Sep 1; 108(5):1524-32. PMID: 16705093; PMCID: PMC1895506.
    108. Totani L, Piccoli A, Manarini S, Federico L, Pecce R, Martelli N, Cerletti C, Piccardoni P, Lowell C, Smyth SS, Berton G, Evangelista V. Src-family kinases mediate an outside-in signal necessary for beta2 integrins to achieve full activation and sustain firm adhesion of polymorphonuclear leucocytes tethered on E-selectin. Biochem J. 2006 May 15; 396(1):89-98. PMID: 16433632; PMCID: PMC1449987.
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    115. De Franceschi L, Villa-Moruzzi E, Biondani A, Siciliano A, Brugnara C, Alper SL, Lowell C, Berton G. Regulation of K-Cl cotransport by protein phosphatase 1alpha in mouse erythrocytes. Pflugers Arch. 2006 Mar; 451(6):760-8. PMID: 16283202.
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    116. Zhu QS, Xia L, Mills GB, Lowell C, Touw IP, Corey SJ. G-CSF induced reactive oxygen species involves Lyn-PI3-kinase-Akt and contributes to myeloid cell growth. Blood. 2006 Mar 1; 107(5):1847-56. PMID: 16282349; PMCID: PMC1895701.
    117. Lee JY, Lowell C, Lemay DG, Youn HS, Rhee SH, Sohn KH, Jang B, Ye J, Chung JH, Hwang DH. The regulation of the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase by Src-family tyrosine kinases mediated through MyD88-independent signaling pathways of Toll-like receptor 4. Biochem Pharmacol. 2005 Oct 15; 70(8):1231-40. PMID: 16140274.
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    121. Kitaura J, Eto K, Kinoshita T, Kawakami Y, Leitges M, Lowell C, Kawakami T. Regulation of highly cytokinergic IgE-induced mast cell adhesion by Src, Syk, Tec, and protein kinase C family kinases. J Immunol. 2005 Apr 15; 174(8):4495-504. PMID: 15814670.
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    123. Lee TH, Wen L, Montalvo L, Esho O, Lowell C, Reed W, Busch M. Minimum conditions of major histocompatibility complex compatibility and recipient immune compromise required to establish donor white blood cell persistence in a murine transfusion model. Transfusion. 2005 Mar; 45(3):301-14. PMID: 15752147.
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    125. Continolo S, Baruzzi A, Majeed M, Caveggion E, Fumagalli L, Lowell C, Berton G. The proto-oncogene Fgr regulates cell migration and this requires its plasma membrane localization. Exp Cell Res. 2005 Jan 15; 302(2):253-69. PMID: 15561106.
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    128. Tassiulas I, Hu X, Ho H, Kashyap Y, Paik P, Hu Y, Lowell C, Ivashkiv LB. Amplification of IFN-alpha-induced STAT1 activation and inflammatory function by Syk and ITAM-containing adaptors. Nat Immunol. 2004 Nov; 5(11):1181-9. PMID: 15467722.
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    129. Kitaura J, Xiao W, Maeda-Yamamoto M, Kawakami Y, Lowell C, Kawakami T. Early divergence of Fc epsilon receptor I signals for receptor up-regulation and internalization from degranulation, cytokine production, and survival. J Immunol. 2004 Oct 1; 173(7):4317-23. PMID: 15383560.
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    132. Chou WH, Choi DS, Zhang H, Mu D, McMahon T, Kharazia VN, Lowell C, Ferriero DM, Messing RO. Neutrophil protein kinase Cdelta as a mediator of stroke-reperfusion injury. J Clin Invest. 2004 Jul; 114(1):49-56. PMID: 15232611; PMCID: PMC437973.
    133. Hernandez-Hansen V, Smith AJ, Surviladze Z, Chigaev A, Mazel T, Kalesnikoff J, Lowell C, Krystal G, Sklar LA, Wilson BS, Oliver JM. Dysregulated FcepsilonRI signaling and altered Fyn and SHIP activities in Lyn-deficient mast cells. J Immunol. 2004 Jul 1; 173(1):100-12. PMID: 15210764.
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    134. Scapini P, Morini M, Tecchio C, Minghelli S, Di Carlo E, Tanghetti E, Albini A, Lowell C, Berton G, Noonan DM, Cassatella MA. CXCL1/macrophage inflammatory protein-2-induced angiogenesis in vivo is mediated by neutrophil-derived vascular endothelial growth factor-A. J Immunol. 2004 Apr 15; 172(8):5034-40. PMID: 15067085.
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    135. Mócsai A, Humphrey MB, Van Ziffle JA, Hu Y, Burghardt A, Spusta SC, Majumdar S, Lanier LL, Lowell C, Nakamura MC. The immunomodulatory adapter proteins DAP12 and Fc receptor gamma-chain (FcRgamma) regulate development of functional osteoclasts through the Syk tyrosine kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2004 Apr 20; 101(16):6158-63. PMID: 15073337; PMCID: PMC395939.
    136. Newbrough SA, Mocsai A, Clemens RA, Wu JN, Silverman MA, Singer AL, Lowell C, Koretzky GA. SLP-76 regulates Fcgamma receptor and integrin signaling in neutrophils. Immunity. 2003 Nov; 19(5):761-9. PMID: 14614862.
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    137. Kitaura J, Song J, Tsai M, Asai K, Maeda-Yamamoto M, Mocsai A, Kawakami Y, Liu FT, Lowell C, Barisas BG, Galli SJ, Kawakami T. Evidence that IgE molecules mediate a spectrum of effects on mast cell survival and activation via aggregation of the FcepsilonRI. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Oct 28; 100(22):12911-6. PMID: 14569021; PMCID: PMC240718.
    138. Hernandez-Hansen V, Mackay GA, Lowell C, Wilson BS, Oliver JM. The Src kinase Lyn is a negative regulator of mast cell proliferation. J Leukoc Biol. 2004 Jan; 75(1):143-51. PMID: 14525964.
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    139. Whyburn LR, Halcomb KE, Contreras CM, Lowell C, Witte ON, Satterthwaite AB. Reduced dosage of Bruton's tyrosine kinase uncouples B cell hyperresponsiveness from autoimmunity in lyn-/- mice. J Immunol. 2003 Aug 15; 171(4):1850-8. PMID: 12902486.
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    141. Chen H, Mocsai A, Zhang H, Ding RX, Morisaki JH, White M, Rothfork JM, Heiser P, Colucci-Guyon E, Lowell C, Gresham HD, Allen PM, Brown EJ. Role for plastin in host defense distinguishes integrin signaling from cell adhesion and spreading. Immunity. 2003 Jul; 19(1):95-104. PMID: 12871642.
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    142. Caveggion E, Continolo S, Pixley FJ, Stanley ER, Bowtell DD, Lowell C, Berton G. Expression and tyrosine phosphorylation of Cbl regulates macrophage chemokinetic and chemotactic movement. J Cell Physiol. 2003 May; 195(2):276-89. PMID: 12652654.
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    143. Saijo K, Schmedt C, Su IH, Karasuyama H, Lowell C, Reth M, Adachi T, Patke A, Santana A, Tarakhovsky A. Essential role of Src-family protein tyrosine kinases in NF-kappaB activation during B cell development. Nat Immunol. 2003 Mar; 4(3):274-9. PMID: 12563261.
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    146. Zeng M, Zhang H, Lowell C, He P. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha-induced leukocyte adhesion and microvessel permeability. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2002 Dec; 283(6):H2420-30. PMID: 12388263.
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    147. Vicentini L, Mazzi P, Caveggion E, Continolo S, Fumagalli L, Lapinet-Vera JA, Lowell C, Berton G. Fgr deficiency results in defective eosinophil recruitment to the lung during allergic airway inflammation. J Immunol. 2002 Jun 15; 168(12):6446-54. PMID: 12055264.
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    148. Obergfell A, Eto K, Mocsai A, Buensuceso C, Moores SL, Brugge JS, Lowell C, Shattil SJ. Coordinate interactions of Csk, Src, and Syk kinases with [alpha]IIb[beta]3 initiate integrin signaling to the cytoskeleton. J Cell Biol. 2002 Apr 15; 157(2):265-75. PMID: 11940607; PMCID: PMC2199242.
    149. Cho MJ, Pestina TI, Steward SA, Lowell C, Jackson CW, Gartner TK. Role of the Src family kinase Lyn in TxA2 production, adenosine diphosphate secretion, Akt phosphorylation, and irreversible aggregation in platelets stimulated with gamma-thrombin. Blood. 2002 Apr 1; 99(7):2442-7. PMID: 11895777.
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    151. Stafford S, Lowell C, Sur S, Alam R. Lyn tyrosine kinase is important for IL-5-stimulated eosinophil differentiation. J Immunol. 2002 Feb 15; 168(4):1978-83. PMID: 11823534.
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    153. Dan Q, Sanchez R, Delgado C, Wepsic HT, Morgan K, Chen Y, Jeffes EW, Lowell C, Morgan TR, Jadus MR. Non-immunogenic murine hepatocellular carcinoma Hepa1-6 cells expressing the membrane form of macrophage colony stimulating factor are rejected in vivo and lead to CD8+ T-cell immunity against the parental tumor. Mol Ther. 2001 Nov; 4(5):427-37. PMID: 11708879.
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    154. Hanna Z, Weng X, Kay DG, Poudrier J, Lowell C, Jolicoeur P. The pathogenicity of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 Nef in CD4C/HIV transgenic mice is abolished by mutation of its SH3-binding domain, and disease development is delayed in the absence of Hck. J Virol. 2001 Oct; 75(19):9378-92. PMID: 11533201; PMCID: PMC114506.
    155. Vines CM, Potter JW, Xu Y, Geahlen RL, Costello PS, Tybulewicz VL, Lowell C, Chang PW, Gresham HD, Willman CL. Inhibition of beta 2 integrin receptor and Syk kinase signaling in monocytes by the Src family kinase Fgr. Immunity. 2001 Oct; 15(4):507-19. PMID: 11672534.
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    156. Hasegawa M, Fujimoto M, Poe JC, Steeber DA, Lowell C, Tedder TF. A CD19-dependent signaling pathway regulates autoimmunity in Lyn-deficient mice. J Immunol. 2001 Sep 1; 167(5):2469-78. PMID: 11509585.
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    157. O'Laughlin-Bunner B, Radosevic N, Taylor ML, DeBerry C, Metcalfe DD, Zhou M, Lowell C, Linnekin D. Lyn is required for normal stem cell factor-induced proliferation and chemotaxis of primary hematopoietic cells. Blood. 2001 Jul 15; 98(2):343-50. PMID: 11435302.
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    158. Pereira S, Zhou M, Mócsai A, Lowell C. Resting murine neutrophils express functional alpha 4 integrins that signal through Src family kinases. J Immunol. 2001 Mar 15; 166(6):4115-23. PMID: 11238661.
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    159. Yu CC, Yen TS, Lowell C, DeFranco AL. Lupus-like kidney disease in mice deficient in the Src family tyrosine kinases Lyn and Fyn. Curr Biol. 2001 Jan 9; 11(1):34-8. PMID: 11166177.
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    160. Quek LS, Pasquet JM, Hers I, Cornall R, Knight G, Barnes M, Hibbs ML, Dunn AR, Lowell C, Watson SP. Fyn and Lyn phosphorylate the Fc receptor gamma chain downstream of glycoprotein VI in murine platelets, and Lyn regulates a novel feedback pathway. Blood. 2000 Dec 15; 96(13):4246-53. PMID: 11110698.
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    161. Pasquet JM, Quek L, Pasquet S, Poole A, Matthews JR, Lowell C, Watson SP. Evidence of a role for SHP-1 in platelet activation by the collagen receptor glycoprotein VI. J Biol Chem. 2000 Sep 15; 275(37):28526-31. PMID: 10871605.
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    162. Kawakami Y, Kitaura J, Satterthwaite AB, Kato RM, Asai K, Hartman SE, Maeda-Yamamoto M, Lowell C, Rawlings DJ, Witte ON, Kawakami T. Redundant and opposing functions of two tyrosine kinases, Btk and Lyn, in mast cell activation. J Immunol. 2000 Aug 1; 165(3):1210-9. PMID: 10903718.
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    165. Satterthwaite AB, Willis F, Kanchanastit P, Fruman D, Cantley LC, Helgason CD, Humphries RK, Lowell C, Simon M, Leitges M, Tarakhovsky A, Tedder TF, Lesche R, Wu H, Witte ON. A sensitized genetic system for the analysis of murine B lymphocyte signal transduction pathways dependent on Bruton's tyrosine kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2000 Jun 6; 97(12):6687-92. PMID: 10829070; PMCID: PMC18703.
    166. Mócsai A, Jakus Z, Vántus T, Berton G, Lowell C, Ligeti E. Kinase pathways in chemoattractant-induced degranulation of neutrophils: the role of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase activated by Src family kinases. J Immunol. 2000 Apr 15; 164(8):4321-31. PMID: 10754332.
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    167. Weinstein SL, Finn AJ, Davé SH, Meng F, Lowell C, Sanghera JS, DeFranco AL. Phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase and mTOR mediate lipopolysaccharide-stimulated nitric oxide production in macrophages via interferon-beta. J Leukoc Biol. 2000 Mar; 67(3):405-14. PMID: 10733102.
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    168. Fitzer-Attas CJ, Lowry M, Crowley MT, Finn AJ, Meng F, DeFranco AL, Lowell C. Fcgamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis in macrophages lacking the Src family tyrosine kinases Hck, Fgr, and Lyn. J Exp Med. 2000 Feb 21; 191(4):669-82. PMID: 10684859; PMCID: PMC2195832.
    169. Gresham HD, Dale BM, Potter JW, Chang PW, Vines CM, Lowell C, Lagenaur CF, Willman CL. Negative regulation of phagocytosis in murine macrophages by the Src kinase family member, Fgr. J Exp Med. 2000 Feb 7; 191(3):515-28. PMID: 10662797; PMCID: PMC2195814.
    170. Brady KA, Atwater SK, Lowell C. Flow cytometric detection of CD10 (cALLA) on peripheral blood B lymphocytes of neonates. Br J Haematol. 1999 Dec; 107(4):712-5. PMID: 10606874.
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    171. Suen PW, Ilic D, Caveggion E, Berton G, Damsky CH, Lowell C. Impaired integrin-mediated signal transduction, altered cytoskeletal structure and reduced motility in Hck/Fgr deficient macrophages. J Cell Sci. 1999 Nov; 112 ( Pt 22):4067-78. PMID: 10547366.
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    172. Berton G, Lowell C. Integrin signalling in neutrophils and macrophages. Cell Signal. 1999 Sep; 11(9):621-35. PMID: 10530871.
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    173. Lowell C, Berton G. Integrin signal transduction in myeloid leukocytes. J Leukoc Biol. 1999 Mar; 65(3):313-20. PMID: 10080533.
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    174. Mócsai A, Ligeti E, Lowell C, Berton G. Adhesion-dependent degranulation of neutrophils requires the Src family kinases Fgr and Hck. J Immunol. 1999 Jan 15; 162(2):1120-6. PMID: 9916742.
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    175. Satterthwaite AB, Lowell C, Khan WN, Sideras P, Alt FW, Witte ON. Independent and opposing roles for Btk and lyn in B and myeloid signaling pathways. J Exp Med. 1998 Sep 7; 188(5):833-44. PMID: 9730885; PMCID: PMC2213392.
    176. Meng F, Lowell C. A beta 1 integrin signaling pathway involving Src-family kinases, Cbl and PI-3 kinase is required for macrophage spreading and migration. EMBO J. 1998 Aug 3; 17(15):4391-403. PMID: 9687507; PMCID: PMC1170772.
    177. DeFranco AL, Chan VW, Lowell C. Positive and negative roles of the tyrosine kinase Lyn in B cell function. Semin Immunol. 1998 Aug; 10(4):299-307. PMID: 9695186.
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    178. Chan VW, Mecklenbräuker I, Su I, Texido G, Leitges M, Carsetti R, Lowell C, Rajewsky K, Miyake K, Tarakhovsky A. The molecular mechanism of B cell activation by toll-like receptor protein RP-105. J Exp Med. 1998 Jul 6; 188(1):93-101. PMID: 9653087; PMCID: PMC2525555.
    179. Lowell C, Berton G. Resistance to endotoxic shock and reduced neutrophil migration in mice deficient for the Src-family kinases Hck and Fgr. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Jun 23; 95(13):7580-4. PMID: 9636192; PMCID: PMC22689.
    180. Chan VW, Lowell C, DeFranco AL. Defective negative regulation of antigen receptor signaling in Lyn-deficient B lymphocytes. Curr Biol. 1998 May 7; 8(10):545-53. PMID: 9601638.
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    181. Jadus MR, Williams CC, Avina MD, Ly M, Kim S, Liu Y, Narasaki R, Lowell C, Wepsic HT. Macrophages kill T9 glioma tumor cells bearing the membrane isoform of macrophage colony stimulating factor through a phagocytosis-dependent pathway. J Immunol. 1998 Jan 1; 160(1):361-8. PMID: 9551992.
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    182. Schwartzberg PL, Xing L, Hoffmann O, Lowell C, Garrett L, Boyce BF, Varmus HE. Rescue of osteoclast function by transgenic expression of kinase-deficient Src in src-/- mutant mice. Genes Dev. 1997 Nov 1; 11(21):2835-44. PMID: 9353253; PMCID: PMC316651.
    183. Crowley MT, Costello PS, Fitzer-Attas CJ, Turner M, Meng F, Lowell C, Tybulewicz VL, DeFranco AL. A critical role for Syk in signal transduction and phagocytosis mediated by Fcgamma receptors on macrophages. J Exp Med. 1997 Oct 6; 186(7):1027-39. PMID: 9314552; PMCID: PMC2199061.
    184. Chan VW, Meng F, Soriano P, DeFranco AL, Lowell C. Characterization of the B lymphocyte populations in Lyn-deficient mice and the role of Lyn in signal initiation and down-regulation. Immunity. 1997 Jul; 7(1):69-81. PMID: 9252121.
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    185. Meng F, Lowell C. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage activation and signal transduction in the absence of Src-family kinases Hck, Fgr, and Lyn. J Exp Med. 1997 May 5; 185(9):1661-70. PMID: 9151903; PMCID: PMC2196288.
    186. De Franceschi L, Fumagalli L, Olivieri O, Corrocher R, Lowell C, Berton G. Deficiency of Src family kinases Fgr and Hck results in activation of erythrocyte K/Cl cotransport. J Clin Invest. 1997 Jan 15; 99(2):220-7. PMID: 9005990; PMCID: PMC507789.
    187. Lowell C, Soriano P. Knockouts of Src-family kinases: stiff bones, wimpy T cells, and bad memories. Genes Dev. 1996 Aug 1; 10(15):1845-57. PMID: 8756343.
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    188. Lowell C, Fumagalli L, Berton G. Deficiency of Src family kinases p59/61hck and p58c-fgr results in defective adhesion-dependent neutrophil functions. J Cell Biol. 1996 May; 133(4):895-910. PMID: 8666673; PMCID: PMC2120842.
    189. Lowell C, Niwa M, Soriano P, Varmus HE. Deficiency of the Hck and Src tyrosine kinases results in extreme levels of extramedullary hematopoiesis. Blood. 1996 Mar 1; 87(5):1780-92. PMID: 8634424.
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    190. Berton G, Yan SR, Fumagalli L, Lowell C. Neutrophil activation by adhesion: mechanisms and pathophysiological implications. Int J Clin Lab Res. 1996; 26(3):160-77. PMID: 8905448.
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    191. Lowell C, Soriano P, Varmus HE. Functional overlap in the src gene family: inactivation of hck and fgr impairs natural immunity. Genes Dev. 1994 Feb 15; 8(4):387-98. PMID: 8125254.
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    192. Varmus HE, Lowell C. Cancer genes and hematopoiesis. Blood. 1994 Jan 1; 83(1):5-9. PMID: 8274752.
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    193. Lowell C, Klickstein LB, Carter RH, Mitchell JA, Fearon DT, Ahearn JM. Mapping of the Epstein-Barr virus and C3dg binding sites to a common domain on complement receptor type 2. J Exp Med. 1989 Dec 1; 170(6):1931-46. PMID: 2479703; PMCID: PMC2189535.
    194. Lowell C, Tomlinson PT, Koch KE. Sucrose-metabolizing enzymes in transport tissues and adjacent sink structures in developing citrus fruit. Plant Physiol. 1989 Aug; 90(4):1394-402. PMID: 16666942.
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    195. Shirey RS, Morton SJ, Lawton KB, Lowell C, Kickler TS, Ness PM. Fenoprofen-induced immune hemolysis. Difficulties in diagnosis and complications in compatibility testing. Am J Clin Pathol. 1988 Mar; 89(3):410-4. PMID: 3348176.
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    196. Lowell C, Stearman RS, Morrow JF. Transcriptional regulation of serum amyloid A gene expression. J Biol Chem. 1986 Jun 25; 261(18):8453-61. PMID: 2424896.
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    197. Lowell C, Potter DA, Stearman RS, Morrow JF. Structure of the murine serum amyloid A gene family. Gene conversion. J Biol Chem. 1986 Jun 25; 261(18):8442-52. PMID: 3013853.
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    198. Stearman RS, Lowell C, Peltzman CG, Morrow JF. The sequence and structure of a new serum amyloid A gene. Nucleic Acids Res. 1986 Jan 24; 14(2):797-809. PMID: 3003697; PMCID: PMC339465.
    199. Stearman RS, Lowell C, Pearson WR, Morrow JF. Regulation of synthesis of amyloid A-related protein. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1982; 389:106-15. PMID: 6953913.
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    200. Bogenhagen D, Lowell C, Clayton DA. Mechanism of mitochondrial DNA replication in mouse L-cells. Replication of unicircular dimer molecules. J Mol Biol. 1981 May 5; 148(1):77-93. PMID: 7310869.
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    201. Lowell C, Bogenhagen D, Clayton DA. S1 nuclease-specific nicking of mitochondrial DNA containing displacement loops. Anal Biochem. 1978 Dec; 91(2):521-31. PMID: 9762139.
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    202. Howitt JW, Lowell C. Topical anesthetic effectiveness. An old and new product evaluated. N Y J Dent. 1972 Nov; 38(9):549-50. PMID: 4562117.
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    203. Howitt JW, Lowell C. Topical anesthetic effectiveness. An old and new product evaluated. N Y State Dent J. 1972 Nov; 38(9):549-50. PMID: 4578243.
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