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Mark Anderson, MD, PhD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentDiabetes Center
Address513 Parnassus Ave
San Francisco CA 94143
Phone415-502-8052
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of ChicagoM.D.1994Pritzker School of Medicine
    University of ChicagoPhD1992Immunology
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    2004Pew Scholar
    2009Robert B. Friend and Michelle M. Friend Endowed Chair in Diabetes Research
    2009American Society of Clinical Investigation
    UCSF2012Byers Award in Basic Science
    2016American Association of Physicians

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    EDUCATION/CLINICAL TRAINING
    MD: MD, PhD, University of Chicago, 1994
    Residency: University of Minnesota, MD, Internal Medicine, 1994-1997
    Chief Resident, University of Minnesota 1997-1998
    Fellowship: Massachusetts General Hospital, Adult Endocrinology, 1998-2001
    Board Certification: Endocrinology and Metabolism, 2001, Renewed 2012

    ACADEMIC INTERESTS
    The main research interest of our laboratory group is to examine the genetic control of autoimmune diseases to gain a better understanding of the mechanisms by which immune tolerance is broken. A major focus of our lab group is a human autoimmune syndrome called Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type 1 (APS1 or APECED), which is classically manifested by an autoimmune attack directed at multiple endocrine organs. This disease is inherited in a monogenic autosomal recessive fashion and the defective gene has been identified and is called Aire (for autoimmune regulator). Aire knockout mice, like their human counterparts, develop an autoimmune disease that is targeted to multiple organs. Through the use of the mouse model we, along with others, have determined that Aire plays an important role in immune tolerance by promoting the expression of many self proteins in specialized antigen presenting cells in the thymus called medullary epithelial cells (mTEC’s).

    Recently, we have determined that this process is not only critical in the thymus, but also in peripheral lymphoid organs. Current studies in the lab are directed at further understanding the relative contribution of specialized Aire-expressing cells to immune tolerance in multiple autoimmune disease models. In addition to these ongoing studies, our laboratory is also interested the pathogenesis of autoimmune diabetes and in developing other models of autoimmune disease by using transgenic, knockout, and knock-in approaches.



    CLINICAL INTERESTS:
    Type 1 diabetes and associated autoimmune disorders

    Appointments: 415-353-2350


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Using human stem cell-derived thymic epithelium to remodel T1D immune tolerance
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK107383Jul 1, 2016 - Jun 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Disruption of T cell tolerance in type 1 diabetes
    NIH/NIAID P01AI118688Jun 8, 2016 - May 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Developing eTACs as a Novel Method of Tolerance in Type 1 Diabetes
    NIH/NIDDK R01DK101622Apr 2, 2014 - Mar 31, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Thymic medullary epithelial cell turnover and control of immune tolerance
    NIH/NIAID R01AI097457Dec 1, 2011 - Jun 30, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Aire-defieciency as a novel model of uveitis
    NIH/NEI R01EY016408Jun 1, 2005 - Jun 30, 2014
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of the AIRE Gene in the Development of Autoimmunity
    NIH/NIDDK K08DK059958Sep 1, 2002 - Aug 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Immune Tolerance and Autoimmunity
    NIH/NIAID P01AI035297Sep 30, 1993 - Jul 31, 2012
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Medical Scientist Training Program
    NIH/NIGMS T32GM007618Jul 1, 1978 - Jun 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse Global Health

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Sagan SA, Winger RC, Cruz-Herranz A, Nelson PA, Hagberg S, Miller CN, Spencer CM, Ho PP, Bennett JL, Levy M, Levin MH, Verkman AS, Steinman L, Green AJ, Anderson M, Sobel RA, Zamvil SS. Tolerance checkpoint bypass permits emergence of pathogenic T cells to neuromyelitis optica autoantigen aquaporin-4. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Dec 20; 113(51):14781-14786. PMID: 27940915.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Proekt I, Miller CN, Jeanne M, Fasano KJ, Moon JJ, Lowell CA, Gould DB, Anderson M, DeFranco AL. LYN- and AIRE-mediated tolerance checkpoint defects synergize to trigger organ-specific autoimmunity. J Clin Invest. 2016 Oct 03; 126(10):3758-3771. PMID: 27571405.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Anderson M, Su MA. AIRE expands: new roles in immune tolerance and beyond. Nat Rev Immunol. 2016 Apr; 16(4):247-58. PMID: 26972725.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Landegren N, Sharon D, Freyhult E, Hallgren Å, Eriksson D, Edqvist PH, Bensing S, Wahlberg J, Nelson LM, Gustafsson J, Husebye ES, Anderson M, Snyder M, Kämpe O. Proteome-wide survey of the autoimmune target repertoire in autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1. Sci Rep. 2016; 6:20104. PMID: 26830021.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Malhotra D, Linehan JL, Dileepan T, Lee YJ, Purtha WE, Lu JV, Nelson RW, Fife BT, Orr HT, Anderson M, Hogquist KA, Jenkins MK. Tolerance is established in polyclonal CD4(+) T cells by distinct mechanisms, according to self-peptide expression patterns. Nat Immunol. 2016 Feb; 17(2):187-95. PMID: 26726812.
      View in: PubMed
    6. LaFlam TN, Seumois G, Miller CN, Lwin W, Fasano KJ, Waterfield M, Proekt I, Vijayanand P, Anderson M. Identification of a novel cis-regulatory element essential for immune tolerance. J Exp Med. 2015 Nov 16; 212(12):1993-2002. PMID: 26527800; PMCID: PMC4647269 [Available on 05/16/16].
    7. Chan AY, Anderson M. Central tolerance to self revealed by the autoimmune regulator. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2015 Nov; 1356(1):80-9. PMID: 26579596; PMCID: PMC4654700 [Available on 11/01/16].
    8. Anderson M, Mackay F. Editorial overview: Autoimmunity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2015 Dec; 37:v-vii. PMID: 26510378.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Khan IS, Park CY, Mavropoulos A, Shariat N, Pollack JL, Barczak AJ, Erle DJ, McManus MT, Anderson M, Jeker LT. Identification of MiR-205 As a MicroRNA That Is Highly Expressed in Medullary Thymic Epithelial Cells. PLoS One. 2015; 10(8):e0135440. PMID: 26270036; PMCID: PMC4535774.
    10. Yoshida H, Bansal K, Schaefer U, Chapman T, Rioja I, Proekt I, Anderson M, Prinjha RK, Tarakhovsky A, Benoist C, Mathis D. Brd4 bridges the transcriptional regulators, Aire and P-TEFb, to promote elongation of peripheral-tissue antigen transcripts in thymic stromal cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Aug 11; 112(32):E4448-57. PMID: 26216992; PMCID: PMC4538633 [Available on 02/11/16].
    11. Landegren N, Sharon D, Shum AK, Khan IS, Fasano KJ, Hallgren Å, Kampf C, Freyhult E, Ardesjö-Lundgren B, Alimohammadi M, Rathsman S, Ludvigsson JF, Lundh D, Motrich R, Rivero V, Fong L, Giwercman A, Gustafsson J, Perheentupa J, Husebye ES, Anderson M, Snyder M, Kämpe O. Transglutaminase 4 as a prostate autoantigen in male subfertility. Sci Transl Med. 2015 Jun 17; 7(292):292ra101. PMID: 26084804.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Anderson M, Casanova JL. More than Meets the Eye: Monogenic Autoimmunity Strikes Again. Immunity. 2015 Jun 16; 42(6):986-8. PMID: 26084018.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Hardtke-Wolenski M, Taubert R, Noyan F, Sievers M, Dywicki J, Schlue J, Falk CS, Ardesjö Lundgren B, Scott HS, Pich A, Anderson M, Manns MP, Jaeckel E. Autoimmune hepatitis in a murine autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type 1 model is directed against multiple autoantigens. Hepatology. 2015 Apr; 61(4):1295-305. PMID: 25475693.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Anderson M. Too much of a good thing: NLRC4 and autoinflammation. J Exp Med. 2014 Nov 17; 211(12):2329. PMID: 25403807; PMCID: PMC4235639.
    15. Khan IS, Mouchess ML, Zhu ML, Conley B, Fasano KJ, Hou Y, Fong L, Su MA, Anderson M. Enhancement of an anti-tumor immune response by transient blockade of central T cell tolerance. J Exp Med. 2014 May 5; 211(5):761-8. PMID: 24752296; PMCID: PMC4010907.
    16. Chen YF, Zhou D, Metzger T, Gallup M, Jeanne M, Gould DB, Anderson M, McNamara NA. Spontaneous development of autoimmune uveitis Is CCR2 dependent. Am J Pathol. 2014 Jun; 184(6):1695-705. PMID: 24736166; PMCID: PMC4044718.
    17. Schafer AL, Mumm S, El-Sayed I, McAlister WH, Horvai AE, Tom AM, Hsiao EC, Schaefer FV, Collins MT, Anderson M, Whyte MP, Shoback DM. Panostotic expansile bone disease with massive jaw tumor formation and a novel mutation in the signal peptide of RANK. J Bone Miner Res. 2014 Apr; 29(4):911-21. PMID: 24014458; PMCID: PMC4419358.
    18. Khan IS, Taniguchi RT, Fasano KJ, Anderson M, Jeker LT. Canonical microRNAs in thymic epithelial cells promote central tolerance. Eur J Immunol. 2014 May; 44(5):1313-9. PMID: 24515814; PMCID: PMC4141217.
    19. Waterfield M, Khan IS, Cortez JT, Fan U, Metzger T, Greer A, Fasano K, Martinez-Llordella M, Pollack JL, Erle DJ, Su M, Anderson M. The transcriptional regulator Aire coopts the repressive ATF7ip-MBD1 complex for the induction of immunotolerance. Nat Immunol. 2014 Mar; 15(3):258-65. PMID: 24464130; PMCID: PMC4172453.
    20. Price JV, Haddon DJ, Kemmer D, Delepine G, Mandelbaum G, Jarrell JA, Gupta R, Balboni I, Chakravarty EF, Sokolove J, Shum AK, Anderson M, Cheng MH, Robinson WH, Browne SK, Holland SM, Baechler EC, Utz PJ. Protein microarray analysis reveals BAFF-binding autoantibodies in systemic lupus erythematosus. J Clin Invest. 2013 Dec; 123(12):5135-45. PMID: 24270423; PMCID: PMC3859403.
    21. Mohan JF, Calderon B, Anderson M, Unanue ER. Pathogenic CD4? T cells recognizing an unstable peptide of insulin are directly recruited into islets bypassing local lymph nodes. J Exp Med. 2013 Oct 21; 210(11):2403-14. PMID: 24127484; PMCID: PMC3804950.
    22. Shum AK, Alimohammadi M, Tan CL, Cheng MH, Metzger TC, Law CS, Lwin W, Perheentupa J, Bour-Jordan H, Carel JC, Husebye ES, De Luca F, Janson C, Sargur R, Dubois N, Kajosaari M, Wolters PJ, Chapman HA, Kämpe O, Anderson M. BPIFB1 is a lung-specific autoantigen associated with interstitial lung disease. Sci Transl Med. 2013 Oct 9; 5(206):206ra139. PMID: 24107778; PMCID: PMC3882146.
    23. Metzger TC, Khan IS, Gardner JM, Mouchess ML, Johannes KP, Krawisz AK, Skrzypczynska KM, Anderson M. Lineage tracing and cell ablation identify a post-Aire-expressing thymic epithelial cell population. Cell Rep. 2013 Oct 17; 5(1):166-79. PMID: 24095736; PMCID: PMC3820422.
    24. Gardner JM, Metzger TC, McMahon EJ, Au-Yeung BB, Krawisz AK, Lu W, Price JD, Johannes KP, Satpathy AT, Murphy KM, Tarbell KV, Weiss A, Anderson M. Extrathymic Aire-expressing cells are a distinct bone marrow-derived population that induce functional inactivation of CD4? T cells. Immunity. 2013 Sep 19; 39(3):560-72. PMID: 23993652; PMCID: PMC3804105.
    25. Cheng MH, Anderson M. Insights into type 1 diabetes from the autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes. Curr Opin Endocrinol Diabetes Obes. 2013 Aug; 20(4):271-8. PMID: 23770732; PMCID: PMC4165040.
    26. Parent AV, Russ HA, Khan IS, LaFlam TN, Metzger TC, Anderson M, Hebrok M. Generation of functional thymic epithelium from human embryonic stem cells that supports host T cell development. Cell Stem Cell. 2013 Aug 1; 13(2):219-29. PMID: 23684540; PMCID: PMC3869399.
    27. Breunig A, Lee MS, Miller BS, Binstadt BA, Anderson M, Montezuma S. Autoimmune retinopathy in a patient with autoimmune polyendocrine syndrome type I. Ocul Immunol Inflamm. 2013 Apr; 21(2):153-7. PMID: 23697860.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Gerstein NS, Carey MC, Braude DA, Tawil I, Petersen TR, Deriy L, Anderson M. Efficacy of facemask ventilation techniques in novice providers. J Clin Anesth. 2013 May; 25(3):193-7. PMID: 23523573.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Taniguchi RT, DeVoss JJ, Moon JJ, Sidney J, Sette A, Jenkins MK, Anderson M. Detection of an autoreactive T-cell population within the polyclonal repertoire that undergoes distinct autoimmune regulator (Aire)-mediated selection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2012 May 15; 109(20):7847-52. PMID: 22552229; PMCID: PMC3356674.
    30. Su MA, Davini D, Cheng P, Giang K, Fan U, DeVoss JJ, Johannes KP, Taylor L, Shum AK, Valenzise M, Meloni A, Bour-Jordan H, Anderson M. Defective autoimmune regulator-dependent central tolerance to myelin protein zero is linked to autoimmune peripheral neuropathy. J Immunol. 2012 May 15; 188(10):4906-12. PMID: 22490868; PMCID: PMC3579634.
    31. Cheng MH, Anderson M. Monogenic autoimmunity. Annu Rev Immunol. 2012; 30:393-427. PMID: 22224765.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Waterfield M, Anderson M. Autoimmunity's collateral damage: Immunodeficiency hints at autoreactivity to cytokines. Nat Med. 2011 Sep; 17(9):1054-5. PMID: 21900922.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Metzger TC, Anderson M. Control of central and peripheral tolerance by Aire. Immunol Rev. 2011 May; 241(1):89-103. PMID: 21488892; PMCID: PMC3093413.
    34. Metzger TC, Anderson M. Myocarditis: a defect in central immune tolerance? J Clin Invest. 2011 Apr; 121(4):1251-3. PMID: 21436581; PMCID: PMC3069797.
    35. Anderson M, Su MA. Aire and T cell development. Curr Opin Immunol. 2011 Apr; 23(2):198-206. PMID: 21163636; PMCID: PMC3073725.
    36. Taniguchi RT, Anderson M. The role of Aire in clonal selection. Immunol Cell Biol. 2011 Jan; 89(1):40-4. PMID: 21079643; PMCID: PMC3017232.
    37. Waterfield M, Anderson M. Clues to immune tolerance: the monogenic autoimmune syndromes. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2010 Dec; 1214:138-55. PMID: 20969580; PMCID: PMC3010261.
    38. Husebye ES, Anderson M. Autoimmune polyendocrine syndromes: clues to type 1 diabetes pathogenesis. Immunity. 2010 Apr 23; 32(4):479-87. PMID: 20412758; PMCID: PMC2859971.
    39. DeVoss JJ, LeClair NP, Hou Y, Grewal NK, Johannes KP, Lu W, Yang T, Meagher C, Fong L, Strauss EC, Anderson M. An autoimmune response to odorant binding protein 1a is associated with dry eye in the Aire-deficient mouse. J Immunol. 2010 Apr 15; 184(8):4236-46. PMID: 20237294; PMCID: PMC2851482.
    40. Cheng MH, Fan U, Grewal N, Barnes M, Mehta A, Taylor S, Husebye ES, Murphy EJ, Anderson M. Acquired autoimmune polyglandular syndrome, thymoma, and an AIRE defect. N Engl J Med. 2010 Feb 25; 362(8):764-6. PMID: 20181983; PMCID: PMC3462012.
    41. Shum AK, DeVoss J, Tan CL, Hou Y, Johannes K, O'Gorman CS, Jones KD, Sochett EB, Fong L, Anderson M. Identification of an autoantigen demonstrates a link between interstitial lung disease and a defect in central tolerance. Sci Transl Med. 2009 Dec 2; 1(9):9ra20. PMID: 20368189; PMCID: PMC2856693.
    42. Gardner JM, Fletcher AL, Anderson M, Turley SJ. AIRE in the thymus and beyond. Curr Opin Immunol. 2009 Dec; 21(6):582-9. PMID: 19833494; PMCID: PMC2787634.
    43. Gardner JM, Anderson M. The sickness unto Deaf. Nat Immunol. 2009 Sep; 10(9):934-6. PMID: 19692991; PMCID: PMC2773699.
    44. Hou Y, DeVoss J, Dao V, Kwek S, Simko JP, McNeel DG, Anderson M, Fong L. An aberrant prostate antigen-specific immune response causes prostatitis in mice and is associated with chronic prostatitis in humans. J Clin Invest. 2009 Jul; 119(7):2031-41. PMID: 19603556; PMCID: PMC2701875.
    45. Su MA, Anderson M. Monogenic autoimmune diseases: insights into self-tolerance. Pediatr Res. 2009 May; 65(5 Pt 2):20R-25R. PMID: 19190526; PMCID: PMC2951117.
    46. Louvet C, Kabre BG, Davini DW, Martinier N, Su MA, DeVoss JJ, Rosenthal WL, Anderson M, Bour-Jordan H, Bluestone JA. A novel myelin P0-specific T cell receptor transgenic mouse develops a fulminant autoimmune peripheral neuropathy. J Exp Med. 2009 Mar 16; 206(3):507-14. PMID: 19221395; PMCID: PMC2699118.
    47. Su MA, Stenerson M, Liu W, Putnam A, Conte F, Bluestone JA, Anderson M. The role of X-linked FOXP3 in the autoimmune susceptibility of Turner Syndrome patients. Clin Immunol. 2009 Apr; 131(1):139-44. PMID: 19150256; PMCID: PMC2949956.
    48. Anderson M. Update in endocrine autoimmunity. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2008 Oct; 93(10):3663-70. PMID: 18842982; PMCID: PMC2579640.
    49. Devoss JJ, Shum AK, Johannes KP, Lu W, Krawisz AK, Wang P, Yang T, Leclair NP, Austin C, Strauss EC, Anderson M. Effector mechanisms of the autoimmune syndrome in the murine model of autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1. J Immunol. 2008 Sep 15; 181(6):4072-9. PMID: 18768863; PMCID: PMC2556863.
    50. Zhou X, Jeker LT, Fife BT, Zhu S, Anderson M, McManus MT, Bluestone JA. Selective miRNA disruption in T reg cells leads to uncontrolled autoimmunity. J Exp Med. 2008 Sep 1; 205(9):1983-91. PMID: 18725525; PMCID: PMC2526194.
    51. Gardner JM, Devoss JJ, Friedman RS, Wong DJ, Tan YX, Zhou X, Johannes KP, Su MA, Chang HY, Krummel MF, Anderson M. Deletional tolerance mediated by extrathymic Aire-expressing cells. Science. 2008 Aug 8; 321(5890):843-7. PMID: 18687966; PMCID: PMC2532844.
    52. Su MA, Giang K, Zumer K, Jiang H, Oven I, Rinn JL, Devoss JJ, Johannes KP, Lu W, Gardner J, Chang A, Bubulya P, Chang HY, Peterlin BM, Anderson M. Mechanisms of an autoimmunity syndrome in mice caused by a dominant mutation in Aire. J Clin Invest. 2008 May; 118(5):1712-26. PMID: 18414681; PMCID: PMC2293336.
    53. Schaller CE, Wang CL, Beck-Engeser G, Goss L, Scott HS, Anderson M, Wabl M. Expression of Aire and the early wave of apoptosis in spermatogenesis. J Immunol. 2008 Feb 1; 180(3):1338-43. PMID: 18209027.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Li S, Nikulina K, DeVoss J, Wu AJ, Strauss EC, Anderson M, McNamara NA. Small proline-rich protein 1B (SPRR1B) is a biomarker for squamous metaplasia in dry eye disease. Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci. 2008 Jan; 49(1):34-41. PMID: 18172072; PMCID: PMC2574421.
    55. Zhang L, Barker JM, Babu S, Su M, Stenerson M, Cheng M, Shum A, Zamir E, Badolato R, Law A, Eisenbarth GS, Anderson M. A robust immunoassay for anti-interferon autoantibodies that is highly specific for patients with autoimmune polyglandular syndrome type 1. Clin Immunol. 2007 Nov; 125(2):131-7. PMID: 17825626; PMCID: PMC2080870.
    56. Cheng MH, Shum AK, Anderson M. What's new in the Aire? Trends Immunol. 2007 Jul; 28(7):321-7. PMID: 17556019.
      View in: PubMed
    57. DeVoss JJ, Anderson M. Lessons on immune tolerance from the monogenic disease APS1. Curr Opin Genet Dev. 2007 Jun; 17(3):193-200. PMID: 17466510.
      View in: PubMed
    58. DeVoss J, Hou Y, Johannes K, Lu W, Liou GI, Rinn J, Chang H, Caspi RR, Caspi R, Fong L, Anderson M. Spontaneous autoimmunity prevented by thymic expression of a single self-antigen. J Exp Med. 2006 Nov 27; 203(12):2727-35. PMID: 17116738; PMCID: PMC2118158.
    59. Jiang W, Anderson M, Bronson R, Mathis D, Benoist C. Modifier loci condition autoimmunity provoked by Aire deficiency. J Exp Med. 2005 Sep 19; 202(6):805-15. PMID: 16172259; PMCID: PMC2212943.
    60. Anderson M, Venanzi ES, Chen Z, Berzins SP, Benoist C, Mathis D. The cellular mechanism of Aire control of T cell tolerance. Immunity. 2005 Aug; 23(2):227-39. PMID: 16111640.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Anderson M, Bluestone JA. The NOD mouse: a model of immune dysregulation. Annu Rev Immunol. 2005; 23:447-85. PMID: 15771578.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Su MA, Anderson M. Aire: an update. Curr Opin Immunol. 2004 Dec; 16(6):746-52. PMID: 15511668.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Anderson M. Autoimmune endocrine disease. Curr Opin Immunol. 2002 Dec; 14(6):760-4. PMID: 12413526.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Anderson M, Venanzi ES, Klein L, Chen Z, Berzins SP, Turley SJ, von Boehmer H, Bronson R, Dierich A, Benoist C, Mathis D. Projection of an immunological self shadow within the thymus by the aire protein. Science. 2002 Nov 15; 298(5597):1395-401. PMID: 12376594.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Anderson M, Swier K, Arneson L, Miller J. Enhanced antigen presentation in the absence of the invariant chain endosomal localization signal. J Exp Med. 1993 Dec 1; 178(6):1959-69. PMID: 7902408; PMCID: PMC2191285.
    66. Naujokas MF, Morin M, Anderson M, Peterson M, Miller J. The chondroitin sulfate form of invariant chain can enhance stimulation of T cell responses through interaction with CD44. Cell. 1993 Jul 30; 74(2):257-68. PMID: 8343954.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Anderson M, Miller J. Invariant chain can function as a chaperone protein for class II major histocompatibility complex molecules. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Mar 15; 89(6):2282-6. PMID: 1549594; PMCID: PMC48641.
    68. Lakey EK, Casten LA, Anderson M, Smolenski LA, Smith JA, Margoliash E, Pierce SK. T cell activation by processed antigen is equally blocked by I-E and I-A-restricted immunodominant peptides. Eur J Immunol. 1987 Nov; 17(11):1605-9. PMID: 3500065.
      View in: PubMed
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