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Mark Ansel, PhD

TitleAssociate Professor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentMicrobiology and Immunology
Address513 Parnassus Ave
San Francisco CA 94143
Phone415-476-5368
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoPh.D.2001 Graduate Division (Biomedical Sciences)

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Naive lymphocytes that encounter their cognate antigens differentiate into a variety of immune effector cells under the influence of cytokines and other inflammatory stimuli. Lymphocyte lineage decisions are critical for the development of protective immunity against a great diversity of pathogens, but improper or exaggerated responses also contribute to the development and pathology of autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, allergy, and asthma.
    The primary experimental system utilized by the laboratory is the differentiation of helper T cells. Their distinct cellular identities (Th1, Th2, etc.) and associated functions are defined by characteristic gene expression programs. We and many others have documented how these programs are controlled by transcription factors, the cis-regulatory DNA elements to which they bind, and epigenetic modifications that constrain chromatin accessibility at those sites.

    More recently, we found that the endogenous RNA interference (RNAi) pathway also regulates helper T cell differentiation, as naive T cells lacking Dicer exhibit rapid, unrestrained differentiation into effector cells. MicroRNAs (miRNA) are the best-characterized class of natural short regulatory RNAs. As they differentiate, T cells reset their miRNA repertoire. This rapid change in miRNA expression may be important to allow T cells to change their gene expression programs and develop effector functions.

    The major research goals of our laboratory are: i) to define the molecular mechanisms that control miRNA turnover and determine how this process is accelerated in activated lymphocytes; ii) to characterize the expression and function of noncoding RNAs, including miRNAs, in T cell differentiation, and iii) to extend our work beyond in vitro and mouse models to explore how chromatin remodeling and regulatory RNAs contribute to the pathogenic properties of T cells in human asthma.

    MicroRNAs, transcription factors, and epigenetic regulation shape the gene expression programs that determine cell identity and function. The Ansel lab studies how these molecular mechanisms work together to control lymphocyte development, differentiation, and function in immunity.

    We use in vitro cell differentiation systems, mouse genetics, disease models, and high dimensional cellular and molecular analyses in human biospecimens to unravel the regulatory networks that underlie immunity and immune pathology, especially allergy and asthma.

    Lymphocyte lineage decisions and the deployment of their effector functions are critical for the development of protective immunity against a great diversity of pathogens. However, improper or exaggerated responses underlie the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, allergy, and asthma. Our primary experimental system is the differentiation of helper T cells, the central coordinators of adaptive immune responses. Upon immune activation, naïve CD4+ T cells can differentiate into several different helper T cell effectors subtypes (e.g. Th1, Th2, Th17, iTreg, Tfh, etc.). These lineages are defined by their characteristic gene expression programs and mediate distinct immune functions. These gene expression programs are controlled by external factors that derive from other cells or the environment, signaling-induced and lineage-specific transcription factors, epigenetic regulation of transcriptional responses, and posttranscriptional mechanisms, including RNA-binding proteins and miRNAs. The depth of our knowledge about the networks that control helper T cells makes them an attractive model for studying basic mechanisms of gene regulation.

    Active projects in the laboratory mostly focus on miRNAs. We study how individual miRNA families regulate helper T cell differentiation and immune function, as well as the regulation of the miRNA pathway itself during immune responses. Naive CD4+ T cells that cannot produce any miRNAs exhibit reduced cell division and survival in response to immune stimuli. Surprisingly, they also undergo rapid unrestrained differentiation into effector cells. We have developed a screening technology that allows us to rapidly determine which specific miRNAs regulate each of these T cell behaviors, and a high throughput nanoscaled pipeline for determining miRNA expression patterns in small clinical samples (such as sorted T cell subsets from the airways of human asthmatic subjects, serum, sputum, and other sources of extracellular miRNAs, etc.). In addition, we discovered that T cells rapidly reset their miRNA repertoire upon activation. This process that involves ubiquitination and degradation of Argonaute proteins, but the signaling mechanisms and the fate of associated miRNAs remains unknown. This rapid change in miRNA expression may be important to allow T cells to change their gene expression programs and develop effector functions.


    The major research goals of our laboratory are:

    1) To define the molecular mechanisms that control miRNA homeostasis in lymphocytes, and determine how the miRNA repertoire is so dramatically remodeled during T cell activation.

    2) To characterize the function of individual miRNAs that regulate T cell differentiation and immune effector functions.

    3) To determine how the expression and function of miRNAs contribute to the pathogenic properties of T cells in human asthma.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    In Vivo Regulated Release and Function of Extracellular Small RNAs
    NIH/NCI U19CA179512Sep 1, 2013 - Aug 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Investigator
    INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSES IN TH2-HIGH ASTHMA
    NIH/NHLBI P01HL107202Aug 15, 2012 - May 31, 2017
    Role: Co-Investigator
    MicroRNA directed pathway discovery in helper T cell driven airway inflammation
    NIH R01HL109102Aug 1, 2011 - Mar 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regulation of miRNA expression during helper T cell differentiation
    NIH R56AI089828Aug 15, 2010 - Jul 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Predoctoral Training in Biomedical Sciences
    NIH/NIGMS T32GM008568Jul 1, 1995 - Jun 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
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    Collapse Featured Publications

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Montoya MM, Maul J, Singh PB, Pua HH, Dahlström F, Wu N, Huang X, Ansel M, Baumjohann D. A Distinct Inhibitory Function for miR-18a in Th17 Cell Differentiation. J Immunol. 2017 Jun 12. PMID: 28607111.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Montoya MM, Ansel M. Small RNA Transfection in Primary Human Th17 Cells by Next Generation Electroporation. J Vis Exp. 2017 Apr 13; (122). PMID: 28448060.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Gordon ED, Simpson LJ, Rios CL, Ringel L, Lachowicz-Scroggins ME, Peters MC, Wesolowska-Andersen A, Gonzalez JR, MacLeod HJ, Christian LS, Yuan S, Barry L, Woodruff PG, Ansel M, Nocka K, Seibold MA, Fahy JV, et al. Alternative splicing of interleukin-33 and type 2 inflammation in asthma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 Jul 18. PMID: 27432971.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Ramstein J, Broos CE, Simpson LJ, Ansel M, Sun SA, Ho ME, Woodruff PG, Bhakta NR, Christian L, Nguyen CP, Antalek BJ, Benn BS, Hendriks RW, van den Blink B, Kool M, Koth LL. IFN-?-Producing T-Helper 17.1 Cells Are Increased in Sarcoidosis and Are More Prevalent than T-Helper Type 1 Cells. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 Jun 1; 193(11):1281-91. PMID: 26649486.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Pua HH, Steiner DF, Patel S, Gonzalez JR, Ortiz-Carpena JF, Kageyama R, Chiou NT, Gallman A, de Kouchkovsky D, Jeker LT, McManus MT, Erle DJ, Ansel M. MicroRNAs 24 and 27 Suppress Allergic Inflammation and Target a Network of Regulators of T Helper 2 Cell-Associated Cytokine Production. Immunity. 2016 Apr 19; 44(4):821-32. PMID: 26850657.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Patton JG, Franklin JL, Weaver AM, Vickers K, Zhang B, Coffey RJ, Ansel M, Blelloch R, Goga A, Huang B, L'Etoille N, Raffai RL, Lai CP, Krichevsky AM, Mateescu B, Greiner VJ, Hunter C, Voinnet O, McManus MT. Biogenesis, delivery, and function of extracellular RNA. J Extracell Vesicles. 2015; 4:27494. PMID: 26320939; PMCID: PMC4553266.
    7. Pua HH, Ansel M. MicroRNA regulation of allergic inflammation and asthma. Curr Opin Immunol. 2015 Oct; 36:101-8. PMID: 26253882; PMCID: PMC4593751 [Available on 10/01/16].
    8. Schaffert SA, Loh C, Wang S, Arnold CP, Axtell RC, Newell EW, Nolan G, Ansel M, Davis MM, Steinman L, Chen CZ. mir-181a-1/b-1 Modulates Tolerance through Opposing Activities in Selection and Peripheral T Cell Function. J Immunol. 2015 Aug 15; 195(4):1470-9. PMID: 26163591.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Simpson LJ, Ansel M. MicroRNA regulation of lymphocyte tolerance and autoimmunity. J Clin Invest. 2015 Jun; 125(6):2242-9. PMID: 26030228; PMCID: PMC4497751 [Available on 06/01/16].
    10. Geng H, Hurtz C, Lenz KB, Chen Z, Baumjohann D, Thompson S, Goloviznina NA, Chen WY, Huan J, LaTocha D, Ballabio E, Xiao G, Lee JW, Deucher A, Qi Z, Park E, Huang C, Nahar R, Kweon SM, Shojaee S, Chan LN, Yu J, Kornblau SM, Bijl JJ, Ye BH, Mark Ansel K, Paietta E, Melnick A, Hunger SP, Kurre P, Tyner JW, Loh ML, Roeder RG, Druker BJ, Burger JA, Milne TA, Chang BH, Müschen M. Self-enforcing feedback activation between BCL6 and pre-B cell receptor signaling defines a distinct subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Cell. 2015 Mar 9; 27(3):409-25. PMID: 25759025; PMCID: PMC4618684 [Available on 03/09/16].
    11. Warth SC, Hoefig KP, Hiekel A, Schallenberg S, Jovanovic K, Klein L, Kretschmer K, Ansel M, Heissmeyer V. Induced miR-99a expression represses Mtor cooperatively with miR-150 to promote regulatory T-cell differentiation. EMBO J. 2015 May 5; 34(9):1195-213. PMID: 25712478; PMCID: PMC4426480 [Available on 05/05/16].
    12. Martinez GJ, Pereira RM, Äijö T, Kim EY, Marangoni F, Pipkin ME, Togher S, Heissmeyer V, Zhang YC, Crotty S, Lamperti ED, Ansel M, Mempel TR, Lähdesmäki H, Hogan PG, Rao A. The transcription factor NFAT promotes exhaustion of activated CD8? T cells. Immunity. 2015 Feb 17; 42(2):265-78. PMID: 25680272; PMCID: PMC4346317 [Available on 02/17/16].
    13. Baumjohann D, Ansel M. Tracking early T follicular helper cell differentiation in vivo. Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1291:27-38. PMID: 25836299; PMCID: PMC4558195 [Available on 01/01/16].
    14. Sperling AI, Ansel M. Editorial overview: Allergy and hypersensitivity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014 Dec; 31:ix-xi. PMID: 25456768.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Simpson LJ, Patel S, Bhakta NR, Choy DF, Brightbill HD, Ren X, Wang Y, Pua HH, Baumjohann D, Montoya MM, Panduro M, Remedios KA, Huang X, Fahy JV, Arron JR, Woodruff PG, Ansel M. A microRNA upregulated in asthma airway T cells promotes TH2 cytokine production. Nat Immunol. 2014 Dec; 15(12):1162-70. PMID: 25362490; PMCID: PMC4233009.
    16. Seumois G, Chavez L, Gerasimova A, Lienhard M, Omran N, Kalinke L, Vedanayagam M, Ganesan AP, Chawla A, Djukanovic R, Ansel M, Peters B, Rao A, Vijayanand P. Epigenomic analysis of primary human T cells reveals enhancers associated with TH2 memory cell differentiation and asthma susceptibility. Nat Immunol. 2014 Aug; 15(8):777-88. PMID: 24997565; PMCID: PMC4140783.
    17. Thomas MF, L'Etoile ND, Ansel M. Eri1: a conserved enzyme at the crossroads of multiple RNA-processing pathways. Trends Genet. 2014 Jul; 30(7):298-307. PMID: 24929628; PMCID: PMC4114243.
    18. Baumjohann D, Ansel M. MicroRNA regulation of the germinal center response. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014 Jun; 28:6-11. PMID: 24530656; PMCID: PMC4037353.
    19. Watchmaker PB, Lahl K, Lee M, Baumjohann D, Morton J, Kim SJ, Zeng R, Dent A, Ansel M, Diamond B, Hadeiba H, Butcher EC. Comparative transcriptional and functional profiling defines conserved programs of intestinal DC differentiation in humans and mice. Nat Immunol. 2014 Jan; 15(1):98-108. PMID: 24292363; PMCID: PMC3942165.
    20. Baumjohann D, Ansel M. MicroRNA-mediated regulation of T helper cell differentiation and plasticity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013 Sep; 13(9):666-78. PMID: 23907446; PMCID: PMC3980848.
    21. Baumjohann D, Kageyama R, Clingan JM, Morar MM, Patel S, de Kouchkovsky D, Bannard O, Bluestone JA, Matloubian M, Ansel M, Jeker LT. The microRNA cluster miR-17~92 promotes TFH cell differentiation and represses subset-inappropriate gene expression. Nat Immunol. 2013 Aug; 14(8):840-8. PMID: 23812098; PMCID: PMC3720769.
    22. Bronevetsky Y, Ansel M. Regulation of miRNA biogenesis and turnover in the immune system. Immunol Rev. 2013 May; 253(1):304-16. PMID: 23550654; PMCID: PMC3621012.
    23. Ansel M. RNA regulation of the immune system. Immunol Rev. 2013 May; 253(1):5-11. PMID: 23550634; PMCID: PMC3621022.
    24. Baumjohann D, Preite S, Reboldi A, Ronchi F, Ansel M, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Persistent antigen and germinal center B cells sustain T follicular helper cell responses and phenotype. Immunity. 2013 Mar 21; 38(3):596-605. PMID: 23499493.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Bronevetsky Y, Villarino AV, Eisley CJ, Barbeau R, Barczak AJ, Heinz GA, Kremmer E, Heissmeyer V, McManus MT, Erle DJ, Rao A, Ansel M. T cell activation induces proteasomal degradation of Argonaute and rapid remodeling of the microRNA repertoire. J Exp Med. 2013 Feb 11; 210(2):417-32. PMID: 23382546; PMCID: PMC3570096.
    26. Hoefig KP, Rath N, Heinz GA, Wolf C, Dameris J, Schepers A, Kremmer E, Ansel M, Heissmeyer V. Eri1 degrades the stem-loop of oligouridylated histone mRNAs to induce replication-dependent decay. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013 Jan; 20(1):73-81. PMID: 23202588.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Seumois G, Vijayanand P, Eisley CJ, Omran N, Kalinke L, North M, Ganesan AP, Simpson LJ, Hunkapiller N, Moltzahn F, Woodruff PG, Fahy JV, Erle DJ, Djukanovic R, Blelloch R, Ansel M. An integrated nano-scale approach to profile miRNAs in limited clinical samples. Am J Clin Exp Immunol. 2012 Nov 30; 1(2):70-89. PMID: 23304658.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Solberg OD, Ostrin EJ, Love MI, Peng JC, Bhakta NR, Hou L, Nguyen C, Solon M, Nguyen C, Barczak AJ, Zlock LT, Blagev DP, Finkbeiner WE, Ansel M, Arron JR, Erle DJ, Woodruff PG. Airway epithelial miRNA expression is altered in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Nov 15; 186(10):965-74. PMID: 22955319; PMCID: PMC3530212.
    29. Thomas MF, Abdul-Wajid S, Panduro M, Babiarz JE, Rajaram M, Woodruff P, Lanier LL, Heissmeyer V, Ansel M. Eri1 regulates microRNA homeostasis and mouse lymphocyte development and antiviral function. Blood. 2012 Jul 5; 120(1):130-42. PMID: 22613798; PMCID: PMC3390952.
    30. Vijayanand P, Seumois G, Simpson LJ, Abdul-Wajid S, Baumjohann D, Panduro M, Huang X, Interlandi J, Djuretic IM, Brown DR, Sharpe AH, Rao A, Ansel M. Interleukin-4 production by follicular helper T cells requires the conserved Il4 enhancer hypersensitivity site V. Immunity. 2012 Feb 24; 36(2):175-87. PMID: 22326582; PMCID: PMC3288297.
    31. Steiner DF, Thomas MF, Hu JK, Yang Z, Babiarz JE, Allen CD, Matloubian M, Blelloch R, Ansel M. MicroRNA-29 regulates T-box transcription factors and interferon-? production in helper T cells. Immunity. 2011 Aug 26; 35(2):169-81. PMID: 21820330; PMCID: PMC3361370.
    32. Baumjohann D, Okada T, Ansel M. Cutting Edge: Distinct waves of BCL6 expression during T follicular helper cell development. J Immunol. 2011 Sep 1; 187(5):2089-92. PMID: 21804014.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Sofi MH, Qiao Y, Ansel M, Kubo M, Chang CH. Induction and maintenance of IL-4 expression are regulated differently by the 3' enhancer in CD4 T cells. J Immunol. 2011 Mar 1; 186(5):2792-9. PMID: 21282512; PMCID: PMC3188392.
    34. Parameswaran P, Sklan E, Wilkins C, Burgon T, Samuel MA, Lu R, Ansel M, Heissmeyer V, Einav S, Jackson W, Doukas T, Paranjape S, Polacek C, dos Santos FB, Jalili R, Babrzadeh F, Gharizadeh B, Grimm D, Kay M, Koike S, Sarnow P, Ronaghi M, Ding SW, Harris E, Chow M, Diamond MS, Kirkegaard K, Glenn JS, Fire AZ. Six RNA viruses and forty-one hosts: viral small RNAs and modulation of small RNA repertoires in vertebrate and invertebrate systems. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Feb; 6(2):e1000764. PMID: 20169186; PMCID: PMC2820531.
    35. Thomas MF, Ansel M. Construction of small RNA cDNA libraries for deep sequencing. Methods Mol Biol. 2010; 667:93-111. PMID: 20827529.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Ansel M, Pastor WA, Rath N, Lapan AD, Glasmacher E, Wolf C, Smith LC, Papadopoulou N, Lamperti ED, Tahiliani M, Ellwart JW, Shi Y, Kremmer E, Rao A, Heissmeyer V. Mouse Eri1 interacts with the ribosome and catalyzes 5.8S rRNA processing. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008 May; 15(5):523-30. PMID: 18438418; PMCID: PMC3032500.
    37. Haynes NM, Allen CD, Lesley R, Ansel M, Killeen N, Cyster JG. Role of CXCR5 and CCR7 in follicular Th cell positioning and appearance of a programmed cell death gene-1high germinal center-associated subpopulation. J Immunol. 2007 Oct 15; 179(8):5099-108. PMID: 17911595.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Carvalho LD, Teixeira LK, Carrossini N, Caldeira AT, Ansel M, Rao A, Viola JP. The NFAT1 transcription factor is a repressor of cyclin A2 gene expression. Cell Cycle. 2007 Jul 15; 6(14):1789-95. PMID: 17637565.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Thai TH, Calado DP, Casola S, Ansel M, Xiao C, Xue Y, Murphy A, Frendewey D, Valenzuela D, Kutok JL, Schmidt-Supprian M, Rajewsky N, Yancopoulos G, Rao A, Rajewsky K. Regulation of the germinal center response by microRNA-155. Science. 2007 Apr 27; 316(5824):604-8. PMID: 17463289.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Djuretic IM, Levanon D, Negreanu V, Groner Y, Rao A, Ansel M. Transcription factors T-bet and Runx3 cooperate to activate Ifng and silence Il4 in T helper type 1 cells. Nat Immunol. 2007 Feb; 8(2):145-53. PMID: 17195845.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Ansel M, Djuretic I, Tanasa B, Rao A. Regulation of Th2 differentiation and Il4 locus accessibility. Annu Rev Immunol. 2006; 24:607-56. PMID: 16551261.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Monticelli S, Ansel M, Xiao C, Socci ND, Krichevsky AM, Thai TH, Rajewsky N, Marks DS, Sander C, Rajewsky K, Rao A, Kosik KS. MicroRNA profiling of the murine hematopoietic system. Genome Biol. 2005; 6(8):R71. PMID: 16086853; PMCID: PMC1273638.
    43. Muljo SA, Ansel M, Kanellopoulou C, Livingston DM, Rao A, Rajewsky K. Aberrant T cell differentiation in the absence of Dicer. J Exp Med. 2005 Jul 18; 202(2):261-9. PMID: 16009718; PMCID: PMC2212998.
    44. Heissmeyer V, Ansel M, Rao A. A plague of autoantibodies. Nat Immunol. 2005 Jul; 6(7):642-4. PMID: 15991362.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Kabashima K, Banks TA, Ansel M, Lu TT, Ware CF, Cyster JG. Intrinsic lymphotoxin-beta receptor requirement for homeostasis of lymphoid tissue dendritic cells. Immunity. 2005 Apr; 22(4):439-50. PMID: 15845449.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Monticelli S, Ansel M, Lee DU, Rao A. Regulation of gene expression in mast cells: micro-rNA expression and chromatin structural analysis of cytokine genes. Novartis Found Symp. 2005; 271:179-87; discussion 187-90, 198-9. PMID: 16605135.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Ansel M, Greenwald RJ, Agarwal S, Bassing CH, Monticelli S, Interlandi J, Djuretic IM, Lee DU, Sharpe AH, Alt FW, Rao A. Deletion of a conserved Il4 silencer impairs T helper type 1-mediated immunity. Nat Immunol. 2004 Dec; 5(12):1251-9. PMID: 15516924.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Allen CD, Ansel M, Low C, Lesley R, Tamamura H, Fujii N, Cyster JG. Germinal center dark and light zone organization is mediated by CXCR4 and CXCR5. Nat Immunol. 2004 Sep; 5(9):943-52. PMID: 15300245.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Nardone J, Lee DU, Ansel M, Rao A. Bioinformatics for the 'bench biologist': how to find regulatory regions in genomic DNA. Nat Immunol. 2004 Aug; 5(8):768-74. PMID: 15282556.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Ansel M, Lee DU, Rao A. An epigenetic view of helper T cell differentiation. Nat Immunol. 2003 Jul; 4(7):616-23. PMID: 12830136.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Luther SA, Ansel M, Cyster JG. Overlapping roles of CXCL13, interleukin 7 receptor alpha, and CCR7 ligands in lymph node development. J Exp Med. 2003 May 5; 197(9):1191-8. PMID: 12732660; PMCID: PMC2193976.
    52. Cyster JG, Ansel M, Ngo VN, Hargreaves DC, Lu TT. Traffic patterns of B cells and plasma cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002; 512:35-41. PMID: 12405185.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Ansel M, Harris RB, Cyster JG. CXCL13 is required for B1 cell homing, natural antibody production, and body cavity immunity. Immunity. 2002 Jan; 16(1):67-76. PMID: 11825566.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Ansel M, Cyster JG. Chemokines in lymphopoiesis and lymphoid organ development. Curr Opin Immunol. 2001 Apr; 13(2):172-9. PMID: 11228410.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Cyster JG, Ansel M, Reif K, Ekland EH, Hyman PL, Tang HL, Luther SA, Ngo VN. Follicular stromal cells and lymphocyte homing to follicles. Immunol Rev. 2000 Aug; 176:181-93. PMID: 11043777.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Ansel M, Ngo VN, Hyman PL, Luther SA, Förster R, Sedgwick JD, Browning JL, Lipp M, Cyster JG. A chemokine-driven positive feedback loop organizes lymphoid follicles. Nature. 2000 Jul 20; 406(6793):309-14. PMID: 10917533.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Ansel M, McHeyzer-Williams LJ, Ngo VN, McHeyzer-Williams MG, Cyster JG. In vivo-activated CD4 T cells upregulate CXC chemokine receptor 5 and reprogram their response to lymphoid chemokines. J Exp Med. 1999 Oct 18; 190(8):1123-34. PMID: 10523610; PMCID: PMC2195660.
    58. Cyster JG, Ngo VN, Ekland EH, Gunn MD, Sedgwick JD, Ansel M. Chemokines and B-cell homing to follicles. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1999; 246:87-92; discussion 93. PMID: 10396043.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Gunn MD, Ngo VN, Ansel M, Ekland EH, Cyster JG, Williams LT. A B-cell-homing chemokine made in lymphoid follicles activates Burkitt's lymphoma receptor-1. Nature. 1998 Feb 19; 391(6669):799-803. PMID: 9486651.
      View in: PubMed
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