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Mark Ansel, PhD

Title(s)Professor, Microbiology and Immunology
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Phone415-476-5368
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoPh.D.2001 Graduate Division (Biomedical Sciences)

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    MicroRNAs, transcription factors, and epigenetic regulation shape the gene expression programs that determine cell identity and function. The Ansel lab studies how these molecular mechanisms work together to control lymphocyte development, differentiation, and function in immunity.

    We use in vitro cell differentiation systems, mouse genetics, disease models, and high dimensional cellular and molecular analyses in human biospecimens to unravel the regulatory networks that underlie immunity and immune pathology, especially allergy and asthma.

    Lymphocyte lineage decisions and the deployment of their effector functions are critical for the development of protective immunity against a great diversity of pathogens. However, improper or exaggerated responses underlie the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases, chronic inflammation, allergy, and asthma. Our primary experimental system is the differentiation of helper T cells, the central coordinators of adaptive immune responses. Upon immune activation, naïve CD4+ T cells can differentiate into several different helper T cell effectors subtypes (e.g. Th1, Th2, Th17, iTreg, Tfh, etc.). These lineages are defined by their characteristic gene expression programs and mediate distinct immune functions. These gene expression programs are controlled by external factors that derive from other cells or the environment, signaling-induced and lineage-specific transcription factors, epigenetic regulation of transcriptional responses, and posttranscriptional mechanisms, including RNA-binding proteins and miRNAs. The depth of our knowledge about the networks that control helper T cells makes them an attractive model for studying basic mechanisms of gene regulation.

    Active projects in the laboratory mostly focus on RNA regulation of immune cell programming. We study how individual miRNA families regulate lymphocyte differentiation and immune function, and the regulation of the miRNA pathway itself during immune responses. Naive CD4+ T cells that cannot produce any miRNAs exhibit reduced cell division and survival in response to immune stimuli. Surprisingly, they also undergo rapid unrestrained differentiation into effector cells. We have developed a screening technology that allows us to rapidly determine which specific miRNAs regulate each of these T cell behaviors, and pipelines for determining miRNA expression patterns in very small clinical samples (such as sorted T cell subsets from the airways of human asthmatic subjects, serum, sputum, and other sources of extracellular miRNAs, etc.). In addition, we discovered that T cells rapidly reset their small RNA repertoire upon activation. This process involves ubiquitination and degradation of Argonaute proteins and the release of RNAs in extracellular vesicles, but the signaling mechanisms and the fate of associated RNAs remains unknown. Activation-induced changes in regulatory RNA expression affects T cell differentiation and the development of immune effector functions.

    The major research goals of our laboratory are:

    1) To define the molecular mechanisms that control miRNA homeostasis and extracellular release by lymphocytes, and determine how the miRNA repertoire is so dramatically remodeled during activation.

    2) To characterize the function of RBPs and individual miRNAs that regulate T cell differentiation and immune effector functions.

    3) To determine how the expression and function of miRNAs contributes to the pathogenic properties of T cells and other immune cells in human asthma.



    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Global analysis of T cell post-transcriptional regulatory elements
    NIH R21AI128047May 10, 2018 - Apr 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    In Vivo Regulated Release and Function of Extracellular Small RNAs
    NIH/NCI U19CA179512Sep 1, 2013 - Aug 31, 2018
    Role: Co-Investigator
    INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSES IN TH2-HIGH ASTHMA
    NIH/NHLBI P01HL107202Aug 15, 2012 - May 31, 2017
    Role: Co-Investigator
    MicroRNA directed pathway discovery in helper T cell driven airway inflammation
    NIH R01HL109102Aug 1, 2011 - Mar 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Predoctoral Training in Biomedical Sciences
    NIH/NIGMS T32GM008568Jul 1, 1995 - Jun 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Featured Publications
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Litterman AJ, Kageyama R, Le Tonqueze O, Zhao W, Gagnon JD, Goodarzi H, Erle DJ, Ansel KM. A massively parallel 3' UTR reporter assay reveals relationships between nucleotide content, sequence conservation, and mRNA destabilization. Genome Res. 2019 Jun; 29(6):896-906. PMID: 31152051.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Das S, Ansel KM, Bitzer M, Breakefield XO, Charest A, Galas DJ, Gerstein MB, Gupta M, Milosavljevic A, McManus MT, Patel T, Raffai RL, Rozowsky J, Roth ME, Saugstad JA, Van Keuren-Jensen K, Weaver AM, Laurent LC. The Extracellular RNA Communication Consortium: Establishing Foundational Knowledge and Technologies for Extracellular RNA Research. Cell. 2019 Apr 04; 177(2):231-242. PMID: 30951667.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Pua HH, Happ HC, Gray CJ, Mar DJ, Chiou NT, Hesse LE, Ansel KM. Increased Hematopoietic Extracellular RNAs and Vesicles in the Lung during Allergic Airway Responses. Cell Rep. 2019 Jan 22; 26(4):933-944.e4. PMID: 30673615.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Chiou NT, Kageyama R, Ansel KM. Selective Export into Extracellular Vesicles and Function of tRNA Fragments during T Cell Activation. Cell Rep. 2018 Dec 18; 25(12):3356-3370.e4. PMID: 30566862.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Durack J, Huang YJ, Nariya S, Christian LS, Ansel KM, Beigelman A, Castro M, Dyer AM, Israel E, Kraft M, Martin RJ, Mauger DT, Rosenberg SR, King TS, White SR, Denlinger LC, Holguin F, Lazarus SC, Lugogo N, Peters SP, Smith LJ, Wechsler ME, Lynch SV, Boushey HA. Bacterial biogeography of adult airways in atopic asthma. Microbiome. 2018 06 09; 6(1):104. PMID: 29885665.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Fassett MS, Pua HH, Simpson LJ, Steiner DF, Ansel KM. Identification of Functionally Relevant microRNAs in the Regulation of Allergic Inflammation. Methods Mol Biol. 2018; 1799:341-351. PMID: 29956162.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Singh PB, Pua HH, Happ HC, Schneider C, von Moltke J, Locksley RM, Baumjohann D, Ansel KM. MicroRNA regulation of type 2 innate lymphoid cell homeostasis and function in allergic inflammation. J Exp Med. 2017 Dec 04; 214(12):3627-3643. PMID: 29122948.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Simeonov DR, Gowen BG, Boontanrart M, Roth TL, Gagnon JD, Mumbach MR, Satpathy AT, Lee Y, Bray NL, Chan AY, Lituiev DS, Nguyen ML, Gate RE, Subramaniam M, Li Z, Woo JM, Mitros T, Ray GJ, Curie GL, Naddaf N, Chu JS, Ma H, Boyer E, Van Gool F, Huang H, Liu R, Tobin VR, Schumann K, Daly MJ, Farh KK, Ansel KM, Ye CJ, Greenleaf WJ, Anderson MS, Bluestone JA, Chang HY, Corn JE, Marson A. Discovery of stimulation-responsive immune enhancers with CRISPR activation. Nature. 2017 09 07; 549(7670):111-115. PMID: 28854172.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Montoya MM, Maul J, Singh PB, Pua HH, Dahlström F, Wu N, Huang X, Ansel KM, Baumjohann D. A Distinct Inhibitory Function for miR-18a in Th17 Cell Differentiation. J Immunol. 2017 07 15; 199(2):559-569. PMID: 28607111.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Montoya MM, Ansel KM. Small RNA Transfection in Primary Human Th17 Cells by Next Generation Electroporation. J Vis Exp. 2017 04 13; (122). PMID: 28448060.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Gordon ED, Simpson LJ, Rios CL, Ringel L, Lachowicz-Scroggins ME, Peters MC, Wesolowska-Andersen A, Gonzalez JR, MacLeod HJ, Christian LS, Yuan S, Barry L, Woodruff PG, Ansel KM, Nocka K, Seibold MA, Fahy JV. Alternative splicing of interleukin-33 and type 2 inflammation in asthma. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2016 08 02; 113(31):8765-70. PMID: 27432971; PMCID: PMC4978244.
    12. Ramstein J, Broos CE, Simpson LJ, Ansel KM, Sun SA, Ho ME, Woodruff PG, Bhakta NR, Christian L, Nguyen CP, Antalek BJ, Benn BS, Hendriks RW, van den Blink B, Kool M, Koth LL. IFN-?-Producing T-Helper 17.1 Cells Are Increased in Sarcoidosis and Are More Prevalent than T-Helper Type 1 Cells. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 06 01; 193(11):1281-91. PMID: 26649486.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Pua HH, Steiner DF, Patel S, Gonzalez JR, Ortiz-Carpena JF, Kageyama R, Chiou NT, Gallman A, de Kouchkovsky D, Jeker LT, McManus MT, Erle DJ, Ansel KM. MicroRNAs 24 and 27 Suppress Allergic Inflammation and Target a Network of Regulators of T Helper 2 Cell-Associated Cytokine Production. Immunity. 2016 Apr 19; 44(4):821-32. PMID: 26850657; PMCID: PMC4838571 [Available on 04/19/17].
    14. Patton JG, Franklin JL, Weaver AM, Vickers K, Zhang B, Coffey RJ, Ansel KM, Blelloch R, Goga A, Huang B, L'Etoille N, Raffai RL, Lai CP, Krichevsky AM, Mateescu B, Greiner VJ, Hunter C, Voinnet O, McManus MT. Biogenesis, delivery, and function of extracellular RNA. J Extracell Vesicles. 2015; 4:27494. PMID: 26320939; PMCID: PMC4553266.
    15. Pua HH, Ansel KM. MicroRNA regulation of allergic inflammation and asthma. Curr Opin Immunol. 2015 Oct; 36:101-8. PMID: 26253882; PMCID: PMC4593751 [Available on 10/01/16].
    16. Schaffert SA, Loh C, Wang S, Arnold CP, Axtell RC, Newell EW, Nolan G, Ansel KM, Davis MM, Steinman L, Chen CZ. mir-181a-1/b-1 Modulates Tolerance through Opposing Activities in Selection and Peripheral T Cell Function. J Immunol. 2015 Aug 15; 195(4):1470-9. PMID: 26163591; PMCID: PMC4763610.
    17. Simpson LJ, Ansel KM. MicroRNA regulation of lymphocyte tolerance and autoimmunity. J Clin Invest. 2015 Jun; 125(6):2242-9. PMID: 26030228; PMCID: PMC4497751.
    18. Geng H, Hurtz C, Lenz KB, Chen Z, Baumjohann D, Thompson S, Goloviznina NA, Chen WY, Huan J, LaTocha D, Ballabio E, Xiao G, Lee JW, Deucher A, Qi Z, Park E, Huang C, Nahar R, Kweon SM, Shojaee S, Chan LN, Yu J, Kornblau SM, Bijl JJ, Ye BH, Ansel KM, Paietta E, Melnick A, Hunger SP, Kurre P, Tyner JW, Loh ML, Roeder RG, Druker BJ, Burger JA, Milne TA, Chang BH, Müschen M. Self-enforcing feedback activation between BCL6 and pre-B cell receptor signaling defines a distinct subtype of acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Cancer Cell. 2015 Mar 09; 27(3):409-25. PMID: 25759025.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Warth SC, Hoefig KP, Hiekel A, Schallenberg S, Jovanovic K, Klein L, Kretschmer K, Ansel KM, Heissmeyer V. Induced miR-99a expression represses Mtor cooperatively with miR-150 to promote regulatory T-cell differentiation. EMBO J. 2015 May 05; 34(9):1195-213. PMID: 25712478; PMCID: PMC4426480.
    20. Martinez GJ, Pereira RM, Äijö T, Kim EY, Marangoni F, Pipkin ME, Togher S, Heissmeyer V, Zhang YC, Crotty S, Lamperti ED, Ansel KM, Mempel TR, Lähdesmäki H, Hogan PG, Rao A. The transcription factor NFAT promotes exhaustion of activated CD8? T cells. Immunity. 2015 Feb 17; 42(2):265-278. PMID: 25680272.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Baumjohann D, Ansel KM. Tracking early T follicular helper cell differentiation in vivo. Methods Mol Biol. 2015; 1291:27-38. PMID: 25836299; PMCID: PMC4558195.
    22. Sperling AI, Ansel KM. Editorial overview: Allergy and hypersensitivity. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014 Dec; 31:ix-xi. PMID: 25456768.
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    23. Simpson LJ, Patel S, Bhakta NR, Choy DF, Brightbill HD, Ren X, Wang Y, Pua HH, Baumjohann D, Montoya MM, Panduro M, Remedios KA, Huang X, Fahy JV, Arron JR, Woodruff PG, Ansel KM. A microRNA upregulated in asthma airway T cells promotes TH2 cytokine production. Nat Immunol. 2014 Dec; 15(12):1162-70. PMID: 25362490.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Seumois G, Chavez L, Gerasimova A, Lienhard M, Omran N, Kalinke L, Vedanayagam M, Ganesan AP, Chawla A, Djukanovic R, Ansel KM, Peters B, Rao A, Vijayanand P. Epigenomic analysis of primary human T cells reveals enhancers associated with TH2 memory cell differentiation and asthma susceptibility. Nat Immunol. 2014 Aug; 15(8):777-88. PMID: 24997565.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Thomas MF, L'Etoile ND, Ansel KM. Eri1: a conserved enzyme at the crossroads of multiple RNA-processing pathways. Trends Genet. 2014 Jul; 30(7):298-307. PMID: 24929628; PMCID: PMC4114243.
    26. Baumjohann D, Ansel KM. MicroRNA regulation of the germinal center response. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014 Jun; 28:6-11. PMID: 24530656; PMCID: PMC4037353.
    27. Watchmaker PB, Lahl K, Lee M, Baumjohann D, Morton J, Kim SJ, Zeng R, Dent A, Ansel KM, Diamond B, Hadeiba H, Butcher EC. Comparative transcriptional and functional profiling defines conserved programs of intestinal DC differentiation in humans and mice. Nat Immunol. 2014 Jan; 15(1):98-108. PMID: 24292363.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Baumjohann D, Ansel KM. MicroRNA-mediated regulation of T helper cell differentiation and plasticity. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013 Sep; 13(9):666-78. PMID: 23907446; PMCID: PMC3980848.
    29. Baumjohann D, Kageyama R, Clingan JM, Morar MM, Patel S, de Kouchkovsky D, Bannard O, Bluestone JA, Matloubian M, Ansel KM, Jeker LT. The microRNA cluster miR-17~92 promotes TFH cell differentiation and represses subset-inappropriate gene expression. Nat Immunol. 2013 Aug; 14(8):840-8. PMID: 23812098; PMCID: PMC3720769.
    30. Ansel KM. RNA regulation of the immune system. Immunol Rev. 2013 May; 253(1):5-11. PMID: 23550634; PMCID: PMC3621022.
    31. Bronevetsky Y, Ansel KM. Regulation of miRNA biogenesis and turnover in the immune system. Immunol Rev. 2013 May; 253(1):304-16. PMID: 23550654; PMCID: PMC3621012.
    32. Baumjohann D, Preite S, Reboldi A, Ronchi F, Ansel KM, Lanzavecchia A, Sallusto F. Persistent antigen and germinal center B cells sustain T follicular helper cell responses and phenotype. Immunity. 2013 Mar 21; 38(3):596-605. PMID: 23499493.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Bronevetsky Y, Villarino AV, Eisley CJ, Barbeau R, Barczak AJ, Heinz GA, Kremmer E, Heissmeyer V, McManus MT, Erle DJ, Rao A, Ansel KM. T cell activation induces proteasomal degradation of Argonaute and rapid remodeling of the microRNA repertoire. J Exp Med. 2013 Feb 11; 210(2):417-32. PMID: 23382546; PMCID: PMC3570096.
    34. Hoefig KP, Rath N, Heinz GA, Wolf C, Dameris J, Schepers A, Kremmer E, Ansel KM, Heissmeyer V. Eri1 degrades the stem-loop of oligouridylated histone mRNAs to induce replication-dependent decay. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2013 Jan; 20(1):73-81. PMID: 23202588.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Seumois G, Vijayanand P, Eisley CJ, Omran N, Kalinke L, North M, Ganesan AP, Simpson LJ, Hunkapiller N, Moltzahn F, Woodruff PG, Fahy JV, Erle DJ, Djukanovic R, Blelloch R, Ansel KM. An integrated nano-scale approach to profile miRNAs in limited clinical samples. Am J Clin Exp Immunol. 2012 Nov 30; 1(2):70-89. PMID: 23304658.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Solberg OD, Ostrin EJ, Love MI, Peng JC, Bhakta NR, Hou L, Nguyen C, Solon M, Nguyen C, Barczak AJ, Zlock LT, Blagev DP, Finkbeiner WE, Ansel KM, Arron JR, Erle DJ, Woodruff PG. Airway epithelial miRNA expression is altered in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2012 Nov 15; 186(10):965-74. PMID: 22955319.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Thomas MF, Abdul-Wajid S, Panduro M, Babiarz JE, Rajaram M, Woodruff P, Lanier LL, Heissmeyer V, Ansel KM. Eri1 regulates microRNA homeostasis and mouse lymphocyte development and antiviral function. Blood. 2012 Jul 05; 120(1):130-42. PMID: 22613798; PMCID: PMC3390952.
    38. Vijayanand P, Seumois G, Simpson LJ, Abdul-Wajid S, Baumjohann D, Panduro M, Huang X, Interlandi J, Djuretic IM, Brown DR, Sharpe AH, Rao A, Ansel KM. Interleukin-4 production by follicular helper T cells requires the conserved Il4 enhancer hypersensitivity site V. Immunity. 2012 Feb 24; 36(2):175-87. PMID: 22326582; PMCID: PMC3288297.
    39. Steiner DF, Thomas MF, Hu JK, Yang Z, Babiarz JE, Allen CD, Matloubian M, Blelloch R, Ansel KM. MicroRNA-29 regulates T-box transcription factors and interferon-? production in helper T cells. Immunity. 2011 Aug 26; 35(2):169-81. PMID: 21820330; PMCID: PMC3361370.
    40. Baumjohann D, Okada T, Ansel KM. Cutting Edge: Distinct waves of BCL6 expression during T follicular helper cell development. J Immunol. 2011 Sep 01; 187(5):2089-92. PMID: 21804014.
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    41. Sofi MH, Qiao Y, Ansel KM, Kubo M, Chang CH. Induction and maintenance of IL-4 expression are regulated differently by the 3' enhancer in CD4 T cells. J Immunol. 2011 Mar 01; 186(5):2792-9. PMID: 21282512; PMCID: PMC3188392.
    42. Parameswaran P, Sklan E, Wilkins C, Burgon T, Samuel MA, Lu R, Ansel KM, Heissmeyer V, Einav S, Jackson W, Doukas T, Paranjape S, Polacek C, dos Santos FB, Jalili R, Babrzadeh F, Gharizadeh B, Grimm D, Kay M, Koike S, Sarnow P, Ronaghi M, Ding SW, Harris E, Chow M, Diamond MS, Kirkegaard K, Glenn JS, Fire AZ. Six RNA viruses and forty-one hosts: viral small RNAs and modulation of small RNA repertoires in vertebrate and invertebrate systems. PLoS Pathog. 2010 Feb 12; 6(2):e1000764. PMID: 20169186; PMCID: PMC2820531.
    43. Thomas MF, Ansel KM. Construction of small RNA cDNA libraries for deep sequencing. Methods Mol Biol. 2010; 667:93-111. PMID: 20827529.
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    44. Ansel KM, Pastor WA, Rath N, Lapan AD, Glasmacher E, Wolf C, Smith LC, Papadopoulou N, Lamperti ED, Tahiliani M, Ellwart JW, Shi Y, Kremmer E, Rao A, Heissmeyer V. Mouse Eri1 interacts with the ribosome and catalyzes 5.8S rRNA processing. Nat Struct Mol Biol. 2008 May; 15(5):523-30. PMID: 18438418; PMCID: PMC3032500.
    45. Haynes NM, Allen CD, Lesley R, Ansel KM, Killeen N, Cyster JG. Role of CXCR5 and CCR7 in follicular Th cell positioning and appearance of a programmed cell death gene-1high germinal center-associated subpopulation. J Immunol. 2007 Oct 15; 179(8):5099-108. PMID: 17911595.
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    46. Carvalho LD, Teixeira LK, Carrossini N, Caldeira AT, Ansel KM, Rao A, Viola JP. The NFAT1 transcription factor is a repressor of cyclin A2 gene expression. Cell Cycle. 2007 Jul 15; 6(14):1789-95. PMID: 17637565.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Thai TH, Calado DP, Casola S, Ansel KM, Xiao C, Xue Y, Murphy A, Frendewey D, Valenzuela D, Kutok JL, Schmidt-Supprian M, Rajewsky N, Yancopoulos G, Rao A, Rajewsky K. Regulation of the germinal center response by microRNA-155. Science. 2007 Apr 27; 316(5824):604-8. PMID: 17463289.
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    48. Djuretic IM, Levanon D, Negreanu V, Groner Y, Rao A, Ansel KM. Transcription factors T-bet and Runx3 cooperate to activate Ifng and silence Il4 in T helper type 1 cells. Nat Immunol. 2007 Feb; 8(2):145-53. PMID: 17195845.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Ansel KM, Djuretic I, Tanasa B, Rao A. Regulation of Th2 differentiation and Il4 locus accessibility. Annu Rev Immunol. 2006; 24:607-56. PMID: 16551261.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Monticelli S, Ansel KM, Xiao C, Socci ND, Krichevsky AM, Thai TH, Rajewsky N, Marks DS, Sander C, Rajewsky K, Rao A, Kosik KS. MicroRNA profiling of the murine hematopoietic system. Genome Biol. 2005; 6(8):R71. PMID: 16086853; PMCID: PMC1273638.
    51. Muljo SA, Ansel KM, Kanellopoulou C, Livingston DM, Rao A, Rajewsky K. Aberrant T cell differentiation in the absence of Dicer. J Exp Med. 2005 Jul 18; 202(2):261-9. PMID: 16009718; PMCID: PMC2212998.
    52. Heissmeyer V, Ansel KM, Rao A. A plague of autoantibodies. Nat Immunol. 2005 Jul; 6(7):642-4. PMID: 15991362.
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    53. Kabashima K, Banks TA, Ansel KM, Lu TT, Ware CF, Cyster JG. Intrinsic lymphotoxin-beta receptor requirement for homeostasis of lymphoid tissue dendritic cells. Immunity. 2005 Apr; 22(4):439-50. PMID: 15845449.
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    54. Monticelli S, Ansel KM, Lee DU, Rao A. Regulation of gene expression in mast cells: micro-rNA expression and chromatin structural analysis of cytokine genes. Novartis Found Symp. 2005; 271:179-87; discussion 187-90, 198-9. PMID: 16605135.
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    55. Ansel KM, Greenwald RJ, Agarwal S, Bassing CH, Monticelli S, Interlandi J, Djuretic IM, Lee DU, Sharpe AH, Alt FW, Rao A. Deletion of a conserved Il4 silencer impairs T helper type 1-mediated immunity. Nat Immunol. 2004 Dec; 5(12):1251-9. PMID: 15516924.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Nardone J, Lee DU, Ansel KM, Rao A. Bioinformatics for the 'bench biologist': how to find regulatory regions in genomic DNA. Nat Immunol. 2004 Aug; 5(8):768-74. PMID: 15282556.
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    57. Allen CD, Ansel KM, Low C, Lesley R, Tamamura H, Fujii N, Cyster JG. Germinal center dark and light zone organization is mediated by CXCR4 and CXCR5. Nat Immunol. 2004 Sep; 5(9):943-52. PMID: 15300245.
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    58. Ansel KM, Lee DU, Rao A. An epigenetic view of helper T cell differentiation. Nat Immunol. 2003 Jul; 4(7):616-23. PMID: 12830136.
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    59. Luther SA, Ansel KM, Cyster JG. Overlapping roles of CXCL13, interleukin 7 receptor alpha, and CCR7 ligands in lymph node development. J Exp Med. 2003 May 05; 197(9):1191-8. PMID: 12732660; PMCID: PMC2193976.
    60. Ansel KM, Harris RB, Cyster JG. CXCL13 is required for B1 cell homing, natural antibody production, and body cavity immunity. Immunity. 2002 Jan; 16(1):67-76. PMID: 11825566.
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    61. Cyster JG, Ansel KM, Ngo VN, Hargreaves DC, Lu TT. Traffic patterns of B cells and plasma cells. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2002; 512:35-41. PMID: 12405185.
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    62. Ansel KM, Cyster JG. Chemokines in lymphopoiesis and lymphoid organ development. Curr Opin Immunol. 2001 Apr; 13(2):172-9. PMID: 11228410.
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    63. Cyster JG, Ansel KM, Reif K, Ekland EH, Hyman PL, Tang HL, Luther SA, Ngo VN. Follicular stromal cells and lymphocyte homing to follicles. Immunol Rev. 2000 Aug; 176:181-93. PMID: 11043777.
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    64. Ansel KM, Ngo VN, Hyman PL, Luther SA, Förster R, Sedgwick JD, Browning JL, Lipp M, Cyster JG. A chemokine-driven positive feedback loop organizes lymphoid follicles. Nature. 2000 Jul 20; 406(6793):309-14. PMID: 10917533.
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    65. Ansel KM, McHeyzer-Williams LJ, Ngo VN, McHeyzer-Williams MG, Cyster JG. In vivo-activated CD4 T cells upregulate CXC chemokine receptor 5 and reprogram their response to lymphoid chemokines. J Exp Med. 1999 Oct 18; 190(8):1123-34. PMID: 10523610; PMCID: PMC2195660.
    66. Cyster JG, Ngo VN, Ekland EH, Gunn MD, Sedgwick JD, Ansel KM. Chemokines and B-cell homing to follicles. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1999; 246:87-92; discussion 93. PMID: 10396043.
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    67. Gunn MD, Ngo VN, Ansel KM, Ekland EH, Cyster JG, Williams LT. A B-cell-homing chemokine made in lymphoid follicles activates Burkitt's lymphoma receptor-1. Nature. 1998 Feb 19; 391(6669):799-803. PMID: 9486651.
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