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Richard Locksley, MD

TitleSandler Distinguished Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentMedicine
Address513 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-476-1559
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    Other Positions
    TitleHoward Hughes Medical Institute Investigator


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of Washington1980-83Infect Diseases Fellow
    University of California, San Francisco1976-80Resident/Chief Resident
    University of RochesterM.D.06/1976Medicine
    Harvard CollegeB.A.06/1970Biochemistry
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    2017National Academy of Sciences
    2017Fellow, American Academy of Microbiology
    2017Inaugural William Paul Award for Cytokine Research, International Cytokine & Interferon Society
    2014Thomson Reuters ‘Top 1% highly cited researchers in immunology’
    2006R37 MERIT Award, NIAID/NIH
    2005American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    2003Sandler Distinguished Professorship
    2003Inspirational Teacher Award, UCSF class of 2006
    2003Distinguished Service Award, American Association of Immunologists
    2001  - 2005Ellison Medical Foundation Senior Scholar in Global Infectious Diseases
    1994Bailey K Ashford Medal, American Society Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
    1994Association of American Physicians
    1992Fellow, Infectious Diseases Society of American
    1992  - 1997Burroughs Wellcome Fund Scholar in Molecular Parasitology
    1991American Society for Clinical Investigation

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Locksley is the Director of the Sandler Asthma Basic Research Center (SABRE) and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. He is a Professor in the Departments of Medicine and Microbiology & Immunology. He received his undergraduate degree in biochemistry from Harvard and his M.D. from the University of Rochester. After completing his residency at UCSF, he trained in infectious diseases at the University of Washington. Prior to his position as director of the SABRE Center, Dr. Locksley served 18 years as the Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at UCSF Medical Center. Dr. Locksley is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

    Dr. Locksley's laboratory addresses the immune cells and tissue responses that occur during allergic, or type 2, immunity. This includes the processes by which naïve helper T cells differentiate to become allergy-supporting Th2 cells, but also the interactions of these cells with eosinophils, basophils, mast cells and alternatively activated macrophages that mediate activities in peripheral tissues. The laboratory increasingly focuses on innate immunity, particularly since the discovery of Group 2 innate lymphoid cells, or ILC2s, which are prominently involved in allergy. Importantly, the discovery of ILC2s initiated efforts to uncover the ‘ground state’ of allergy by investigating homeostatic pathways involving these cells that might provide insights regarding their primary function in the immune system and in homeostasis.

    Dr. Locksley’s laboratory pioneered the use of mice genetically engineered to report cytokines expressed during allergic immune responses. Using these methods, the laboratory participated in the discovery of innate lymphoid type 2 cells, or ILC2s, which represent a previously unknown cell now implicated in allergic immunity. The ability to study the activation and organization of innate ILC2s uncovered a role for cells associated with allergy and asthma, such as eosinophils, in processes involved with basal metabolism and tissue homeostasis. Activation of ILC2s in the small intestine was implicated in alteration of the mucosa to a secretory phenotype characterized by high numbers of goblet cells and tuft cells. The latter, a previously mysterious epithelial cell of unknown function, was shown to be the source of IL-25, a cytokine capable of activating ILC2s and other immune cells associated with allergy and asthma, thus opening up entirely new avenues for discovery.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Epithelial chitinase and lung homeostasis
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL128903Jul 1, 2015 - Apr 30, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSES IN TH2-HIGH ASTHMA
    NIH/NHLBI P01HL107202Aug 15, 2012 - May 31, 2017
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Innate immune regulation of inflammation and adaptive immunity
    NIH/NIAID P01AI078869Jul 15, 2008 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Understanding Asthma Endotypes
    NIH/NIAID U19AI077439Apr 1, 2008 - Mar 31, 2023
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Biology of Infectious Diseases Training Program
    NIH/NIAID T32AI007641Aug 1, 2000 - Aug 31, 2022
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Interactions of Lymphocytes, Cytokines and Airway Cells
    NIH/NHLBI P50HL056385Sep 30, 1996 - Aug 31, 2006
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Initiation of allergic immunity by parasites
    NIH/NIAID R01AI030663Jan 1, 1991 - May 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OF LABORATORY-PAIRED PRIMATES
    NIH R01RR005355Sep 15, 1989 - Jun 30, 1993
    Role: Co-Investigator
    HELPER T CELL SUBSETS IN LEISHMANIASIS
    NIH/NIAID R01AI026918Jul 1, 1988 - Apr 30, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Parasite Immunity Orchestrated by Th2 Cells
    NIH/NIAID R37AI026918Jul 1, 1988 - Mar 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HUMAN PHAGOCYTE FUNCTION IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
    NIH/NIAID R01AI019768Sep 30, 1983 - Aug 31, 1986
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Global Health
    Collapse Websites

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Van Dyken SJ, Schneider C, Lee J, Nussbaum JC, Liang HE, Vaka D, Eckalbar WL, Molofsky AB, Erle DJ, Locksley RM. Tissue signals imprint ILC2 identity with anticipatory function. Nat Immunol. 2018 Sep 10. PMID: 30201992.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Vivier E, Artis D, Colonna M, Diefenbach A, Di Santo JP, Eberl G, Koyasu S, Locksley RM, McKenzie ANJ, Mebius RE, Powrie F, Spits H. Innate Lymphoid Cells: 10 Years On. Cell. 2018 Aug 23; 174(5):1054-1066. PMID: 30142344.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Miller CN, Proekt I, von Moltke J, Wells KL, Rajpurkar AR, Wang H, Rattay K, Khan IS, Metzger TC, Pollack JL, Fries AC, Lwin WW, Wigton EJ, Parent AV, Kyewski B, Erle DJ, Hogquist KA, Steinmetz LM, Locksley RM, Anderson MS. Thymic tuft cells promote an IL-4-enriched medulla and shape thymocyte development. Nature. 2018 Jul 18. PMID: 30022164.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Nadjsombati MS, McGinty JW, Lyons-Cohen MR, Jaffe JB, DiPeso L, Schneider C, Miller CN, Pollack JL, Nagana Gowda GA, Fontana MF, Erle DJ, Anderson MS, Locksley RM, Raftery D, von Moltke J. Detection of Succinate by Intestinal Tuft Cells Triggers a Type 2 Innate Immune Circuit. Immunity. 2018 Jul 17; 49(1):33-41.e7. PMID: 30021144.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Nusse YM, Savage AK, Marangoni P, Rosendahl-Huber AKM, Landman TA, de Sauvage FJ, Locksley RM, Klein OD. Publisher Correction: Parasitic helminths induce fetal-like reversion in the intestinal stem cell niche. Nature. 2018 Jul 16. PMID: 30013120.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Nusse YM, Savage AK, Marangoni P, Rosendahl-Huber AKM, Landman TA, de Sauvage FJ, Locksley RM, Klein OD. Parasitic helminths induce fetal-like reversion in the intestinal stem cell niche. Nature. 2018 Jun 27. PMID: 29950724.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Van Dyken SJ, Locksley RM. Chitins and Chitinase Activity in Airway Diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jun 27. PMID: 29959948.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Kotas ME, Locksley RM. Why Innate Lymphoid Cells? Immunity. 2018 Jun 19; 48(6):1081-1090. PMID: 29924974.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Schneider C, O'Leary CE, von Moltke J, Liang HE, Ang QY, Turnbaugh PJ, Radhakrishnan S, Pellizzon M, Ma A, Locksley RM. A Metabolite-Triggered Tuft Cell-ILC2 Circuit Drives Small Intestinal Remodeling. Cell. 2018 May 23. PMID: 29887373.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Sui P, Wiesner DL, Xu J, Zhang Y, Lee J, Van Dyken S, Lashua A, Yu C, Klein BS, Locksley RM, Deutsch G, Sun X. Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells amplify allergic asthma responses. Science. 2018 Mar 29. PMID: 29599193.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Odegaard JI, Lee MW, Sogawa Y, Bertholet AM, Locksley RM, Weinberg DE, Kirichok Y, Deo RC, Chawla A. Perinatal Licensing of Thermogenesis by IL-33 and ST2. Cell. 2017 Dec 14; 171(7):1707. PMID: 29245014.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Singh PB, Pua HH, Happ HC, Schneider C, von Moltke J, Locksley RM, Baumjohann D, Ansel KM. MicroRNA regulation of type 2 innate lymphoid cell homeostasis and function in allergic inflammation. J Exp Med. 2017 Dec 04; 214(12):3627-3643. PMID: 29122948.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Locksley R. Turning the light on. Nat Rev Immunol. 2017 Oct; 17(10):593. PMID: 28757606.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Savage AK, Liang HE, Locksley RM. The Development of Steady-State Activation Hubs between Adult LTi ILC3s and Primed Macrophages in Small Intestine. J Immunol. 2017 09 01; 199(5):1912-1922. PMID: 28747343.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Lechner AJ, Driver IH, Lee J, Conroy CM, Nagle A, Locksley RM, Rock JR. Recruited Monocytes and Type 2 Immunity Promote Lung Regeneration following Pneumonectomy. Cell Stem Cell. 2017 Jul 06; 21(1):120-134.e7. PMID: 28506464.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Van Dyken SJ, Liang HE, Naikawadi RP, Woodruff PG, Wolters PJ, Erle DJ, Locksley RM. Spontaneous Chitin Accumulation in Airways and Age-Related Fibrotic Lung Disease. Cell. 2017 Apr 20; 169(3):497-509.e13. PMID: 28431248.
      View in: PubMed
    17. von Moltke J, O'Leary CE, Barrett NA, Kanaoka Y, Austen KF, Locksley RM. Leukotrienes provide an NFAT-dependent signal that synergizes with IL-33 to activate ILC2s. J Exp Med. 2017 Jan; 214(1):27-37. PMID: 28011865.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Lee LM, Ji M, Sinha M, Dong MB, Ren X, Wang Y, Lowell CA, Ghosh S, Locksley RM, DeFranco AL. Determinants of Divergent Adaptive Immune Responses after Airway Sensitization with Ligands of Toll-Like Receptor 5 or Toll-Like Receptor 9. PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0167693. PMID: 27977701.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Van Dyken SJ, Nussbaum JC, Lee J, Molofsky AB, Liang HE, Pollack JL, Gate RE, Haliburton GE, Ye CJ, Marson A, Erle DJ, Locksley RM. A tissue checkpoint regulates type 2 immunity. Nat Immunol. 2016 Dec; 17(12):1381-1387. PMID: 27749840.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Odegaard JI, Lee MW, Sogawa Y, Bertholet AM, Locksley RM, Weinberg DE, Kirichok Y, Deo RC, Chawla A. Perinatal Licensing of Thermogenesis by IL-33 and ST2. Cell. 2016 Aug 11; 166(4):841-854. PMID: 27453471; PMCID: PMC4985267 [Available on 08/11/17].
    21. Belinson H, Savage AK, Fadrosh D, Kuo YM, Lin D, Valladares R, Nusse Y, Wynshaw-Boris A, Lynch SV, Locksley RM, Klein OD. Dual epithelial and immune cell function of Dvl1 regulates gut microbiota composition and intestinal homeostasis. JCI Insight. 2016 Jul 07; 1(10). PMID: 27525310.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Gordon ED, Locksley RM, Fahy JV. Cross-Talk between Epithelial Cells and Type 2 Immune Signaling. The Role of IL-25. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 05 01; 193(9):935-6. PMID: 27128698; PMCID: PMC4872659 [Available on 05/01/17].
    23. von Moltke J, Ji M, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Tuft-cell-derived IL-25 regulates an intestinal ILC2-epithelial response circuit. Nature. 2016 Jan 14; 529(7585):221-5. PMID: 26675736; PMCID: PMC4830391.
    24. Mohapatra A, Van Dyken SJ, Schneider C, Nussbaum JC, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells utilize the IRF4-IL-9 module to coordinate epithelial cell maintenance of lung homeostasis. Mucosal Immunol. 2016 Jan; 9(1):275-86. PMID: 26129648; PMCID: PMC4698110.
    25. Molofsky AB, Savage AK, Locksley RM. Interleukin-33 in Tissue Homeostasis, Injury, and Inflammation. Immunity. 2015 Jun 16; 42(6):1005-19. PMID: 26084021; PMCID: PMC4471869.
    26. Molofsky AB, Van Gool F, Liang HE, Van Dyken SJ, Nussbaum JC, Lee J, Bluestone JA, Locksley RM. Interleukin-33 and Interferon-? Counter-Regulate Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Activation during Immune Perturbation. Immunity. 2015 Jul 21; 43(1):161-74. PMID: 26092469; PMCID: PMC4512852.
    27. Seaman WE, Locksley RM, Welsh MJ. New blood: Creative funding of disease-specific research. Sci Transl Med. 2015 May 20; 7(288):288ed5. PMID: 25995219.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Schwartz C, Willebrand R, Huber S, Rupec RA, Wu D, Locksley R, Voehringer D. Eosinophil-specific deletion of I?Ba in mice reveals a critical role of NF-?B-induced Bcl-xL for inhibition of apoptosis. Blood. 2015 Jun 18; 125(25):3896-904. PMID: 25862560; PMCID: PMC4473117.
    29. Cheng LE, Sullivan BM, Retana LE, Allen CD, Liang HE, Locksley RM. IgE-activated basophils regulate eosinophil tissue entry by modulating endothelial function. J Exp Med. 2015 Apr 06; 212(4):513-24. PMID: 25779634; PMCID: PMC4387286.
    30. Reinhardt RL, Liang HE, Bao K, Price AE, Mohrs M, Kelly BL, Locksley RM. A novel model for IFN-?-mediated autoinflammatory syndromes. J Immunol. 2015 Mar 01; 194(5):2358-68. PMID: 25637019; PMCID: PMC4337485.
    31. Lee MW, Odegaard JI, Mukundan L, Qiu Y, Molofsky AB, Nussbaum JC, Yun K, Locksley RM, Chawla A. Activated type 2 innate lymphoid cells regulate beige fat biogenesis. Cell. 2015 Jan 15; 160(1-2):74-87. PMID: 25543153; PMCID: PMC4297518.
    32. Bando JK, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Identification and distribution of developing innate lymphoid cells in the fetal mouse intestine. Nat Immunol. 2015 Feb; 16(2):153-60. PMID: 25501629; PMCID: PMC4297560.
    33. Cheng LE, Locksley RM. Allergic inflammation--innately homeostatic. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014 Nov 20; 7(3):a016352. PMID: 25414367.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Van Gool F, Molofsky AB, Morar MM, Rosenzwajg M, Liang HE, Klatzmann D, Locksley RM, Bluestone JA. Interleukin-5-producing group 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophilia induced by interleukin-2 therapy. Blood. 2014 Dec 04; 124(24):3572-6. PMID: 25323825; PMCID: PMC4256909.
    35. von Moltke J, Locksley RM. I-L-C-2 it: type 2 immunity and group 2 innate lymphoid cells in homeostasis. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014 Dec; 31:58-65. PMID: 25458996; PMCID: PMC4254640.
    36. Qiu Y, Nguyen KD, Odegaard JI, Cui X, Tian X, Locksley RM, Palmiter RD, Chawla A. Eosinophils and type 2 cytokine signaling in macrophages orchestrate development of functional beige fat. Cell. 2014 Jun 05; 157(6):1292-308. PMID: 24906148; PMCID: PMC4129510.
    37. Patnode ML, Bando JK, Krummel MF, Locksley RM, Rosen SD. Leukotriene B4 amplifies eosinophil accumulation in response to nematodes. J Exp Med. 2014 Jun 30; 211(7):1281-8. PMID: 24889202; PMCID: PMC4076593.
    38. O'Dea EM, Amarsaikhan N, Li H, Downey J, Steele E, Van Dyken SJ, Locksley RM, Templeton SP. Eosinophils are recruited in response to chitin exposure and enhance Th2-mediated immune pathology in Aspergillus fumigatus infection. Infect Immun. 2014 Aug; 82(8):3199-205. PMID: 24842927; PMCID: PMC4136210.
    39. Locksley RM, Fahy JV. Asthma and the flu: a tricky two-step. Immunol Cell Biol. 2014 May-Jun; 92(5):389-91. PMID: 24687019; PMCID: PMC4396068.
    40. Van Dyken SJ, Mohapatra A, Nussbaum JC, Molofsky AB, Thornton EE, Ziegler SF, McKenzie AN, Krummel MF, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Chitin activates parallel immune modules that direct distinct inflammatory responses via innate lymphoid type 2 and ?d T cells. Immunity. 2014 Mar 20; 40(3):414-24. PMID: 24631157; PMCID: PMC4019510.
    41. Hams E, Locksley RM, McKenzie AN, Fallon PG. Cutting edge: IL-25 elicits innate lymphoid type 2 and type II NKT cells that regulate obesity in mice. J Immunol. 2013 Dec 01; 191(11):5349-53. PMID: 24166975.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Nussbaum JC, Van Dyken SJ, von Moltke J, Cheng LE, Mohapatra A, Molofsky AB, Thornton EE, Krummel MF, Chawla A, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophil homeostasis. Nature. 2013 Oct 10; 502(7470):245-8. PMID: 24037376; PMCID: PMC3795960.
    43. Bando JK, Nussbaum JC, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells constitutively express arginase-I in the naive and inflamed lung. J Leukoc Biol. 2013 Nov; 94(5):877-84. PMID: 23924659; PMCID: PMC3800063.
    44. Hsieh CL, Kim CC, Ryba BE, Niemi EC, Bando JK, Locksley RM, Liu J, Nakamura MC, Seaman WE. Traumatic brain injury induces macrophage subsets in the brain. Eur J Immunol. 2013 Aug; 43(8):2010-22. PMID: 23630120; PMCID: PMC4210355.
    45. Goh YP, Henderson NC, Heredia JE, Red Eagle A, Odegaard JI, Lehwald N, Nguyen KD, Sheppard D, Mukundan L, Locksley RM, Chawla A. Eosinophils secrete IL-4 to facilitate liver regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 11; 110(24):9914-9. PMID: 23716700; PMCID: PMC3683773.
    46. Heredia JE, Mukundan L, Chen FM, Mueller AA, Deo RC, Locksley RM, Rando TA, Chawla A. Type 2 innate signals stimulate fibro/adipogenic progenitors to facilitate muscle regeneration. Cell. 2013 Apr 11; 153(2):376-88. PMID: 23582327; PMCID: PMC3663598.
    47. Locksley RM. Raggin' on T-bet. Cell Metab. 2013 Apr 02; 17(4):473-4. PMID: 23562073.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Molofsky AB, Nussbaum JC, Liang HE, Van Dyken SJ, Cheng LE, Mohapatra A, Chawla A, Locksley RM. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells sustain visceral adipose tissue eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages. J Exp Med. 2013 Mar 11; 210(3):535-49. PMID: 23420878; PMCID: PMC3600903.
    49. Spits H, Artis D, Colonna M, Diefenbach A, Di Santo JP, Eberl G, Koyasu S, Locksley RM, McKenzie AN, Mebius RE, Powrie F, Vivier E. Innate lymphoid cells--a proposal for uniform nomenclature. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013 Feb; 13(2):145-9. PMID: 23348417.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Oghumu S, Dong R, Varikuti S, Shawler T, Kampfrath T, Terrazas CA, Lezama-Davila C, Ahmer BM, Whitacre CC, Rajagopalan S, Locksley R, Sharpe AH, Satoskar AR. Distinct populations of innate CD8+ T cells revealed in a CXCR3 reporter mouse. J Immunol. 2013 Mar 01; 190(5):2229-40. PMID: 23338236; PMCID: PMC3683850.
    51. Van Dyken SJ, Locksley RM. Interleukin-4- and interleukin-13-mediated alternatively activated macrophages: roles in homeostasis and disease. Annu Rev Immunol. 2013; 31:317-43. PMID: 23298208; PMCID: PMC3606684.
    52. Cheng LE, Hartmann K, Roers A, Krummel MF, Locksley RM. Perivascular mast cells dynamically probe cutaneous blood vessels to capture immunoglobulin E. Immunity. 2013 Jan 24; 38(1):166-75. PMID: 23290520; PMCID: PMC3576928.
    53. Dickgreber N, Farrand KJ, van Panhuys N, Knight DA, McKee SJ, Chong ML, Miranda-Hernandez S, Baxter AG, Locksley RM, Le Gros G, Hermans IF. Immature murine NKT cells pass through a stage of developmentally programmed innate IL-4 secretion. J Leukoc Biol. 2012 Nov; 92(5):999-1009. PMID: 22941735; PMCID: PMC4050521.
    54. Price AE, Reinhardt RL, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Marking and quantifying IL-17A-producing cells in vivo. PLoS One. 2012; 7(6):e39750. PMID: 22768117; PMCID: PMC3387253.
    55. Thornton EE, Looney MR, Bose O, Sen D, Sheppard D, Locksley R, Huang X, Krummel MF. Spatiotemporally separated antigen uptake by alveolar dendritic cells and airway presentation to T cells in the lung. J Exp Med. 2012 Jun 04; 209(6):1183-99. PMID: 22585735; PMCID: PMC3371730.
    56. Nussbaum JC, Locksley RM. Infectious (Non)tolerance--frustrated commensalism gone awry? Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2012 May 01; 4(5). PMID: 22456498; PMCID: PMC3331693.
    57. Liang HE, Reinhardt RL, Bando JK, Sullivan BM, Ho IC, Locksley RM. Divergent expression patterns of IL-4 and IL-13 define unique functions in allergic immunity. Nat Immunol. 2011 Dec 04; 13(1):58-66. PMID: 22138715; PMCID: PMC3242938.
    58. Nguyen KD, Qiu Y, Cui X, Goh YP, Mwangi J, David T, Mukundan L, Brombacher F, Locksley RM, Chawla A. Alternatively activated macrophages produce catecholamines to sustain adaptive thermogenesis. Nature. 2011 Nov 20; 480(7375):104-8. PMID: 22101429; PMCID: PMC3371761.
    59. Elliott ER, Van Ziffle JA, Scapini P, Sullivan BM, Locksley RM, Lowell CA. Deletion of Syk in neutrophils prevents immune complex arthritis. J Immunol. 2011 Oct 15; 187(8):4319-30. PMID: 21918195; PMCID: PMC3186826.
    60. Gordon ED, Sidhu SS, Wang ZE, Woodruff PG, Yuan S, Solon MC, Conway SJ, Huang X, Locksley RM, Fahy JV. A protective role for periostin and TGF-ß in IgE-mediated allergy and airway hyperresponsiveness. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Jan; 42(1):144-55. PMID: 22093101; PMCID: PMC3271792.
    61. Fahy JV, Locksley RM. The airway epithelium as a regulator of Th2 responses in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Aug 15; 184(4):390-2. PMID: 21844510.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Van Dyken SJ, Garcia D, Porter P, Huang X, Quinlan PJ, Blanc PD, Corry DB, Locksley RM. Fungal chitin from asthma-associated home environments induces eosinophilic lung infiltration. J Immunol. 2011 Sep 01; 187(5):2261-7. PMID: 21824866; PMCID: PMC3159725.
    63. Sullivan BM, Liang HE, Bando JK, Wu D, Cheng LE, McKerrow JK, Allen CD, Locksley RM. Genetic analysis of basophil function in vivo. Nat Immunol. 2011 Jun; 12(6):527-35. PMID: 21552267; PMCID: PMC3271435.
    64. Wu D, Molofsky AB, Liang HE, Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Jouihan HA, Bando JK, Chawla A, Locksley RM. Eosinophils sustain adipose alternatively activated macrophages associated with glucose homeostasis. Science. 2011 Apr 08; 332(6026):243-7. PMID: 21436399; PMCID: PMC3144160.
    65. Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Red Eagle A, Odegaard JI, Jouihan H, Morel CR, Heredia JE, Mukundan L, Wu D, Locksley RM, Chawla A. IL-4/STAT6 immune axis regulates peripheral nutrient metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 28; 107(52):22617-22. PMID: 21149710; PMCID: PMC3012500.
    66. Duerr CU, Salzman NH, Dupont A, Szabo A, Normark BH, Normark S, Locksley RM, Mellroth P, Hornef MW. Control of intestinal Nod2-mediated peptidoglycan recognition by epithelium-associated lymphocytes. Mucosal Immunol. 2011 May; 4(3):325-34. PMID: 20980996.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Yang Z, Wang ZE, Doulias PT, Wei W, Ischiropoulos H, Locksley RM, Liu L. Lymphocyte development requires S-nitrosoglutathione reductase. J Immunol. 2010 Dec 01; 185(11):6664-9. PMID: 20980633; PMCID: PMC3070165.
    68. Cheng LE, Wang ZE, Locksley RM. Murine B cells regulate serum IgE levels in a CD23-dependent manner. J Immunol. 2010 Nov 01; 185(9):5040-7. PMID: 20870945; PMCID: PMC3085987.
    69. Price AE, Liang HE, Sullivan BM, Reinhardt RL, Eisley CJ, Erle DJ, Locksley RM. Systemically dispersed innate IL-13-expressing cells in type 2 immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jun 22; 107(25):11489-94. PMID: 20534524; PMCID: PMC2895098.
    70. Locksley RM. Asthma and allergic inflammation. Cell. 2010 Mar 19; 140(6):777-83. PMID: 20303868; PMCID: PMC3134388.
    71. Barbalat R, Lau L, Locksley RM, Barton GM. Toll-like receptor 2 on inflammatory monocytes induces type I interferon in response to viral but not bacterial ligands. Nat Immunol. 2009 Nov; 10(11):1200-7. PMID: 19801985; PMCID: PMC2821672.
    72. Mingueneau M, Roncagalli R, Grégoire C, Kissenpfennig A, Miazek A, Archambaud C, Wang Y, Perrin P, Bertosio E, Sansoni A, Richelme S, Locksley RM, Aguado E, Malissen M, Malissen B. Loss of the LAT adaptor converts antigen-responsive T cells into pathogenic effectors that function independently of the T cell receptor. Immunity. 2009 Aug 21; 31(2):197-208. PMID: 19682930.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Voehringer D, Wu D, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Efficient generation of long-distance conditional alleles using recombineering and a dual selection strategy in replicate plates. BMC Biotechnol. 2009 Jul 28; 9:69. PMID: 19638212; PMCID: PMC2724507.
    74. Locksley RM. Nine lives: plasticity among T helper cell subsets. J Exp Med. 2009 Aug 03; 206(8):1643-6. PMID: 19635860; PMCID: PMC2722180.
    75. Rothfuchs AG, Egen JG, Feng CG, Antonelli LR, Bafica A, Winter N, Locksley RM, Sher A. In situ IL-12/23p40 production during mycobacterial infection is sustained by CD11bhigh dendritic cells localized in tissue sites distinct from those harboring bacilli. J Immunol. 2009 Jun 01; 182(11):6915-25. PMID: 19454688.
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    76. Kroeger KM, Sullivan BM, Locksley RM. IL-18 and IL-33 elicit Th2 cytokines from basophils via a MyD88- and p38alpha-dependent pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2009 Oct; 86(4):769-78. PMID: 19451398; PMCID: PMC2752018.
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    79. Kang SJ, Locksley RM. The inflammasome and alum-mediated adjuvanticity. F1000 Biol Rep. 2009 Feb 24; 1:15. PMID: 20948671; PMCID: PMC2920669.
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    83. Robinson RT, Khader SA, Locksley RM, Lien E, Smiley ST, Cooper AM. Yersinia pestis evades TLR4-dependent induction of IL-12(p40)2 by dendritic cells and subsequent cell migration. J Immunol. 2008 Oct 15; 181(8):5560-7. PMID: 18832714; PMCID: PMC2640496.
    84. Mamchak AA, Sullivan BM, Hou B, Lee LM, Gilden JK, Krummel MF, Locksley RM, DeFranco AL. Normal development and activation but altered cytokine production of Fyn-deficient CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 2008 Oct 15; 181(8):5374-85. PMID: 18832694; PMCID: PMC2657555.
    85. Cisse B, Caton ML, Lehner M, Maeda T, Scheu S, Locksley R, Holmberg D, Zweier C, den Hollander NS, Kant SG, Holter W, Rauch A, Zhuang Y, Reizis B. Transcription factor E2-2 is an essential and specific regulator of plasmacytoid dendritic cell development. Cell. 2008 Oct 03; 135(1):37-48. PMID: 18854153; PMCID: PMC2631034.
    86. Jensen KD, Su X, Shin S, Li L, Youssef S, Yamasaki S, Steinman L, Saito T, Locksley RM, Davis MM, Baumgarth N, Chien YH. Thymic selection determines gammadelta T cell effector fate: antigen-naive cells make interleukin-17 and antigen-experienced cells make interferon gamma. Immunity. 2008 Jul 18; 29(1):90-100. PMID: 18585064; PMCID: PMC2601709.
    87. Locksley RM. The Roaring Twenties. Immunity. 2008 Apr; 28(4):437-9. PMID: 18400185.
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    89. Van Dyken SJ, Locksley RM. Autoimmunity: altered self-N-glycans trigger innate-mediated autoimmunity. Immunol Cell Biol. 2007 Nov-Dec; 85(8):572-4. PMID: 17909561.
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    91. Nurieva RI, Chuvpilo S, Wieder ED, Elkon KB, Locksley R, Serfling E, Dong C. A costimulation-initiated signaling pathway regulates NFATc1 transcription in T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2007 Jul 15; 179(2):1096-103. PMID: 17617602.
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    92. Launois P, Pingel S, Himmelrich H, Locksley R, Louis J. Different epitopes of the LACK protein are recognized by V beta 4 V alpha 8 CD4+ T cells in H-2b and H-2d mice susceptible to Leishmania major. Microbes Infect. 2007 Sep; 9(11):1260-6. PMID: 17890126.
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    93. Reese TA, Liang HE, Tager AM, Luster AD, Van Rooijen N, Voehringer D, Locksley RM. Chitin induces accumulation in tissue of innate immune cells associated with allergy. Nature. 2007 May 03; 447(7140):92-6. PMID: 17450126.
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    95. Voehringer D, Stanley SA, Cox JS, Completo GC, Lowary TL, Locksley RM. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: identification of intelectin-1 and -2 as Stat6-dependent genes expressed in lung and intestine during infection. Exp Parasitol. 2007 Aug; 116(4):458-66. PMID: 17420014; PMCID: PMC2699772.
    96. Voehringer D, van Rooijen N, Locksley RM. Eosinophils develop in distinct stages and are recruited to peripheral sites by alternatively activated macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2007 Jun; 81(6):1434-44. PMID: 17339609.
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    98. Locksley RM. A failure to launch: fuelling cytokine secretion in iNKT cells. Immunity. 2006 Sep; 25(3):393-5. PMID: 16979571.
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    103. Scheu S, Stetson DB, Reinhardt RL, Leber JH, Mohrs M, Locksley RM. Activation of the integrated stress response during T helper cell differentiation. Nat Immunol. 2006 Jun; 7(6):644-51. PMID: 16680145.
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    110. Loke P, Zang X, Hsuan L, Waitz R, Locksley RM, Allen JE, Allison JP. Inducible costimulator is required for type 2 antibody isotype switching but not T helper cell type 2 responses in chronic nematode infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 12; 102(28):9872-7. PMID: 15994233; PMCID: PMC1175004.
    111. Ohmura K, Nguyen LT, Locksley RM, Mathis D, Benoist C. Interleukin-4 can be a key positive regulator of inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jun; 52(6):1866-75. PMID: 15934072.
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    112. Kelly BL, Locksley RM. The Leishmania major LACK antigen with an immunodominant epitope at amino acids 156 to 173 is not required for early Th2 development in BALB/c mice. Infect Immun. 2004 Dec; 72(12):6924-31. PMID: 15557613; PMCID: PMC529165.
    113. Voehringer D, Rosen DB, Lanier LL, Locksley RM. CD200 receptor family members represent novel DAP12-associated activating receptors on basophils and mast cells. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 24; 279(52):54117-23. PMID: 15471863.
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    114. Xu M, Wang Z, Locksley RM. Innate immune responses in peptidoglycan recognition protein L-deficient mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Sep; 24(18):7949-57. PMID: 15340057; PMCID: PMC515053.
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    116. Stetson DB, Voehringer D, Grogan JL, Xu M, Reinhardt RL, Scheu S, Kelly BL, Locksley RM. Th2 cells: orchestrating barrier immunity. Adv Immunol. 2004; 83:163-89. PMID: 15135631.
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    117. Grogan JL, Wang ZE, Stanley S, Harmon B, Loots GG, Rubin EM, Locksley RM. Basal chromatin modification at the IL-4 gene in helper T cells. J Immunol. 2003 Dec 15; 171(12):6672-9. PMID: 14662870.
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    119. Stetson DB, Mohrs M, Reinhardt RL, Baron JL, Wang ZE, Gapin L, Kronenberg M, Locksley RM. Constitutive cytokine mRNAs mark natural killer (NK) and NK T cells poised for rapid effector function. J Exp Med. 2003 Oct 06; 198(7):1069-76. PMID: 14530376; PMCID: PMC2194220.
    120. Matsuda JL, Gapin L, Baron JL, Sidobre S, Stetson DB, Mohrs M, Locksley RM, Kronenberg M. Mouse V alpha 14i natural killer T cells are resistant to cytokine polarization in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jul 08; 100(14):8395-400. PMID: 12829795; PMCID: PMC166240.
    121. Hadeiba H, Locksley RM. Lung CD25 CD4 regulatory T cells suppress type 2 immune responses but not bronchial hyperreactivity. J Immunol. 2003 Jun 01; 170(11):5502-10. PMID: 12759427.
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    122. Mohrs M, Lacy DA, Locksley RM. Stat signals release activated naive Th cells from an anergic checkpoint. J Immunol. 2003 Feb 15; 170(4):1870-6. PMID: 12574353.
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    123. Bour-Jordan H, Grogan JL, Tang Q, Auger JA, Locksley RM, Bluestone JA. CTLA-4 regulates the requirement for cytokine-induced signals in T(H)2 lineage commitment. Nat Immunol. 2003 Feb; 4(2):182-8. PMID: 12524538.
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    124. Shinkai K, Mohrs M, Locksley RM. Helper T cells regulate type-2 innate immunity in vivo. Nature. 2002 Dec 19-26; 420(6917):825-9. PMID: 12490951.
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    128. Launois P, Gumy A, Himmelrich H, Locksley RM, Röcken M, Louis JA. Rapid IL-4 production by Leishmania homolog of mammalian RACK1-reactive CD4(+) T cells in resistant mice treated once with anti-IL-12 or -IFN-gamma antibodies at the onset of infection with Leishmania major instructs Th2 cell development, resulting in nonhealing lesions. J Immunol. 2002 May 01; 168(9):4628-35. PMID: 11971011.
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    130. Riese RJ, Shi GP, Villadangos J, Stetson D, Driessen C, Lennon-Dumenil AM, Chu CL, Naumov Y, Behar SM, Ploegh H, Locksley R, Chapman HA. Regulation of CD1 function and NK1.1(+) T cell selection and maturation by cathepsin S. Immunity. 2001 Dec; 15(6):909-19. PMID: 11754813.
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    131. Davies SJ, Grogan JL, Blank RB, Lim KC, Locksley RM, McKerrow JH. Modulation of blood fluke development in the liver by hepatic CD4+ lymphocytes. Science. 2001 Nov 09; 294(5545):1358-61. PMID: 11701932.
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    134. Bottrel RL, Dutra WO, Martins FA, Gontijo B, Carvalho E, Barral-Netto M, Barral A, Almeida RP, Mayrink W, Locksley R, Gollob KJ. Flow cytometric determination of cellular sources and frequencies of key cytokine-producing lymphocytes directed against recombinant LACK and soluble Leishmania antigen in human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Infect Immun. 2001 May; 69(5):3232-9. PMID: 11292745; PMCID: PMC98281.
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    136. Grogan JL, Mohrs M, Harmon B, Lacy DA, Sedat JW, Locksley RM. Early transcription and silencing of cytokine genes underlie polarization of T helper cell subsets. Immunity. 2001 Mar; 14(3):205-15. PMID: 11290331.
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    137. Locksley RM, Killeen N, Lenardo MJ. The TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies: integrating mammalian biology. Cell. 2001 Feb 23; 104(4):487-501. PMID: 11239407.
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    138. Kelly BL, Locksley RM. Coordinate regulation of the IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5 cytokine cluster in Th2 clones revealed by allelic expression patterns. J Immunol. 2000 Sep 15; 165(6):2982-6. PMID: 10975806.
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    139. Gurunathan S, Stobie L, Prussin C, Sacks DL, Glaichenhaus N, Iwasaki A, Fowell DJ, Locksley RM, Chang JT, Wu CY, Seder RA. Requirements for the maintenance of Th1 immunity in vivo following DNA vaccination: a potential immunoregulatory role for CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 2000 Jul 15; 165(2):915-24. PMID: 10878366.
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    140. Lacy DA, Wang ZE, Symula DJ, McArthur CJ, Rubin EM, Frazer KA, Locksley RM. Faithful expression of the human 5q31 cytokine cluster in transgenic mice. J Immunol. 2000 May 01; 164(9):4569-74. PMID: 10779759.
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    141. Himmelrich H, Launois P, Maillard I, Biedermann T, Tacchini-Cottier F, Locksley RM, Röcken M, Louis JA. In BALB/c mice, IL-4 production during the initial phase of infection with Leishmania major is necessary and sufficient to instruct Th2 cell development resulting in progressive disease. J Immunol. 2000 May 01; 164(9):4819-25. PMID: 10779790.
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    142. Hadeiba H, Corry DB, Locksley RM. Baseline airway hyperreactivity in A/J mice is not mediated by cells of the adaptive immune system. J Immunol. 2000 May 01; 164(9):4933-40. PMID: 10779804.
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    143. Loots GG, Locksley RM, Blankespoor CM, Wang ZE, Miller W, Rubin EM, Frazer KA. Identification of a coordinate regulator of interleukins 4, 13, and 5 by cross-species sequence comparisons. Science. 2000 Apr 07; 288(5463):136-40. PMID: 10753117.
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    144. Shinkai K, Locksley RM. CD1, tuberculosis, and the evolution of major histocompatibility complex molecules. J Exp Med. 2000 Mar 20; 191(6):907-14. PMID: 10727453; PMCID: PMC2193123.
    145. Pippig SD, Peña-Rossi C, Long J, Godfrey WR, Fowell DJ, Reiner SL, Birkeland ML, Locksley RM, Barclay AN, Killeen N. Robust B cell immunity but impaired T cell proliferation in the absence of CD134 (OX40). J Immunol. 1999 Dec 15; 163(12):6520-9. PMID: 10586044.
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    146. Fowell DJ, Shinkai K, Liao XC, Beebe AM, Coffman RL, Littman DR, Locksley RM. Impaired NFATc translocation and failure of Th2 development in Itk-deficient CD4+ T cells. Immunity. 1999 Oct; 11(4):399-409. PMID: 10549622.
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    147. Symula DJ, Frazer KA, Ueda Y, Denefle P, Stevens ME, Wang ZE, Locksley R, Rubin EM. Functional screening of an asthma QTL in YAC transgenic mice. Nat Genet. 1999 Oct; 23(2):241-4. PMID: 10508526.
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    148. Fowell DJ, Locksley RM. Leishmania major infection of inbred mice: unmasking genetic determinants of infectious diseases. Bioessays. 1999 Jun; 21(6):510-8. PMID: 10402957.
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    149. Pingel S, Launois P, Fowell DJ, Turck CW, Southwood S, Sette A, Glaichenhaus N, Louis JA, Locksley RM. Altered ligands reveal limited plasticity in the T cell response to a pathogenic epitope. J Exp Med. 1999 Apr 05; 189(7):1111-20. PMID: 10190902; PMCID: PMC2193001.
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    151. Corry DB, Locksley RM. Construction of polycompetitors for competitive PCR. Methods Mol Med. 1999; 26:253-64. PMID: 21340883.
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    152. Bix M, Wang ZE, Thiel B, Schork NJ, Locksley RM. Genetic regulation of commitment to interleukin 4 production by a CD4(+) T cell-intrinsic mechanism. J Exp Med. 1998 Dec 21; 188(12):2289-99. PMID: 9858515; PMCID: PMC2212433.
    153. Grünig G, Warnock M, Wakil AE, Venkayya R, Brombacher F, Rennick DM, Sheppard D, Mohrs M, Donaldson DD, Locksley RM, Corry DB. Requirement for IL-13 independently of IL-4 in experimental asthma. Science. 1998 Dec 18; 282(5397):2261-3. PMID: 9856950; PMCID: PMC3897229.
    154. Wakil AE, Wang ZE, Ryan JC, Fowell DJ, Locksley RM. Interferon gamma derived from CD4(+) T cells is sufficient to mediate T helper cell type 1 development. J Exp Med. 1998 Nov 02; 188(9):1651-6. PMID: 9802977; PMCID: PMC2212510.
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    156. Bix M, Locksley RM. Independent and epigenetic regulation of the interleukin-4 alleles in CD4+ T cells. Science. 1998 Aug 28; 281(5381):1352-4. PMID: 9721100.
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    157. Corry DB, Grünig G, Hadeiba H, Kurup VP, Warnock ML, Sheppard D, Rennick DM, Locksley RM. Requirements for allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity in T and B cell-deficient mice. Mol Med. 1998 May; 4(5):344-55. PMID: 9642684; PMCID: PMC2230383.
    158. Brossay L, Tangri S, Bix M, Cardell S, Locksley R, Kronenberg M. Mouse CD1-autoreactive T cells have diverse patterns of reactivity to CD1+ targets. J Immunol. 1998 Apr 15; 160(8):3681-8. PMID: 9558068.
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    159. Pingel S, Wang ZE, Locksley RM. Distribution of protein kinase C isoforms after infection of macrophages with Leishmania major. Infect Immun. 1998 Apr; 66(4):1795-9. PMID: 9529117; PMCID: PMC108124.
    160. Reiner SL, Fowell DJ, Moskowitz NH, Swier K, Brown DR, Brown CR, Turck CW, Scott PA, Killeen N, Locksley RM. Control of Leishmania major by a monoclonal alpha beta T cell repertoire. J Immunol. 1998 Jan 15; 160(2):884-9. PMID: 9551925.
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    162. McSorley SJ, Soldera S, Malherbe L, Carnaud C, Locksley RM, Flavell RA, Glaichenhaus N. Immunological tolerance to a pancreatic antigen as a result of local expression of TNFalpha by islet beta cells. Immunity. 1997 Sep; 7(3):401-9. PMID: 9324360.
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    163. Hagenbaugh A, Sharma S, Dubinett SM, Wei SH, Aranda R, Cheroutre H, Fowell DJ, Binder S, Tsao B, Locksley RM, Moore KW, Kronenberg M. Altered immune responses in interleukin 10 transgenic mice. J Exp Med. 1997 Jun 16; 185(12):2101-10. PMID: 9182682; PMCID: PMC2196349.
    164. Launois P, Maillard I, Pingel S, Swihart KG, Xénarios I, Acha-Orbea H, Diggelmann H, Locksley RM, MacDonald HR, Louis JA. IL-4 rapidly produced by V beta 4 V alpha 8 CD4+ T cells instructs Th2 development and susceptibility to Leishmania major in BALB/c mice. Immunity. 1997 May; 6(5):541-9. PMID: 9175832.
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    166. Brown DR, Swier K, Moskowitz NH, Naujokas MF, Locksley RM, Reiner SL. T helper subset differentiation in the absence of invariant chain. J Exp Med. 1997 Jan 06; 185(1):31-41. PMID: 8996239; PMCID: PMC2196096.
    167. Locksley RM. Exploitation of immune and other defence mechanisms by parasites: an overview. Parasitology. 1997; 115 Suppl:S5-7. PMID: 9571686.
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    168. Wakil AE, Wang ZE, Locksley RM. Leishmania major: targeting IL-4 in successful immunomodulation of murine infection. Exp Parasitol. 1996 Nov; 84(2):214-22. PMID: 8932771.
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    169. Brown DR, Fowell DJ, Corry DB, Wynn TA, Moskowitz NH, Cheever AW, Locksley RM, Reiner SL. Beta 2-microglobulin-dependent NK1.1+ T cells are not essential for T helper cell 2 immune responses. J Exp Med. 1996 Oct 01; 184(4):1295-304. PMID: 8879201; PMCID: PMC2192844.
    170. Roth I, Corry DB, Locksley RM, Abrams JS, Litton MJ, Fisher SJ. Human placental cytotrophoblasts produce the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10. J Exp Med. 1996 Aug 01; 184(2):539-48. PMID: 8760807; PMCID: PMC2192727.
    171. Corry DB, Ampel NM, Christian L, Locksley RM, Galgiani JN. Cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human coccidioidomycosis. J Infect Dis. 1996 Aug; 174(2):440-3. PMID: 8699085.
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    172. Fearon DT, Locksley RM. The instructive role of innate immunity in the acquired immune response. Science. 1996 Apr 05; 272(5258):50-3. PMID: 8600536.
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    173. Corry DB, Folkesson HG, Warnock ML, Erle DJ, Matthay MA, Wiener-Kronish JP, Locksley RM. Interleukin 4, but not interleukin 5 or eosinophils, is required in a murine model of acute airway hyperreactivity. J Exp Med. 1996 Jan 01; 183(1):109-17. PMID: 8551213; PMCID: PMC2192426.
    174. Fowell DJ, Wakil AE, Locksley RM. Interleukin-12 in murine leishmaniasis--match, flame or fuel? Res Immunol. 1995 Sep-Oct; 146(7-8):566-75. PMID: 8839163.
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    175. Bix M, Locksley RM. Natural T cells. Cells that co-express NKRP-1 and TCR. J Immunol. 1995 Aug 01; 155(3):1020-2. PMID: 7636176.
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    176. Mougneau E, Altare F, Wakil AE, Zheng S, Coppola T, Wang ZE, Waldmann R, Locksley RM, Glaichenhaus N. Expression cloning of a protective Leishmania antigen. Science. 1995 Apr 28; 268(5210):563-6. PMID: 7725103.
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    177. Locksley RM, Wakil AE, Corry DB, Pingel S, Bix M, Fowell DJ. The development of effector T cell subsets in murine Leishmania major infection. Ciba Found Symp. 1995; 195:110-7; discussion 117-22. PMID: 8724833.
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    178. Reiner SL, Locksley RM. The regulation of immunity to Leishmania major. Annu Rev Immunol. 1995; 13:151-77. PMID: 7612219.
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    179. Wang ZE, Zheng S, Corry DB, Dalton DK, Seder RA, Reiner SL, Locksley RM. Interferon gamma-independent effects of interleukin 12 administered during acute or established infection due to Leishmania major. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec 20; 91(26):12932-6. PMID: 7809149; PMCID: PMC45554.
    180. Corry DB, Reiner SL, Linsley PS, Locksley RM. Differential effects of blockade of CD28-B7 on the development of Th1 or Th2 effector cells in experimental leishmaniasis. J Immunol. 1994 Nov 01; 153(9):4142-8. PMID: 7523517.
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    181. Reiner SL, Zheng S, Corry DB, Locksley RM. Constructing polycompetitor cDNAs for quantitative PCR (J. Immunol. Methods 165 (1993) 37-46; 173(1994) 133). J Immunol Methods. 1994 Oct 14; 175(2):275. PMID: 7930655.
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    182. Reiner SL, Zheng S, Corry DB, Locksley RM. Constructing polycompetitor cDNAs for quantitative PCR (J. Immunol. Methods 165 (1993) 37-46). J Immunol Methods. 1994 Jul 12; 173(1):133. PMID: 8034981.
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    183. Locksley RM. Th2 cells: help for helminths. J Exp Med. 1994 May 01; 179(5):1405-7. PMID: 8163928; PMCID: PMC2191475.
    184. Wang ZE, Reiner SL, Zheng S, Dalton DK, Locksley RM. CD4+ effector cells default to the Th2 pathway in interferon gamma-deficient mice infected with Leishmania major. J Exp Med. 1994 Apr 01; 179(4):1367-71. PMID: 7908325; PMCID: PMC2191434.
    185. Reiner SL, Zheng S, Wang ZE, Stowring L, Locksley RM. Leishmania promastigotes evade interleukin 12 (IL-12) induction by macrophages and stimulate a broad range of cytokines from CD4+ T cells during initiation of infection. J Exp Med. 1994 Feb 01; 179(2):447-56. PMID: 7905017; PMCID: PMC2191353.
    186. Reiner SL, Locksley RM. Cytokines in the differentiation of Th1/Th2 CD4+ subsets in leishmaniasis. J Cell Biochem. 1993 Dec; 53(4):323-8. PMID: 7905485.
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    187. Holaday BJ, Pompeu MM, Jeronimo S, Texeira MJ, Sousa Ade A, Vasconcelos AW, Pearson RD, Abrams JS, Locksley RM. Potential role for interleukin-10 in the immunosuppression associated with kala azar. J Clin Invest. 1993 Dec; 92(6):2626-32. PMID: 8254019; PMCID: PMC288459.
    188. Reiner SL, Zheng S, Corry DB, Locksley RM. Constructing polycompetitor cDNAs for quantitative PCR. J Immunol Methods. 1993 Sep 27; 165(1):37-46. PMID: 8409467.
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    189. Locksley RM, Reiner SL, Hatam F, Littman DR, Killeen N. Helper T cells without CD4: control of leishmaniasis in CD4-deficient mice. Science. 1993 Sep 10; 261(5127):1448-51. PMID: 8367726.
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    190. Azouaou N, Gelber RH, Abel K, Sasaki DT, Murray LP, Locksley RM, Mohagheghpour N. Reconstitution of Mycobacterium leprae immunity in severe combined immunodeficient mice using a T-cell line. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1993 Sep; 61(3):398-405. PMID: 8228438.
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    191. Wang ZE, Reiner SL, Hatam F, Heinzel FP, Bouvier J, Turck CW, Locksley RM. Targeted activation of CD8 cells and infection of beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice fail to confirm a primary protective role for CD8 cells in experimental leishmaniasis. J Immunol. 1993 Aug 15; 151(4):2077-86. PMID: 8102158.
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    192. Stevenson FT, Bursten SL, Fanton C, Locksley RM, Lovett DH. The 31-kDa precursor of interleukin 1 alpha is myristoylated on specific lysines within the 16-kDa N-terminal propiece. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Aug 01; 90(15):7245-9. PMID: 8346241; PMCID: PMC47113.
    193. Locksley RM. Interleukin 12 in host defense against microbial pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jul 01; 90(13):5879-80. PMID: 8100997; PMCID: PMC46829.
    194. Reiner SL, Locksley RM. The worm and the protozoa: stereotyped responses or distinct antigens? Parasitol Today. 1993 Jul; 9(7):258-60. PMID: 15463773.
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    195. Tobin JF, Reiner SL, Hatam F, Zheng S, Leptak CL, Wirth DF, Locksley RM. Transfected Leishmania expressing biologically active IFN-gamma. J Immunol. 1993 Jun 01; 150(11):5059-69. PMID: 8098724.
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    196. Heinzel FP, Rerko RM, Hatam F, Locksley RM. IL-2 is necessary for the progression of leishmaniasis in susceptible murine hosts. J Immunol. 1993 May 01; 150(9):3924-31. PMID: 8473741.
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    197. Reiner SL, Wang ZE, Hatam F, Scott P, Locksley RM. TH1 and TH2 cell antigen receptors in experimental leishmaniasis. Science. 1993 Mar 05; 259(5100):1457-60. PMID: 8451641.
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    198. Stevenson FT, Bursten SL, Locksley RM, Lovett DH. Myristyl acylation of the tumor necrosis factor alpha precursor on specific lysine residues. J Exp Med. 1992 Oct 01; 176(4):1053-62. PMID: 1402651; PMCID: PMC2119375.
    199. Locksley RM, Louis JA. Immunology of leishmaniasis. Curr Opin Immunol. 1992 Aug; 4(4):413-8. PMID: 1356346.
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    200. Stevenson FT, Torrano F, Locksley RM, Lovett DH. Interleukin 1: the patterns of translation and intracellular distribution support alternative secretory mechanisms. J Cell Physiol. 1992 Aug; 152(2):223-31. PMID: 1639857.
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    201. Amiri P, Locksley RM, Parslow TG, Sadick M, Rector E, Ritter D, McKerrow JH. Tumour necrosis factor alpha restores granulomas and induces parasite egg-laying in schistosome-infected SCID mice. Nature. 1992 Apr 16; 356(6370):604-7. PMID: 1560843.
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    202. Reiner SL, Locksley RM. Lessons from Leishmania: a model for investigations of CD4+ subset differentiation. Infect Agents Dis. 1992 Feb; 1(1):33-42. PMID: 1365527.
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    203. Sadick MD, Street N, Mosmann TR, Locksley RM. Cytokine regulation of murine leishmaniasis: interleukin 4 is not sufficient to mediate progressive disease in resistant C57BL/6 mice. Infect Immun. 1991 Dec; 59(12):4710-4. PMID: 1937832; PMCID: PMC259104.
    204. Holaday BJ, Sadick MD, Wang ZE, Reiner SL, Heinzel FP, Parslow TG, Locksley RM. Reconstitution of Leishmania immunity in severe combined immunodeficient mice using Th1- and Th2-like cell lines. J Immunol. 1991 Sep 01; 147(5):1653-8. PMID: 1831830.
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    205. Heinzel FP, Sadick MD, Mutha SS, Locksley RM. Production of interferon gamma, interleukin 2, interleukin 4, and interleukin 10 by CD4+ lymphocytes in vivo during healing and progressive murine leishmaniasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Aug 15; 88(16):7011-5. PMID: 1908085; PMCID: PMC52223.
    206. Bernstein MS, Tong-Starksen SE, Locksley RM. Activation of human monocyte--derived macrophages with lipopolysaccharide decreases human immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro at the level of gene expression. J Clin Invest. 1991 Aug; 88(2):540-5. PMID: 1907615; PMCID: PMC295381.
    207. Allen JE, Locksley RM, Stephens RS. A single peptide from the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis elicits T cell help for the production of antibodies to protective determinants. J Immunol. 1991 Jul 15; 147(2):674-9. PMID: 1712817.
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    208. Locksley RM, Scott P. Helper T-cell subsets in mouse leishmaniasis: induction, expansion and effector function. Immunol Today. 1991 Mar; 12(3):A58-61. PMID: 1829891.
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    209. Locksley RM, Heinzel FP, Holaday BJ, Mutha SS, Reiner SL, Sadick MD. Induction of Th1 and Th2 CD4+ subsets during murine Leishmania major infection. Res Immunol. 1991 Jan; 142(1):28-32. PMID: 1829257.
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    210. Sadick MD, Heinzel FP, Holaday BJ, Pu RT, Dawkins RS, Locksley RM. Cure of murine leishmaniasis with anti-interleukin 4 monoclonal antibody. Evidence for a T cell-dependent, interferon gamma-independent mechanism. J Exp Med. 1990 Jan 01; 171(1):115-27. PMID: 2104918; PMCID: PMC2187647.
    211. Heinzel FP, Sadick MD, Holaday BJ, Coffman RL, Locksley RM. Reciprocal expression of interferon gamma or interleukin 4 during the resolution or progression of murine leishmaniasis. Evidence for expansion of distinct helper T cell subsets. J Exp Med. 1989 Jan 01; 169(1):59-72. PMID: 2521244; PMCID: PMC2189187.
    212. Locksley RM, Crowe S, Sadick MD, Heinzel FP, Gardner KD, McGrath MS, Mills J. Release of interleukin 1 inhibitory activity (contra-IL-1) by human monocyte-derived macrophages infected with human immunodeficiency virus in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1988 Dec; 82(6):2097-105. PMID: 3264291; PMCID: PMC442793.
    213. Hamadeh R, Ardehali A, Locksley RM, York MK. Fatal aspergillosis associated with smoking contaminated marijuana, in a marrow transplant recipient. Chest. 1988 Aug; 94(2):432-3. PMID: 3293934.
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    214. Heinzel FP, Sadick MD, Locksley RM. Leishmania major: analysis of lymphocyte and macrophage cellular phenotypes during infection of susceptible and resistant mice. Exp Parasitol. 1988 Apr; 65(2):258-68. PMID: 3127233.
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    215. Locksley RM, Heinzel FP, Shepard HM, Agosti J, Eessalu TE, Aggarwal BB, Harlan JM. Tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta differ in their capacities to generate interleukin 1 release from human endothelial cells. J Immunol. 1987 Sep 15; 139(6):1891-5. PMID: 3497981.
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    216. Locksley RM, Heinzel FP, Sadick MD, Holaday BJ, Gardner KD. Murine cutaneous leishmaniasis: susceptibility correlates with differential expansion of helper T-cell subsets. Ann Inst Pasteur Immunol. 1987 Sep-Oct; 138(5):744-9. PMID: 2964247.
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    217. Sadick MD, Heinzel FP, Shigekane VM, Fisher WL, Locksley RM. Cellular and humoral immunity to Leishmania major in genetically susceptible mice after in vivo depletion of L3T4+ T cells. J Immunol. 1987 Aug 15; 139(4):1303-9. PMID: 3112230.
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    218. Sadick MD, Locksley RM, Tubbs C, Raff HV. Murine cutaneous leishmaniasis: resistance correlates with the capacity to generate interferon-gamma in response to Leishmania antigens in vitro. J Immunol. 1986 Jan; 136(2):655-61. PMID: 3079789.
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    219. Locksley RM, Wilson CB, Klebanoff SJ. Role for endogenous and acquired peroxidase in the toxoplasmacidal activity of murine and human mononuclear phagocytes. J Clin Invest. 1982 May; 69(5):1099-111. PMID: 7068848; PMCID: PMC370174.
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