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Richard Locksley, MD

Title(s)Sandler Distinguished Professor, Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address513 Parnassus Ave, MSB
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-476-1559
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-5468-6867 Additional info
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    Other Positions
    Title(s)Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of Washington1980-83Infect Diseases Fellow
    University of California, San Francisco1976-80Resident/Chief Resident
    University of RochesterM.D.06/1976Medicine
    Harvard CollegeB.A.06/1970Biochemistry
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    2017National Academy of Sciences
    2017Fellow, American Academy of Microbiology
    2017Inaugural William Paul Award for Cytokine Research, International Cytokine & Interferon Society
    2014Thomson Reuters ‘Top 1% highly cited researchers in immunology’
    2006R37 MERIT Award, NIAID/NIH
    2005American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    2003Sandler Distinguished Professorship
    2003Inspirational Teacher Award, UCSF class of 2006
    2003Distinguished Service Award, American Association of Immunologists
    2001  - 2005Ellison Medical Foundation Senior Scholar in Global Infectious Diseases
    1994Bailey K Ashford Medal, American Society Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
    1994Association of American Physicians
    1992Fellow, Infectious Diseases Society of American
    1992  - 1997Burroughs Wellcome Fund Scholar in Molecular Parasitology
    1991American Society for Clinical Investigation

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Locksley is the Director of the Sandler Asthma Basic Research Center (SABRE) and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. He is a Professor in the Departments of Medicine and Microbiology & Immunology. He received his undergraduate degree in biochemistry from Harvard and his M.D. from the University of Rochester. After completing his residency at UCSF, he trained in infectious diseases at the University of Washington. Prior to his position as director of the SABRE Center, Dr. Locksley served 18 years as the Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at UCSF Medical Center. Dr. Locksley is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

    Dr. Locksley's laboratory addresses the immune cells and tissue responses that occur during allergic, or type 2, immunity. This includes the processes by which naïve helper T cells differentiate to become allergy-supporting Th2 cells, but also the interactions of these cells with eosinophils, basophils, mast cells and alternatively activated macrophages that mediate activities in peripheral tissues. The laboratory increasingly focuses on innate immunity, particularly since the discovery of Group 2 innate lymphoid cells, or ILC2s, which are prominently involved in allergy. Importantly, the discovery of ILC2s initiated efforts to uncover the ‘ground state’ of allergy by investigating homeostatic pathways involving these cells that might provide insights regarding their primary function in the immune system and in homeostasis.

    Dr. Locksley’s laboratory pioneered the use of mice genetically engineered to report cytokines expressed during allergic immune responses. Using these methods, the laboratory participated in the discovery of innate lymphoid type 2 cells, or ILC2s, which represent a previously unknown cell now implicated in allergic immunity. The ability to study the activation and organization of innate ILC2s uncovered a role for cells associated with allergy and asthma, such as eosinophils, in processes involved with basal metabolism and tissue homeostasis. Activation of ILC2s in the small intestine was implicated in alteration of the mucosa to a secretory phenotype characterized by high numbers of goblet cells and tuft cells. The latter, a previously mysterious epithelial cell of unknown function, was shown to be the source of IL-25, a cytokine capable of activating ILC2s and other immune cells associated with allergy and asthma, thus opening up entirely new avenues for discovery.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Epithelial chitinase and lung homeostasis
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL128903Jul 1, 2015 - Apr 30, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Exploring the biology of persistent type 2 airway niches in asthma
    NIH/NHLBI P01HL107202Aug 15, 2012 - May 31, 2017
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Innate immune regulation of inflammation and adaptive immunity
    NIH/NIAID P01AI078869Jul 15, 2008 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Understanding Asthma Endotypes
    NIH/NIAID U19AI077439Apr 1, 2008 - Mar 31, 2023
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Biology of Infectious Diseases Training Program
    NIH/NIAID T32AI007641Aug 1, 2000 - Jul 31, 2006
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Interactions of Lymphocytes, Cytokines and Airway Cells
    NIH/NHLBI P50HL056385Sep 1, 1997 - Aug 31, 2006
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Initiation of allergic immunity by parasites
    NIH/NIAID R01AI030663Jan 1, 1991 - Nov 30, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OF LABORATORY-PAIRED PRIMATES
    NIH R01RR005355Sep 15, 1989 - Jun 30, 1993
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Parasite Immunity Orchestrated by Th2 Cells
    NIH/NIAID R37AI026918Jul 1, 1988 - Mar 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Parasite immunity orchestrated by type 2 immune cells
    NIH/NIAID R01AI026918Jul 1, 1988 - Mar 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HUMAN PHAGOCYTE FUNCTION IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
    NIH/NIAID R01AI019768Sep 30, 1983 - Aug 31, 1986
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Global Health

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
    Newest   |   Oldest   |   Most Cited   |   Most Discussed   |   Timeline   |   Field Summary   |   Plain Text
    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. In Situ Maturation and Tissue Adaptation of Type 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Progenitors. Immunity. 2020 Sep 30. Zeis P, Lian M, Fan X, Herman JS, Hernandez DC, Gentek R, Elias S, Symowski C, Knöpper K, Peltokangas N, Friedrich C, Doucet-Ladeveze R, Kabat AM, Locksley RM, Voehringer D, Bajenoff M, Rudensky AY, Romagnani C, Grün D, Gasteiger G. PMID: 33002412.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Tissue-specific pathways extrude activated ILC2s to disseminate type 2 immunity. J Exp Med. 2020 Apr 06; 217(4). Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Schneider C, Liao C, Lee J, Liang HE, Locksley RM. PMID: 32031571.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    
    3. Tissue immunity broadcasts near and far. Nat Rev Immunol. 2020 02; 20(2):93-94. Molofsky AB, Locksley RM. PMID: 31748703.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    4. Differences in the chitinolytic activity of mammalian chitinases on soluble and insoluble substrates. Protein Sci. 2020 04; 29(4):966-977. Barad BA, Liu L, Diaz RE, Basilio R, Van Dyken SJ, Locksley RM, Fraser JS. PMID: 31930591.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    5. Production of IFNß by Conventional Dendritic Cells after Stimulation with Viral Compounds and IFNß-Independent IFNAR1-Signaling Pathways are Associated with Aggravation of Polymicrobial Sepsis. Int J Mol Sci. 2019 Sep 07; 20(18). Howe M, Bauer J, Schulze A, Kropp S, Locksley RM, Alferink J, Weighardt H, Scheu S. PMID: 31500303.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    6. Regulation of immune responses by tuft cells. Nat Rev Immunol. 2019 09; 19(9):584-593. Schneider C, O'Leary CE, Locksley RM. PMID: 31114038.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    7. Making Asthma Crystal Clear. N Engl J Med. 2019 08 29; 381(9):882-884. Fahy JV, Locksley RM. PMID: 31461600.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    8. ILC2s chew the fat. J Exp Med. 2019 09 02; 216(9):1972-1973. Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Locksley RM. PMID: 31405894.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    9. Tissue-Resident Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cells Differentiate by Layered Ontogeny and In Situ Perinatal Priming. Immunity. 2019 06 18; 50(6):1425-1438.e5. Schneider C, Lee J, Koga S, Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Nussbaum JC, Smith LK, Villeda SA, Liang HE, Locksley RM. PMID: 31128962.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    10. Tuft Cells-Systemically Dispersed Sensory Epithelia Integrating Immune and Neural Circuitry. Annu Rev Immunol. 2019 04 26; 37:47-72. O'Leary CE, Schneider C, Locksley RM. PMID: 30379593.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    11. Publisher Correction: Parasitic helminths induce fetal-like reversion in the intestinal stem cell niche. Nature. 2018 10; 562(7727):E22. Nusse YM, Savage AK, Marangoni P, Rosendahl-Huber AKM, Landman TA, de Sauvage FJ, Locksley RM, Klein OD. PMID: 30013120.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    12. Tissue signals imprint ILC2 identity with anticipatory function. Nat Immunol. 2018 10; 19(10):1093-1099. Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Van Dyken SJ, Schneider C, Lee J, Nussbaum JC, Liang HE, Vaka D, Eckalbar WL, Molofsky AB, Erle DJ, Locksley RM. PMID: 30201992.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 41     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    13. Innate Lymphoid Cells: 10 Years On. Cell. 2018 08 23; 174(5):1054-1066. Vivier E, Artis D, Colonna M, Diefenbach A, Di Santo JP, Eberl G, Koyasu S, Locksley RM, McKenzie ANJ, Mebius RE, Powrie F, Spits H. PMID: 30142344.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 166     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    14. Thymic tuft cells promote an IL-4-enriched medulla and shape thymocyte development. Nature. 2018 07; 559(7715):627-631. Miller CN, Proekt I, von Moltke J, Wells KL, Rajpurkar AR, Wang H, Rattay K, Khan IS, Metzger TC, Pollack JL, Fries AC, Lwin WW, Wigton EJ, Parent AV, Kyewski B, Erle DJ, Hogquist KA, Steinmetz LM, Locksley RM, Anderson MS. PMID: 30022164.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    15. Detection of Succinate by Intestinal Tuft Cells Triggers a Type 2 Innate Immune Circuit. Immunity. 2018 07 17; 49(1):33-41.e7. Nadjsombati MS, McGinty JW, Lyons-Cohen MR, Jaffe JB, DiPeso L, Schneider C, Miller CN, Pollack JL, Nagana Gowda GA, Fontana MF, Erle DJ, Anderson MS, Locksley RM, Raftery D, von Moltke J. PMID: 30021144.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 40     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    16. Chitins and chitinase activity in airway diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 08; 142(2):364-369. Van Dyken SJ, Locksley RM. PMID: 29959948.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    17. Parasitic helminths induce fetal-like reversion in the intestinal stem cell niche. Nature. 2018 07; 559(7712):109-113. Nusse YM, Savage AK, Marangoni P, Rosendahl-Huber AKM, Landman TA, de Sauvage FJ, Locksley RM, Klein OD. PMID: 29950724.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    18. Why Innate Lymphoid Cells? Immunity. 2018 06 19; 48(6):1081-1090. Kotas ME, Locksley RM. PMID: 29924974.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    19. A Metabolite-Triggered Tuft Cell-ILC2 Circuit Drives Small Intestinal Remodeling. Cell. 2018 07 12; 174(2):271-284.e14. Schneider C, O'Leary CE, von Moltke J, Liang HE, Ang QY, Turnbaugh PJ, Radhakrishnan S, Pellizzon M, Ma A, Locksley RM. PMID: 29887373.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 43     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    20. Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells amplify allergic asthma responses. Science. 2018 06 08; 360(6393). Sui P, Wiesner DL, Xu J, Zhang Y, Lee J, Van Dyken S, Lashua A, Yu C, Klein BS, Locksley RM, Deutsch G, Sun X. PMID: 29599193.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    21. Perinatal Licensing of Thermogenesis by IL-33 and ST2. Cell. 2017 12 14; 171(7):1707. Odegaard JI, Lee MW, Sogawa Y, Bertholet AM, Locksley RM, Weinberg DE, Kirichok Y, Deo RC, Chawla A. PMID: 29245014.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    22. MicroRNA regulation of type 2 innate lymphoid cell homeostasis and function in allergic inflammation. J Exp Med. 2017 Dec 04; 214(12):3627-3643. Singh PB, Pua HH, Happ HC, Schneider C, von Moltke J, Locksley RM, Baumjohann D, Ansel KM. PMID: 29122948.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    23. Turning the light on. Nat Rev Immunol. 2017 10; 17(10):593. Locksley R. PMID: 28757606.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    24. The Development of Steady-State Activation Hubs between Adult LTi ILC3s and Primed Macrophages in Small Intestine. J Immunol. 2017 09 01; 199(5):1912-1922. Savage AK, Liang HE, Locksley RM. PMID: 28747343.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Recruited Monocytes and Type 2 Immunity Promote Lung Regeneration following Pneumonectomy. Cell Stem Cell. 2017 07 06; 21(1):120-134.e7. Lechner AJ, Driver IH, Lee J, Conroy CM, Nagle A, Locksley RM, Rock JR. PMID: 28506464.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    26. Spontaneous Chitin Accumulation in Airways and Age-Related Fibrotic Lung Disease. Cell. 2017 04 20; 169(3):497-509.e13. Van Dyken SJ, Liang HE, Naikawadi RP, Woodruff PG, Wolters PJ, Erle DJ, Locksley RM. PMID: 28431248.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    27. Leukotrienes provide an NFAT-dependent signal that synergizes with IL-33 to activate ILC2s. J Exp Med. 2017 01; 214(1):27-37. von Moltke J, O'Leary CE, Barrett NA, Kanaoka Y, Austen KF, Locksley RM. PMID: 28011865.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    28. Determinants of Divergent Adaptive Immune Responses after Airway Sensitization with Ligands of Toll-Like Receptor 5 or Toll-Like Receptor 9. PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0167693. Lee LM, Ji M, Sinha M, Dong MB, Ren X, Wang Y, Lowell CA, Ghosh S, Locksley RM, DeFranco AL. PMID: 27977701.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    29. A tissue checkpoint regulates type 2 immunity. Nat Immunol. 2016 Dec; 17(12):1381-1387. Van Dyken SJ, Nussbaum JC, Lee J, Molofsky AB, Liang HE, Pollack JL, Gate RE, Haliburton GE, Ye CJ, Marson A, Erle DJ, Locksley RM. PMID: 27749840.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 59     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    30. Perinatal Licensing of Thermogenesis by IL-33 and ST2. Cell. 2016 Aug 11; 166(4):841-854. Odegaard JI, Lee MW, Sogawa Y, Bertholet AM, Locksley RM, Weinberg DE, Kirichok Y, Deo RC, Chawla A. PMID: 27453471.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    31. Dual epithelial and immune cell function of Dvl1 regulates gut microbiota composition and intestinal homeostasis. JCI Insight. 2016 Jul 07; 1(10). Belinson H, Savage AK, Fadrosh D, Kuo YM, Lin D, Valladares R, Nusse Y, Wynshaw-Boris A, Lynch SV, Locksley RM, Klein OD. PMID: 27525310.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    
    32. Cross-Talk between Epithelial Cells and Type 2 Immune Signaling. The Role of IL-25. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 05 01; 193(9):935-6. Gordon ED, Locksley RM, Fahy JV. PMID: 27128698.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    33. Tuft-cell-derived IL-25 regulates an intestinal ILC2-epithelial response circuit. Nature. 2016 Jan 14; 529(7585):221-5. von Moltke J, Ji M, Liang HE, Locksley RM. PMID: 26675736.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 182     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells utilize the IRF4-IL-9 module to coordinate epithelial cell maintenance of lung homeostasis. Mucosal Immunol. 2016 Jan; 9(1):275-86. Mohapatra A, Van Dyken SJ, Schneider C, Nussbaum JC, Liang HE, Locksley RM. PMID: 26129648.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 59     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    35. Interleukin-33 in Tissue Homeostasis, Injury, and Inflammation. Immunity. 2015 Jun 16; 42(6):1005-19. Molofsky AB, Savage AK, Locksley RM. PMID: 26084021.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 131     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    36. Interleukin-33 and Interferon-? Counter-Regulate Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Activation during Immune Perturbation. Immunity. 2015 Jul 21; 43(1):161-74. Molofsky AB, Van Gool F, Liang HE, Van Dyken SJ, Nussbaum JC, Lee J, Bluestone JA, Locksley RM. PMID: 26092469.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 115     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    37. New blood: Creative funding of disease-specific research. Sci Transl Med. 2015 May 20; 7(288):288ed5. Seaman WE, Locksley RM, Welsh MJ. PMID: 25995219.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Eosinophil-specific deletion of I?Ba in mice reveals a critical role of NF-?B-induced Bcl-xL for inhibition of apoptosis. Blood. 2015 Jun 18; 125(25):3896-904. Schwartz C, Willebrand R, Huber S, Rupec RA, Wu D, Locksley R, Voehringer D. PMID: 25862560.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    39. IgE-activated basophils regulate eosinophil tissue entry by modulating endothelial function. J Exp Med. 2015 Apr 06; 212(4):513-24. Cheng LE, Sullivan BM, Retana LE, Allen CD, Liang HE, Locksley RM. PMID: 25779634.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    40. A novel model for IFN-?-mediated autoinflammatory syndromes. J Immunol. 2015 Mar 01; 194(5):2358-68. Reinhardt RL, Liang HE, Bao K, Price AE, Mohrs M, Kelly BL, Locksley RM. PMID: 25637019.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    41. Activated type 2 innate lymphoid cells regulate beige fat biogenesis. Cell. 2015 Jan 15; 160(1-2):74-87. Lee MW, Odegaard JI, Mukundan L, Qiu Y, Molofsky AB, Nussbaum JC, Yun K, Locksley RM, Chawla A. PMID: 25543153.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 189     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Identification and distribution of developing innate lymphoid cells in the fetal mouse intestine. Nat Immunol. 2015 Feb; 16(2):153-60. Bando JK, Liang HE, Locksley RM. PMID: 25501629.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 54     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. Allergic inflammation--innately homeostatic. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014 Nov 20; 7(3):a016352. Cheng LE, Locksley RM. PMID: 25414367.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. Interleukin-5-producing group 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophilia induced by interleukin-2 therapy. Blood. 2014 Dec 04; 124(24):3572-6. Van Gool F, Molofsky AB, Morar MM, Rosenzwajg M, Liang HE, Klatzmann D, Locksley RM, Bluestone JA. PMID: 25323825.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    45. I-L-C-2 it: type 2 immunity and group 2 innate lymphoid cells in homeostasis. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014 Dec; 31:58-65. von Moltke J, Locksley RM. PMID: 25458996.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    46. Eosinophils and type 2 cytokine signaling in macrophages orchestrate development of functional beige fat. Cell. 2014 Jun 05; 157(6):1292-1308. Qiu Y, Nguyen KD, Odegaard JI, Cui X, Tian X, Locksley RM, Palmiter RD, Chawla A. PMID: 24906148.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 265     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    47. Leukotriene B4 amplifies eosinophil accumulation in response to nematodes. J Exp Med. 2014 Jun 30; 211(7):1281-8. Patnode ML, Bando JK, Krummel MF, Locksley RM, Rosen SD. PMID: 24889202.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    48. Eosinophils are recruited in response to chitin exposure and enhance Th2-mediated immune pathology in Aspergillus fumigatus infection. Infect Immun. 2014 Aug; 82(8):3199-205. O'Dea EM, Amarsaikhan N, Li H, Downey J, Steele E, Van Dyken SJ, Locksley RM, Templeton SP. PMID: 24842927.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    49. Asthma and the flu: a tricky two-step. Immunol Cell Biol. 2014 May-Jun; 92(5):389-91. Locksley RM, Fahy JV. PMID: 24687019.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    50. Chitin activates parallel immune modules that direct distinct inflammatory responses via innate lymphoid type 2 and ?d T cells. Immunity. 2014 Mar 20; 40(3):414-24. Van Dyken SJ, Mohapatra A, Nussbaum JC, Molofsky AB, Thornton EE, Ziegler SF, McKenzie AN, Krummel MF, Liang HE, Locksley RM. PMID: 24631157.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 76     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    51. Cutting edge: IL-25 elicits innate lymphoid type 2 and type II NKT cells that regulate obesity in mice. J Immunol. 2013 Dec 01; 191(11):5349-53. Hams E, Locksley RM, McKenzie AN, Fallon PG. PMID: 24166975.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 90     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophil homeostasis. Nature. 2013 Oct 10; 502(7470):245-8. Nussbaum JC, Van Dyken SJ, von Moltke J, Cheng LE, Mohapatra A, Molofsky AB, Thornton EE, Krummel MF, Chawla A, Liang HE, Locksley RM. PMID: 24037376.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 267     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells constitutively express arginase-I in the naive and inflamed lung. J Leukoc Biol. 2013 Nov; 94(5):877-84. Bando JK, Nussbaum JC, Liang HE, Locksley RM. PMID: 23924659.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    54. Traumatic brain injury induces macrophage subsets in the brain. Eur J Immunol. 2013 Aug; 43(8):2010-22. Hsieh CL, Kim CC, Ryba BE, Niemi EC, Bando JK, Locksley RM, Liu J, Nakamura MC, Seaman WE. PMID: 23630120.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 50     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    55. Eosinophils secrete IL-4 to facilitate liver regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 11; 110(24):9914-9. Goh YP, Henderson NC, Heredia JE, Red Eagle A, Odegaard JI, Lehwald N, Nguyen KD, Sheppard D, Mukundan L, Locksley RM, Chawla A. PMID: 23716700.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 65     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. Type 2 innate signals stimulate fibro/adipogenic progenitors to facilitate muscle regeneration. Cell. 2013 Apr 11; 153(2):376-88. Heredia JE, Mukundan L, Chen FM, Mueller AA, Deo RC, Locksley RM, Rando TA, Chawla A. PMID: 23582327.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 200     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. Raggin' on T-bet. Cell Metab. 2013 Apr 02; 17(4):473-4. Locksley RM. PMID: 23562073.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    58. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells sustain visceral adipose tissue eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages. J Exp Med. 2013 Mar 11; 210(3):535-49. Molofsky AB, Nussbaum JC, Liang HE, Van Dyken SJ, Cheng LE, Mohapatra A, Chawla A, Locksley RM. PMID: 23420878.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 254     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    59. Innate lymphoid cells--a proposal for uniform nomenclature. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013 Feb; 13(2):145-9. Spits H, Artis D, Colonna M, Diefenbach A, Di Santo JP, Eberl G, Koyasu S, Locksley RM, McKenzie AN, Mebius RE, Powrie F, Vivier E. PMID: 23348417.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 706     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    60. Distinct populations of innate CD8+ T cells revealed in a CXCR3 reporter mouse. J Immunol. 2013 Mar 01; 190(5):2229-40. Oghumu S, Dong R, Varikuti S, Shawler T, Kampfrath T, Terrazas CA, Lezama-Davila C, Ahmer BM, Whitacre CC, Rajagopalan S, Locksley R, Sharpe AH, Satoskar AR. PMID: 23338236.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    61. Interleukin-4- and interleukin-13-mediated alternatively activated macrophages: roles in homeostasis and disease. Annu Rev Immunol. 2013; 31:317-43. Van Dyken SJ, Locksley RM. PMID: 23298208.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 171     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    62. Perivascular mast cells dynamically probe cutaneous blood vessels to capture immunoglobulin E. Immunity. 2013 Jan 24; 38(1):166-75. Cheng LE, Hartmann K, Roers A, Krummel MF, Locksley RM. PMID: 23290520.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    63. Immature murine NKT cells pass through a stage of developmentally programmed innate IL-4 secretion. J Leukoc Biol. 2012 Nov; 92(5):999-1009. Dickgreber N, Farrand KJ, van Panhuys N, Knight DA, McKee SJ, Chong ML, Miranda-Hernandez S, Baxter AG, Locksley RM, Le Gros G, Hermans IF. PMID: 22941735.
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    64. Marking and quantifying IL-17A-producing cells in vivo. PLoS One. 2012; 7(6):e39750. Price AE, Reinhardt RL, Liang HE, Locksley RM. PMID: 22768117.
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    65. Spatiotemporally separated antigen uptake by alveolar dendritic cells and airway presentation to T cells in the lung. J Exp Med. 2012 Jun 04; 209(6):1183-99. Thornton EE, Looney MR, Bose O, Sen D, Sheppard D, Locksley R, Huang X, Krummel MF. PMID: 22585735.
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    67. Divergent expression patterns of IL-4 and IL-13 define unique functions in allergic immunity. Nat Immunol. 2011 Dec 04; 13(1):58-66. Liang HE, Reinhardt RL, Bando JK, Sullivan BM, Ho IC, Locksley RM. PMID: 22138715.
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    70. A protective role for periostin and TGF-ß in IgE-mediated allergy and airway hyperresponsiveness. Clin Exp Allergy. 2012 Jan; 42(1):144-55. Gordon ED, Sidhu SS, Wang ZE, Woodruff PG, Yuan S, Solon MC, Conway SJ, Huang X, Locksley RM, Fahy JV. PMID: 22093101.
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    74. Eosinophils sustain adipose alternatively activated macrophages associated with glucose homeostasis. Science. 2011 Apr 08; 332(6026):243-7. Wu D, Molofsky AB, Liang HE, Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Jouihan HA, Bando JK, Chawla A, Locksley RM. PMID: 21436399.
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    75. Accumulation of eosinophils in intestine-draining mesenteric lymph nodes occurs after Trichuris muris infection. Parasite Immunol. 2011 Jan; 33(1):1-11. Svensson M, Bell L, Little MC, DeSchoolmeester M, Locksley RM, Else KJ. PMID: 21155838.
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    76. IL-4/STAT6 immune axis regulates peripheral nutrient metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 28; 107(52):22617-22. Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Red Eagle A, Odegaard JI, Jouihan H, Morel CR, Heredia JE, Mukundan L, Wu D, Locksley RM, Chawla A. PMID: 21149710.
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    77. Lymphocyte development requires S-nitrosoglutathione reductase. J Immunol. 2010 Dec 01; 185(11):6664-9. Yang Z, Wang ZE, Doulias PT, Wei W, Ischiropoulos H, Locksley RM, Liu L. PMID: 20980633.
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    78. Control of intestinal Nod2-mediated peptidoglycan recognition by epithelium-associated lymphocytes. Mucosal Immunol. 2011 May; 4(3):325-34. Duerr CU, Salzman NH, Dupont A, Szabo A, Normark BH, Normark S, Locksley RM, Mellroth P, Hornef MW. PMID: 20980996.
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    81. Asthma and allergic inflammation. Cell. 2010 Mar 19; 140(6):777-83. Locksley RM. PMID: 20303868.
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    84. Efficient generation of long-distance conditional alleles using recombineering and a dual selection strategy in replicate plates. BMC Biotechnol. 2009 Jul 28; 9:69. Voehringer D, Wu D, Liang HE, Locksley RM. PMID: 19638212.
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    88. Differential enzymatic activity of common haplotypic versions of the human acidic Mammalian chitinase protein. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jul 17; 284(29):19650-8. Seibold MA, Reese TA, Choudhry S, Salam MT, Beckman K, Eng C, Atakilit A, Meade K, Lenoir M, Watson HG, Thyne S, Kumar R, Weiss KB, Grammer LC, Avila P, Schleimer RP, Fahy JV, Rodriguez-Santana J, Rodriguez-Cintron W, Boot RG, Sheppard D, Gilliland FD, Locksley RM, Burchard EG. PMID: 19435888.
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    103. Different epitopes of the LACK protein are recognized by V beta 4 V alpha 8 CD4+ T cells in H-2b and H-2d mice susceptible to Leishmania major. Microbes Infect. 2007 Sep; 9(11):1260-6. Launois P, Pingel S, Himmelrich H, Locksley R, Louis J. PMID: 17890126.
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    104. Chitin induces accumulation in tissue of innate immune cells associated with allergy. Nature. 2007 May 03; 447(7140):92-6. Reese TA, Liang HE, Tager AM, Luster AD, Van Rooijen N, Voehringer D, Locksley RM. PMID: 17450126.
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    105. IL-23 and IL-17 in the establishment of protective pulmonary CD4+ T cell responses after vaccination and during Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. Nat Immunol. 2007 Apr; 8(4):369-77. Khader SA, Bell GK, Pearl JE, Fountain JJ, Rangel-Moreno J, Cilley GE, Shen F, Eaton SM, Gaffen SL, Swain SL, Locksley RM, Haynes L, Randall TD, Cooper AM. PMID: 17351619.
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    107. Eosinophils develop in distinct stages and are recruited to peripheral sites by alternatively activated macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2007 Jun; 81(6):1434-44. Voehringer D, van Rooijen N, Locksley RM. PMID: 17339609.
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    108. Neutrophil histamine contributes to inflammation in mycoplasma pneumonia. J Exp Med. 2006 Dec 25; 203(13):2907-17. Xu X, Zhang D, Zhang H, Wolters PJ, Killeen NP, Sullivan BM, Locksley RM, Lowell CA, Caughey GH. PMID: 17158962.
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    109. A failure to launch: fuelling cytokine secretion in iNKT cells. Immunity. 2006 Sep; 25(3):393-5. Locksley RM. PMID: 16979571.
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    111. Inhibition of T cell activation and autoimmune diabetes using a B cell surface-linked CTLA-4 agonist. J Clin Invest. 2006 Aug; 116(8):2252-61. Fife BT, Griffin MD, Abbas AK, Locksley RM, Bluestone JA. PMID: 16886063.
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    115. Replication initiation from a novel origin identified in the Th2 cytokine cluster locus requires a distant conserved noncoding sequence. J Immunol. 2006 May 01; 176(9):5446-54. Hayashida T, Oda M, Ohsawa K, Yamaguchi A, Hosozawa T, Locksley RM, Giacca M, Masai H, Miyatake S. PMID: 16622012.
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    117. TGFbeta in the context of an inflammatory cytokine milieu supports de novo differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells. Immunity. 2006 Feb; 24(2):179-89. Veldhoen M, Hocking RJ, Atkins CJ, Locksley RM, Stockinger B. PMID: 16473830.
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    121. Inducible costimulator is required for type 2 antibody isotype switching but not T helper cell type 2 responses in chronic nematode infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 12; 102(28):9872-7. Loke P, Zang X, Hsuan L, Waitz R, Locksley RM, Allen JE, Allison JP. PMID: 15994233.
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    123. The Leishmania major LACK antigen with an immunodominant epitope at amino acids 156 to 173 is not required for early Th2 development in BALB/c mice. Infect Immun. 2004 Dec; 72(12):6924-31. Kelly BL, Locksley RM. PMID: 15557613.
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    125. Innate immune responses in peptidoglycan recognition protein L-deficient mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Sep; 24(18):7949-57. Xu M, Wang Z, Locksley RM. PMID: 15340057.
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    126. Type 2 immunity reflects orchestrated recruitment of cells committed to IL-4 production. Immunity. 2004 Mar; 20(3):267-77. Voehringer D, Shinkai K, Locksley RM. PMID: 15030771.
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    130. Constitutive cytokine mRNAs mark natural killer (NK) and NK T cells poised for rapid effector function. J Exp Med. 2003 Oct 06; 198(7):1069-76. Stetson DB, Mohrs M, Reinhardt RL, Baron JL, Wang ZE, Gapin L, Kronenberg M, Locksley RM. PMID: 14530376.
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    132. Lung CD25 CD4 regulatory T cells suppress type 2 immune responses but not bronchial hyperreactivity. J Immunol. 2003 Jun 01; 170(11):5502-10. Hadeiba H, Locksley RM. PMID: 12759427.
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    133. Stat signals release activated naive Th cells from an anergic checkpoint. J Immunol. 2003 Feb 15; 170(4):1870-6. Mohrs M, Lacy DA, Locksley RM. PMID: 12574353.
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    134. CTLA-4 regulates the requirement for cytokine-induced signals in T(H)2 lineage commitment. Nat Immunol. 2003 Feb; 4(2):182-8. Bour-Jordan H, Grogan JL, Tang Q, Auger JA, Locksley RM, Bluestone JA. PMID: 12524538.
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    135. Helper T cells regulate type-2 innate immunity in vivo. Nature. 2002 Dec 19-26; 420(6917):825-9. Shinkai K, Mohrs M, Locksley RM. PMID: 12490951.
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    142. Modulation of blood fluke development in the liver by hepatic CD4+ lymphocytes. Science. 2001 Nov 09; 294(5545):1358-61. Davies SJ, Grogan JL, Blank RB, Lim KC, Locksley RM, McKerrow JH. PMID: 11701932.
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    143. Deletion of a coordinate regulator of type 2 cytokine expression in mice. Nat Immunol. 2001 Sep; 2(9):842-7. Mohrs M, Blankespoor CM, Wang ZE, Loots GG, Afzal V, Hadeiba H, Shinkai K, Rubin EM, Locksley RM. PMID: 11526400.
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    144. Analysis of type 2 immunity in vivo with a bicistronic IL-4 reporter. Immunity. 2001 Aug; 15(2):303-11. Mohrs M, Shinkai K, Mohrs K, Locksley RM. PMID: 11520464.
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    145. Flow cytometric determination of cellular sources and frequencies of key cytokine-producing lymphocytes directed against recombinant LACK and soluble Leishmania antigen in human cutaneous leishmaniasis. Infect Immun. 2001 May; 69(5):3232-9. Bottrel RL, Dutra WO, Martins FA, Gontijo B, Carvalho E, Barral-Netto M, Barral A, Almeida RP, Mayrink W, Locksley R, Gollob KJ. PMID: 11292745.
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    146. Functional plasticity of the LACK-reactive Vbeta4-Valpha8 CD4(+) T cells normally producing the early IL-4 instructing Th2 cell development and susceptibility to Leishmania major in BALB / c mice. Eur J Immunol. 2001 Apr; 31(4):1288-96. Maillard I, Launois P, Himmelrich H, Acha-Orbea H, Diggelmann H, Locksley RM, Louis JA. PMID: 11298356.
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    147. Early transcription and silencing of cytokine genes underlie polarization of T helper cell subsets. Immunity. 2001 Mar; 14(3):205-15. Grogan JL, Mohrs M, Harmon B, Lacy DA, Sedat JW, Locksley RM. PMID: 11290331.
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    148. The TNF and TNF receptor superfamilies: integrating mammalian biology. Cell. 2001 Feb 23; 104(4):487-501. Locksley RM, Killeen N, Lenardo MJ. PMID: 11239407.
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    149. Flying doctors. Nat Immunol. 2000 Dec; 1(6):457-8. Locksley RM. PMID: 11101861.
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    150. Coordinate regulation of the IL-4, IL-13, and IL-5 cytokine cluster in Th2 clones revealed by allelic expression patterns. J Immunol. 2000 Sep 15; 165(6):2982-6. Kelly BL, Locksley RM. PMID: 10975806.
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    151. Requirements for the maintenance of Th1 immunity in vivo following DNA vaccination: a potential immunoregulatory role for CD8+ T cells. J Immunol. 2000 Jul 15; 165(2):915-24. Gurunathan S, Stobie L, Prussin C, Sacks DL, Glaichenhaus N, Iwasaki A, Fowell DJ, Locksley RM, Chang JT, Wu CY, Seder RA. PMID: 10878366.
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    152. Faithful expression of the human 5q31 cytokine cluster in transgenic mice. J Immunol. 2000 May 01; 164(9):4569-74. Lacy DA, Wang ZE, Symula DJ, McArthur CJ, Rubin EM, Frazer KA, Locksley RM. PMID: 10779759.
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    153. In BALB/c mice, IL-4 production during the initial phase of infection with Leishmania major is necessary and sufficient to instruct Th2 cell development resulting in progressive disease. J Immunol. 2000 May 01; 164(9):4819-25. Himmelrich H, Launois P, Maillard I, Biedermann T, Tacchini-Cottier F, Locksley RM, Röcken M, Louis JA. PMID: 10779790.
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    154. Baseline airway hyperreactivity in A/J mice is not mediated by cells of the adaptive immune system. J Immunol. 2000 May 01; 164(9):4933-40. Hadeiba H, Corry DB, Locksley RM. PMID: 10779804.
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    155. Identification of a coordinate regulator of interleukins 4, 13, and 5 by cross-species sequence comparisons. Science. 2000 Apr 07; 288(5463):136-40. Loots GG, Locksley RM, Blankespoor CM, Wang ZE, Miller W, Rubin EM, Frazer KA. PMID: 10753117.
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    156. CD1, tuberculosis, and the evolution of major histocompatibility complex molecules. J Exp Med. 2000 Mar 20; 191(6):907-14. Shinkai K, Locksley RM. PMID: 10727453.
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    157. Robust B cell immunity but impaired T cell proliferation in the absence of CD134 (OX40). J Immunol. 1999 Dec 15; 163(12):6520-9. Pippig SD, Peña-Rossi C, Long J, Godfrey WR, Fowell DJ, Reiner SL, Birkeland ML, Locksley RM, Barclay AN, Killeen N. PMID: 10586044.
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    158. Impaired NFATc translocation and failure of Th2 development in Itk-deficient CD4+ T cells. Immunity. 1999 Oct; 11(4):399-409. Fowell DJ, Shinkai K, Liao XC, Beebe AM, Coffman RL, Littman DR, Locksley RM. PMID: 10549622.
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    159. Functional screening of an asthma QTL in YAC transgenic mice. Nat Genet. 1999 Oct; 23(2):241-4. Symula DJ, Frazer KA, Ueda Y, Denefle P, Stevens ME, Wang ZE, Locksley R, Rubin EM. PMID: 10508526.
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    160. Leishmania major infection of inbred mice: unmasking genetic determinants of infectious diseases. Bioessays. 1999 Jun; 21(6):510-8. Fowell DJ, Locksley RM. PMID: 10402957.
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    161. Altered ligands reveal limited plasticity in the T cell response to a pathogenic epitope. J Exp Med. 1999 Apr 05; 189(7):1111-20. Pingel S, Launois P, Fowell DJ, Turck CW, Southwood S, Sette A, Glaichenhaus N, Louis JA, Locksley RM. PMID: 10190902.
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    162. Susceptibility to infectious diseases: Leishmania as a paradigm. J Infect Dis. 1999 Mar; 179 Suppl 2:S305-8. Locksley RM, Pingel S, Lacy D, Wakil AE, Bix M, Fowell DJ. PMID: 10081500.
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    163. Construction of polycompetitors for competitive PCR. Methods Mol Med. 1999; 26:253-64. Corry DB, Locksley RM. PMID: 21340883.
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    164. Genetic regulation of commitment to interleukin 4 production by a CD4(+) T cell-intrinsic mechanism. J Exp Med. 1998 Dec 21; 188(12):2289-99. Bix M, Wang ZE, Thiel B, Schork NJ, Locksley RM. PMID: 9858515.
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    165. Requirement for IL-13 independently of IL-4 in experimental asthma. Science. 1998 Dec 18; 282(5397):2261-3. Grünig G, Warnock M, Wakil AE, Venkayya R, Brombacher F, Rennick DM, Sheppard D, Mohrs M, Donaldson DD, Locksley RM, Corry DB. PMID: 9856950.
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    166. Interferon gamma derived from CD4(+) T cells is sufficient to mediate T helper cell type 1 development. J Exp Med. 1998 Nov 02; 188(9):1651-6. Wakil AE, Wang ZE, Ryan JC, Fowell DJ, Locksley RM. PMID: 9802977.
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    167. Disease susceptibility and development of the cytokine repertoire in the murine Leishmania major model. Eur Cytokine Netw. 1998 Sep; 9(3 Suppl):102-6. Fowell DJ, Bix M, Shinkai K, Lacy D, Locksley RM. PMID: 9831197.
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    168. Independent and epigenetic regulation of the interleukin-4 alleles in CD4+ T cells. Science. 1998 Aug 28; 281(5381):1352-4. Bix M, Locksley RM. PMID: 9721100.
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    169. Fellowship training in infectious diseases: a report from the regional and national meetings of infectious diseases division chiefs and program directors. Clin Infect Dis. 1998 May; 26(5):1060-5. Joiner KA, Powderly WG, Blaser MJ, Klempner MS, Locksley RM, Mandell GL, Preheim LC, Remington JS, Slama TG, Steigbigel NH, Bartlett JG. PMID: 9597224.
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    170. Requirements for allergen-induced airway hyperreactivity in T and B cell-deficient mice. Mol Med. 1998 May; 4(5):344-55. Corry DB, Grünig G, Hadeiba H, Kurup VP, Warnock ML, Sheppard D, Rennick DM, Locksley RM. PMID: 9642684.
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    171. Mouse CD1-autoreactive T cells have diverse patterns of reactivity to CD1+ targets. J Immunol. 1998 Apr 15; 160(8):3681-8. Brossay L, Tangri S, Bix M, Cardell S, Locksley R, Kronenberg M. PMID: 9558068.
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    172. Distribution of protein kinase C isoforms after infection of macrophages with Leishmania major. Infect Immun. 1998 Apr; 66(4):1795-9. Pingel S, Wang ZE, Locksley RM. PMID: 9529117.
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    173. Control of Leishmania major by a monoclonal alpha beta T cell repertoire. J Immunol. 1998 Jan 15; 160(2):884-9. Reiner SL, Fowell DJ, Moskowitz NH, Swier K, Brown DR, Brown CR, Turck CW, Scott PA, Killeen N, Locksley RM. PMID: 9551925.
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    174. Development of CD4+ effector T cells and susceptibility to infectious diseases. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1998; 452:45-52. Locksley RM, Fowell DJ, Shinkai K, Wakil AE, Lacy D, Bix M. PMID: 9889958.
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    175. Immunological tolerance to a pancreatic antigen as a result of local expression of TNFalpha by islet beta cells. Immunity. 1997 Sep; 7(3):401-9. McSorley SJ, Soldera S, Malherbe L, Carnaud C, Locksley RM, Flavell RA, Glaichenhaus N. PMID: 9324360.
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    176. Altered immune responses in interleukin 10 transgenic mice. J Exp Med. 1997 Jun 16; 185(12):2101-10. Hagenbaugh A, Sharma S, Dubinett SM, Wei SH, Aranda R, Cheroutre H, Fowell DJ, Binder S, Tsao B, Locksley RM, Moore KW, Kronenberg M. PMID: 9182682.
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    177. IL-4 rapidly produced by V beta 4 V alpha 8 CD4+ T cells instructs Th2 development and susceptibility to Leishmania major in BALB/c mice. Immunity. 1997 May; 6(5):541-9. Launois P, Maillard I, Pingel S, Swihart KG, Xénarios I, Acha-Orbea H, Diggelmann H, Locksley RM, MacDonald HR, Louis JA. PMID: 9175832.
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    178. Impaired Th2 subset development in the absence of CD4. Immunity. 1997 May; 6(5):559-69. Fowell DJ, Magram J, Turck CW, Killeen N, Locksley RM. PMID: 9175834.
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    179. The N-terminal propiece of interleukin 1 alpha is a transforming nuclear oncoprotein. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1997 Jan 21; 94(2):508-13. Stevenson FT, Turck J, Locksley RM, Lovett DH. PMID: 9012814.
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    180. T helper subset differentiation in the absence of invariant chain. J Exp Med. 1997 Jan 06; 185(1):31-41. Brown DR, Swier K, Moskowitz NH, Naujokas MF, Locksley RM, Reiner SL. PMID: 8996239.
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    181. Exploitation of immune and other defence mechanisms by parasites: an overview. Parasitology. 1997; 115 Suppl:S5-7. Locksley RM. PMID: 9571686.
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    182. Leishmania major: targeting IL-4 in successful immunomodulation of murine infection. Exp Parasitol. 1996 Nov; 84(2):214-22. Wakil AE, Wang ZE, Locksley RM. PMID: 8932771.
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    183. Beta 2-microglobulin-dependent NK1.1+ T cells are not essential for T helper cell 2 immune responses. J Exp Med. 1996 Oct 01; 184(4):1295-304. Brown DR, Fowell DJ, Corry DB, Wynn TA, Moskowitz NH, Cheever AW, Locksley RM, Reiner SL. PMID: 8879201.
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    184. Human placental cytotrophoblasts produce the immunosuppressive cytokine interleukin 10. J Exp Med. 1996 Aug 01; 184(2):539-48. Roth I, Corry DB, Locksley RM, Abrams JS, Litton MJ, Fisher SJ. PMID: 8760807.
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    185. Cytokine production by peripheral blood mononuclear cells in human coccidioidomycosis. J Infect Dis. 1996 Aug; 174(2):440-3. Corry DB, Ampel NM, Christian L, Locksley RM, Galgiani JN. PMID: 8699085.
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    186. The instructive role of innate immunity in the acquired immune response. Science. 1996 Apr 05; 272(5258):50-3. Fearon DT, Locksley RM. PMID: 8600536.
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    187. Interleukin 4, but not interleukin 5 or eosinophils, is required in a murine model of acute airway hyperreactivity. J Exp Med. 1996 Jan 01; 183(1):109-17. Corry DB, Folkesson HG, Warnock ML, Erle DJ, Matthay MA, Wiener-Kronish JP, Locksley RM. PMID: 8551213.
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    188. Interleukin-12 in murine leishmaniasis--match, flame or fuel? Res Immunol. 1995 Sep-Oct; 146(7-8):566-75. Fowell DJ, Wakil AE, Locksley RM. PMID: 8839163.
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    189. Natural T cells. Cells that co-express NKRP-1 and TCR. J Immunol. 1995 Aug 01; 155(3):1020-2. Bix M, Locksley RM. PMID: 7636176.
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    190. Expression cloning of a protective Leishmania antigen. Science. 1995 Apr 28; 268(5210):563-6. Mougneau E, Altare F, Wakil AE, Zheng S, Coppola T, Wang ZE, Waldmann R, Locksley RM, Glaichenhaus N. PMID: 7725103.
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    191. The development of effector T cell subsets in murine Leishmania major infection. Ciba Found Symp. 1995; 195:110-7; discussion 117-22. Locksley RM, Wakil AE, Corry DB, Pingel S, Bix M, Fowell DJ. PMID: 8724833.
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    192. The regulation of immunity to Leishmania major. Annu Rev Immunol. 1995; 13:151-77. Reiner SL, Locksley RM. PMID: 7612219.
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    193. Interferon gamma-independent effects of interleukin 12 administered during acute or established infection due to Leishmania major. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Dec 20; 91(26):12932-6. Wang ZE, Zheng S, Corry DB, Dalton DK, Seder RA, Reiner SL, Locksley RM. PMID: 7809149.
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    194. Differential effects of blockade of CD28-B7 on the development of Th1 or Th2 effector cells in experimental leishmaniasis. J Immunol. 1994 Nov 01; 153(9):4142-8. Corry DB, Reiner SL, Linsley PS, Locksley RM. PMID: 7523517.
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    195. Constructing polycompetitor cDNAs for quantitative PCR (J. Immunol. Methods 165 (1993) 37-46; 173(1994) 133). J Immunol Methods. 1994 Oct 14; 175(2):275. Reiner SL, Zheng S, Corry DB, Locksley RM. PMID: 7930655.
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    196. Constructing polycompetitor cDNAs for quantitative PCR (J. Immunol. Methods 165 (1993) 37-46). J Immunol Methods. 1994 Jul 12; 173(1):133. Reiner SL, Zheng S, Corry DB, Locksley RM. PMID: 8034981.
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    197. Th2 cells: help for helminths. J Exp Med. 1994 May 01; 179(5):1405-7. Locksley RM. PMID: 8163928.
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    198. CD4+ effector cells default to the Th2 pathway in interferon gamma-deficient mice infected with Leishmania major. J Exp Med. 1994 Apr 01; 179(4):1367-71. Wang ZE, Reiner SL, Zheng S, Dalton DK, Locksley RM. PMID: 7908325.
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    199. Leishmania promastigotes evade interleukin 12 (IL-12) induction by macrophages and stimulate a broad range of cytokines from CD4+ T cells during initiation of infection. J Exp Med. 1994 Feb 01; 179(2):447-56. Reiner SL, Zheng S, Wang ZE, Stowring L, Locksley RM. PMID: 7905017.
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    200. Cytokines in the differentiation of Th1/Th2 CD4+ subsets in leishmaniasis. J Cell Biochem. 1993 Dec; 53(4):323-8. Reiner SL, Locksley RM. PMID: 7905485.
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    201. Potential role for interleukin-10 in the immunosuppression associated with kala azar. J Clin Invest. 1993 Dec; 92(6):2626-32. Holaday BJ, Pompeu MM, Jeronimo S, Texeira MJ, Sousa Ade A, Vasconcelos AW, Pearson RD, Abrams JS, Locksley RM. PMID: 8254019.
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    202. Constructing polycompetitor cDNAs for quantitative PCR. J Immunol Methods. 1993 Sep 27; 165(1):37-46. Reiner SL, Zheng S, Corry DB, Locksley RM. PMID: 8409467.
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    203. Helper T cells without CD4: control of leishmaniasis in CD4-deficient mice. Science. 1993 Sep 10; 261(5127):1448-51. Locksley RM, Reiner SL, Hatam F, Littman DR, Killeen N. PMID: 8367726.
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    204. Reconstitution of Mycobacterium leprae immunity in severe combined immunodeficient mice using a T-cell line. Int J Lepr Other Mycobact Dis. 1993 Sep; 61(3):398-405. Azouaou N, Gelber RH, Abel K, Sasaki DT, Murray LP, Locksley RM, Mohagheghpour N. PMID: 8228438.
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    205. Targeted activation of CD8 cells and infection of beta 2-microglobulin-deficient mice fail to confirm a primary protective role for CD8 cells in experimental leishmaniasis. J Immunol. 1993 Aug 15; 151(4):2077-86. Wang ZE, Reiner SL, Hatam F, Heinzel FP, Bouvier J, Turck CW, Locksley RM. PMID: 8102158.
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    206. The 31-kDa precursor of interleukin 1 alpha is myristoylated on specific lysines within the 16-kDa N-terminal propiece. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Aug 01; 90(15):7245-9. Stevenson FT, Bursten SL, Fanton C, Locksley RM, Lovett DH. PMID: 8346241.
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    207. The worm and the protozoa: stereotyped responses or distinct antigens? Parasitol Today. 1993 Jul; 9(7):258-60. Reiner SL, Locksley RM. PMID: 15463773.
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    208. Interleukin 12 in host defense against microbial pathogens. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Jul 01; 90(13):5879-80. Locksley RM. PMID: 8100997.
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    209. Transfected Leishmania expressing biologically active IFN-gamma. J Immunol. 1993 Jun 01; 150(11):5059-69. Tobin JF, Reiner SL, Hatam F, Zheng S, Leptak CL, Wirth DF, Locksley RM. PMID: 8098724.
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    210. IL-2 is necessary for the progression of leishmaniasis in susceptible murine hosts. J Immunol. 1993 May 01; 150(9):3924-31. Heinzel FP, Rerko RM, Hatam F, Locksley RM. PMID: 8473741.
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    211. TH1 and TH2 cell antigen receptors in experimental leishmaniasis. Science. 1993 Mar 05; 259(5100):1457-60. Reiner SL, Wang ZE, Hatam F, Scott P, Locksley RM. PMID: 8451641.
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    212. Myristyl acylation of the tumor necrosis factor alpha precursor on specific lysine residues. J Exp Med. 1992 Oct 01; 176(4):1053-62. Stevenson FT, Bursten SL, Locksley RM, Lovett DH. PMID: 1402651.
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    213. Interleukin 1: the patterns of translation and intracellular distribution support alternative secretory mechanisms. J Cell Physiol. 1992 Aug; 152(2):223-31. Stevenson FT, Torrano F, Locksley RM, Lovett DH. PMID: 1639857.
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    214. Immunology of leishmaniasis. Curr Opin Immunol. 1992 Aug; 4(4):413-8. Locksley RM, Louis JA. PMID: 1356346.
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    215. Tumour necrosis factor alpha restores granulomas and induces parasite egg-laying in schistosome-infected SCID mice. Nature. 1992 Apr 16; 356(6370):604-7. Amiri P, Locksley RM, Parslow TG, Sadick M, Rector E, Ritter D, McKerrow JH. PMID: 1560843.
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    216. Lessons from Leishmania: a model for investigations of CD4+ subset differentiation. Infect Agents Dis. 1992 Feb; 1(1):33-42. Reiner SL, Locksley RM. PMID: 1365527.
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    217. Cytokine regulation of murine leishmaniasis: interleukin 4 is not sufficient to mediate progressive disease in resistant C57BL/6 mice. Infect Immun. 1991 Dec; 59(12):4710-4. Sadick MD, Street N, Mosmann TR, Locksley RM. PMID: 1937832.
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    218. Reconstitution of Leishmania immunity in severe combined immunodeficient mice using Th1- and Th2-like cell lines. J Immunol. 1991 Sep 01; 147(5):1653-8. Holaday BJ, Sadick MD, Wang ZE, Reiner SL, Heinzel FP, Parslow TG, Locksley RM. PMID: 1831830.
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    219. Production of interferon gamma, interleukin 2, interleukin 4, and interleukin 10 by CD4+ lymphocytes in vivo during healing and progressive murine leishmaniasis. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 Aug 15; 88(16):7011-5. Heinzel FP, Sadick MD, Mutha SS, Locksley RM. PMID: 1908085.
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    220. Activation of human monocyte--derived macrophages with lipopolysaccharide decreases human immunodeficiency virus replication in vitro at the level of gene expression. J Clin Invest. 1991 Aug; 88(2):540-5. Bernstein MS, Tong-Starksen SE, Locksley RM. PMID: 1907615.
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    221. A single peptide from the major outer membrane protein of Chlamydia trachomatis elicits T cell help for the production of antibodies to protective determinants. J Immunol. 1991 Jul 15; 147(2):674-9. Allen JE, Locksley RM, Stephens RS. PMID: 1712817.
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    222. Cytokines in fluids from polycystic kidneys. Kidney Int. 1991 Apr; 39(4):718-24. Gardner KD, Burnside JS, Elzinga LW, Locksley RM. PMID: 2051729.
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    223. Helper T-cell subsets in mouse leishmaniasis: induction, expansion and effector function. Immunol Today. 1991 Mar; 12(3):A58-61. Locksley RM, Scott P. PMID: 1829891.
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    224. Induction of Th1 and Th2 CD4+ subsets during murine Leishmania major infection. Res Immunol. 1991 Jan; 142(1):28-32. Locksley RM, Heinzel FP, Holaday BJ, Mutha SS, Reiner SL, Sadick MD. PMID: 1829257.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 30     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    225. Cure of murine leishmaniasis with anti-interleukin 4 monoclonal antibody. Evidence for a T cell-dependent, interferon gamma-independent mechanism. J Exp Med. 1990 Jan 01; 171(1):115-27. Sadick MD, Heinzel FP, Holaday BJ, Pu RT, Dawkins RS, Locksley RM. PMID: 2104918.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 167     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    226. The exposure of health care workers to ribavirin aerosol. JAMA. 1989 Apr 07; 261(13):1880-1. Guglielmo BJ, Jacobs RA, Locksley RM. PMID: 2926922.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    227. Reciprocal expression of interferon gamma or interleukin 4 during the resolution or progression of murine leishmaniasis. Evidence for expansion of distinct helper T cell subsets. J Exp Med. 1989 Jan 01; 169(1):59-72. Heinzel FP, Sadick MD, Holaday BJ, Coffman RL, Locksley RM. PMID: 2521244.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 395     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    228. Release of interleukin 1 inhibitory activity (contra-IL-1) by human monocyte-derived macrophages infected with human immunodeficiency virus in vitro and in vivo. J Clin Invest. 1988 Dec; 82(6):2097-105. Locksley RM, Crowe S, Sadick MD, Heinzel FP, Gardner KD, McGrath MS, Mills J. PMID: 3264291.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    229. Acylation of monocyte and glomerular mesangial cell proteins. Myristyl acylation of the interleukin 1 precursors. J Clin Invest. 1988 Nov; 82(5):1479-88. Bursten SL, Locksley RM, Ryan JL, Lovett DH. PMID: 3263392.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    230. Fatal aspergillosis associated with smoking contaminated marijuana, in a marrow transplant recipient. Chest. 1988 Aug; 94(2):432-3. Hamadeh R, Ardehali A, Locksley RM, York MK. PMID: 3293934.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsPHPublic Health
    231. Leishmania major: analysis of lymphocyte and macrophage cellular phenotypes during infection of susceptible and resistant mice. Exp Parasitol. 1988 Apr; 65(2):258-68. Heinzel FP, Sadick MD, Locksley RM. PMID: 3127233.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    232. Cutaneous host defense in leishmaniasis: interaction of isolated dermal macrophages and epidermal Langerhans cells with the insect-stage promastigote. Infect Immun. 1988 Feb; 56(2):336-42. Locksley RM, Heinzel FP, Fankhauser JE, Nelson CS, Sadick MD. PMID: 2828237.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    233. Tumor necrosis factors alpha and beta differ in their capacities to generate interleukin 1 release from human endothelial cells. J Immunol. 1987 Sep 15; 139(6):1891-5. Locksley RM, Heinzel FP, Shepard HM, Agosti J, Eessalu TE, Aggarwal BB, Harlan JM. PMID: 3497981.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    234. Murine cutaneous leishmaniasis: susceptibility correlates with differential expansion of helper T-cell subsets. Ann Inst Pasteur Immunol. 1987 Sep-Oct; 138(5):744-9. Locksley RM, Heinzel FP, Sadick MD, Holaday BJ, Gardner KD. PMID: 2964247.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 59     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    235. Cellular and humoral immunity to Leishmania major in genetically susceptible mice after in vivo depletion of L3T4+ T cells. J Immunol. 1987 Aug 15; 139(4):1303-9. Sadick MD, Heinzel FP, Shigekane VM, Fisher WL, Locksley RM. PMID: 3112230.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    236. Loss of granule myeloperoxidase during in vitro culture of human monocytes correlates with decay in antiprotozoa activity. Am J Trop Med Hyg. 1987 May; 36(3):541-8. Locksley RM, Nelson CS, Fankhauser JE, Klebanoff SJ. PMID: 3034086.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    237. Isolation and characterization of the receptor on human neutrophils that mediates cellular adherence. J Biol Chem. 1987 Apr 25; 262(12):5576-80. Hickstein DD, Ozols J, Williams SA, Baenziger JU, Locksley RM, Roth GJ. PMID: 3553180.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    238. Expression of leukocyte adherence-related glycoproteins during differentiation of HL-60 promyelocytic leukemia cells. J Immunol. 1987 Jan 15; 138(2):513-9. Hickstein DD, Smith A, Fisher W, Beatty PG, Schwartz BR, Harlan JM, Root RK, Locksley RM. PMID: 2947951.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    239. Monoclonal antibodies binding to the human neutrophil C3bi receptor have disparate functional effects. Blood. 1986 Apr; 67(4):1054-62. Hickstein DD, Locksley RM, Beatty PG, Smith A, Stone DM, Root RK. PMID: 3006829.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    240. Murine cutaneous leishmaniasis: resistance correlates with the capacity to generate interferon-gamma in response to Leishmania antigens in vitro. J Immunol. 1986 Jan; 136(2):655-61. Sadick MD, Locksley RM, Tubbs C, Raff HV. PMID: 3079789.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 43     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    241. Infection with varicella-zoster virus after marrow transplantation. J Infect Dis. 1985 Dec; 152(6):1172-81. Locksley RM, Flournoy N, Sullivan KM, Meyers JD. PMID: 3905982.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 38     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    242. Alteration of leukotriene release by macrophages ingesting Toxoplasma gondii. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1985 Oct; 82(20):6922-6. Locksley RM, Fankhauser J, Henderson WR. PMID: 2995993.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    243. Development of cellular immunity in cutaneous leishmaniasis due to Leishmania tropica. J Infect Dis. 1984 Jul; 150(1):135-8. Sadick MD, Locksley RM, Raff HV. PMID: 6611378.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    244. Interaction of primate alveolar macrophages and Legionella pneumophila. J Clin Invest. 1984 Jun; 73(6):1515-23. Jacobs RF, Locksley RM, Wilson CB, Haas JE, Klebanoff SJ. PMID: 6373825.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    245. Reversal of dementia associated with Whipple's disease by trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, drugs that penetrate the blood-brain barrier. Gastroenterology. 1984 Apr; 86(4):745-52. Ryser RJ, Locksley RM, Eng SC, Dobbins WO, Schoenknecht FD, Rubin CE. PMID: 6199255.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    246. Increased respiratory burst in myeloperoxidase-deficient monocytes. Blood. 1983 Oct; 62(4):902-9. Locksley RM, Wilson CB, Klebanoff SJ. PMID: 6309288.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    247. Oxidative response of phagocytes to parasite invasion. Ciba Found Symp. 1983; 99:92-112. Klebanoff SJ, Locksley RM, Jong EC, Rosen H. PMID: 6315321.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    248. Oxygen-dependent microbicidal systems of phagocytes and host defense against intracellular protozoa. J Cell Biochem. 1983; 22(3):173-85. Locksley RM, Klebanoff SJ. PMID: 6365936.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    249. Susceptibility of Legionella pneumophila to oxygen-dependent microbicidal systems. J Immunol. 1982 Nov; 129(5):2192-7. Locksley RM, Jacobs RF, Wilson CB, Weaver WM, Klebanoff SJ. PMID: 6288801.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    250. Multiply antibiotic-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: introduction, transmission, and evolution of nosocomial infection. Ann Intern Med. 1982 Sep; 97(3):317-24. Locksley RM, Cohen ML, Quinn TC, Tompkins LS, Coyle MB, Kirihara JM, Counts GW. PMID: 7114628.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    251. Role for endogenous and acquired peroxidase in the toxoplasmacidal activity of murine and human mononuclear phagocytes. J Clin Invest. 1982 May; 69(5):1099-111. Locksley RM, Wilson CB, Klebanoff SJ. PMID: 7068848.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    252. Thiazide-induced hyponatremia associated with death or neurologic damage in outpatients. Am J Med. 1981 Jun; 70(6):1163-8. Ashraf N, Locksley R, Arieff AI. PMID: 7234886.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    253. Prognostic grading and significance of ventricular premature beats after recovery from myocardial infarction. Circulation. 1975 Dec; 52(6 Suppl):III204-10. Moss AJ, DeCamilla J, Mietlowski W, Greene WA, Goldstein S, Locksley R. PMID: 52416.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    254. Two improvements in the preparation of cardiac microsomes. Recent Adv Stud Cardiac Struct Metab. 1974; 4:409-16. Stam AC, Sole M, Locksley R, Weglicki WB, Sonnenblick EH. PMID: 4377613.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
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