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Richard Locksley, MD

TitleSandler Distinguished Professor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentMedicine
Address513 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-476-1559
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    Other Positions
    TitleHoward Hughes Medical Institute Investigator


    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of Washington1980-83Infect Diseases Fellow
    University of California, San Francisco1976-80Resident/Chief Resident
    University of RochesterM.D.06/1976Medicine
    Harvard CollegeB.A.06/1970Biochemistry
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    2017National Academy of Sciences
    2017Fellow, American Academy of Microbiology
    2017Inaugural William Paul Award for Cytokine Research, International Cytokine & Interferon Society
    2014Thomson Reuters ‘Top 1% highly cited researchers in immunology’
    2006R37 MERIT Award, NIAID/NIH
    2005American Academy of Arts & Sciences
    2003Sandler Distinguished Professorship
    2003Inspirational Teacher Award, UCSF class of 2006
    2003Distinguished Service Award, American Association of Immunologists
    2001  - 2005Ellison Medical Foundation Senior Scholar in Global Infectious Diseases
    1994Bailey K Ashford Medal, American Society Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
    1994Association of American Physicians
    1992Fellow, Infectious Diseases Society of American
    1992  - 1997Burroughs Wellcome Fund Scholar in Molecular Parasitology
    1991American Society for Clinical Investigation

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Locksley is the Director of the Sandler Asthma Basic Research Center (SABRE) and a Howard Hughes Medical Institute Investigator. He is a Professor in the Departments of Medicine and Microbiology & Immunology. He received his undergraduate degree in biochemistry from Harvard and his M.D. from the University of Rochester. After completing his residency at UCSF, he trained in infectious diseases at the University of Washington. Prior to his position as director of the SABRE Center, Dr. Locksley served 18 years as the Chief of the Division of Infectious Diseases at UCSF Medical Center. Dr. Locksley is a fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences.

    Dr. Locksley's laboratory addresses the immune cells and tissue responses that occur during allergic, or type 2, immunity. This includes the processes by which naïve helper T cells differentiate to become allergy-supporting Th2 cells, but also the interactions of these cells with eosinophils, basophils, mast cells and alternatively activated macrophages that mediate activities in peripheral tissues. The laboratory increasingly focuses on innate immunity, particularly since the discovery of Group 2 innate lymphoid cells, or ILC2s, which are prominently involved in allergy. Importantly, the discovery of ILC2s initiated efforts to uncover the ‘ground state’ of allergy by investigating homeostatic pathways involving these cells that might provide insights regarding their primary function in the immune system and in homeostasis.

    Dr. Locksley’s laboratory pioneered the use of mice genetically engineered to report cytokines expressed during allergic immune responses. Using these methods, the laboratory participated in the discovery of innate lymphoid type 2 cells, or ILC2s, which represent a previously unknown cell now implicated in allergic immunity. The ability to study the activation and organization of innate ILC2s uncovered a role for cells associated with allergy and asthma, such as eosinophils, in processes involved with basal metabolism and tissue homeostasis. Activation of ILC2s in the small intestine was implicated in alteration of the mucosa to a secretory phenotype characterized by high numbers of goblet cells and tuft cells. The latter, a previously mysterious epithelial cell of unknown function, was shown to be the source of IL-25, a cytokine capable of activating ILC2s and other immune cells associated with allergy and asthma, thus opening up entirely new avenues for discovery.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Epithelial chitinase and lung homeostasis
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL128903Jul 1, 2015 - Apr 30, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    INNATE AND ADAPTIVE IMMUNE RESPONSES IN TH2-HIGH ASTHMA
    NIH/NHLBI P01HL107202Aug 15, 2012 - May 31, 2017
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Innate immune regulation of inflammation and adaptive immunity
    NIH/NIAID P01AI078869Jul 15, 2008 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Understanding Asthma Endotypes
    NIH/NIAID U19AI077439Apr 1, 2008 - Mar 31, 2023
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Biology of Infectious Diseases Training Program
    NIH/NIAID T32AI007641Aug 1, 2000 - Aug 31, 2022
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Interactions of Lymphocytes, Cytokines and Airway Cells
    NIH/NHLBI P50HL056385Sep 30, 1996 - Aug 31, 2006
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    Initiation of allergic immunity by parasites
    NIH/NIAID R01AI030663Jan 1, 1991 - May 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    PSYCHOLOGICAL WELL-BEING OF LABORATORY-PAIRED PRIMATES
    NIH R01RR005355Sep 15, 1989 - Jun 30, 1993
    Role: Co-Investigator
    HELPER T CELL SUBSETS IN LEISHMANIASIS
    NIH/NIAID R01AI026918Jul 1, 1988 - Apr 30, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Parasite Immunity Orchestrated by Th2 Cells
    NIH/NIAID R37AI026918Jul 1, 1988 - Mar 31, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HUMAN PHAGOCYTE FUNCTION IN HEALTH AND DISEASE
    NIH/NIAID R01AI019768Sep 30, 1983 - Aug 31, 1986
    Role: Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. O'Leary CE, Schneider C, Locksley RM. Tuft Cells-Systemically Dispersed Sensory Epithelia Integrating Immune and Neural Circuitry. Annu Rev Immunol. 2018 Oct 31. PMID: 30379593.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Van Dyken SJ, Schneider C, Lee J, Nussbaum JC, Liang HE, Vaka D, Eckalbar WL, Molofsky AB, Erle DJ, Locksley RM. Tissue signals imprint ILC2 identity with anticipatory function. Nat Immunol. 2018 Sep 10. PMID: 30201992.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Vivier E, Artis D, Colonna M, Diefenbach A, Di Santo JP, Eberl G, Koyasu S, Locksley RM, McKenzie ANJ, Mebius RE, Powrie F, Spits H. Innate Lymphoid Cells: 10 Years On. Cell. 2018 Aug 23; 174(5):1054-1066. PMID: 30142344.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Miller CN, Proekt I, von Moltke J, Wells KL, Rajpurkar AR, Wang H, Rattay K, Khan IS, Metzger TC, Pollack JL, Fries AC, Lwin WW, Wigton EJ, Parent AV, Kyewski B, Erle DJ, Hogquist KA, Steinmetz LM, Locksley RM, Anderson MS. Thymic tuft cells promote an IL-4-enriched medulla and shape thymocyte development. Nature. 2018 Jul 18. PMID: 30022164.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Nadjsombati MS, McGinty JW, Lyons-Cohen MR, Jaffe JB, DiPeso L, Schneider C, Miller CN, Pollack JL, Nagana Gowda GA, Fontana MF, Erle DJ, Anderson MS, Locksley RM, Raftery D, von Moltke J. Detection of Succinate by Intestinal Tuft Cells Triggers a Type 2 Innate Immune Circuit. Immunity. 2018 Jul 17; 49(1):33-41.e7. PMID: 30021144.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Nusse YM, Savage AK, Marangoni P, Rosendahl-Huber AKM, Landman TA, de Sauvage FJ, Locksley RM, Klein OD. Publisher Correction: Parasitic helminths induce fetal-like reversion in the intestinal stem cell niche. Nature. 2018 Jul 16. PMID: 30013120.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Nusse YM, Savage AK, Marangoni P, Rosendahl-Huber AKM, Landman TA, de Sauvage FJ, Locksley RM, Klein OD. Parasitic helminths induce fetal-like reversion in the intestinal stem cell niche. Nature. 2018 Jun 27. PMID: 29950724.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Van Dyken SJ, Locksley RM. Chitins and Chitinase Activity in Airway Diseases. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2018 Jun 27. PMID: 29959948.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Kotas ME, Locksley RM. Why Innate Lymphoid Cells? Immunity. 2018 Jun 19; 48(6):1081-1090. PMID: 29924974.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Schneider C, O'Leary CE, von Moltke J, Liang HE, Ang QY, Turnbaugh PJ, Radhakrishnan S, Pellizzon M, Ma A, Locksley RM. A Metabolite-Triggered Tuft Cell-ILC2 Circuit Drives Small Intestinal Remodeling. Cell. 2018 May 23. PMID: 29887373.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Sui P, Wiesner DL, Xu J, Zhang Y, Lee J, Van Dyken S, Lashua A, Yu C, Klein BS, Locksley RM, Deutsch G, Sun X. Pulmonary neuroendocrine cells amplify allergic asthma responses. Science. 2018 Mar 29. PMID: 29599193.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Odegaard JI, Lee MW, Sogawa Y, Bertholet AM, Locksley RM, Weinberg DE, Kirichok Y, Deo RC, Chawla A. Perinatal Licensing of Thermogenesis by IL-33 and ST2. Cell. 2017 Dec 14; 171(7):1707. PMID: 29245014.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Singh PB, Pua HH, Happ HC, Schneider C, von Moltke J, Locksley RM, Baumjohann D, Ansel KM. MicroRNA regulation of type 2 innate lymphoid cell homeostasis and function in allergic inflammation. J Exp Med. 2017 Dec 04; 214(12):3627-3643. PMID: 29122948.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Locksley R. Turning the light on. Nat Rev Immunol. 2017 Oct; 17(10):593. PMID: 28757606.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Savage AK, Liang HE, Locksley RM. The Development of Steady-State Activation Hubs between Adult LTi ILC3s and Primed Macrophages in Small Intestine. J Immunol. 2017 09 01; 199(5):1912-1922. PMID: 28747343.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Lechner AJ, Driver IH, Lee J, Conroy CM, Nagle A, Locksley RM, Rock JR. Recruited Monocytes and Type 2 Immunity Promote Lung Regeneration following Pneumonectomy. Cell Stem Cell. 2017 Jul 06; 21(1):120-134.e7. PMID: 28506464.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Van Dyken SJ, Liang HE, Naikawadi RP, Woodruff PG, Wolters PJ, Erle DJ, Locksley RM. Spontaneous Chitin Accumulation in Airways and Age-Related Fibrotic Lung Disease. Cell. 2017 Apr 20; 169(3):497-509.e13. PMID: 28431248.
      View in: PubMed
    18. von Moltke J, O'Leary CE, Barrett NA, Kanaoka Y, Austen KF, Locksley RM. Leukotrienes provide an NFAT-dependent signal that synergizes with IL-33 to activate ILC2s. J Exp Med. 2017 Jan; 214(1):27-37. PMID: 28011865.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Lee LM, Ji M, Sinha M, Dong MB, Ren X, Wang Y, Lowell CA, Ghosh S, Locksley RM, DeFranco AL. Determinants of Divergent Adaptive Immune Responses after Airway Sensitization with Ligands of Toll-Like Receptor 5 or Toll-Like Receptor 9. PLoS One. 2016; 11(12):e0167693. PMID: 27977701.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Van Dyken SJ, Nussbaum JC, Lee J, Molofsky AB, Liang HE, Pollack JL, Gate RE, Haliburton GE, Ye CJ, Marson A, Erle DJ, Locksley RM. A tissue checkpoint regulates type 2 immunity. Nat Immunol. 2016 Dec; 17(12):1381-1387. PMID: 27749840.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Odegaard JI, Lee MW, Sogawa Y, Bertholet AM, Locksley RM, Weinberg DE, Kirichok Y, Deo RC, Chawla A. Perinatal Licensing of Thermogenesis by IL-33 and ST2. Cell. 2016 Aug 11; 166(4):841-854. PMID: 27453471; PMCID: PMC4985267 [Available on 08/11/17].
    22. Belinson H, Savage AK, Fadrosh D, Kuo YM, Lin D, Valladares R, Nusse Y, Wynshaw-Boris A, Lynch SV, Locksley RM, Klein OD. Dual epithelial and immune cell function of Dvl1 regulates gut microbiota composition and intestinal homeostasis. JCI Insight. 2016 Jul 07; 1(10). PMID: 27525310.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Gordon ED, Locksley RM, Fahy JV. Cross-Talk between Epithelial Cells and Type 2 Immune Signaling. The Role of IL-25. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2016 05 01; 193(9):935-6. PMID: 27128698; PMCID: PMC4872659 [Available on 05/01/17].
    24. von Moltke J, Ji M, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Tuft-cell-derived IL-25 regulates an intestinal ILC2-epithelial response circuit. Nature. 2016 Jan 14; 529(7585):221-5. PMID: 26675736; PMCID: PMC4830391.
    25. Molofsky AB, Van Gool F, Liang HE, Van Dyken SJ, Nussbaum JC, Lee J, Bluestone JA, Locksley RM. Interleukin-33 and Interferon-? Counter-Regulate Group 2 Innate Lymphoid Cell Activation during Immune Perturbation. Immunity. 2015 Jul 21; 43(1):161-74. PMID: 26092469; PMCID: PMC4512852.
    26. Molofsky AB, Savage AK, Locksley RM. Interleukin-33 in Tissue Homeostasis, Injury, and Inflammation. Immunity. 2015 Jun 16; 42(6):1005-19. PMID: 26084021; PMCID: PMC4471869.
    27. Seaman WE, Locksley RM, Welsh MJ. New blood: Creative funding of disease-specific research. Sci Transl Med. 2015 May 20; 7(288):288ed5. PMID: 25995219.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Schwartz C, Willebrand R, Huber S, Rupec RA, Wu D, Locksley R, Voehringer D. Eosinophil-specific deletion of I?Ba in mice reveals a critical role of NF-?B-induced Bcl-xL for inhibition of apoptosis. Blood. 2015 Jun 18; 125(25):3896-904. PMID: 25862560; PMCID: PMC4473117.
    29. Cheng LE, Sullivan BM, Retana LE, Allen CD, Liang HE, Locksley RM. IgE-activated basophils regulate eosinophil tissue entry by modulating endothelial function. J Exp Med. 2015 Apr 06; 212(4):513-24. PMID: 25779634; PMCID: PMC4387286.
    30. Reinhardt RL, Liang HE, Bao K, Price AE, Mohrs M, Kelly BL, Locksley RM. A novel model for IFN-?-mediated autoinflammatory syndromes. J Immunol. 2015 Mar 01; 194(5):2358-68. PMID: 25637019; PMCID: PMC4337485.
    31. Lee MW, Odegaard JI, Mukundan L, Qiu Y, Molofsky AB, Nussbaum JC, Yun K, Locksley RM, Chawla A. Activated type 2 innate lymphoid cells regulate beige fat biogenesis. Cell. 2015 Jan 15; 160(1-2):74-87. PMID: 25543153; PMCID: PMC4297518.
    32. Bando JK, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Identification and distribution of developing innate lymphoid cells in the fetal mouse intestine. Nat Immunol. 2015 Feb; 16(2):153-60. PMID: 25501629; PMCID: PMC4297560.
    33. Cheng LE, Locksley RM. Allergic inflammation--innately homeostatic. Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2014 Nov 20; 7(3):a016352. PMID: 25414367.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Van Gool F, Molofsky AB, Morar MM, Rosenzwajg M, Liang HE, Klatzmann D, Locksley RM, Bluestone JA. Interleukin-5-producing group 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophilia induced by interleukin-2 therapy. Blood. 2014 Dec 04; 124(24):3572-6. PMID: 25323825; PMCID: PMC4256909.
    35. von Moltke J, Locksley RM. I-L-C-2 it: type 2 immunity and group 2 innate lymphoid cells in homeostasis. Curr Opin Immunol. 2014 Dec; 31:58-65. PMID: 25458996; PMCID: PMC4254640.
    36. Qiu Y, Nguyen KD, Odegaard JI, Cui X, Tian X, Locksley RM, Palmiter RD, Chawla A. Eosinophils and type 2 cytokine signaling in macrophages orchestrate development of functional beige fat. Cell. 2014 Jun 05; 157(6):1292-308. PMID: 24906148; PMCID: PMC4129510.
    37. Patnode ML, Bando JK, Krummel MF, Locksley RM, Rosen SD. Leukotriene B4 amplifies eosinophil accumulation in response to nematodes. J Exp Med. 2014 Jun 30; 211(7):1281-8. PMID: 24889202; PMCID: PMC4076593.
    38. O'Dea EM, Amarsaikhan N, Li H, Downey J, Steele E, Van Dyken SJ, Locksley RM, Templeton SP. Eosinophils are recruited in response to chitin exposure and enhance Th2-mediated immune pathology in Aspergillus fumigatus infection. Infect Immun. 2014 Aug; 82(8):3199-205. PMID: 24842927; PMCID: PMC4136210.
    39. Locksley RM, Fahy JV. Asthma and the flu: a tricky two-step. Immunol Cell Biol. 2014 May-Jun; 92(5):389-91. PMID: 24687019; PMCID: PMC4396068.
    40. Van Dyken SJ, Mohapatra A, Nussbaum JC, Molofsky AB, Thornton EE, Ziegler SF, McKenzie AN, Krummel MF, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Chitin activates parallel immune modules that direct distinct inflammatory responses via innate lymphoid type 2 and ?d T cells. Immunity. 2014 Mar 20; 40(3):414-24. PMID: 24631157; PMCID: PMC4019510.
    41. Hams E, Locksley RM, McKenzie AN, Fallon PG. Cutting edge: IL-25 elicits innate lymphoid type 2 and type II NKT cells that regulate obesity in mice. J Immunol. 2013 Dec 01; 191(11):5349-53. PMID: 24166975.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Nussbaum JC, Van Dyken SJ, von Moltke J, Cheng LE, Mohapatra A, Molofsky AB, Thornton EE, Krummel MF, Chawla A, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells control eosinophil homeostasis. Nature. 2013 Oct 10; 502(7470):245-8. PMID: 24037376; PMCID: PMC3795960.
    43. Bando JK, Nussbaum JC, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Type 2 innate lymphoid cells constitutively express arginase-I in the naive and inflamed lung. J Leukoc Biol. 2013 Nov; 94(5):877-84. PMID: 23924659; PMCID: PMC3800063.
    44. Hsieh CL, Kim CC, Ryba BE, Niemi EC, Bando JK, Locksley RM, Liu J, Nakamura MC, Seaman WE. Traumatic brain injury induces macrophage subsets in the brain. Eur J Immunol. 2013 Aug; 43(8):2010-22. PMID: 23630120; PMCID: PMC4210355.
    45. Goh YP, Henderson NC, Heredia JE, Red Eagle A, Odegaard JI, Lehwald N, Nguyen KD, Sheppard D, Mukundan L, Locksley RM, Chawla A. Eosinophils secrete IL-4 to facilitate liver regeneration. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Jun 11; 110(24):9914-9. PMID: 23716700; PMCID: PMC3683773.
    46. Heredia JE, Mukundan L, Chen FM, Mueller AA, Deo RC, Locksley RM, Rando TA, Chawla A. Type 2 innate signals stimulate fibro/adipogenic progenitors to facilitate muscle regeneration. Cell. 2013 Apr 11; 153(2):376-88. PMID: 23582327; PMCID: PMC3663598.
    47. Locksley RM. Raggin' on T-bet. Cell Metab. 2013 Apr 02; 17(4):473-4. PMID: 23562073.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Molofsky AB, Nussbaum JC, Liang HE, Van Dyken SJ, Cheng LE, Mohapatra A, Chawla A, Locksley RM. Innate lymphoid type 2 cells sustain visceral adipose tissue eosinophils and alternatively activated macrophages. J Exp Med. 2013 Mar 11; 210(3):535-49. PMID: 23420878; PMCID: PMC3600903.
    49. Spits H, Artis D, Colonna M, Diefenbach A, Di Santo JP, Eberl G, Koyasu S, Locksley RM, McKenzie AN, Mebius RE, Powrie F, Vivier E. Innate lymphoid cells--a proposal for uniform nomenclature. Nat Rev Immunol. 2013 Feb; 13(2):145-9. PMID: 23348417.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Oghumu S, Dong R, Varikuti S, Shawler T, Kampfrath T, Terrazas CA, Lezama-Davila C, Ahmer BM, Whitacre CC, Rajagopalan S, Locksley R, Sharpe AH, Satoskar AR. Distinct populations of innate CD8+ T cells revealed in a CXCR3 reporter mouse. J Immunol. 2013 Mar 01; 190(5):2229-40. PMID: 23338236; PMCID: PMC3683850.
    51. Van Dyken SJ, Locksley RM. Interleukin-4- and interleukin-13-mediated alternatively activated macrophages: roles in homeostasis and disease. Annu Rev Immunol. 2013; 31:317-43. PMID: 23298208; PMCID: PMC3606684.
    52. Cheng LE, Hartmann K, Roers A, Krummel MF, Locksley RM. Perivascular mast cells dynamically probe cutaneous blood vessels to capture immunoglobulin E. Immunity. 2013 Jan 24; 38(1):166-75. PMID: 23290520; PMCID: PMC3576928.
    53. Dickgreber N, Farrand KJ, van Panhuys N, Knight DA, McKee SJ, Chong ML, Miranda-Hernandez S, Baxter AG, Locksley RM, Le Gros G, Hermans IF. Immature murine NKT cells pass through a stage of developmentally programmed innate IL-4 secretion. J Leukoc Biol. 2012 Nov; 92(5):999-1009. PMID: 22941735; PMCID: PMC4050521.
    54. Price AE, Reinhardt RL, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Marking and quantifying IL-17A-producing cells in vivo. PLoS One. 2012; 7(6):e39750. PMID: 22768117; PMCID: PMC3387253.
    55. Thornton EE, Looney MR, Bose O, Sen D, Sheppard D, Locksley R, Huang X, Krummel MF. Spatiotemporally separated antigen uptake by alveolar dendritic cells and airway presentation to T cells in the lung. J Exp Med. 2012 Jun 04; 209(6):1183-99. PMID: 22585735; PMCID: PMC3371730.
    56. Nussbaum JC, Locksley RM. Infectious (Non)tolerance--frustrated commensalism gone awry? Cold Spring Harb Perspect Biol. 2012 May 01; 4(5). PMID: 22456498; PMCID: PMC3331693.
    57. Liang HE, Reinhardt RL, Bando JK, Sullivan BM, Ho IC, Locksley RM. Divergent expression patterns of IL-4 and IL-13 define unique functions in allergic immunity. Nat Immunol. 2011 Dec 04; 13(1):58-66. PMID: 22138715; PMCID: PMC3242938.
    58. Nguyen KD, Qiu Y, Cui X, Goh YP, Mwangi J, David T, Mukundan L, Brombacher F, Locksley RM, Chawla A. Alternatively activated macrophages produce catecholamines to sustain adaptive thermogenesis. Nature. 2011 Nov 20; 480(7375):104-8. PMID: 22101429; PMCID: PMC3371761.
    59. Elliott ER, Van Ziffle JA, Scapini P, Sullivan BM, Locksley RM, Lowell CA. Deletion of Syk in neutrophils prevents immune complex arthritis. J Immunol. 2011 Oct 15; 187(8):4319-30. PMID: 21918195; PMCID: PMC3186826.
    60. Fahy JV, Locksley RM. The airway epithelium as a regulator of Th2 responses in asthma. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2011 Aug 15; 184(4):390-2. PMID: 21844510.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Van Dyken SJ, Garcia D, Porter P, Huang X, Quinlan PJ, Blanc PD, Corry DB, Locksley RM. Fungal chitin from asthma-associated home environments induces eosinophilic lung infiltration. J Immunol. 2011 Sep 01; 187(5):2261-7. PMID: 21824866; PMCID: PMC3159725.
    62. Sullivan BM, Liang HE, Bando JK, Wu D, Cheng LE, McKerrow JK, Allen CD, Locksley RM. Genetic analysis of basophil function in vivo. Nat Immunol. 2011 Jun; 12(6):527-35. PMID: 21552267; PMCID: PMC3271435.
    63. Wu D, Molofsky AB, Liang HE, Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Jouihan HA, Bando JK, Chawla A, Locksley RM. Eosinophils sustain adipose alternatively activated macrophages associated with glucose homeostasis. Science. 2011 Apr 08; 332(6026):243-7. PMID: 21436399; PMCID: PMC3144160.
    64. Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Red Eagle A, Odegaard JI, Jouihan H, Morel CR, Heredia JE, Mukundan L, Wu D, Locksley RM, Chawla A. IL-4/STAT6 immune axis regulates peripheral nutrient metabolism and insulin sensitivity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Dec 28; 107(52):22617-22. PMID: 21149710; PMCID: PMC3012500.
    65. Yang Z, Wang ZE, Doulias PT, Wei W, Ischiropoulos H, Locksley RM, Liu L. Lymphocyte development requires S-nitrosoglutathione reductase. J Immunol. 2010 Dec 01; 185(11):6664-9. PMID: 20980633; PMCID: PMC3070165.
    66. Cheng LE, Wang ZE, Locksley RM. Murine B cells regulate serum IgE levels in a CD23-dependent manner. J Immunol. 2010 Nov 01; 185(9):5040-7. PMID: 20870945; PMCID: PMC3085987.
    67. Price AE, Liang HE, Sullivan BM, Reinhardt RL, Eisley CJ, Erle DJ, Locksley RM. Systemically dispersed innate IL-13-expressing cells in type 2 immunity. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2010 Jun 22; 107(25):11489-94. PMID: 20534524; PMCID: PMC2895098.
    68. Locksley RM. Asthma and allergic inflammation. Cell. 2010 Mar 19; 140(6):777-83. PMID: 20303868; PMCID: PMC3134388.
    69. Barbalat R, Lau L, Locksley RM, Barton GM. Toll-like receptor 2 on inflammatory monocytes induces type I interferon in response to viral but not bacterial ligands. Nat Immunol. 2009 Nov; 10(11):1200-7. PMID: 19801985; PMCID: PMC2821672.
    70. Mingueneau M, Roncagalli R, Grégoire C, Kissenpfennig A, Miazek A, Archambaud C, Wang Y, Perrin P, Bertosio E, Sansoni A, Richelme S, Locksley RM, Aguado E, Malissen M, Malissen B. Loss of the LAT adaptor converts antigen-responsive T cells into pathogenic effectors that function independently of the T cell receptor. Immunity. 2009 Aug 21; 31(2):197-208. PMID: 19682930.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Voehringer D, Wu D, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Efficient generation of long-distance conditional alleles using recombineering and a dual selection strategy in replicate plates. BMC Biotechnol. 2009 Jul 28; 9:69. PMID: 19638212; PMCID: PMC2724507.
    72. Locksley RM. Nine lives: plasticity among T helper cell subsets. J Exp Med. 2009 Aug 03; 206(8):1643-6. PMID: 19635860; PMCID: PMC2722180.
    73. Rothfuchs AG, Egen JG, Feng CG, Antonelli LR, Bafica A, Winter N, Locksley RM, Sher A. In situ IL-12/23p40 production during mycobacterial infection is sustained by CD11bhigh dendritic cells localized in tissue sites distinct from those harboring bacilli. J Immunol. 2009 Jun 01; 182(11):6915-25. PMID: 19454688.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Kroeger KM, Sullivan BM, Locksley RM. IL-18 and IL-33 elicit Th2 cytokines from basophils via a MyD88- and p38alpha-dependent pathway. J Leukoc Biol. 2009 Oct; 86(4):769-78. PMID: 19451398; PMCID: PMC2752018.
    75. Seibold MA, Reese TA, Choudhry S, Salam MT, Beckman K, Eng C, Atakilit A, Meade K, Lenoir M, Watson HG, Thyne S, Kumar R, Weiss KB, Grammer LC, Avila P, Schleimer RP, Fahy JV, Rodriguez-Santana J, Rodriguez-Cintron W, Boot RG, Sheppard D, Gilliland FD, Locksley RM, Burchard EG. Differential enzymatic activity of common haplotypic versions of the human acidic Mammalian chitinase protein. J Biol Chem. 2009 Jul 17; 284(29):19650-8. PMID: 19435888; PMCID: PMC2740590.
    76. Reinhardt RL, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Cytokine-secreting follicular T cells shape the antibody repertoire. Nat Immunol. 2009 Apr; 10(4):385-93. PMID: 19252490; PMCID: PMC2714053.
    77. Kang SJ, Locksley RM. The inflammasome and alum-mediated adjuvanticity. F1000 Biol Rep. 2009 Feb 24; 1:15. PMID: 20948671; PMCID: PMC2920669.
    78. Sullivan BM, Locksley RM. Basophils: a nonredundant contributor to host immunity. Immunity. 2009 Jan 16; 30(1):12-20. PMID: 19144314.
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    79. Scheu S, Dresing P, Locksley RM. Visualization of IFNbeta production by plasmacytoid versus conventional dendritic cells under specific stimulation conditions in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2008 Dec 23; 105(51):20416-21. PMID: 19088190; PMCID: PMC2629269.
    80. Kang SJ, Liang HE, Reizis B, Locksley RM. Regulation of hierarchical clustering and activation of innate immune cells by dendritic cells. Immunity. 2008 Nov 14; 29(5):819-33. PMID: 19006696; PMCID: PMC2858430.
    81. Robinson RT, Khader SA, Locksley RM, Lien E, Smiley ST, Cooper AM. Yersinia pestis evades TLR4-dependent induction of IL-12(p40)2 by dendritic cells and subsequent cell migration. J Immunol. 2008 Oct 15; 181(8):5560-7. PMID: 18832714; PMCID: PMC2640496.
    82. Mamchak AA, Sullivan BM, Hou B, Lee LM, Gilden JK, Krummel MF, Locksley RM, DeFranco AL. Normal development and activation but altered cytokine production of Fyn-deficient CD4+ T cells. J Immunol. 2008 Oct 15; 181(8):5374-85. PMID: 18832694; PMCID: PMC2657555.
    83. Cisse B, Caton ML, Lehner M, Maeda T, Scheu S, Locksley R, Holmberg D, Zweier C, den Hollander NS, Kant SG, Holter W, Rauch A, Zhuang Y, Reizis B. Transcription factor E2-2 is an essential and specific regulator of plasmacytoid dendritic cell development. Cell. 2008 Oct 03; 135(1):37-48. PMID: 18854153; PMCID: PMC2631034.
    84. Jensen KD, Su X, Shin S, Li L, Youssef S, Yamasaki S, Steinman L, Saito T, Locksley RM, Davis MM, Baumgarth N, Chien YH. Thymic selection determines gammadelta T cell effector fate: antigen-naive cells make interleukin-17 and antigen-experienced cells make interferon gamma. Immunity. 2008 Jul 18; 29(1):90-100. PMID: 18585064; PMCID: PMC2601709.
    85. Locksley RM. The Roaring Twenties. Immunity. 2008 Apr; 28(4):437-9. PMID: 18400185.
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    86. Voehringer D, Liang HE, Locksley RM. Homeostasis and effector function of lymphopenia-induced "memory-like" T cells in constitutively T cell-depleted mice. J Immunol. 2008 Apr 01; 180(7):4742-53. PMID: 18354198; PMCID: PMC2670614.
    87. Van Dyken SJ, Locksley RM. Autoimmunity: altered self-N-glycans trigger innate-mediated autoimmunity. Immunol Cell Biol. 2007 Nov-Dec; 85(8):572-4. PMID: 17909561.
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    88. Mueller SN, Hosiawa-Meagher KA, Konieczny BT, Sullivan BM, Bachmann MF, Locksley RM, Ahmed R, Matloubian M. Regulation of homeostatic chemokine expression and cell trafficking during immune responses. Science. 2007 Aug 03; 317(5838):670-4. PMID: 17673664.
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    89. Nurieva RI, Chuvpilo S, Wieder ED, Elkon KB, Locksley R, Serfling E, Dong C. A costimulation-initiated signaling pathway regulates NFATc1 transcription in T lymphocytes. J Immunol. 2007 Jul 15; 179(2):1096-103. PMID: 17617602.
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    90. Launois P, Pingel S, Himmelrich H, Locksley R, Louis J. Different epitopes of the LACK protein are recognized by V beta 4 V alpha 8 CD4+ T cells in H-2b and H-2d mice susceptible to Leishmania major. Microbes Infect. 2007 Sep; 9(11):1260-6. PMID: 17890126.
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    91. Reese TA, Liang HE, Tager AM, Luster AD, Van Rooijen N, Voehringer D, Locksley RM. Chitin induces accumulation in tissue of innate immune cells associated with allergy. Nature. 2007 May 03; 447(7140):92-6. PMID: 17450126.
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    92. Khader SA, Bell GK, Pearl JE, Fountain JJ, Rangel-Moreno J, Cilley GE, Shen F, Eaton SM, Gaffen SL, Swain SL, Locksley RM, Haynes L, Randall TD, Cooper AM. IL-23 and IL-17 in the establishment of protective pulmonary CD4+ T cell responses after vaccination and during Mycobacterium tuberculosis challenge. Nat Immunol. 2007 Apr; 8(4):369-77. PMID: 17351619.
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    93. Voehringer D, Stanley SA, Cox JS, Completo GC, Lowary TL, Locksley RM. Nippostrongylus brasiliensis: identification of intelectin-1 and -2 as Stat6-dependent genes expressed in lung and intestine during infection. Exp Parasitol. 2007 Aug; 116(4):458-66. PMID: 17420014; PMCID: PMC2699772.
    94. Voehringer D, van Rooijen N, Locksley RM. Eosinophils develop in distinct stages and are recruited to peripheral sites by alternatively activated macrophages. J Leukoc Biol. 2007 Jun; 81(6):1434-44. PMID: 17339609.
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    95. Xu X, Zhang D, Zhang H, Wolters PJ, Killeen NP, Sullivan BM, Locksley RM, Lowell CA, Caughey GH. Neutrophil histamine contributes to inflammation in mycoplasma pneumonia. J Exp Med. 2006 Dec 25; 203(13):2907-17. PMID: 17158962; PMCID: PMC2118183.
    96. Locksley RM. A failure to launch: fuelling cytokine secretion in iNKT cells. Immunity. 2006 Sep; 25(3):393-5. PMID: 16979571.
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    97. Reinhardt RL, Hong S, Kang SJ, Wang ZE, Locksley RM. Visualization of IL-12/23p40 in vivo reveals immunostimulatory dendritic cell migrants that promote Th1 differentiation. J Immunol. 2006 Aug 01; 177(3):1618-27. PMID: 16849470.
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    98. Fife BT, Griffin MD, Abbas AK, Locksley RM, Bluestone JA. Inhibition of T cell activation and autoimmune diabetes using a B cell surface-linked CTLA-4 agonist. J Clin Invest. 2006 Aug; 116(8):2252-61. PMID: 16886063; PMCID: PMC1523399.
    99. Gumy A, Aseffa A, Rachinel N, Breton M, Otten L, Tacchini-Cottier F, Röcken M, Doyen N, Acha-Orbea H, Locksley RM, MacDonald HR, Launois P, Louis J. LACK-reactive CD4+ T cells require autocrine IL-2 to mediate susceptibility to Leishmania major. Eur J Immunol. 2006 Jun; 36(6):1465-73. PMID: 16637008.
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    100. Voehringer D, Reese TA, Huang X, Shinkai K, Locksley RM. Type 2 immunity is controlled by IL-4/IL-13 expression in hematopoietic non-eosinophil cells of the innate immune system. J Exp Med. 2006 Jun 12; 203(6):1435-46. PMID: 16702603; PMCID: PMC2118302.
    101. Scheu S, Stetson DB, Reinhardt RL, Leber JH, Mohrs M, Locksley RM. Activation of the integrated stress response during T helper cell differentiation. Nat Immunol. 2006 Jun; 7(6):644-51. PMID: 16680145.
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    102. Hayashida T, Oda M, Ohsawa K, Yamaguchi A, Hosozawa T, Locksley RM, Giacca M, Masai H, Miyatake S. Replication initiation from a novel origin identified in the Th2 cytokine cluster locus requires a distant conserved noncoding sequence. J Immunol. 2006 May 01; 176(9):5446-54. PMID: 16622012.
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    103. Reinhardt RL, Kang SJ, Liang HE, Locksley RM. T helper cell effector fates--who, how and where? Curr Opin Immunol. 2006 Jun; 18(3):271-7. PMID: 16617008.
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    104. Veldhoen M, Hocking RJ, Atkins CJ, Locksley RM, Stockinger B. TGFbeta in the context of an inflammatory cytokine milieu supports de novo differentiation of IL-17-producing T cells. Immunity. 2006 Feb; 24(2):179-89. PMID: 16473830.
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    105. Tang Q, Adams JY, Tooley AJ, Bi M, Fife BT, Serra P, Santamaria P, Locksley RM, Krummel MF, Bluestone JA. Visualizing regulatory T cell control of autoimmune responses in nonobese diabetic mice. Nat Immunol. 2006 Jan; 7(1):83-92. PMID: 16311599; PMCID: PMC3057888.
    106. Im W, Kim H, Yun D, Seo SY, Park SH, Locksley RM, Hong S. Cytokine reporter mouse system for screening novel IL12/23 p40-inducing compounds. Mol Cells. 2005 Oct 31; 20(2):288-96. PMID: 16267405.
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    107. Mohrs K, Wakil AE, Killeen N, Locksley RM, Mohrs M. A two-step process for cytokine production revealed by IL-4 dual-reporter mice. Immunity. 2005 Oct; 23(4):419-29. PMID: 16226507; PMCID: PMC2826320.
    108. Loke P, Zang X, Hsuan L, Waitz R, Locksley RM, Allen JE, Allison JP. Inducible costimulator is required for type 2 antibody isotype switching but not T helper cell type 2 responses in chronic nematode infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2005 Jul 12; 102(28):9872-7. PMID: 15994233; PMCID: PMC1175004.
    109. Ohmura K, Nguyen LT, Locksley RM, Mathis D, Benoist C. Interleukin-4 can be a key positive regulator of inflammatory arthritis. Arthritis Rheum. 2005 Jun; 52(6):1866-75. PMID: 15934072.
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    110. Kelly BL, Locksley RM. The Leishmania major LACK antigen with an immunodominant epitope at amino acids 156 to 173 is not required for early Th2 development in BALB/c mice. Infect Immun. 2004 Dec; 72(12):6924-31. PMID: 15557613; PMCID: PMC529165.
    111. Voehringer D, Rosen DB, Lanier LL, Locksley RM. CD200 receptor family members represent novel DAP12-associated activating receptors on basophils and mast cells. J Biol Chem. 2004 Dec 24; 279(52):54117-23. PMID: 15471863.
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    112. Xu M, Wang Z, Locksley RM. Innate immune responses in peptidoglycan recognition protein L-deficient mice. Mol Cell Biol. 2004 Sep; 24(18):7949-57. PMID: 15340057; PMCID: PMC515053.
    113. Voehringer D, Shinkai K, Locksley RM. Type 2 immunity reflects orchestrated recruitment of cells committed to IL-4 production. Immunity. 2004 Mar; 20(3):267-77. PMID: 15030771.
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    114. Stetson DB, Voehringer D, Grogan JL, Xu M, Reinhardt RL, Scheu S, Kelly BL, Locksley RM. Th2 cells: orchestrating barrier immunity. Adv Immunol. 2004; 83:163-89. PMID: 15135631.
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    115. Grogan JL, Wang ZE, Stanley S, Harmon B, Loots GG, Rubin EM, Locksley RM. Basal chromatin modification at the IL-4 gene in helper T cells. J Immunol. 2003 Dec 15; 171(12):6672-9. PMID: 14662870.
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    116. Kelly BL, Stetson DB, Locksley RM. Leishmania major LACK antigen is required for efficient vertebrate parasitization. J Exp Med. 2003 Dec 01; 198(11):1689-98. PMID: 14657221; PMCID: PMC2194132.
    117. Stetson DB, Mohrs M, Reinhardt RL, Baron JL, Wang ZE, Gapin L, Kronenberg M, Locksley RM. Constitutive cytokine mRNAs mark natural killer (NK) and NK T cells poised for rapid effector function. J Exp Med. 2003 Oct 06; 198(7):1069-76. PMID: 14530376; PMCID: PMC2194220.
    118. Matsuda JL, Gapin L, Baron JL, Sidobre S, Stetson DB, Mohrs M, Locksley RM, Kronenberg M. Mouse V alpha 14i natural killer T cells are resistant to cytokine polarization in vivo. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Jul 08; 100(14):8395-400. PMID: 12829795; PMCID: PMC166240.
    119. Hadeiba H, Locksley RM. Lung CD25 CD4 regulatory T cells suppress type 2 immune responses but not bronchial hyperreactivity. J Immunol. 2003 Jun 01; 170(11):5502-10. PMID: 12759427.
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    120. Mohrs M, Lacy DA, Locksley RM. Stat signals release activated naive Th cells from an anergic checkpoint. J Immunol. 2003 Feb 15; 170(4):1870-6. PMID: 12574353.
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    121. Bour-Jordan H, Grogan JL, Tang Q, Auger JA, Locksley RM, Bluestone JA. CTLA-4 regulates the requirement for cytokine-induced signals in T(H)2 lineage commitment. Nat Immunol. 2003 Feb; 4(2):182-8. PMID: 12524538.
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    122. Shinkai K, Mohrs M, Locksley RM. Helper T cells regulate type-2 innate immunity in vivo. Nature. 2002 Dec 19-26; 420(6917):825-9. PMID: 12490951.
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    123. Stetson DB, Mohrs M, Mallet-Designe V, Teyton L, Locksley RM. Rapid expansion and IL-4 expression by Leishmania-specific naive helper T cells in vivo. Immunity. 2002 Aug; 17(2):191-200. PMID: 12196290.
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    124. Locksley RM. Blood lines. Nat Immunol. 2002 Aug; 3(8):705-6. PMID: 12145653.
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    125. Grogan JL, Locksley RM. T helper cell differentiation: on again, off again. Curr Opin Immunol. 2002 Jun; 14(3):366-72. PMID: 11973136.
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    126. Launois P, Gumy A, Himmelrich H, Locksley RM, Röcken M, Louis JA. Rapid IL-4 production by Leishmania homolog of mammalian RACK1-reactive CD4(+) T cells in resistant mice treated once with anti-IL-12 or -IFN-gamma antibodies at the onset of infection with Leishmania major instructs Th2 cell development, resulting in nonhealing lesions. J Immunol. 2002 May 01; 168(9):4628-35. PMID: 11971011.
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    127. Baron JL, Gardiner L, Nishimura S, Shinkai K, Locksley R, Ganem D. Activation of a nonclassical NKT cell subset in a transgenic mouse model of hepatitis B virus infection. Immunity. 2002 Apr; 16(4):583-94. PMID: 11970881.
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