Rachel Whitmer, PhD

TitleAssociate Professor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentEpidemiology & Biostatistics
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    University of Massachussetts, Amherst MAB.S Magna Cum LaudePsychology/Neuroscience
    University of California Davis, Davis CAPhDHuman Development/Cognitive Aging
    University of California Berkeley, Berkeley CAFellowshipEpidemiology

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    Collapse Overview
    In my capacity as a Senior Scientist at the Kaiser Permanente Division of Research and Professor of Epidemiology and Biostatistics at University of California San Francisco, I lead a Laboratory of Population Based Science in Brain Aging. Our lab focuses on three major themes: 1).Ethnoracial disparities and diversity in cognitive aging and dementia outcomes, 2.) Early life contributions to brain health and dementia risk, and 3.) Metabolic and vascular influences on brain aging. We have conducted significant studies on the role of midlife, modifiable risk factors for Alzheimer’s disease and dementia using the data resources of Kaiser Permanente Northern California (KPNC) as a natural laboratory for pursuing novel questions in dementia epidemiology with high clinical impact. Our work on obesity, central adiposity, smoking, total cholesterol, depression, cumulative vascular risk and diabetes were the first studies to establish that these risk factors in midlife are strongly associated with increased risk of dementia and Alzheimer’s disease. These findings, subsequently confirmed in several other data sources, contributed to a fundamental reconceptualization of dementia as a lifecourse disease with major, modifiable risk factors accumulating decades prior to diagnosis. Due to the long subclinical nature of neurodegenerative diseases, there is potential for reverse causality, and risk and protective factors operate differently, at different time points in the lifecourse, and in different populations. This overarching challenge in dementia epidemiology is a continuing, evolving, theme in our work which propels our scientific approaches.

    Large racial/ethnic disparities in dementia have been established, but there are very few data sources with substantial non-white participation rates. The diversity of the KPNC membership supports important work evaluating whether findings initially established in whites also hold true for racial/ethnic minorities. Last year, our group published the largest and longest study of racial/ethnic differences in dementia incidence. We looked at six different racial/ethnic groups and were the first to determine the incidence of dementia for Asian-Americans and Native-Americans, and the magnitude of racial/ethnic differences comprehensively. Our recently launched NIH funded field studies, KHANDLE (Kaiser Healthy Aging and Diverse Life Experiences) and LEADHERS (Life Experience and Diversity Health Study) will hone in on the role of early life and lifecourse mechanisms in inequities in aging.

    Another major focus of our group has been on trying to understand how and why those with diabetes have accelerated brain aging and what can be done to change this. While it’s known that those with type 2 diabetes have double the risk of dementia, the driving mechanisms, underpinning pathology, and etiology behind this is not well understood. Our work is examining the timing of glycemic control and vascular complications on brain health. Individuals with type 1 diabetes are living longer than ever before and ways to help this population age successfully are not well understood. Two years ago we commenced the NIH funded SOLID (Study of Longevity in Diabetes), a cohort study of 800 elderly individuals with type 1 diabetes with a primary goal of delineating successful mental and physical aging in this population. The primary objective of our research program is to identify and understand risk and protective factors for cognitive and brain aging in populations at high risk for dementia, including ethnic minority groups and those with chronic disease such as diabetes mellitus.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Epidemiology of Age-related Dementia, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Brain Pathology in a Multiethnic Cohort of Oldest-Old
    NIH/NIA 1RF1AG056519-01Sep 15, 2017 - Jun 30, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Epidemiology of Age-related Dementia, Mild Cognitive Impairment and Brain Pathology in a Multiethnic Cohort of Oldest-Old
    NIH/NIA RF1AG056519Sep 15, 2017 - Jun 30, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Early Vascular Contributions to Dementia Risk in African Americans
    NIH/NIA 1R01AG050782Jan 1, 2017 - Dec 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Early Vascular Contributions to Dementia Risk in African-Americans
    NIH/NIA R01AG050782Jan 1, 2017 - Dec 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Lifecourse health, cerebral pathology and ethnic disparities in dementia
    NIH RF1AG052132Jun 1, 2016 - May 31, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Predictors of Late-life Cognitive Health in Type 1 Diabetes
    NIH R01AG047500Feb 1, 2015 - Jan 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Obesity, Adipocytokines and Cognitive Aging
    NIH/NIA R03AG027504May 15, 2006 - Apr 30, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Epidemiology of Glycemia Inflammation &Cognition
    NIH/NIDDK K01DK066308Sep 1, 2005 - Aug 31, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Gilsanz P, Mayeda ER, Glymour MM, Quesenberry CP, Mungas DM, DeCarli C, Dean A, Whitmer R. Female sex, early-onset hypertension, and risk of dementia. Neurology. 2017 Oct 04. PMID: 28978656.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Gilsanz P, Mayeda ER, Glymour MM, Quesenberry CP, Whitmer R. Association Between Birth in a High Stroke Mortality State, Race, and Risk of Dementia. JAMA Neurol. 2017 Sep 01; 74(9):1056-1062. PMID: 28759663.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Mayeda ER, Glymour MM, Quesenberry CP, Whitmer R. Heterogeneity in 14-year Dementia Incidence Between Asian American Subgroups. Alzheimer Dis Assoc Disord. 2017 Jul-Sep; 31(3):181-186. PMID: 28406845.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Flatt JD, Gilsanz P, Quesenberry CP, Albers KB, Whitmer R. Post-traumatic stress disorder and risk of dementia among members of a health care delivery system. Alzheimers Dement. 2017 Jun 13. PMID: 28627380.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Mayeda ER, Glymour MM, Quesenberry CP, Johnson JK, Pérez-Stable EJ, Whitmer R. Survival after dementia diagnosis in five racial/ethnic groups. Alzheimers Dement. 2017 Jul; 13(7):761-769. PMID: 28174069.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Sarkar U, Lyles C, Steinman M, Huang ES, Moffet HH, Whitmer R, Warton EM, Karter AJ. Changes in Medication Use After Dementia Diagnosis in an Observational Cohort of Individuals with Diabetes Mellitus. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2017 Jan; 65(1):77-82. PMID: 27642180.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Dacks PA, Armstrong JJ, Brannan SK, Carman AJ, Green AM, Kirkman MS, Krakoff LR, Kuller LH, Launer LJ, Lovestone S, Merikle E, Neumann PJ, Rockwood K, Shineman DW, Stefanacci RG, Velentgas P, Viswanathan A, Whitmer R, Williamson JD, Fillit HM. A call for comparative effectiveness research to learn whether routine clinical care decisions can protect from dementia and cognitive decline. Alzheimers Res Ther. 2016 Aug 20; 8:33. PMID: 27543171; PMCID: PMC4992192.
    8. Rist PM, Nguyen TT, Whitmer R, Glymour MM. Modifiable risk factors for nursing home admission among individuals with high and low dementia risk. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2016 Jul-Aug; 65:140-5. PMID: 27023177.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Albanese E, Matthews KA, Zhang J, Jacobs DR, Whitmer R, Wadley VG, Yaffe K, Sidney S, Launer LJ. Hostile attitudes and effortful coping in young adulthood predict cognition 25 years later. Neurology. 2016 Mar 29; 86(13):1227-34. PMID: 26935891; PMCID: PMC4818565.
    10. Auer R, Vittinghoff E, Yaffe K, Künzi A, Kertesz SG, Levine DA, Albanese E, Whitmer R, Jacobs DR, Sidney S, Glymour MM, Pletcher MJ. Association Between Lifetime Marijuana Use and Cognitive Function in Middle Age: The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) Study. JAMA Intern Med. 2016 Mar; 176(3):352-61. PMID: 26831916.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Barone FC, Gustafson D, Crystal HA, Moreno H, Adamski MG, Arai K, Baird AE, Balucani C, Brickman AM, Cechetto D, Gorelick P, Biessels GJ, Kiliaan A, Launer L, Schneider J, Sorond FA, Whitmer R, Wright C, Zhang ZG. First translational 'Think Tank' on cerebrovascular disease, cognitive impairment and dementia. J Transl Med. 2016 Feb 13; 14:50. PMID: 26873444; PMCID: PMC4752794.
    12. Mayeda ER, Glymour MM, Quesenberry CP, Whitmer R. Inequalities in dementia incidence between six racial and ethnic groups over 14 years. Alzheimers Dement. 2016 Mar; 12(3):216-24. PMID: 26874595; PMCID: PMC4969071 [Available on 03/01/17].
    13. Hoang TD, Reis J, Zhu N, Jacobs DR, Launer LJ, Whitmer R, Sidney S, Yaffe K. Effect of Early Adult Patterns of Physical Activity and Television Viewing on Midlife Cognitive Function. JAMA Psychiatry. 2016 Jan; 73(1):73-9. PMID: 26629780; PMCID: PMC4755299 [Available on 01/01/17].
    14. George MF, Holingue CB, Briggs FB, Shao X, Bellesis KH, Whitmer R, Schaefer C, Benedict RH, Barcellos LF. Feasibility study for remote assessment of cognitive function in multiple sclerosis. J Neurol Neuromedicine. 2016; 1(8):10-18. PMID: 28255581.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Banda Y, Kvale MN, Hoffmann TJ, Hesselson SE, Ranatunga D, Tang H, Sabatti C, Croen LA, Dispensa BP, Henderson M, Iribarren C, Jorgenson E, Kushi LH, Ludwig D, Olberg D, Quesenberry CP, Rowell S, Sadler M, Sakoda LC, Sciortino S, Shen L, Smethurst D, Somkin CP, Van Den Eeden SK, Walter L, Whitmer R, Kwok PY, Schaefer C, Risch N. Characterizing Race/Ethnicity and Genetic Ancestry for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort. Genetics. 2015 Aug; 200(4):1285-95. PMID: 26092716; PMCID: PMC4574246.
    16. Lapham K, Kvale MN, Lin J, Connell S, Croen LA, Dispensa BP, Fang L, Hesselson S, Hoffmann TJ, Iribarren C, Jorgenson E, Kushi LH, Ludwig D, Matsuguchi T, McGuire WB, Miles S, Quesenberry CP, Rowell S, Sadler M, Sakoda LC, Smethurst D, Somkin CP, Van Den Eeden SK, Walter L, Whitmer R, Kwok PY, Risch N, Schaefer C, Blackburn EH. Automated Assay of Telomere Length Measurement and Informatics for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort. Genetics. 2015 Aug; 200(4):1061-72. PMID: 26092717; PMCID: PMC4574243.
    17. Kvale MN, Hesselson S, Hoffmann TJ, Cao Y, Chan D, Connell S, Croen LA, Dispensa BP, Eshragh J, Finn A, Gollub J, Iribarren C, Jorgenson E, Kushi LH, Lao R, Lu Y, Ludwig D, Mathauda GK, McGuire WB, Mei G, Miles S, Mittman M, Patil M, Quesenberry CP, Ranatunga D, Rowell S, Sadler M, Sakoda LC, Shapero M, Shen L, Shenoy T, Smethurst D, Somkin CP, Van Den Eeden SK, Walter L, Wan E, Webster T, Whitmer R, Wong S, Zau C, Zhan Y, Schaefer C, Kwok PY, Risch N. Genotyping Informatics and Quality Control for 100,000 Subjects in the Genetic Epidemiology Research on Adult Health and Aging (GERA) Cohort. Genetics. 2015 Aug; 200(4):1051-60. PMID: 26092718; PMCID: PMC4574249.
    18. Zhu N, Jacobs DR, Schreiner PJ, Launer LJ, Whitmer R, Sidney S, Demerath E, Thomas W, Bouchard C, He K, Erus G, Battapady H, Bryan RN. Cardiorespiratory fitness and brain volume and white matter integrity: The CARDIA Study. Neurology. 2015 Jun 09; 84(23):2347-53. PMID: 25957331; PMCID: PMC4464743.
    19. Karter AJ, Laiteerapong N, Chin MH, Moffet HH, Parker MM, Sudore R, Adams AS, Schillinger D, Adler NS, Whitmer R, Piette JD, Huang ES. Ethnic Differences in Geriatric Conditions and Diabetes Complications Among Older, Insured Adults With Diabetes: The Diabetes and Aging Study. J Aging Health. 2015 Aug; 27(5):894-918. PMID: 25659747; PMCID: PMC4498983.
    20. Zhu N, Jacobs DR, Meyer KA, He K, Launer L, Reis JP, Yaffe K, Sidney S, Whitmer R, Steffen LM. Cognitive function in a middle aged cohort is related to higher quality dietary pattern 5 and 25 years earlier: the CARDIA study. J Nutr Health Aging. 2015 Jan; 19(1):33-8. PMID: 25560814.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Mayeda ER, Whitmer R, Yaffe K. Diabetes and cognition. Clin Geriatr Med. 2015 Feb; 31(1):101-15, ix. PMID: 25453304; PMCID: PMC4370221.
    22. Whitmer R. Cognitive impairment in ORIGIN: timing is everything. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Jul; 2(7):531-2. PMID: 24898832.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Zhu N, Jacobs DR, Schreiner PJ, Yaffe K, Bryan N, Launer LJ, Whitmer R, Sidney S, Demerath E, Thomas W, Bouchard C, He K, Reis J, Sternfeld B. Cardiorespiratory fitness and cognitive function in middle age: the CARDIA study. Neurology. 2014 Apr 15; 82(15):1339-46. PMID: 24696506; PMCID: PMC4001190.
    24. Yaffe K, Vittinghoff E, Pletcher MJ, Hoang TD, Launer LJ, Whitmer R, Coker LH, Sidney S. Early adult to midlife cardiovascular risk factors and cognitive function. Circulation. 2014 Apr 15; 129(15):1560-7. PMID: 24687777; PMCID: PMC4700881.
    25. Exalto LG, Biessels GJ, Karter AJ, Huang ES, Quesenberry CP, Whitmer R. Severe diabetic retinal disease and dementia risk in type 2 diabetes. J Alzheimers Dis. 2014; 42 Suppl 3:S109-17. PMID: 24625797; PMCID: PMC4373321.
    26. Mayeda ER, Karter AJ, Huang ES, Moffet HH, Haan MN, Whitmer R. Racial/ethnic differences in dementia risk among older type 2 diabetic patients: the diabetes and aging study. Diabetes Care. 2014 Apr; 37(4):1009-15. PMID: 24271192; PMCID: PMC3964496.
    27. Biessels GJ, Strachan MW, Visseren FL, Kappelle LJ, Whitmer R. Dementia and cognitive decline in type 2 diabetes and prediabetic stages: towards targeted interventions. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2014 Mar; 2(3):246-55. PMID: 24622755.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Exalto LG, Quesenberry CP, Barnes D, Kivipelto M, Biessels GJ, Whitmer R. Midlife risk score for the prediction of dementia four decades later. Alzheimers Dement. 2014 Sep; 10(5):562-70. PMID: 24035147.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Exalto LG, Biessels GJ, Karter AJ, Huang ES, Katon WJ, Minkoff JR, Whitmer R. Risk score for prediction of 10 year dementia risk in individuals with type 2 diabetes: a cohort study. Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol. 2013 Nov; 1(3):183-90. PMID: 24622366; PMCID: PMC4429783.
    30. Whitmer R, Kushi LH. Commentary: Mediterranean diet and cognitive function: are we approaching clarity in this area? Epidemiology. 2013 Jul; 24(4):500-2. PMID: 23732732.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Shao H, Breitner JC, Whitmer R, Wang J, Hayden K, Wengreen H, Corcoran C, Tschanz J, Norton M, Munger R, Welsh-Bohmer K, Zandi PP. Hormone therapy and Alzheimer disease dementia: new findings from the Cache County Study. Neurology. 2012 Oct 30; 79(18):1846-52. PMID: 23100399; PMCID: PMC3525314.
    32. Exalto LG, Whitmer R, Kappele LJ, Biessels GJ. An update on type 2 diabetes, vascular dementia and Alzheimer's disease. Exp Gerontol. 2012 Nov; 47(11):858-64. PMID: 22884853.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Sudore RL, Karter AJ, Huang ES, Moffet HH, Laiteerapong N, Schenker Y, Adams A, Whitmer R, Liu JY, Miao Y, John PM, Schillinger D. Symptom burden of adults with type 2 diabetes across the disease course: diabetes & aging study. J Gen Intern Med. 2012 Dec; 27(12):1674-81. PMID: 22854982; PMCID: PMC3509316.
    34. Zeki Al Hazzouri A, Haan MN, Whitmer R, Yaffe K, Neuhaus J. Central obesity, leptin and cognitive decline: the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2012; 33(6):400-9. PMID: 22814127; PMCID: PMC3483312.
    35. Barnes DE, Yaffe K, Byers AL, McCormick M, Schaefer C, Whitmer R. Midlife vs late-life depressive symptoms and risk of dementia: differential effects for Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 May; 69(5):493-8. PMID: 22566581; PMCID: PMC3704214.
    36. Katon W, Lyles CR, Parker MM, Karter AJ, Huang ES, Whitmer R. Association of depression with increased risk of dementia in patients with type 2 diabetes: the Diabetes and Aging Study. Arch Gen Psychiatry. 2012 Apr; 69(4):410-7. PMID: 22147809; PMCID: PMC3558525.
    37. Hoffmann TJ, Zhan Y, Kvale MN, Hesselson SE, Gollub J, Iribarren C, Lu Y, Mei G, Purdy MM, Quesenberry C, Rowell S, Shapero MH, Smethurst D, Somkin CP, Van den Eeden SK, Walter L, Webster T, Whitmer R, Finn A, Schaefer C, Kwok PY, Risch N. Design and coverage of high throughput genotyping arrays optimized for individuals of East Asian, African American, and Latino race/ethnicity using imputation and a novel hybrid SNP selection algorithm. Genomics. 2011 Dec; 98(6):422-30. PMID: 21903159; PMCID: PMC3502750.
    38. Hoffmann TJ, Kvale MN, Hesselson SE, Zhan Y, Aquino C, Cao Y, Cawley S, Chung E, Connell S, Eshragh J, Ewing M, Gollub J, Henderson M, Hubbell E, Iribarren C, Kaufman J, Lao RZ, Lu Y, Ludwig D, Mathauda GK, McGuire W, Mei G, Miles S, Purdy MM, Quesenberry C, Ranatunga D, Rowell S, Sadler M, Shapero MH, Shen L, Shenoy TR, Smethurst D, Van den Eeden SK, Walter L, Wan E, Wearley R, Webster T, Wen CC, Weng L, Whitmer R, Williams A, Wong SC, Zau C, Finn A, Schaefer C, Kwok PY, Risch N. Next generation genome-wide association tool: design and coverage of a high-throughput European-optimized SNP array. Genomics. 2011 Aug; 98(2):79-89. PMID: 21565264; PMCID: PMC3146553.
    39. Whitmer R, Quesenberry CP, Zhou J, Yaffe K. Timing of hormone therapy and dementia: the critical window theory revisited. Ann Neurol. 2011 Jan; 69(1):163-9. PMID: 21280086; PMCID: PMC3058824.
    40. Rusanen M, Kivipelto M, Quesenberry CP, Zhou J, Whitmer R. Heavy smoking in midlife and long-term risk of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Arch Intern Med. 2011 Feb 28; 171(4):333-9. PMID: 20975015.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Barnes DE, Covinsky KE, Whitmer R, Kuller LH, Lopez OL, Yaffe K. Commentary on "Developing a national strategy to prevent dementia: Leon Thal Symposium 2009." Dementia risk indices: A framework for identifying individuals with a high dementia risk. Alzheimers Dement. 2010 Mar; 6(2):138-41. PMID: 20298975; PMCID: PMC2909695.
    42. Colenda CC, Legault C, Rapp SR, DeBon MW, Hogan P, Wallace R, Hershey L, Ockene J, Whitmer R, Phillips LS, Sarto GE. Psychiatric disorders and cognitive dysfunction among older, postmenopausal women: results from the Women's Health Initiative Memory Study. Am J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2010 Feb; 18(2):177-86. PMID: 20104074; PMCID: PMC2939041.
    43. Li NC, Lee A, Whitmer R, Kivipelto M, Lawler E, Kazis LE, Wolozin B. Use of angiotensin receptor blockers and risk of dementia in a predominantly male population: prospective cohort analysis. BMJ. 2010 Jan 12; 340:b5465. PMID: 20068258; PMCID: PMC2806632.
    44. Solomon A, Kivipelto M, Wolozin B, Zhou J, Whitmer R. Midlife serum cholesterol and increased risk of Alzheimer's and vascular dementia three decades later. Dement Geriatr Cogn Disord. 2009; 28(1):75-80. PMID: 19648749; PMCID: PMC2814023.
    45. Barnes DE, Covinsky KE, Whitmer R, Kuller LH, Lopez OL, Yaffe K. Predicting risk of dementia in older adults: The late-life dementia risk index. Neurology. 2009 Jul 21; 73(3):173-9. PMID: 19439724; PMCID: PMC2715571.
    46. Bennett DA, Whitmer R. NSAID exposure and risk of Alzheimer disease: is timing everything? Neurology. 2009 Jun 02; 72(22):1884-5. PMID: 19386996.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Whitmer R, Karter AJ, Yaffe K, Quesenberry CP, Selby JV. Hypoglycemic episodes and risk of dementia in older patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. JAMA. 2009 Apr 15; 301(15):1565-72. PMID: 19366776; PMCID: PMC2782622.
    48. Cereda E, Sacchi MC, Malavazos AE, Whitmer R, Gustafson DR, Barrett-Connor E, Haan MN, Gunderson EP, Yaffe K. Central obesity and increased risk of dementia more than three decades later. Neurology. 2009 Mar 17; 72(11):1030-1; author reply 1031. PMID: 19289749.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Whitmer R, Gustafson DR, Barrett-Connor E, Haan MN, Gunderson EP, Yaffe K. Central obesity and increased risk of dementia more than three decades later. Neurology. 2008 Sep 30; 71(14):1057-64. PMID: 18367704.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Gunderson EP, Sternfeld B, Wellons MF, Whitmer R, Chiang V, Quesenberry CP, Lewis CE, Sidney S. Childbearing may increase visceral adipose tissue independent of overall increase in body fat. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2008 May; 16(5):1078-84. PMID: 18356843; PMCID: PMC2952441.
    51. Flick ED, Habel LA, Chan KA, Van Den Eeden SK, Quinn VP, Haque R, Orav EJ, Seeger JD, Sadler MC, Quesenberry CP, Sternfeld B, Jacobsen SJ, Whitmer R, Caan BJ. Statin use and risk of prostate cancer in the California Men's Health Study cohort. Cancer Epidemiol Biomarkers Prev. 2007 Nov; 16(11):2218-25. PMID: 17971519.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Whitmer R. Type 2 diabetes and risk of cognitive impairment and dementia. Curr Neurol Neurosci Rep. 2007 Sep; 7(5):373-80. PMID: 17764626.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Yaffe K, Haan M, Blackwell T, Cherkasova E, Whitmer R, West N. Metabolic syndrome and cognitive decline in elderly Latinos: findings from the Sacramento Area Latino Study of Aging study. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2007 May; 55(5):758-62. PMID: 17493197.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Whitmer R, Gunderson EP, Quesenberry CP, Zhou J, Yaffe K. Body mass index in midlife and risk of Alzheimer disease and vascular dementia. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007 Apr; 4(2):103-9. PMID: 17430231.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Whitmer R. The epidemiology of adiposity and dementia. Curr Alzheimer Res. 2007 Apr; 4(2):117-22. PMID: 17430233.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Gunderson EP, Lewis CE, Wei GS, Whitmer R, Quesenberry CP, Sidney S. Lactation and changes in maternal metabolic risk factors. Obstet Gynecol. 2007 Mar; 109(3):729-38. PMID: 17329527; PMCID: PMC2930880.
    57. Haan MN, Miller JW, Aiello AE, Whitmer R, Jagust WJ, Mungas DM, Allen LH, Green R. Homocysteine, B vitamins, and the incidence of dementia and cognitive impairment: results from the Sacramento Area Latino Study on Aging. Am J Clin Nutr. 2007 Feb; 85(2):511-7. PMID: 17284751; PMCID: PMC1892349.
    58. Barnes DE, Whitmer R, Yaffe K. Physical activity and dementia: The need for prevention trials. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2007 Jan; 35(1):24-9. PMID: 17211190.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Elkins JS, Whitmer R, Sidney S, Sorel M, Yaffe K, Johnston SC. Midlife obesity and long-term risk of nursing home admission. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2006 Aug; 14(8):1472-8. PMID: 16988091.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Yaffe K, Blackwell T, Whitmer R, Krueger K, Barrett Connor E. Glycosylated hemoglobin level and development of mild cognitive impairment or dementia in older women. J Nutr Health Aging. 2006 Jul-Aug; 10(4):293-5. PMID: 16886099.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Gunderson EP, Whitmer R, Lewis CE, Quesenberry CP, West DS, Sidney S. Do long-term HDL-C declines associated with a first birth vary by apo E phenotype? The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2005 Dec; 14(10):917-28. PMID: 16372893; PMCID: PMC3146172.
    62. Whitmer R, Gunderson EP, Barrett-Connor E, Quesenberry CP, Yaffe K. Obesity in middle age and future risk of dementia: a 27 year longitudinal population based study. BMJ. 2005 Jun 11; 330(7504):1360. PMID: 15863436; PMCID: PMC558283.
    63. Whitmer R, Sidney S, Selby J, Johnston SC, Yaffe K. Midlife cardiovascular risk factors and risk of dementia in late life. Neurology. 2005 Jan 25; 64(2):277-81. PMID: 15668425.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Whitmer R, Haan MN, Miller JW, Yaffe K. Hormone replacement therapy and cognitive performance: the role of homocysteine. J Gerontol A Biol Sci Med Sci. 2003 Apr; 58(4):324-30. PMID: 12663696.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Robbins J, Hirsch C, Whitmer R, Cauley J, Harris T. The association of bone mineral density and depression in an older population. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2001 Jun; 49(6):732-6. PMID: 11454111.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Anderson DR, Whitmer R, Goetzel RZ, Ozminkowski RJ, Dunn RL, Wasserman J, Serxner S. The relationship between modifiable health risks and group-level health care expenditures. Health Enhancement Research Organization (HERO) Research Committee. Am J Health Promot. 2000 Sep-Oct; 15(1):45-52. PMID: 11184118.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Whitmer R, Whitbourne SK. Evaluation of infantilizing speech in a rehabilitation setting: relation to age. Int J Aging Hum Dev. 1997; 44(2):129-36. PMID: 9169315.
      View in: PubMed
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