Richard Schneider, PhD

Title(s)Associate Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery
SchoolSchool of Medicine
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-2626-3111 Additional info
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    National Museum of Natural History, Washington, DCInternship1990Vertebrate Zoology
    Hampshire College, Amherst, MABA1991Natural Sciences
    Duke University, Durham, NCMSc1994Zoology
    Marine Biological Laboratory, Woods Hole, MAStudent1995Embryology
    Duke University, Durham, NCPhD1998Zoology
    Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory, Cold Spring Harbor, NYStudent1998Embryology of the Mouse
    UC San Francisco, San Francisco, CAPostdoctoral Fellowship2001Craniofacial and Skeletal Developmental Biology
    UC San Francisco, San Francisco, CACertificate2019Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Champion Training
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    School of Dentistry, University of California at San Francisco2016Mentor of the Year
    American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons2006Young Investigator Award
    Orthopaedic Research Society2004New Investigator Recognition Award
    March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation2004  - 2006Basil O’Connor Starter Scholar Research Award
    University of California at San Francisco2002  - 2003Academic Senate Individual Investigator Award
    University of California at San Francisco2002  - 2003Research Evaluation and Allocation Committee Award
    National Science Foundation1997  - 1998Dissertation Improvement Grant

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Rich graduated from Hampshire College in Amherst, MA in 1991. Following an internship at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC, Rich published his first paper, which was on the development and evolution of the skull in wolves and domestic dogs. He received his Master's Degree in 1994 and his Doctoral Degree in 1998 from Duke University in Durham, NC. Both of his graduate thesis projects focused on skeletal development and evolution in birds and mammals. Rich also studied embryology at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA, and at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island, NY. For his Postdoctoral work at the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), Rich investigated molecular mechanisms that pattern the craniofacial skeleton. In 2001, Rich joined the faculty of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at UCSF. Rich is Director of the Laboratory for Developmental and Evolutionary Skeletal Biology. He also served as a Co-Director of the Embryology Course at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA from 2015 to 2019.

    Rich's research has been focused on understanding how individual components of the craniofacial complex achieve their proper size, shape, and functional integration during development and evolution. To address this question, Rich has created a surgical transplantation system that involves two distinct species of birds (quail and duck), which differ considerably in their growth rates and anatomy. The experimental approach is straightforward: stem cells that give rise to craniofacial structures are exchanged between quail and duck embryos. This causes faster developing quail cells and relatively slower maturing duck cells to interact with one another continuously within chimeric "quck" and "duail" embryos. Also, chimeras are challenged to integrate species-specific differences in size and shape between the donor and host. By looking for donor-induced changes to the formation of bone, cartilage, muscle, tendon, nerves, and other tissues, Rich has been able to identify molecular and cellular mechanisms that pattern the craniofacial complex. A goal is to devise novel therapies for regenerating tissues affected by birth defects, disease, and trauma. Rich's work has also helped elucidate the role of development in evolution.

    For more than 15 years, Rich has been vigorously engaged in issues related to scholarly communication and open access. He has spent multiple terms serving as Chair on both the UCSF (COLASC) and the UC System-wide Committee on Library and Scholarly Communication (UCOLASC) of the Academic Senate, and he led the effort to develop and pass an Open Access Policy for UCSF faculty in 2012. In addition, he helped create a UC System-wide Open Access Policy in 2013 and a Presidential Open Access Policy in 2015. Rich also led the effort for UCSF to become a signatory to the international OA2020 Initiative, and he spearheaded the effort by UCOLASC to devise and endorse a "Declaration of Rights and Principles to Transform Scholarly Communication" to make scholarly communication more open, fair, transparent, and sustainable when applied by UC during license negotiations with journal publishers. Most recently, he has been representing the UC faculty on the team that is negotiating transformative agreements with journal publishers and he has been deeply involved in outreach to faculty.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Mechanisms of Secondary Cartilage Induction and Maintenance in the Jaw
    NIH/NIDCR R01DE025668Jul 5, 2016 - Jun 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Macro Confocal Microscope System for Large-Scale Imaging in Basic and Translational Biology
    NIH S10OD021664Mar 1, 2016 - Feb 28, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    9th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology: Jaw Development Symposium
    NIH/NIDCR R13DE021317May 1, 2010 - Apr 30, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    A New System to Study the Control of Epidermal Growth
    NIH/NIAMS R21AR052513Jul 1, 2006 - Jun 30, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mesenchymal Regulation of Osteogenesis
    NIH/NIDCR R01DE016402Sep 28, 2004 - May 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The Role of Neural Crest in Facial Patterning
    NIH/NIDCR R03DE014795Aug 1, 2002 - Jul 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Predoctoral Training in Developmental Biology
    NIH/NICHD T32HD007470Jul 1, 1994 - Jun 30, 1999
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
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    Collapse Academic Senate

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Stable integration of an optimized inducible promoter system enables spatiotemporal control of gene expression throughout avian development. Biol Open. 2020 Sep 11. Chu D, Nguyen A, Smith SS, Vavrušová Z, Schneider RA. PMID: 32917762.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    2. Morphological diversity of integumentary traits in fowl domestication: Insights from disparity analysis and embryonic development. Dev Dyn. 2019 11; 248(11):1044-1058. Núñez-León D, Aguirre-Fernández G, Steiner A, Nagashima H, Jensen P, Stoeckli E, Schneider RA, Sánchez-Villagra MR. PMID: 31433887.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Animals
    3. Molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying the evolution of form and function in the amniote jaw. Evodevo. 2019; 10:17. Woronowicz KC, Schneider RA. PMID: 31417668.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    4. The Society for Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology 41st Annual Meeting. Am J Med Genet A. 2019 05; 179(5):864-869. Taneyhill LA, Moody SA, Cox T, Klein OD, Marcucio R, Schneider RA, Trainor PA. PMID: 30793834.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    5. Neural crest and the origin of species-specific pattern. Genesis. 2018 06; 56(6-7):e23219. Schneider RA. PMID: 30134069.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    6. Cells in Evolutionary Biology: Translating Genotypes into Phenotypes – Past, Present, Future (Hall, BK and Moody, S, editors). Cellular Control of Time, Size, and Shape in Development and Evolution. 2018; Chapter 7:167-212. Schneider, RA.View Publication.
    7. FGF and TGFß signaling link form and function during jaw development and evolution. Dev Biol. 2018 12 01; 444 Suppl 1:S219-S236. Woronowicz KC, Gline SE, Herfat ST, Fields AJ, Schneider RA. PMID: 29753626.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. What’s behind OA2020? Accelerating the transition to open access with introspection and repurposing funds. College & Research Libraries News. 2018 Feb 1; 79(2):85. Rachael Samberg, Richard A. Schneider, Anneliese Taylor, Michael Wolfe. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    9. It's time for the US to get serious about funding open access. Nature Index. 2018; (April). Samberg R, Schneider RA, Taylor, A, Wolfe, M.
    10. The London School of Economics and Political Science, LSE Impact Blog. A variety of strategies and funding approaches are required to accelerate the transition to open access. 2018; (July). Samberg R, Schneider RA, Anderson I, MacKie-Mason J.
    11. Engineered Tissue Folding by Mechanical Compaction of the Mesenchyme. Dev Cell. 2018 01 22; 44(2):165-178.e6. Hughes AJ, Miyazaki H, Coyle MC, Zhang J, Laurie MT, Chu D, Vavrušová Z, Schneider RA, Klein OD, Gartner ZJ. PMID: 29290586.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    12. The Domestic Dog, J Serpell (Editor). Evolution of working dogs. 2017; 42-66. Lord, K, Schneider, RA, Coppinger, RP.
    13. The taming of the neural crest: a developmental perspective on the origins of morphological covariation in domesticated mammals. R Soc Open Sci. 2016 Jun; 3(6):160107. Sánchez-Villagra MR, Geiger M, Schneider RA. PMID: 27429770.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:
    14. Neural crest-mediated bone resorption is a determinant of species-specific jaw length. Dev Biol. 2015 Dec 01; 408(1):151-63. Ealba EL, Jheon AH, Hall J, Curantz C, Butcher KD, Schneider RA. PMID: 26449912.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    15. Regulation of Jaw Length During Development, Disease, and Evolution. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2015; 115:271-98. Schneider RA. PMID: 26589929.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    16. miR-302 Is Required for Timing of Neural Differentiation, Neural Tube Closure, and Embryonic Viability. Cell Rep. 2015 Aug 04; 12(5):760-73. Parchem RJ, Moore N, Fish JL, Parchem JG, Braga TT, Shenoy A, Oldham MC, Rubenstein JL, Schneider RA, Blelloch R. PMID: 26212322.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    17. Divergence of craniofacial developmental trajectories among avian embryos. Dev Dyn. 2015 Sep; 244(9):1158-1167. Smith FJ, Percival CJ, Young NM, Hu D, Schneider RA, Marcucio RS, Hallgrimsson B. PMID: 25703037.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    
    18. Assessing species-specific contributions to craniofacial development using quail-duck chimeras. J Vis Exp. 2014 May 31; (87). Fish JL, Schneider RA. PMID: 24962088.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    19. Embryonic bauplans and the developmental origins of facial diversity and constraint. Development. 2014 Mar; 141(5):1059-63. Young NM, Hu D, Lainoff AJ, Smith FJ, Diaz R, Tucker AS, Trainor PA, Schneider RA, Hallgrímsson B, Marcucio RS. PMID: 24550113.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 42     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    20. Multiple developmental mechanisms regulate species-specific jaw size. Development. 2014 Feb; 141(3):674-84. Fish JL, Sklar RS, Woronowicz KC, Schneider RA. PMID: 24449843.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    21. Neural Crest Cells: Evolution, Development and Disease. P. Trainor (editor). Neural Crest-Mediated Tissue Interactions During Craniofacial Development: The Origins of Species-Specific Pattern. 2014; Chapter 6:101-124. Fish J, Schneider RA.. View Publication.
    22. Evolution of a developmental mechanism: Species-specific regulation of the cell cycle and the timing of events during craniofacial osteogenesis. Dev Biol. 2014 Jan 15; 385(2):380-95. Hall J, Jheon AH, Ealba EL, Eames BF, Butcher KD, Mak SS, Ladher R, Alliston T, Schneider RA. PMID: 24262986.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    23. A simple PCR-based strategy for estimating species-specific contributions in chimeras and xenografts. Development. 2013 Jul; 140(14):3062-8. Ealba EL, Schneider RA. PMID: 23785056.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    24. Smad3 binds Scleraxis and Mohawk and regulates tendon matrix organization. J Orthop Res. 2013 Sep; 31(9):1475-83. Berthet E, Chen C, Butcher K, Schneider RA, Alliston T, Amirtharajah M. PMID: 23653374.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    25. Reshaping Scholarly Communication: Why Faculty are Adopting Institutional Open-Access Policies. Science Editor. 2013; 36(1):20. Schneider RA.. View Publication.
    26. Molecular and cellular changes associated with the evolution of novel jaw muscles in parrots. Proc Biol Sci. 2013 Feb 07; 280(1752):20122319. Tokita M, Nakayama T, Schneider RA, Agata K. PMID: 23235703.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    27. Structured bilaminar coculture outperforms stem cells and disc cells in a simulated degenerate disc environment. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 May 01; 37(10):813-8. Allon AA, Butcher K, Schneider RA, Lotz JC. PMID: 22024902.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    28. Structured coculture of mesenchymal stem cells and disc cells enhances differentiation and proliferation. Cells Tissues Organs. 2012; 196(2):99-106. Allon AA, Butcher K, Schneider RA, Lotz JC. PMID: 22378296.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    29. Structured three-dimensional co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells with chondrocytes promotes chondrogenic differentiation without hypertrophy. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011 Oct; 19(10):1210-8. Cooke ME, Allon AA, Cheng T, Kuo AC, Kim HT, Vail TP, Marcucio RS, Schneider RA, Lotz JC, Alliston T. PMID: 21816228.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    30. Timing of ossification in duck, quail, and zebra finch: intraspecific variation, heterochronies, and life history evolution. Zoolog Sci. 2011 Jul; 28(7):491-500. Mitgutsch C, Wimmer C, Sánchez-Villagra MR, Hahnloser R, Schneider RA. PMID: 21728797.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    31. Mesenchymal and mechanical mechanisms of secondary cartilage induction. Dev Biol. 2011 Aug 01; 356(1):28-39. Solem RC, Eames BF, Tokita M, Schneider RA. PMID: 21600197.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    32. NBCe1 in mouse and human ameloblasts may be indirectly regulated by fluoride. J Dent Res. 2011 Jun; 90(6):782-7. Zheng L, Zhang Y, He P, Kim J, Schneider R, Bronckers AL, Lyaruu DM, DenBesten PK. PMID: 21364089.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    33. Tissue-specific calibration of extracellular matrix material properties by transforming growth factor-ß and Runx2 in bone is required for hearing. EMBO Rep. 2010 Oct; 11(10):765-71. Chang JL, Brauer DS, Johnson J, Chen CG, Akil O, Balooch G, Humphrey MB, Chin EN, Porter AE, Butcher K, Ritchie RO, Schneider RA, Lalwani A, Derynck R, Marshall GW, Marshall SJ, Lustig L, Alliston T. PMID: 20847738.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    34. Ameloblast differentiation in the human developing tooth: effects of extracellular matrices. Matrix Biol. 2010 Jun; 29(5):411-9. He P, Zhang Y, Kim SO, Radlanski RJ, Butcher K, Schneider RA, DenBesten PK. PMID: 20211728.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    35. Co-culture of Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Nucleus Pulposus Cells in Bilaminar Pellets for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration. The International Journal of Spine Surgery. 2009 Jun 1; 3(2):41-49. Aliza A. Allon, Richard A. Schneider, Jeffrey C. Lotz. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    36. Developmental origins of species-specific muscle pattern. Dev Biol. 2009 Jul 15; 331(2):311-25. Tokita M, Schneider RA. PMID: 19450573.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    37. The cells that fill the bill: neural crest and the evolution of craniofacial development. J Dent Res. 2009 Jan; 88(1):12-21. Jheon AH, Schneider RA. PMID: 19131312.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    38. The genesis of cartilage size and shape during development and evolution. Development. 2008 Dec; 135(23):3947-58. Eames BF, Schneider RA. PMID: 18987028.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    39. Mesenchyme-dependent BMP signaling directs the timing of mandibular osteogenesis. Development. 2008 Apr; 135(7):1223-34. Merrill AE, Eames BF, Weston SJ, Heath T, Schneider RA. PMID: 18287200.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 29     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    40. Other chimeras: quail-duck and mouse-chick. Methods Cell Biol. 2008; 87:59-74. Lwigale PY, Schneider RA. PMID: 18485291.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    41. The TGF-ß Family. Derynck and Miyazono (Editors). Chapter 21: TGF-ß family signalling in mesenchymal differentiation. 2008; 613-666. Derynck R, Piek E, Schneider RA, Choy L, Alliston T.View Publication.
    42. Skeletogenesis in the swell shark Cephaloscyllium ventriosum. J Anat. 2007 May; 210(5):542-54. Eames BF, Allen N, Young J, Kaplan A, Helms JA, Schneider RA. PMID: 17451531.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    43. How to tweak a beak: molecular techniques for studying the evolution of size and shape in Darwin's finches and other birds. Bioessays. 2007 Jan; 29(1):1-6. Schneider RA. PMID: 17187350.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    44. Amelogenins in human developing and mature dental pulp. J Dent Res. 2006 Sep; 85(9):814-8. Ye L, Le TQ, Zhu L, Butcher K, Schneider RA, Li W, Besten PK. PMID: 16931863.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    45. Patterns of infantile hemangiomas: new clues to hemangioma pathogenesis and embryonic facial development. Pediatrics. 2006 Mar; 117(3):698-703. Haggstrom AN, Lammer EJ, Schneider RA, Marcucio R, Frieden IJ. PMID: 16510649.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. Neural crest cells and the community of plan for craniofacial development: historical debates and current perspectives. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006; 589:1-23. Noden DM, Schneider RA. PMID: 17076272.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    47. Developmental mechanisms facilitating the evolution of bills and quills. J Anat. 2005 Nov; 207(5):563-73. Schneider RA. PMID: 16313392.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    48. Quail-duck chimeras reveal spatiotemporal plasticity in molecular and histogenic programs of cranial feather development. Development. 2005 Apr; 132(7):1499-509. Eames BF, Schneider RA. PMID: 15728671.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 33     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    49. Bone Regeneration and Repair: Biology and Clinical Applications. Lieberman and Friedlaender (Editors). Common molecular mechanisms regulating fetal bone formation and adult fracture repair. 2005; 45-55. Miclau T, Schneider RA, Eames BF, Helms JA.
    50. Bone remodeling during prenatal morphogenesis of the human mental foramen. Eur J Oral Sci. 2004 Aug; 112(4):301-10. Radlanski RJ, Renz H, Lajvardi S, Schneider RA. PMID: 15279647.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    51. Cranial skeletal biology. Nature. 2003 May 15; 423(6937):326-31. Helms JA, Schneider RA. PMID: 12748650.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 64     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    52. The cellular and molecular origins of beak morphology. Science. 2003 Jan 24; 299(5606):565-8. Schneider RA, Helms JA. PMID: 12543976.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 74     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    53. Eur J Oral Sci. Prenatal morphogenesis of the human mental foramen. 2002; 6(110):452-9. Radlanski RJ, Renz H, Müller U, Schneider RA, Marcucio RS, Helms JA.
    54. Orthopaedics. Fitzgerald, Kaufer, and Malkani (Editors). Embryology of Bone. 2002; 143-146. Schneider RA, Miclau T, Helms JA.
    55. Local retinoid signaling coordinates forebrain and facial morphogenesis by maintaining FGF8 and SHH. Development. 2001 Jul; 128(14):2755-67. Schneider RA, Hu D, Rubenstein JL, Maden M, Helms JA. PMID: 11526081.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 67     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    56. Craniofacial Surgery: Science and Surgical Technique. Lin, Ogle, and Jane (Editors). Morphogenesis of the Face. 2001; 75-83. Cordero D, Schneider RA, Helms JA.
    57. Genetic and teratogenic approaches to craniofacial development. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2000; 11(3):304-17. Young DL, Schneider RA, Hu D, Helms JA. PMID: 11021632.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    58. Neural crest can form cartilages normally derived from mesoderm during development of the avian head skeleton. Dev Biol. 1999 Apr 15; 208(2):441-55. Schneider RA. PMID: 10191057.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 25     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    59. From head to toe: conservation of molecular signals regulating limb and craniofacial morphogenesis. Cell Tissue Res. 1999 Apr; 296(1):103-9. Schneider RA, Hu D, Helms JA. PMID: 10199970.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    60. Development and regeneration of the musculoskeletal system. Current Orthopaedic Practice. 1998 Dec 1; 9(6):20-24. Richard A. Schneider, Jill A. Helms. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    61. Have gene knockouts caused evolutionary reversals in the mammalian first arch? Bioessays. 1998 Mar; 20(3):245-55. Smith KK, Schneider RA. PMID: 9631652.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    62. The Domestic Dog. Serpell J (Editor). Evolution of working dogs. 1995; 21-47. Coppinger RP, Schneider RA..
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