Richard Schneider, PhD

Title(s)Associate Professor, Orthopaedic Surgery
SchoolSchool of Medicine
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Hampshire CollegeBA1991Natural Sciences
    Duke UniversityMSc1994Zoology
    Duke UniversityPhD1998Zoology
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    School of Dentistry, University of California at San Francisco2016Mentor of the Year
    American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons2006Young Investigator Award
    Orthopaedic Research Society2004New Investigator Recognition Award
    March of Dimes Birth Defects Foundation2004  - 2006Basil O’Connor Starter Scholar Research Award
    University of California at San Francisco2002  - 2003Academic Senate Individual Investigator Award
    University of California at San Francisco2002  - 2003Research Evaluation and Allocation Committee Award
    National Science Foundation1997  - 1998Dissertation Improvement Grant

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Dr. Rich Schneider grew up in Maplewood, New Jersey. He graduated from Hampshire College in Amherst, Massachusetts in 1991. Following an undergraduate internship at the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, DC, Rich published his first paper, which was on the development and evolution of the skull in wolves and domestic dogs. He received his Master's Degree in 1994 and his Doctoral Degree in 1998 from Duke University in Durham, North Carolina. Both of his graduate thesis projects focused on skeletal development and evolution in birds and mammals. Rich also studied embryology at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, Massachusetts, and at the Cold Spring Harbor Laboratory on Long Island, New York. For his Postdoctoral work at the University of California at San Francisco (UCSF), Rich investigated molecular mechanisms that pattern the craniofacial skeleton. In 2001, Rich joined the faculty of the Department of Orthopaedic Surgery at UCSF. Rich is Director of the Laboratory for Developmental and Evolutionary Skeletal Biology. He is also currently a Co-Director of the Embryology Course at the Marine Biological Laboratory in Woods Hole, MA.

    Rich's research has been focused on understanding how individual components of the craniofacial complex achieve their proper size, shape, and functional integration during development and evolution. To address this question, Rich has created a surgical transplantation system that involves two distinct species of birds (quail and duck), which differ considerably in their growth rates and anatomy. The experimental approach is straightforward: stem cells that give rise to craniofacial structures are exchanged between quail and duck embryos. This causes faster developing quail cells and relatively slower maturing duck cells to interact with one another continuously within chimeric "quck" and "duail" embryos. Also, chimeras are challenged to integrate species-specific differences in size and shape between the donor and host. By looking for donor-induced changes to the formation of bone, cartilage, muscle, tendon, nerves, and other tissues, Rich has been able to identify molecular and cellular mechanisms that pattern the craniofacial complex. A goal is to devise novel therapies for regenerating tissues affected by birth defects, disease, and trauma. Rich's work has also helped elucidate the role of development in evolution.

    For the past 15 years, Rich has been vigorously engaged in issues related to scholarly communication and open access. He has spent multiple terms serving as Chair on both the UCSF (COLASC) and the UC System-wide Committee on Library and Scholarly Communication (UCOLASC) of the Academic Senate, and he led the effort to develop and pass an Open Access Policy for UCSF Faculty in 2012. In addition, he helped create a UC System-wide Open Access Policy in 2013 and a Presidential Open Access Policy in 2015. Most recently, Rich spearheaded the initiative by UCOLASC to devise and endorse a "Declaration of Rights and Principles" to make scholarly communication more open, fair, transparent, and sustainable when applied by UC during license negotiations with journal publishers.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Mechanisms of Secondary Cartilage Induction and Maintenance in the Jaw
    NIH/NIDCR R01DE025668Jul 5, 2016 - Jun 30, 2021
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Macro Confocal Microscope System for Large-Scale Imaging in Basic and Translational Biology
    NIH S10OD021664Mar 1, 2016 - Feb 28, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    9th International Congress of Vertebrate Morphology: Jaw Development Symposium
    NIH/NIDCR R13DE021317May 1, 2010 - Apr 30, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    A New System to Study the Control of Epidermal Growth
    NIH/NIAMS R21AR052513Jul 1, 2006 - Jun 30, 2009
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mesenchymal Regulation of Osteogenesis
    NIH/NIDCR R01DE016402Sep 28, 2004 - May 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    The Role of Neural Crest in Facial Patterning
    NIH/NIDCR R03DE014795Aug 1, 2002 - Jul 31, 2005
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Predoctoral Training in Developmental Biology
    NIH/NICHD T32HD007470Jul 1, 1994 - Apr 30, 2024
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
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    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Featured Videos

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Taneyhill LA, Moody SA, Cox T, Klein OD, Marcucio R, Schneider RA, Trainor PA. The Society for Craniofacial Genetics and Developmental Biology 41st Annual Meeting. Am J Med Genet A. 2019 Feb 22. PMID: 30793834.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Schneider RA. Neural crest and the origin of species-specific pattern. Genesis. 2018 06; 56(6-7):e23219. PMID: 30134069.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Schneider, RA.Cells in Evolutionary Biology: Translating Genotypes into Phenotypes – Past, Present, Future (Hall, BK and Moody, S, editors). Cellular Control of Time, Size, and Shape in Development and Evolution. 2018; Chapter 7:167-212.
    4. Woronowicz KC, Gline SE, Herfat ST, Fields AJ, Schneider RA. FGF and TGFß signaling link form and function during jaw development and evolution. Dev Biol. 2018 May 16. PMID: 29753626.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Samberg, R., Schneider RA, Taylor A, Wolfe M.College & Research Libraries News. What’s behind OA2020? Accelerating the transition to open access with introspection and repurposing funds. 2018; 79(2):85.
    6. Hughes AJ, Miyazaki H, Coyle MC, Zhang J, Laurie MT, Chu D, Vavrušová Z, Schneider RA, Klein OD, Gartner ZJ. Engineered Tissue Folding by Mechanical Compaction of the Mesenchyme. Dev Cell. 2018 01 22; 44(2):165-178.e6. PMID: 29290586.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Lord, K, Schneider, RA, Coppinger, RP.The Domestic Dog, J Serpell (Editor). Evolution of working dogs. 2017; 42-66.
    8. Sánchez-Villagra MR, Geiger M, Schneider RA. The taming of the neural crest: a developmental perspective on the origins of morphological covariation in domesticated mammals. R Soc Open Sci. 2016 Jun; 3(6):160107. PMID: 27429770.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Ealba EL, Jheon AH, Hall J, Curantz C, Butcher KD, Schneider RA. Neural crest-mediated bone resorption is a determinant of species-specific jaw length. Dev Biol. 2015 Dec 01; 408(1):151-63. PMID: 26449912; PMCID: PMC4698309.
    10. Schneider RA. Regulation of Jaw Length During Development, Disease, and Evolution. Curr Top Dev Biol. 2015; 115:271-98. PMID: 26589929.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Parchem RJ, Moore N, Fish JL, Parchem JG, Braga TT, Shenoy A, Oldham MC, Rubenstein JL, Schneider RA, Blelloch R. miR-302 Is Required for Timing of Neural Differentiation, Neural Tube Closure, and Embryonic Viability. Cell Rep. 2015 Aug 04; 12(5):760-73. PMID: 26212322; PMCID: PMC4741278.
    12. Smith FJ, Percival CJ, Young NM, Hu D, Schneider RA, Marcucio RS, Hallgrimsson B. Divergence of craniofacial developmental trajectories among avian embryos. Dev Dyn. 2015 Sep; 244(9):1158-1167. PMID: 25703037.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Fish JL, Schneider RA. Assessing species-specific contributions to craniofacial development using quail-duck chimeras. J Vis Exp. 2014 May 31; (87). PMID: 24962088; PMCID: PMC4182100.
    14. Young NM, Hu D, Lainoff AJ, Smith FJ, Diaz R, Tucker AS, Trainor PA, Schneider RA, Hallgrímsson B, Marcucio RS. Embryonic bauplans and the developmental origins of facial diversity and constraint. Development. 2014 Mar; 141(5):1059-63. PMID: 24550113; PMCID: PMC3929406.
    15. Fish JL, Sklar RS, Woronowicz KC, Schneider RA. Multiple developmental mechanisms regulate species-specific jaw size. Development. 2014 Feb; 141(3):674-84. PMID: 24449843; PMCID: PMC3899819.
    16. Fish J, Schneider RA.Neural Crest Cells: Evolution, Development and Disease. P. Trainor (editor). Neural Crest-Mediated Tissue Interactions During Craniofacial Development: The Origins of Species-Specific Pattern. 2014; Chapter 6:101-124.
    17. Hall J, Jheon AH, Ealba EL, Eames BF, Butcher KD, Mak SS, Ladher R, Alliston T, Schneider RA. Evolution of a developmental mechanism: Species-specific regulation of the cell cycle and the timing of events during craniofacial osteogenesis. Dev Biol. 2014 Jan 15; 385(2):380-95. PMID: 24262986; PMCID: PMC3953612.
    18. Ealba EL, Schneider RA. A simple PCR-based strategy for estimating species-specific contributions in chimeras and xenografts. Development. 2013 Jul; 140(14):3062-8. PMID: 23785056; PMCID: PMC3699287.
    19. Berthet E, Chen C, Butcher K, Schneider RA, Alliston T, Amirtharajah M. Smad3 binds Scleraxis and Mohawk and regulates tendon matrix organization. J Orthop Res. 2013 Sep; 31(9):1475-83. PMID: 23653374; PMCID: PMC3960924.
    20. Schneider RA.Reshaping Scholarly Communication: Why Faculty are Adopting Institutional Open-Access Policies. Science Editor. 2013; 36(1):20.
    21. Tokita M, Nakayama T, Schneider RA, Agata K. Molecular and cellular changes associated with the evolution of novel jaw muscles in parrots. Proc Biol Sci. 2013 Feb 07; 280(1752):20122319. PMID: 23235703; PMCID: PMC3574302.
    22. Allon AA, Butcher K, Schneider RA, Lotz JC. Structured bilaminar coculture outperforms stem cells and disc cells in a simulated degenerate disc environment. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2012 May 01; 37(10):813-8. PMID: 22024902; PMCID: PMC3340449.
    23. Allon AA, Butcher K, Schneider RA, Lotz JC. Structured coculture of mesenchymal stem cells and disc cells enhances differentiation and proliferation. Cells Tissues Organs. 2012; 196(2):99-106. PMID: 22378296; PMCID: PMC3641838.
    24. Cooke ME, Allon AA, Cheng T, Kuo AC, Kim HT, Vail TP, Marcucio RS, Schneider RA, Lotz JC, Alliston T. Structured three-dimensional co-culture of mesenchymal stem cells with chondrocytes promotes chondrogenic differentiation without hypertrophy. Osteoarthritis Cartilage. 2011 Oct; 19(10):1210-8. PMID: 21816228; PMCID: PMC3188316.
    25. Mitgutsch C, Wimmer C, Sánchez-Villagra MR, Hahnloser R, Schneider RA. Timing of ossification in duck, quail, and zebra finch: intraspecific variation, heterochronies, and life history evolution. Zoolog Sci. 2011 Jul; 28(7):491-500. PMID: 21728797.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Solem RC, Eames BF, Tokita M, Schneider RA. Mesenchymal and mechanical mechanisms of secondary cartilage induction. Dev Biol. 2011 Aug 01; 356(1):28-39. PMID: 21600197.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Zheng L, Zhang Y, He P, Kim J, Schneider R, Bronckers AL, Lyaruu DM, DenBesten PK. NBCe1 in mouse and human ameloblasts may be indirectly regulated by fluoride. J Dent Res. 2011 Jun; 90(6):782-7. PMID: 21364089; PMCID: PMC3144118.
    28. Chang JL, Brauer DS, Johnson J, Chen CG, Akil O, Balooch G, Humphrey MB, Chin EN, Porter AE, Butcher K, Ritchie RO, Schneider RA, Lalwani A, Derynck R, Marshall GW, Marshall SJ, Lustig L, Alliston T. Tissue-specific calibration of extracellular matrix material properties by transforming growth factor-ß and Runx2 in bone is required for hearing. EMBO Rep. 2010 Oct; 11(10):765-71. PMID: 20847738; PMCID: PMC2948188.
    29. He P, Zhang Y, Kim SO, Radlanski RJ, Butcher K, Schneider RA, DenBesten PK. Ameloblast differentiation in the human developing tooth: effects of extracellular matrices. Matrix Biol. 2010 Jun; 29(5):411-9. PMID: 20211728; PMCID: PMC3296366.
    30. Allon AA, Schneider RA, Lotz JC. Co-culture of Adult Mesenchymal Stem Cells and Nucleus Pulposus Cells in Bilaminar Pellets for Intervertebral Disc Regeneration. SAS J. 2009; 3(2):41-9. PMID: 25802627; PMCID: PMC4365592.
    31. Tokita M, Schneider RA. Developmental origins of species-specific muscle pattern. Dev Biol. 2009 Jul 15; 331(2):311-25. PMID: 19450573.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Jheon AH, Schneider RA. The cells that fill the bill: neural crest and the evolution of craniofacial development. J Dent Res. 2009 Jan; 88(1):12-21. PMID: 19131312.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Eames BF, Schneider RA. The genesis of cartilage size and shape during development and evolution. Development. 2008 Dec; 135(23):3947-58. PMID: 18987028.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Merrill AE, Eames BF, Weston SJ, Heath T, Schneider RA. Mesenchyme-dependent BMP signaling directs the timing of mandibular osteogenesis. Development. 2008 Apr; 135(7):1223-34. PMID: 18287200; PMCID: PMC2844338.
    35. Lwigale PY, Schneider RA. Other chimeras: quail-duck and mouse-chick. Methods Cell Biol. 2008; 87:59-74. PMID: 18485291.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Derynck R, Piek E, Schneider RA, Choy L, Alliston T.The TGF-ß Family. Derynck and Miyazono (Editors). Chapter 21: TGF-ß family signalling in mesenchymal differentiation. 2008; 613-666.
    37. Eames BF, Allen N, Young J, Kaplan A, Helms JA, Schneider RA. Skeletogenesis in the swell shark Cephaloscyllium ventriosum. J Anat. 2007 May; 210(5):542-54. PMID: 17451531; PMCID: PMC2375745.
    38. Schneider RA. How to tweak a beak: molecular techniques for studying the evolution of size and shape in Darwin's finches and other birds. Bioessays. 2007 Jan; 29(1):1-6. PMID: 17187350.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Ye L, Le TQ, Zhu L, Butcher K, Schneider RA, Li W, Besten PK. Amelogenins in human developing and mature dental pulp. J Dent Res. 2006 Sep; 85(9):814-8. PMID: 16931863; PMCID: PMC2243219.
    40. Haggstrom AN, Lammer EJ, Schneider RA, Marcucio R, Frieden IJ. Patterns of infantile hemangiomas: new clues to hemangioma pathogenesis and embryonic facial development. Pediatrics. 2006 Mar; 117(3):698-703. PMID: 16510649.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Noden DM, Schneider RA. Neural crest cells and the community of plan for craniofacial development: historical debates and current perspectives. Adv Exp Med Biol. 2006; 589:1-23. PMID: 17076272.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Schneider RA. Developmental mechanisms facilitating the evolution of bills and quills. J Anat. 2005 Nov; 207(5):563-73. PMID: 16313392.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Eames BF, Schneider RA. Quail-duck chimeras reveal spatiotemporal plasticity in molecular and histogenic programs of cranial feather development. Development. 2005 Apr; 132(7):1499-509. PMID: 15728671; PMCID: PMC2835538.
    44. Miclau T, Schneider RA, Eames BF, Helms JA.Bone Regeneration and Repair: Biology and Clinical Applications. Lieberman and Friedlaender (Editors). Common molecular mechanisms regulating fetal bone formation and adult fracture repair. 2005; 45-55.
    45. Radlanski RJ, Renz H, Lajvardi S, Schneider RA. Bone remodeling during prenatal morphogenesis of the human mental foramen. Eur J Oral Sci. 2004 Aug; 112(4):301-10. PMID: 15279647.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Helms JA, Schneider RA. Cranial skeletal biology. Nature. 2003 May 15; 423(6937):326-31. PMID: 12748650.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Schneider RA, Helms JA. The cellular and molecular origins of beak morphology. Science. 2003 Jan 24; 299(5606):565-8. PMID: 12543976.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Radlanski RJ, Renz H, Müller U, Schneider RA, Marcucio RS, Helms JA.Eur J Oral Sci. Prenatal morphogenesis of the human mental foramen. 2002; 6(110):452-9.
    49. Schneider RA, Miclau T, Helms JA.Orthopaedics. Fitzgerald, Kaufer, and Malkani (Editors). Embryology of Bone. 2002; 143-146.
    50. Schneider RA, Hu D, Rubenstein JL, Maden M, Helms JA. Local retinoid signaling coordinates forebrain and facial morphogenesis by maintaining FGF8 and SHH. Development. 2001 Jul; 128(14):2755-67. PMID: 11526081.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Cordero D, Schneider RA, Helms JA.Craniofacial Surgery: Science and Surgical Technique. Lin, Ogle, and Jane (Editors). Morphogenesis of the Face. 2001; 75-83.
    52. Young DL, Schneider RA, Hu D, Helms JA. Genetic and teratogenic approaches to craniofacial development. Crit Rev Oral Biol Med. 2000; 11(3):304-17. PMID: 11021632.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Schneider RA. Neural crest can form cartilages normally derived from mesoderm during development of the avian head skeleton. Dev Biol. 1999 Apr 15; 208(2):441-55. PMID: 10191057.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Schneider RA, Hu D, Helms JA. From head to toe: conservation of molecular signals regulating limb and craniofacial morphogenesis. Cell Tissue Res. 1999 Apr; 296(1):103-9. PMID: 10199970.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Smith KK, Schneider RA. Have gene knockouts caused evolutionary reversals in the mammalian first arch? Bioessays. 1998 Mar; 20(3):245-55. PMID: 9631652.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Schneider, RA Helms, JA.Current Opinion in Orthopedics. Development and regeneration of the musculoskeletal system. 1998; 6(9):20-24.
    57. Coppinger RP, Schneider RA.The Domestic Dog. Serpell J (Editor). Evolution of working dogs. 1995; 21-47.