Bridget Keenan, MD, PhD

Title(s)Assistant Professor, Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address513 Parnassus Avenue, HSE, #301
San Francisco CA 94143
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    Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, MDMD-PhD05/2015Immunology
    University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CA06/2017Internal Medicine
    University of California San Francisco, San Francisco, CAHematology/Oncology
    University of California, San Francisco, CA08/2022Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Champion Training

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    I am a physician scientist who works in translational cancer research and medical oncology. My clinical practice is in the Cancer Immunotherapy Clinic, where I work with patients with solid organ cancers who are being treated on early phase immunotherapy trials. I also attend on the Oncology Consult inpatient service. My research interests are in studying the mechanisms of response and resistance to immunotherapy, with a focus on gastrointestinal cancers.

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Creation of a sustainable longitudinal women in Leadership Development (WILD) curriculum focused on graduate medical education trainees. BMC Med Educ. 2024 Apr 05; 24(1):374. McGourty CA, Castillo F, Donzelli G, Keenan BP, Gilbreth M, Santhosh L. PMID: 38580971.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    2. Abstract CT129: A phase 1 dose escalation study of a novel coupled CAR T cell therapy, GCC19CART, for patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Cancer Research. 2024 Apr 5; 84(7_Supplement):ct129-ct129. Keenan KB, Lieu LC, Fakih FM, Chen CD, Lu LL, Rowinsky RE, Lu LV, Xiao XL, Venook VA, Schlechter SB. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    3. A robust ensemble feature selection approach to prioritize genes associated with survival outcome in high-dimensional gene expression data. Frontiers in Systems Biology. 2024 Mar 21; 4:1355595. Le LP, Gong GX, Ung UL, Yang YH, Keenan KB, Zhang ZL, He HT. .
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    4. Evaluation of Culture Conducive to Academic Success by Gender at a Comprehensive Cancer Center. Oncologist. 2024 Mar 04; 29(3):e351-e359. Keenan BP, Sibley A, Zhang L, Westring AF, Velazquez AI, Bank EM, Bergsland EK, Boreta L, Conroy P, Daras M, Hermiston M, Hsu G, Paris PL, Piawah S, Sinha S, Sosa JA, Tsang M, Venook AP, Wong M, Yom SS, Van Loon K. PMID: 37440206; PMCID: PMC10911925.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    5. Neoadjuvant CD40 Agonism Remodels the Tumor Immune Microenvironment in Locally Advanced Esophageal/Gastroesophageal Junction Cancer. Cancer Res Commun. 2024 01 25; 4(1):200-212. Soto M, Filbert EL, Yang H, Starzinski S, Starzinski A, Gin M, Chen B, Le P, Li T, Bol B, Cheung A, Zhang L, Hsu FJ, Ko A, Fong L, Keenan BP. PMID: 38181044; PMCID: PMC10809910.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: Translation:Humans
    6. Oral Toxicities of PSMA-Targeted Immunotherapies for The Management of Prostate Cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2024 Apr; 22(2):380-384. Emperumal CP, Villa A, Hwang C, Oh D, Fong L, Aggarwal R, Keenan BP. PMID: 38185609.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. Immune Checkpoint Inhibitors for Child-Pugh Class B Advanced Hepatocellular Carcinoma: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. JAMA Oncol. 2023 Oct 01; 9(10):1423-1431. Xie E, Yeo YH, Scheiner B, Zhang Y, Hiraoka A, Tantai X, Fessas P, de Castro T, D'Alessio A, Fulgenzi CAM, Xu S, Tsai HM, Kambhampati S, Wang W, Keenan BP, Gao X, Xing Z, Pinter M, Lin YJ, Guo Z, Vogel A, Tanaka T, Kuo HY, Kelley RK, Kudo M, Yang JD, Pinato DJ, Ji F. PMID: 37615958; PMCID: PMC10450588.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    8. New Opportunities to Individualize Frontline Therapy in Advanced Stages of Hepatocellular Carcinoma. Drugs. 2023 Aug; 83(12):1091-1109. Gordan JD, Keenan BP, Lim HC, Yarchoan M, Kelley RK. PMID: 37402062.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. Leveraging immune resistance archetypes in solid cancer to inform next-generation anticancer therapies. J Immunother Cancer. 2023 06; 11(6). Anderson KG, Braun DA, Buqué A, Gitto SB, Guerriero JL, Horton B, Keenan BP, Kim TS, Overacre-Delgoffe A, Ruella M, Triplett TA, Veeranki O, Verma V, Zhang F. PMID: 37399356; PMCID: PMC10314654.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Should I stay, or should I go? Factors associated with intent to leave academic oncology. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2023 Jun 1; 41(16_suppl):11004-11004. Velazquez Manana VA, Odei OB, Florez FN, Pandya PS, Dandar DV, Idossa ID, Keenan KB, Van Loon VK, Chino CF. .
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    11. Structural Sexism and Cancer Care: The Effects on the Patient and Oncologist. Am Soc Clin Oncol Educ Book. 2023 May; 43:e391516. Keenan BP, Barr E, Gleeson E, Greenberg CC, Temkin SM. PMID: 37155944.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Use of high-dimensional and spatial immune profiling to explore sotigalimab (CD40 agonist) activation of antigen presenting cells and T cells in the tumor microenvironment in patients with esophageal/gastroesophageal junction cancer. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2023 Feb 1; 41(4_suppl):450-450. Soto SM, Filbert FE, Yang YH, Zhang ZL, Starzinski SS, Starzinski SA, Cheung CA, Li LT, Hsu HF, Ko KA, Fong FL, Keenan KB. .
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    13. Phase II trial of durvalumab (MEDI4736) with/without tremelimumab for advanced hepatocellular carcinoma after palliative hypofractionated radiotherapy. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2023 Feb 1; 41(4_suppl):tps630-tps630. Andemicael AL, Chang CH, Anwar AM, Bauer BK, Gordan GJ, Johnson JJ, Keenan KB, Venook VA, Wang WC, Zhang ZK, Fong FL, Kelley KR, Feng FM. .
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    14. A phase II study of hypofractionated radiation therapy to augment immune response in patients with metastatic gastrointestinal malignancies progressing on immune therapy (ARM-GI). Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2023 Feb 1; 41(4_suppl):tps817-tps817. Chang CH, Andemicael AL, Anwar AM, Gordan GJ, Johnson JJ, Keenan KB, Kelley KR, Ko KA, Van Loon VK, Venook VA, Fong FL, Xu XM, Feng FM. .
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    15. Circulating monocytes associated with anti-PD-1 resistance in human biliary cancer induce T cell paralysis. Cell Rep. 2022 09 20; 40(12):111384. Keenan BP, McCarthy EE, Ilano A, Yang H, Zhang L, Allaire K, Fan Z, Li T, Lee DS, Sun Y, Cheung A, Luong D, Chang H, Chen B, Marquez J, Sheldon B, Kelley RK, Ye CJ, Fong L. PMID: 36130508; PMCID: PMC10060099.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    16. 1229P A multicenter phase II study of sotigalimab (CD40 agonist) in combination with neoadjuvant chemoradiation for resectable esophageal and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) cancers. Annals of Oncology. 2022 Sep 1; 33:s1111. Ko KA, Noel NM, Chao CJ, Sohal SD, Crow CM, Oberstein OP, Scott SA, McRee MA, Lima LC, Fong FL, Keenan KB, Filbert FE, Hsu HF, Shankaran SV. .
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    17. Phase II study of pembrolizumab plus capecitabine and bevacizumab in microsatellite stable (MSS) metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2022 Jun 1; 40(16_suppl):3565-3565. Bocobo BA, Wang WR, Behr BS, Carnevale CJ, Cinar CP, Collisson CE, Fong FL, Keenan KB, Kidder KW, Ko KA, Kolli KK, Kennedy KM, Laffan LA, Piawah PS, Pollak PM, Schwartz SG, Whitman WJ, Zhang ZL, Van Loon VK, Atreya AC. .
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    18. Pembrolizumab (PEM) plus granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in advanced biliary cancers (ABC): Final outcomes of a phase 2 trial. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2022 Feb 1; 40(4_suppl):444-444. Kelley KR, Bracci BP, Keenan KB, Behr BS, Ibrahim IF, Pollak PM, Gordan GJ, Ko KA, Van Loon VK, Atreya AC, Cinar CP, Venook VA, Fong FL. .
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    19. 676 Altered circulating myeloid states associated with anti-PD-1 resistance induce T cell paralysis in human biliary cancer. Journal for ImmunoTherapy of Cancer. 2021 Nov 10; 9(Suppl 2):a704-a704. Keenan KB, McCarthy ME, Ilano IA, Yang YH, Zhang ZL, Allaire AK, Fan FZ, Li LT, Lee LD, Sun SY, Cheung CA, Chang CH, Sheldon SB, Kelley KR, Ye YC, Fong FL. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    20. Perspective on the Immunotherapy of Pancreatic Cancer. . 2021 Aug 25; 1-14. Keenan KB, Tempero TM. .
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    21. Pragmatic Solutions to Counteract the Regressive Effects of the COVID-19 Pandemic for Women in Academic Oncology. JAMA Oncol. 2021 06 01; 7(6):825-826. Keenan B, Jagsi R, Van Loon K. PMID: 33570543.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    22. Molecular and Radiological Features of Microsatellite Stable Colorectal Cancer Cases With Dramatic Responses to Immunotherapy. Anticancer Res. 2021 Jun; 41(6):2985-2992. Keenan BP, VAN Loon K, Khilnani AD, Fidelman N, Behr SC, Atreya CE, Oh DY. PMID: 34083289; PMCID: PMC8631311.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Key challenges for drugs in clinical development for cholangiocarcinoma. Expert Opin Investig Drugs. 2021 Apr; 30(4):285-290. Keenan BP, Kelley RKK. PMID: 33530767.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Conditional Cancer Immunotherapy as a Safer Way to Step on the Gas. Cancer Discov. 2021 01; 11(1):20-22. Keenan BP, Fong L. PMID: 34003781.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Strategies for forming effective women's groups. Clin Teach. 2021 Apr; 18(2):126-130. Santhosh L, Harleman E, Venado A, Farrand E, E Gilbreth M, Keenan BP, Thompson VV, Shah RJ. PMID: 33058547.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Abstract 5512: Identification of circulating myeloid cells induced in advanced biliary cancer patients responding to anti-PD1 through combined single cell RNA sequencing and protein expression analysis. Cancer Research. 2020 Aug 15; 80(16_Supplement):5512-5512. Keenan KB, McCarthy ME, Ilano IA, Lee LD, Sun SY, Sheldon SB, Cheung CA, Ye YC, Kelley KR, Fong FL. .
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    27. The "Third Shift": A Path Forward to Recognizing and Funding Gender Equity Efforts. J Womens Health (Larchmt). 2020 11; 29(11):1359-1360. Santhosh L, Keenan BP, Jain S. PMID: 32744885; PMCID: PMC8020533.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Inhibition of miR-21 Regulates Mutant KRAS Effector Pathways and Intercepts Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma Development. Cancer Prev Res (Phila). 2020 07; 13(7):569-582. Chu NJ, Anders RA, Fertig EJ, Cao M, Hopkins AC, Keenan BP, Popovic A, Armstrong TD, Jaffee EM, Zimmerman JW. PMID: 32409593; PMCID: PMC7372516.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    29. Immunotherapy in hepatocellular carcinoma: the complex interface between inflammation, fibrosis, and the immune response. J Immunother Cancer. 2019 10 18; 7(1):267. Keenan BP, Fong L, Kelley RK. PMID: 31627733; PMCID: PMC6798343.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 98     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    30. Second-line chemotherapy in advanced biliary cancers: A retrospective, multicenter analysis of outcomes. Cancer. 2019 Dec 15; 125(24):4426-4434. Lowery MA, Goff LW, Keenan BP, Jordan E, Wang R, Bocobo AG, Chou JF, O'Reilly EM, Harding JJ, Kemeny N, Capanu M, Griffin AC, McGuire J, Venook AP, Abou-Alfa GK, Kelley RK. PMID: 31454426; PMCID: PMC8172082.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. Abstract 4063: Single cell immune profiling of patients with advanced biliary cancers treated with combination checkpoint inhibition and GM-CSF reveals diverse T cell and myeloid cell mechanisms of action. Cancer Research. 2019 Jul 1; 79(13_Supplement):4063-4063. Keenan KB, Tamaki TW, Liu LE, Chen CB, Cheung CA, Gordan GJ, Sheldon SB, Zhang ZL, Kelley KR, Fong FL. .
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    32. Nivolumab in patients with advanced hepatocellular carcinoma and Child-Pugh class B cirrhosis: Safety and clinical outcomes in a retrospective case series. Cancer. 2019 09 15; 125(18):3234-3241. Kambhampati S, Bauer KE, Bracci PM, Keenan BP, Behr SC, Gordan JD, Kelley RK. PMID: 31154669.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 39     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. The Complex Problem of Women Trainees in Academic Medicine. J Hosp Med. 2019 03; 14(3):186-188. Keenan B, Santhosh L, Thompson V, Harleman E. PMID: 30811328.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Phase II multicenter pilot study of safety, efficacy, and immune cell profiling in advanced hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) on combination of sorafenib (SOR) plus nivolumab (NIVO). Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2019 Feb 1; 37(4_suppl):tps464-tps464. Keenan KB, Griffith GM, Bauer BK, Bracci BP, Behr BS, Umetsu US, Gordan GJ, Ngo NZ, Iqbal IS, Hanna HD, Venook VA, El-Khoueiry EA, Fong FL, Kelley KR. .
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    35. Phase 2 trial of pembrolizumab (PEM) plus granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in advanced biliary cancers (ABC): Clinical outcomes and biomarker analyses. Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2018 May 20; 36(15_suppl):4087-4087. Kelley KR, Mitchell ME, Behr BS, Hwang HJ, Keenan KB, Umetsu US, Gordan GJ, Ko KA, Cinar CP, Atreya AC, Van Loon VK, Weber WT, Ngo NZ, Quandt QZ, Liu LC, Venook VA, Fong FL. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    36. Phase II trial of pembrolizumab (PEM) plus granulocyte macrophage colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF) in advanced biliary cancers (ABC). Journal of Clinical Oncology. 2018 Feb 1; 36(4_suppl):386-386. Kelley KR, Mitchell ME, Behr BS, Hwang HJ, Keenan KB, Cheung CA, Gordan GJ, Ko KA, Cinar CP, Atreya AC, Van Loon VK, Weber WT, Ngo NZ, Quandt QZ, Liu LC, Venook VA, Fong FL. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    37. True, True, Related? Autoimmune Polyglandular Syndrome Type II. Am J Med. 2016 Jan; 129(1):38-41. Keenan BP, Yalamanchi S, Hsu S, Norsworthy K, Brown TT. PMID: 26450169.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. A Listeria vaccine and depletion of T-regulatory cells activate immunity against early stage pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasms and prolong survival of mice. Gastroenterology. 2014 Jun; 146(7):1784-94.e6. Keenan BP, Saenger Y, Kafrouni MI, Leubner A, Lauer P, Maitra A, Rucki AA, Gunderson AJ, Coussens LM, Brockstedt DG, Dubensky TW, Hassan R, Armstrong TD, Jaffee EM. PMID: 24607504; PMCID: PMC4035450.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 74     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    39. Tumor immunology: multidisciplinary science driving basic and clinical advances. Cancer Immunol Res. 2013 Jul; 1(1):16-23. Keenan BP, Jaffee EM, Armstrong TD. PMID: 24409447; PMCID: PMC3882090.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    40. Immunotherapy in preneoplastic disease: targeting early procarcinogenic inflammatory changes that lead to immune suppression and tumor tolerance. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2013 May; 1284:12-6. Keenan B, Jaffee EM. PMID: 23651188; PMCID: PMC3859134.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    41. Abstract 489: Prevention of pancreatic intra-epithelial neoplasm progression by a Listeria monocytogenes vaccine targeting mutated Kras, an early genetic event in pancreatic tumor development. Cancer Research. 2013 Apr 15; 73(8_Supplement):489-489. Keenan KB, Saenger SY, Kafrouni KM, Leubner LA, Lauer LP, Maitra MA, Gunderson GA, Coussens CL, Armstrong AT, Jaffee JE. .
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    42. Abstract PR6: Prevention of pancreatic intra-epithelial neoplasm progression by a Listeria monocytogenes vaccine targeting mutated Kras, an early genetic event in pancreatic tumor development. Cancer Research. 2013 Jan 1; 73(1_Supplement):pr6-pr6. Keenan KB, Saenger SY, Kafrouni KM, Leubner LA, Lauer LP, Maitra MA, Gunderson GA, Coussens CL, Armstrong AT, Jaffee JE. .
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    43. Whole cell vaccines--past progress and future strategies. Semin Oncol. 2012 Jun; 39(3):276-86. Keenan BP, Jaffee EM. PMID: 22595050; PMCID: PMC3356993.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 62     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    44. Acneiform eruption in a patient receiving bevacizumab for glioblastoma multiforme. Arch Dermatol. 2010 May; 146(5):577. Keenan BP, Abuav R. PMID: 20479324; PMCID: PMC3895369.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Efficient repair of DNA double-strand breaks in malignant cells with structural instability. Mutat Res. 2010 Jan 05; 683(1-2):115-22. Cheng Y, Zhang Z, Keenan B, Roschke AV, Nakahara K, Aplan PD. PMID: 19909760; PMCID: PMC2797445.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    46. A hairpin-like structure within an AU-rich mRNA-destabilizing element regulates trans-factor binding selectivity and mRNA decay kinetics. J Biol Chem. 2005 Jun 10; 280(23):22406-17. Fialcowitz EJ, Brewer BY, Keenan BP, Wilson GM. PMID: 15809297; PMCID: PMC1553220.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
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