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Rahul Aggarwal, MD

Title(s)Associate Professor, Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Phone415-353-9278
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Northwestern University FeinbergM.D.2006School of Medicine
    University of California, San FranciscoResidency 2009School of Medicine - Internal Medicine
    University of California, San FranciscoFellowship2013Hematology/Oncology
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    2011  - 2012Pfizer Fellowship in Oncology
    2012  - 2013ASCO Young Investigator Award
    2013Alliance Cooperative Group Scholar Award
    2015  - 2017Prostate Cancer Foundation Young Investigator Award
    2016Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Program Physician Research Training Award
    2016  - 2019Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Program Idea Development Award
    National Cancer Institute2016  - 2017Cancer Clinical Investigator Team Leadership Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    I am a Medical Oncologist within the Division of Hematology/Oncology at the University of California San Francisco. My clinical practice focuses on patients with advanced solid tumor malignancies with a particular emphasis on genitourinary malignancies including prostate, kidney, bladder, and testicular cancer. I serve as the Co-Leader for the GU Medical Oncology program at UCSF.

    My research focus is on developing novel therapies and imaging modalities for patients with advanced solid tumor malignancies, with a focus on patients with advanced prostate cancer.

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
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    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Featured Videos

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Chen WS, Feng EL, Aggarwal R, Foye A, Beer TM, Alumkal JJ, Gleave M, Chi KN, Reiter RE, Rettig MB, Evans CP, Small EJ, Sharifi N, Zhao SG. Germline polymorphisms associated with impaired survival outcomes and somatic tumor alterations in advanced prostate cancer. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2019 Nov 19. PMID: 31745256.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Chen HY, Aggarwal R, Bok RA, Ohliger MA, Zhu Z, Lee P, Gordon JW, van Criekinge M, Carvajal L, Slater JB, Larson PEZ, Small EJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate MRI detects real-time metabolic flux in prostate cancer metastases to bone and liver: a clinical feasibility study. Prostate Cancer Prostatic Dis. 2019 Nov 04. PMID: 31685983.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Seo Y, Khalighi MM, Wangerin KA, Deller TW, Wang YH, Jivan S, Kohi MP, Aggarwal R, Flavell RR, Behr SC, Evans MJ. Quantitative and Qualitative Improvement of Low-Count [68Ga]Citrate and [90Y]Microspheres PET Image Reconstructions Using Block Sequential Regularized Expectation Maximization Algorithm. Mol Imaging Biol. 2019 Apr 15. PMID: 30993558.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Chen WS, Aggarwal R, Zhang L, Zhao SG, Thomas GV, Beer TM, Quigley DA, Foye A, Playdle D, Huang J, Lloyd P, Lu E, Sun D, Guan X, Rettig M, Gleave M, Evans CP, Youngren J, True L, Lara P, Kothari V, Xia Z, Chi KN, Reiter RE, Maher CA, Feng FY, Small EJ, Alumkal JJ. Genomic Drivers of Poor Prognosis and Enzalutamide Resistance in Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol. 2019 Nov; 76(5):562-571. PMID: 30928160.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Aggarwal RR, Quigley DA, Huang J, Zhang L, Beer TM, Rettig MB, Reiter RE, Gleave ME, Thomas GV, Foye A, Playdle D, Lloyd P, Chi KN, Evans CP, Lara PN, Feng FY, Alumkal JJ, Small EJ. Whole-Genome and Transcriptional Analysis of Treatment-Emergent Small-Cell Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer Demonstrates Intraclass Heterogeneity. Mol Cancer Res. 2019 Jun; 17(6):1235-1240. PMID: 30918106.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Mehnert JM, Varga A, Brose MS, Aggarwal RR, Lin CC, Prawira A, de Braud F, Tamura K, Doi T, Piha-Paul SA, Gilbert J, Saraf S, Thanigaimani P, Cheng JD, Keam B. Safety and antitumor activity of the anti-PD-1 antibody pembrolizumab in patients with advanced, PD-L1-positive papillary or follicular thyroid cancer. BMC Cancer. 2019 Mar 04; 19(1):196. PMID: 30832606.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Zhu Z, Zhu X, Ohliger MA, Tang S, Cao P, Carvajal L, Autry AW, Li Y, Kurhanewicz J, Chang S, Aggarwal R, Munster P, Xu D, Larson PEZ, Vigneron DB, Gordon JW. Coil combination methods for multi-channel hyperpolarized 13C imaging data from human studies. J Magn Reson. 2019 Apr; 301:73-79. PMID: 30851668.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Aggarwal R, Huang J, Alumkal J, Feng FY, Zhang L, Stuart JM, Small EJ. Reply to A. Dalla Volta et al. J Clin Oncol. 2019 Feb 01; 37(4):351-352. PMID: 30557523.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Behr SC, Aggarwal R, VanBrocklin HF, Flavell RR, Gao K, Small EJ, Blecha J, Jivan S, Hope TA, Simko JP, Kurhanewicz J, Noworolski SM, Korn NJ, De Los Santos R, Cooperberg MR, Carroll PR, Nguyen HG, Greene KL, Langton-Webster B, Berkman CE, Seo Y. Phase I Study of CTT1057, an 18F-Labeled Imaging Agent with Phosphoramidate Core Targeting Prostate-Specific Membrane Antigen in Prostate Cancer. J Nucl Med. 2019 Jul; 60(7):910-916. PMID: 30464040.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Gordon JW, Chen HY, Autry A, Park I, Van Criekinge M, Mammoli D, Milshteyn E, Bok R, Xu D, Li Y, Aggarwal R, Chang S, Slater JB, Ferrone M, Nelson S, Kurhanewicz J, Larson PEZ, Vigneron DB. Translation of Carbon-13 EPI for hyperpolarized MR molecular imaging of prostate and brain cancer patients. Magn Reson Med. 2019 04; 81(4):2702-2709. PMID: 30375043.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Lee M, Hong H, Kim W, Zhang L, Friedlander TW, Fong L, Lin AM, Small EJ, Wei XX, Rodvelt TJ, Miralda B, Stocksdale B, Ryan CJ, Aggarwal R. Itraconazole as a Noncastrating Treatment for Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer: A Phase 2 Study. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2019 Feb; 17(1):e92-e96. PMID: 30327180.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Larson PEZ, Chen HY, Gordon JW, Korn N, Maidens J, Arcak M, Tang S, Criekinge M, Carvajal L, Mammoli D, Bok R, Aggarwal R, Ferrone M, Slater JB, Nelson SJ, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Investigation of analysis methods for hyperpolarized 13C-pyruvate metabolic MRI in prostate cancer patients. NMR Biomed. 2018 11; 31(11):e3997. PMID: 30230646.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Quigley DA, Dang HX, Zhao SG, Lloyd P, Aggarwal R, Alumkal JJ, Foye A, Kothari V, Perry MD, Bailey AM, Playdle D, Barnard TJ, Zhang L, Zhang J, Youngren JF, Cieslik MP, Parolia A, Beer TM, Thomas G, Chi KN, Gleave M, Lack NA, Zoubeidi A, Reiter RE, Rettig MB, Witte O, Ryan CJ, Fong L, Kim W, Friedlander T, Chou J, Li H, Das R, Li H, Moussavi-Baygi R, Goodarzi H, Gilbert LA, Lara PN, Evans CP, Goldstein TC, Stuart JM, Tomlins SA, Spratt DE, Cheetham RK, Cheng DT, Farh K, Gehring JS, Hakenberg J, Liao A, Febbo PG, Shon J, Sickler B, Batzoglou S, Knudsen KE, He HH, Huang J, Wyatt AW, Dehm SM, Ashworth A, Chinnaiyan AM, Maher CA, Small EJ, Feng FY. Genomic Hallmarks and Structural Variation in Metastatic Prostate Cancer. Cell. 2018 07 26; 174(3):758-769.e9. PMID: 30033370.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Aggarwal R, Huang J, Alumkal JJ, Zhang L, Feng FY, Thomas GV, Weinstein AS, Friedl V, Zhang C, Witte ON, Lloyd P, Gleave M, Evans CP, Youngren J, Beer TM, Rettig M, Wong CK, True L, Foye A, Playdle D, Ryan CJ, Lara P, Chi KN, Uzunangelov V, Sokolov A, Newton Y, Beltran H, Demichelis F, Rubin MA, Stuart JM, Small EJ. Clinical and Genomic Characterization of Treatment-Emergent Small-Cell Neuroendocrine Prostate Cancer: A Multi-institutional Prospective Study. J Clin Oncol. 2018 08 20; 36(24):2492-2503. PMID: 29985747.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Aggarwal R, Wei X, Kim W, Small EJ, Ryan CJ, Carroll P, Cooperberg M, Evans MJ, Hope T. Heterogeneous Flare in Prostate-specific Membrane Antigen Positron Emission Tomography Tracer Uptake with Initiation of Androgen Pathway Blockade in Metastatic Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol Oncol. 2018 05; 1(1):78-82. PMID: 31100231.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Chen HY, Larson PEZ, Gordon JW, Bok RA, Ferrone M, van Criekinge M, Carvajal L, Cao P, Pauly JM, Kerr AB, Park I, Slater JB, Nelson SJ, Munster PN, Aggarwal R, Kurhanewicz J, Vigneron DB. Technique development of 3D dynamic CS-EPSI for hyperpolarized 13 C pyruvate MR molecular imaging of human prostate cancer. Magn Reson Med. 2018 11; 80(5):2062-2072. PMID: 29575178.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Wei XX, Siegel AP, Aggarwal R, Lin AM, Friedlander TW, Fong L, Kim W, Louttit M, Chang E, Zhang L, Ryan CJ. A Phase II Trial of Selinexor, an Oral Selective Inhibitor of Nuclear Export Compound, in Abiraterone- and/or Enzalutamide-Refractory Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer. Oncologist. 2018 06; 23(6):656-e64. PMID: 29487219.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Aggarwal R. Defining the Prognostic and Predictive Impact of Germline DNA Repair Mutations in Patients with Metastatic Castration-resistant Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol. 2018 05; 73(5):694-695. PMID: 29458985.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Wyatt AW, Annala M, Aggarwal R, Beja K, Feng F, Youngren J, Foye A, Lloyd P, Nykter M, Beer TM, Alumkal JJ, Thomas GV, Reiter RE, Rettig MB, Evans CP, Gao AC, Chi KN, Small EJ, Gleave ME. Concordance of Circulating Tumor DNA and Matched Metastatic Tissue Biopsy in Prostate Cancer. J Natl Cancer Inst. 2017 Dec 01; 109(12). PMID: 29206995.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Aggarwal R. Abiraterone or Docetaxel Plus Androgen Deprivation in Hormone-Sensitive Prostate Cancer: More Questions Than Answers. Eur Urol. 2018 06; 73(6):845-846. PMID: 29128209.
      View in: PubMed
    21. Aggarwal R. Moving toward a precision medicine approach in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer. Lancet Oncol. 2017 11; 18(11):1436-1437. PMID: 29033098.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Wang VE, Urisman A, Albacker L, Ali S, Miller V, Aggarwal R, Jablons D. Checkpoint inhibitor is active against large cell neuroendocrine carcinoma with high tumor mutation burden. J Immunother Cancer. 2017 09 19; 5(1):75. PMID: 28923100.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Bartelink IH, Prideaux B, Krings G, Wilmes L, Lee PRE, Bo P, Hann B, Coppé JP, Heditsian D, Swigart-Brown L, Jones EF, Magnitsky S, Keizer RJ, de Vries N, Rosing H, Pawlowska N, Thomas S, Dhawan M, Aggarwal R, Munster PN, Esserman LJ, Ruan W, Wu AHB, Yee D, Dartois V, Savic RM, Wolf DM, van 't Veer L. Heterogeneous drug penetrance of veliparib and carboplatin measured in triple negative breast tumors. Breast Cancer Res. 2017 Sep 11; 19(1):107. PMID: 28893315.
      View in: PubMed
    24. Dhawan MS, Bartelink IH, Aggarwal RR, Leng J, Zhang JZ, Pawlowska N, Terranova-Barberio M, Grabowsky JA, Gewitz A, Chien AJ, Moasser M, Kelley RK, Maktabi T, Thomas S, Munster PN. Differential Toxicity in Patients with and without DNA Repair Mutations: Phase I Study of Carboplatin and Talazoparib in Advanced Solid Tumors. Clin Cancer Res. 2017 Nov 01; 23(21):6400-6410. PMID: 28790114.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Aggarwal R, Vigneron DB, Kurhanewicz J. Hyperpolarized 1-[13C]-Pyruvate Magnetic Resonance Imaging Detects an Early Metabolic Response to Androgen Ablation Therapy in Prostate Cancer. Eur Urol. 2017 12; 72(6):1028-1029. PMID: 28765011.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Aggarwal RR, Feng FY, Small EJ. Emerging Categories of Disease in Advanced Prostate Cancer and Their Therapeutic Implications. Oncology (Williston Park). 2017 06 15; 31(6):467-74. PMID: 28620903.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Aggarwal R, Behr SC, Paris PL, Truillet C, Parker MFL, Huynh LT, Wei J, Hann B, Youngren J, Huang J, Premasekharan G, Ranatunga N, Chang E, Gao KT, Ryan CJ, Small EJ, Evans MJ. Real-Time Transferrin-Based PET Detects MYC-Positive Prostate Cancer. Mol Cancer Res. 2017 09; 15(9):1221-1229. PMID: 28592703.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Friedlander TW, Graff JN, Zejnullahu K, Anantharaman A, Zhang L, Paz R, Premasekharan G, Russell C, Huang Y, Kim W, Aggarwal RR, Lin AM, Fong L, Alumkal JJ, Beer TM, Sharifi N, Alyamani M, Dittamore R, Small EJ, Paris PL, Ryan CJ. High-Dose Abiraterone Acetate in Men With Castration Resistant Prostate Cancer. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2017 12; 15(6):733-741.e1. PMID: 28655452.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Holmes MG, Foss E, Joseph G, Foye A, Beckett B, Motamedi D, Youngren J, Thomas GV, Huang J, Aggarwal R, Alumkal JJ, Beer TM, Small EJ, Link TM. CT-Guided Bone Biopsies in Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Factors Predictive of Maximum Tumor Yield. J Vasc Interv Radiol. 2017 Aug; 28(8):1073-1081.e1. PMID: 28549709.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Hope TA, Aggarwal R, Chee B, Tao D, Greene KL, Cooperberg MR, Feng F, Chang A, Ryan CJ, Small EJ, Carroll PR. Impact of 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET on Management in Patients with Biochemically Recurrent Prostate Cancer. J Nucl Med. 2017 12; 58(12):1956-1961. PMID: 28522741.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Quigley D, Alumkal JJ, Wyatt AW, Kothari V, Foye A, Lloyd P, Aggarwal R, Kim W, Lu E, Schwartzman J, Beja K, Annala M, Das R, Diolaiti M, Pritchard C, Thomas G, Tomlins S, Knudsen K, Lord CJ, Ryan C, Youngren J, Beer TM, Ashworth A, Small EJ, Feng FY. Analysis of Circulating Cell-Free DNA Identifies Multiclonal Heterogeneity of BRCA2 Reversion Mutations Associated with Resistance to PARP Inhibitors. Cancer Discov. 2017 09; 7(9):999-1005. PMID: 28450426.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Aggarwal R, Thomas S, Pawlowska N, Bartelink I, Grabowsky J, Jahan T, Cripps A, Harb A, Leng J, Reinert A, Mastroserio I, Truong TG, Ryan CJ, Munster PN. Inhibiting Histone Deacetylase as a Means to Reverse Resistance to Angiogenesis Inhibitors: Phase I Study of Abexinostat Plus Pazopanib in Advanced Solid Tumor Malignancies. J Clin Oncol. 2017 Apr 10; 35(11):1231-1239. PMID: 28221861.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Aggarwal R, Bryce A, Ryan CJ, Harzstark A, Derleth C, Kim W, Friedlander T, Lin AM, Rodvelt-Bagchi T, Dhawan M, Zhang L, Lee M, Siebeneck E, Hough J, Small EJ. A multicenter phase I study of cabazitaxel, mitoxantrone, and prednisone for chemotherapy-naïve patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: A department of defense prostate cancer clinical trials consortium study. Urol Oncol. 2017 04; 35(4):149.e7-149.e13. PMID: 28161323.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Mari Aparici C, Behr SC, Seo Y, Kelley RK, Corvera C, Gao KT, Aggarwal R, Evans MJ. Imaging Hepatocellular Carcinoma With 68Ga-Citrate PET: First Clinical Experience. Mol Imaging. 2017 Jan-Dec; 16:1536012117723256. PMID: 28893116.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Behr SC, Aggarwal R, Seo Y, Aparici CM, Chang E, Gao KT, Tao DH, Small EJ, Evans MJ. A Feasibility Study Showing [68Ga]Citrate PET Detects Prostate Cancer. Mol Imaging Biol. 2016 12; 18(6):946-951. PMID: 27184068.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Aggarwal R, Beer TM, Gleave M, Stuart JM, Rettig M, Evans CP, Youngren J, Alumkal JJ, Huang J, Thomas G, Witte O, Small EJ. Targeting Adaptive Pathways in Metastatic Treatment-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Update on the Stand Up 2 Cancer/Prostate Cancer Foundation-Supported West Coast Prostate Cancer Dream Team. Eur Urol Focus. 2016 Dec; 2(5):469-471. PMID: 28723508.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Hope TA, Truillet C, Ehman EC, Afshar-Oromieh A, Aggarwal R, Ryan CJ, Carroll PR, Small EJ, Evans MJ. 68Ga-PSMA-11 PET Imaging of Response to Androgen Receptor Inhibition: First Human Experience. J Nucl Med. 2017 Jan; 58(1):81-84. PMID: 27660139.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Hope TA, Aggarwal RR, Westphalen AC, Cooperberg MR, Greene KL. Targeted PET imaging for prostate-specific membrane antigen in prostate cancer. Future Oncol. 2016 Nov; 12(21):2393-2396. PMID: 27453303.
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    39. Aggarwal R. Prednisone Use in Conjunction with Abiraterone Acetate: Is Patient Safety a Concern with Long-term Steroid Exposure? Eur Urol. 2016 09; 70(3):445-6. PMID: 26992281.
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    40. Zejnullahu K, Arevalo MG, Ryan CJ, Aggarwal R. Approaches to minimize castration in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer. Urol Oncol. 2016 08; 34(8):368-74. PMID: 26944450.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Thomas S, Aggarwal R, Jahan T, Ryan C, Troung T, Cripps AM, Raha P, Thurn KT, Chen S, Grabowsky JA, Park J, Hwang J, Daud A, Munster PN. A phase I trial of panobinostat and epirubicin in solid tumors with a dose expansion in patients with sarcoma. Ann Oncol. 2016 05; 27(5):947-52. PMID: 26903311.
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    42. Munster P, Aggarwal R, Hong D, Schellens JH, van der Noll R, Specht J, Witteveen PO, Werner TL, Dees EC, Bergsland E, Agarwal N, Kleha JF, Durante M, Adams L, Smith DA, Lampkin TA, Morris SR, Kurzrock R. First-in-Human Phase I Study of GSK2126458, an Oral Pan-Class I Phosphatidylinositol-3-Kinase Inhibitor, in Patients with Advanced Solid Tumor Malignancies. Clin Cancer Res. 2016 Apr 15; 22(8):1932-9. PMID: 26603258.
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    43. Hope TA, Aggarwal R, Simko JP, VanBrocklin HF, Ryan CJ. Somatostatin imaging of neuroendocrine-differentiated prostate cancer. Clin Nucl Med. 2015 Jun; 40(6):540-1. PMID: 25783510.
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    44. Aggarwal RR, Beer TM, Weinberg VK, Higano C, Taplin ME, Ryan CJ, Lin AM, Alumkal J, Graff JN, Nordquist LT, Herrera I, Small EJ. Intermittent Chemotherapy as a Platform for Testing Novel Agents in Patients With Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: A Department of Defense Prostate Cancer Clinical Trials Consortium Randomized Phase II Trial of Intermittent Docetaxel With Prednisone With or Without Maintenance GM-CSF. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2015 Jun; 13(3):e191-8. PMID: 25557266.
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    45. Aggarwal RR, Small EJ. Small-cell/neuroendocrine prostate cancer: a growing threat? Oncology (Williston Park). 2014 Oct; 28(10):838-40. PMID: 25323608.
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    46. Aggarwal R, Grabowsky J, Strait N, Cockerill A, Munster P. Impact of patient ethnicity on the metabolic and immunologic effects of PI3K-mTOR pathway inhibition in patients with solid tumor malignancies. Cancer Chemother Pharmacol. 2014 Aug; 74(2):359-65. PMID: 24934865.
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    47. Aggarwal R, Zhang T, Small EJ, Armstrong AJ. Neuroendocrine prostate cancer: subtypes, biology, and clinical outcomes. J Natl Compr Canc Netw. 2014 May; 12(5):719-26. PMID: 24812138.
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    48. Aggarwal R, Harris A, Formaker C, Small EJ, Molina A, Griffin TW, Ryan CJ. Response to subsequent docetaxel in a patient cohort with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer after abiraterone acetate treatment. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2014 Oct; 12(5):e167-72. PMID: 24787968.
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    49. Aggarwal R, Kurhanewicz J. The changing role of imaging in clinical care. Nat Rev Urol. 2014 Feb; 11(2):75-7. PMID: 24418808.
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    50. Aggarwal R, Halabi S, Kelly WK, George D, Mahoney JF, Millard F, Stadler WM, Morris MJ, Kantoff P, Monk JP, Carducci M, Small EJ. The effect of prior androgen synthesis inhibition on outcomes of subsequent therapy with docetaxel in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer: results from a retrospective analysis of a randomized phase 3 clinical trial (CALGB 90401) (Alliance). Cancer. 2013 Oct 15; 119(20):3636-43. PMID: 23913744.
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    51. Aggarwal RR, Ryan CJ, Chan JM. Insulin-like growth factor pathway: a link between androgen deprivation therapy (ADT), insulin resistance, and disease progression in patients with prostate cancer? Urol Oncol. 2013 Jul; 31(5):522-30. PMID: 21658978.
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    52. Aggarwal R, Ryan CJ. Castration-resistant prostate cancer: targeted therapies and individualized treatment. Oncologist. 2011; 16(3):264-75. PMID: 21339259.
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    53. Aggarwal R, Weinberg V, Small EJ, Oh W, Rushakoff R, Ryan CJ. The mechanism of action of estrogen in castration-resistant prostate cancer: clues from hormone levels. Clin Genitourin Cancer. 2009 Oct; 7(3):E71-6. PMID: 19815485.
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