Elizabeth Whitlock, MD, MS

Title(s)Assistant Professor, Anesthesia
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address521 Parnassus Avenue, #4306
San Francisco CA 94117
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0002-6868-4301 Additional info
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    My research centers on understanding cognitive change over time in older adults, particularly as it relates to surgery and anesthesia, using population-based data sources. I am also interested in potentially modifiable risk factors for adverse anesthesia-related outcomes, including myocardial and cerebral ischemia, perioperative mortality, and postoperative delirium.

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    Predicting long-term cognitive outcomes and Alzheimer?s disease and related dementias after major noncardiac surgery for older adults
    NIH R01AG079263Sep 1, 2022 - May 31, 2027
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Impact of Elective Total Joint Arthroplasty on Longitudinal Cognitive Change in Older Adults
    NIH/NCATS KL2TR001870Aug 2, 2019 - Apr 30, 2022
    Role: KL2 Scholar
    Claude D. Pepper Older Americans Independence Center
    NIH/NIA P30AG044281Aug 1, 2019 - Jul 31, 2020
    Role: Research Scholar
    Impact of Coronary Revascularization on Longitudinal Cognitive Change in the Elderly
    NIH R03AG059822Aug 1, 2018 - Jul 31, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. 'It was a great brain, and I miss it': lay perspectives on postoperative cognitive dysfunction. Br J Anaesth. 2023 05; 130(5):567-572. Li L, Dohan D, Smith AK, Whitlock EL. PMID: 36868965; PMCID: PMC10398675.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    2. Preoperative Factors Predict Memory Decline After Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting or Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in an Epidemiological Cohort of Older Adults. J Am Heart Assoc. 2023 01 03; 12(1):e027849. Tang AB, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Smith AK, Lee SJ, Whitlock EL. PMID: 36583424; PMCID: PMC9973564.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    3. Intraoperative Use of Albumin in Major Noncardiac Surgery: Incidence, Variability, and Association With Outcomes. Ann Surg. 2023 10 01; 278(4):e745-e753. Lazzareschi DV, Fong N, Mavrothalassitis O, Whitlock EL, Chen CL, Chiu C, Adelmann D, Bokoch MP, Chen LL, Liu KD, Pirracchio R, Mathis MR, Legrand M, MPOG Collaborators. PMID: 36521076; PMCID: PMC10481928.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. Contemporary anesthesia practice for cataract surgery: analysis of the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry. J Cataract Refract Surg. 2022 12 01; 48(12):1472-1474. Phero A, Dutton RP, Chen CL, Whitlock EL. PMID: 36449677; PMCID: PMC10108848.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    5. Cardiac surgery, ICU sedation, and delirium: is dexmedetomidine the silver bullet? Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2023 Feb 01; 36(1):50-56. Smith W, Whitlock EL. PMID: 36342329; PMCID: PMC9789177.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    6. Development and External Validation of a Mortality Prediction Model for Community-Dwelling Older Adults With Dementia. JAMA Intern Med. 2022 11 01; 182(11):1161-1170. Deardorff WJ, Barnes DE, Jeon SY, Boscardin WJ, Langa KM, Covinsky KE, Mitchell SL, Whitlock EL, Smith AK, Lee SJ. PMID: 36156062; PMCID: PMC9513707.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. A novel approach for the detection of cognitive impairment and delirium risk in older patients undergoing spine surgery. J Am Geriatr Soc. 2023 Jan; 71(1):227-234. Barreto Chang OL, Whitlock EL, Arias AD, Tsoy E, Allen IE, Hellman J, Bickler PE, Miller B, Possin KL. PMID: 36125032; PMCID: PMC9870968.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    8. Opportunities Beyond the Anesthesiology Department: Broader Impact Through Broader Thinking. Anesth Analg. 2022 02 01; 134(2):242-252. Mathis MR, Schonberger RB, Whitlock EL, Vogt KM, Lagorio JE, Jones KA, Conroy JM, Kheterpal S. PMID: 33684091; PMCID: PMC8423864.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. General Anesthesia and Postoperative Neurocognitive Outcomes. JAMA. 2022 01 04; 327(1):36-38. Avidan MS, Whitlock EL, Mashour GA. PMID: 34928317; PMCID: PMC9367682.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Postoperative delirium prediction using machine learning models and preoperative electronic health record data. BMC Anesthesiol. 2022 01 03; 22(1):8. Bishara A, Chiu C, Whitlock EL, Douglas VC, Lee S, Butte AJ, Leung JM, Donovan AL. PMID: 34979919; PMCID: PMC8722098.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    11. Baseline Vulnerabilities May Play a Larger Role than Depth of Anesthesia or Sedation in Postoperative Delirium. Anesthesiology. 2021 12 01; 135(6):940-942. Pandharipande PP, Whitlock EL, Hughes CG. PMID: 34731236; PMCID: PMC9423083.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Frailty: More Than the Sum of Its Parts? Anesth Analg. 2021 11 01; 133(5):1090-1093. Whitlock EL. PMID: 34673722; PMCID: PMC8549862.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Association of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting vs Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Memory Decline in Older Adults-Reply. JAMA. 2021 09 28; 326(12):1213. Whitlock EL, Glymour MM. PMID: 34581744.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Anaesthetic depth and delirium: a challenging balancing act. Br J Anaesth. 2021 11; 127(5):667-671. Whitlock EL, Gross ER, King CR, Avidan MS. PMID: 34503835.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. Yes, no, maybe: Replication and the importance of methodology. Eur J Pain. 2021 10; 25(9):1857-1858. Whitlock EL. PMID: 34216525; PMCID: PMC8774287.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    16. Association of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting vs Percutaneous Coronary Intervention With Memory Decline in Older Adults Undergoing Coronary Revascularization. JAMA. 2021 05 18; 325(19):1955-1964. Whitlock EL, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Smith AK, Boscardin WJ, Covinsky KE, Avidan MS, Glymour MM. PMID: 34003225; PMCID: PMC8132142.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Pediatric Distraction on Induction of Anesthesia With Virtual Reality and Perioperative Anxiolysis: A Randomized Controlled Trial. Anesth Analg. 2021 03 01; 132(3):798-806. Jung MJ, Libaw JS, Ma K, Whitlock EL, Feiner JR, Sinskey JL. PMID: 32618627; PMCID: PMC9387568.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 18     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Derivation, Validation, Sustained Performance, and Clinical Impact of an Electronic Medical Record-Based Perioperative Delirium Risk Stratification Tool. Anesth Analg. 2020 12; 131(6):1901-1910. Whitlock EL, Braehler MR, Kaplan JA, Finlayson E, Rogers SE, Douglas V, Donovan AL. PMID: 33105280; PMCID: PMC7669577.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. An Implementation-Effectiveness Study of a Perioperative Delirium Prevention Initiative for Older Adults. Anesth Analg. 2020 12; 131(6):1911-1922. Donovan AL, Braehler MR, Robinowitz DL, Lazar AA, Finlayson E, Rogers S, Douglas VC, Whitlock EL, Anesthesia Resident Quality Improvement Committee. PMID: 33105281; PMCID: PMC7669669.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. Creation of the Anesthesia Research Council. Anesth Analg. 2020 10; 131(4):1300-1303. Culley DJ, Kelz MB, Koch CG, Eisenach JC, Neuman MD, Whitlock EL, Robertson RM, Cooper T, Pomerantz P. PMID: 32925351.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    21. Postoperative delirium: why, what, and how to confront it at your institution. Curr Opin Anaesthesiol. 2020 Oct; 33(5):668-673. Curtis MS, Forman NA, Donovan AL, Whitlock EL. PMID: 32796170; PMCID: PMC7489931.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Use of Remifentanil for Open in utero Fetal Myelomeningocele Repair Maintains Uterine Relaxation with Reduced Volatile Anesthetic Concentration. Fetal Diagn Ther. 2020; 47(11):810-816. Marsh BJ, Sinskey J, Whitlock EL, Ferschl MB, Rollins MD. PMID: 32911467; PMCID: PMC9367681.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Implications of postoperative cognitive decline for satisfaction with anaesthesia care. Br J Anaesth. 2020 09; 125(3):e273-e275. Whitlock EL, Liu X, Lin HM, Deiner S. PMID: 32611526; PMCID: PMC7539663.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. The Frailty Syndrome: Anesthesiologists Must Understand More and Fear Less. Anesth Analg. 2020 06; 130(6):1445-1448. Whitlock EL, Whittington RA. PMID: 32384332; PMCID: PMC7678012.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Surgery and persistent cognitive decline: a commentary and an independent discussion. Br J Anaesth. 2020 03; 124(3):229-234. Whitlock EL, Grisell Diaz-Ramirez L, Avidan MS. PMID: 31839254.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Three blind mice: a tail of discordant trials. Br J Anaesth. 2020 02; 124(2):121-125. Whitlock EL, Avidan MS. PMID: 31676036.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    27. Aging Gracefully: The Evolution of Perioperative Care for Older Adults. Anesthesiol Clin. 2019 Sep; 37(3):xv-xvi. Whitlock EL, Whittington RA. PMID: 31337489.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Intraoperative dexmedetomidine to prevent postoperative delirium: in search of the magic bullet. Can J Anaesth. 2019 04; 66(4):365-370. Donovan AL, Whitlock EL. PMID: 30710259; PMCID: PMC6707504.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    29. Are we overdosing older patients? Br J Anaesth. 2019 09; 123(3):257-258. Whitlock EL, Sleigh J. PMID: 30915995; PMCID: PMC7586346.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    30. Cognitive Change After Cardiac Surgery Versus Cardiac Catheterization: A Population-Based Study. Ann Thorac Surg. 2019 04; 107(4):1119-1125. Whitlock EL, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Smith AK, Boscardin WJ, Avidan MS, Glymour MM. PMID: 30578068; PMCID: PMC6707506.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. Depth of Propofol Sedation and Postoperative Delirium: The Jury Is Still Out. JAMA Surg. 2018 11 01; 153(11):996. Whitlock EL, Finlayson E. PMID: 30090922.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    32. We may be Homo sapiens, but anaesthetists are merely apes when evaluating risk. Br J Anaesth. 2018 Oct; 121(4):702-705. Aranake-Chrisinger A, Whitlock EL, Avidan MS. PMID: 30236232.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. Estimating pediatric general anesthesia exposure: Quantifying duration and risk. Paediatr Anaesth. 2018 06; 28(6):520-527. Bartels DD, McCann ME, Davidson AJ, Polaner DM, Whitlock EL, Bateman BT. PMID: 29722100; PMCID: PMC6291204.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Improved analgesia and reduced post-operative nausea and vomiting after implementation of an enhanced recovery after surgery (ERAS) pathway for total mastectomy. BMC Anesthesiol. 2018 04 16; 18(1):41. Chiu C, Aleshi P, Esserman LJ, Inglis-Arkell C, Yap E, Whitlock EL, Harbell MW. PMID: 29661153; PMCID: PMC5902852.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 45     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    35. Central venous pressure monitoring in living donor kidney recipients does not affect immediate graft function: A propensity score analysis. Clin Transplant. 2018 05; 32(5):e13238. Adelmann D, Bicknell L, Niemann CU, Feiner J, Roll GR, Burdine L, Whitlock EL. PMID: 29526051; PMCID: PMC6235164.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. Do Not Resuscitate and the Surgical Patient: Not a Contradiction in Terms. Anesth Analg. 2017 11; 125(5):1438-1440. Whitlock EL, Lane RK. PMID: 29049106.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Association Between Persistent Pain and Memory Decline and Dementia in a Longitudinal Cohort of Elders. JAMA Intern Med. 2017 08 01; 177(8):1146-1153. Whitlock EL, Diaz-Ramirez LG, Glymour MM, Boscardin WJ, Covinsky KE, Smith AK. PMID: 28586818; PMCID: PMC5588896.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 103     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. In Reply. Anesthesiology. 2016 06; 124(6):1419. Whitlock EL, Feiner JR, Chen LL. PMID: 27187132.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    39. Perioperative Mortality, 2010 to 2014: A Retrospective Cohort Study Using the National Anesthesia Clinical Outcomes Registry. Anesthesiology. 2015 Dec; 123(6):1312-21. Whitlock EL, Feiner JR, Chen LL. PMID: 26492481.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    40. Importance of "default" intraoperative ventilator settings. BMJ. 2015 Sep 30; 351:h5125. Whitlock EL. PMID: 26423454.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Harms associated with single unit perioperative transfusion: retrospective population based analysis. BMJ. 2015 Jun 12; 350:h3037. Whitlock EL, Kim H, Auerbach AD. PMID: 26070979; PMCID: PMC4463965.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    42. Blood Transfusion and Postoperative Delirium. Current Anesthesiology Reports. 2015 Mar 1; 5(1):24-32. Whitlock WE, Behrends BM. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    43. Psychological sequelae of surgery in a prospective cohort of patients from three intraoperative awareness prevention trials. Anesth Analg. 2015 Jan; 120(1):87-95. Whitlock EL, Rodebaugh TL, Hassett AL, Shanks AM, Kolarik E, Houghtby J, West HM, Burnside BA, Shumaker E, Villafranca A, Edwards WA, Levinson CA, Langer JK, Fernandez KC, El-Gabalawy R, Zhou EY, Sareen J, Jacobsohn E, Mashour GA, Avidan MS. PMID: 25383719; PMCID: PMC4535987.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 21     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    44. Blood Transfusion and Postoperative Delirium. Current Anesthesiology Reports. 2014. Whitlock EL, Behrends M. View Publication.
    45. Postoperative delirium in a substudy of cardiothoracic surgical patients in the BAG-RECALL clinical trial. Anesth Analg. 2014 Apr; 118(4):809-17. Whitlock EL, Torres BA, Lin N, Helsten DL, Nadelson MR, Mashour GA, Avidan MS. PMID: 24413548; PMCID: PMC4012920.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 60     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. Delirium. Neurologic Outcomes of Surgery and Anesthesia. 2013 May 1; 13-20. Whitlock WE, Avidan AM, Inouye IS. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    47. Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Following Surgery, Intensive Care, and Intraoperative Awareness. Neurologic Outcomes of Surgery and Anesthesia. 2013 May 1; 47-56. Karren KE, Whitlock WE, Rodebaugh RT, Avidan AM. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    48. Brain monitoring with electroencephalography and the electroencephalogram-derived bispectral index during cardiac surgery. Anesth Analg. 2012 Mar; 114(3):533-46. Kertai MD, Whitlock EL, Avidan MS. PMID: 22253267; PMCID: PMC3288763.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals
    49. Relationship between bispectral index values and volatile anesthetic concentrations during the maintenance phase of anesthesia in the B-Unaware trial. Anesthesiology. 2011 Dec; 115(6):1209-18. Whitlock EL, Villafranca AJ, Lin N, Palanca BJ, Jacobsohn E, Finkel KJ, Zhang L, Burnside BA, Kaiser HA, Evers AS, Avidan MS. PMID: 22037642; PMCID: PMC3683547.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    50. Postoperative delirium. Minerva Anestesiol. 2011 Apr; 77(4):448-56. Whitlock EL, Vannucci A, Avidan MS. PMID: 21483389; PMCID: PMC3615670.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 85     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    51. Dynamic quantification of host Schwann cell migration into peripheral nerve allografts. Exp Neurol. 2010 Oct; 225(2):310-9. Whitlock EL, Myckatyn TM, Tong AY, Yee A, Yan Y, Magill CK, Johnson PJ, Mackinnon SE. PMID: 20633557; PMCID: PMC2956413.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    52. Ropivacaine-induced peripheral nerve injection injury in the rodent model. Anesth Analg. 2010 Jul; 111(1):214-20. Whitlock EL, Brenner MJ, Fox IK, Moradzadeh A, Hunter DA, Mackinnon SE. PMID: 20442258.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    53. Fibrin glue mitigates the learning curve of microneurosurgical repair. Microsurgery. 2010; 30(3):218-22. Whitlock EL, Kasukurthi R, Yan Y, Tung TH, Hunter DA, Mackinnon SE. PMID: 20063379.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    54. Bipolar electrocautery: A rodent model of Sunderland third-degree nerve injury. Arch Facial Plast Surg. 2010 Jan-Feb; 12(1):40-7. Moradzadeh A, Brenner MJ, Whitlock EL, Tong AY, Luciano JP, Hunter DA, Myckatyn TM, Mackinnon SE. PMID: 20083740.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    55. Bipolar Electrocautery. JAMA Facial Plastic Surgery. 2010 Jan 1; 12(1):40-47. Moradzadeh MA, Brenner BM, Whitlock WE, Tong TA, Luciano LJ, Hunter HD, Myckatyn MT, Mackinnon MS. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    56. Processed allografts and type I collagen conduits for repair of peripheral nerve gaps. Muscle Nerve. 2009 Jun; 39(6):787-99. Whitlock EL, Tuffaha SH, Luciano JP, Yan Y, Hunter DA, Magill CK, Moore AM, Tong AY, Mackinnon SE, Borschel GH. PMID: 19291791.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 105     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    57. The impact of motor and sensory nerve architecture on nerve regeneration. Exp Neurol. 2008 Aug; 212(2):370-6. Moradzadeh A, Borschel GH, Luciano JP, Whitlock EL, Hayashi A, Hunter DA, Mackinnon SE. PMID: 18550053; PMCID: PMC2761727.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    58. Pregabalin does not impact peripheral nerve regeneration after crush injury. J Reconstr Microsurg. 2007 Jul; 23(5):263-8. Whitlock EL, Moradzadeh A, Hunter DA, Mackinnon SE. PMID: 17876729.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    59. Binary imaging analysis for comprehensive quantitative histomorphometry of peripheral nerve. J Neurosci Methods. 2007 Oct 15; 166(1):116-24. Hunter DA, Moradzadeh A, Whitlock EL, Brenner MJ, Myckatyn TM, Wei CH, Tung TH, Mackinnon SE. PMID: 17675163; PMCID: PMC2587177.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 77     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    60. The green tea polyphenol, epigallocatechin-3-gallate inhibits telomerase and induces apoptosis in drug-resistant lung cancer cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2007 Aug 17; 360(1):233-7. Sadava D, Whitlock E, Kane SE. PMID: 17585882.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 43     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    61. Influence of needle tip position on injectate spread in 406 interlaminar lumbar epidural steroid injections. Radiology. 2007 Jun; 243(3):804-11. Whitlock EL, Bridwell KH, Gilula LA. PMID: 17463137.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
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