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Paul Simpson, MD

Title(s)Professor, Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Phone415-602-6222
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Mass General Hospital, Boston Clinical Fellow1977Cardiology
    University of California, San FranciscoResident1975Medicine
    NIH, NHLBI, BethesdaResearch Fellow1974Neurobiology
    Mass General Hospital, BostonResident1972Medicine

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    I am a clinical cardiologist at the San Francisco VA Medical Center treating inpatients and outpatients with heart disease since 1978. I also direct a lab at the VA, with a main goal to discover new drugs to treat heart failure, a major problem in cardiology. The lab has pursued initial findings from the early 1980s to the present, identifying a subclass of receptors for adrenaline as potential targets for a heart failure drug. Efforts in the lab are directed to this new drug, as well as discovering novel aspects of the class of adrenaline receptors. The lab has been funded continuously by the NIH and the VA, with additional important contribution from the AHA.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    ShEEP Request for Ultrasound Imaging System
    VA IS1BX005021Sep 1, 2019 - Sep 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Novel adrenergic mechanisms in heart failure therapy
    VA BX004314Oct 1, 2018 - Sep 30, 2022
    Role: PI
    Novel adrenergic mechanisms in heart failure therapy
    VA I01BX004314Oct 1, 2018 - Sep 30, 2022
    Role: Principal Investigator
    An alpha-1A-adrenergic drug for heart failure
    NIH/NHLBI RO1 HL31113-27Jan 1, 2018 - Nov 30, 2021
    Role: PI
    A mutant alpha-1A adrenergic receptor with impaired Gq coupling to identify a novel treatment in heart and brain disease
    Johnson & Johnson NAMay 1, 2016 - Dec 31, 2018
    Role: PI
    Novel therapy for cardiotoxicity of cancer drugs
    VA I01BX001970Oct 1, 2012 - Sep 30, 2016
    Role: Principal Investigator
    UCSF Living Heart Resource
    NIH/NHLBI RC1HL099789Sep 30, 2009 - Aug 31, 2011
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    MYOCARDIAL RELAXATION AND CA++ TRANSPORT IN HYPERTROPHY
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL054890Feb 1, 1997 - Jan 31, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ALPHA-1 ADRENERGIC REGULATION OF CARDIAC GENE EXPRESSION
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL042150Jul 1, 1989 - Dec 31, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    TROPHIC EFFECTS IN ADULT HEART CELL CULTURES
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL033651Sep 30, 1984 - May 1, 1988
    Role: Principal Investigator
    An alpha-1A-adrenergic agonist drug for heart failure
    NIH/NHLBI R01HL031113Jul 1, 1983 - Nov 30, 2021
    Role: PI

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Myagmar BE, Ismaili T, Swigart PM, Raghunathan A, Baker AJ, Sahdeo S, Blevitt JM, Milla ME, Simpson PC. Coupling to Gq Signaling Is Required for Cardioprotection by an Alpha-1A-Adrenergic Receptor Agonist. Circ Res. 2019 Sep 13; 125(7):699-706. PMID: 31426700.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Cowley PM, Wang G, Swigart PM, Raghunathan A, Reddy N, Dulam P, Lovett DH, Simpson PC, Baker AJ. Reversal of right ventricular failure by chronic a1A-subtype adrenergic agonist therapy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2019 Jan 01; 316(1):H224-H232. PMID: 30412439.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Yeh CC, Fan Y, Xu Y, Yang YL, Simpson PC, Mann MJ. Shift toward greater pathologic post-myocardial infarction remodeling with loss of the adaptive hypertrophic signaling of alpha1 adrenergic receptors in mice. PLoS One. 2017; 12(12):e0188471. PMID: 29216197.
      View in: PubMed
    4. López JE, Jaradeh K, Silva E, Aminololama-Shakeri S, Simpson PC. A method to increase reproducibility in adult ventricular myocyte sizing and flow cytometry: Avoiding cell size bias in single cell preparations. PLoS One. 2017; 12(10):e0186792. PMID: 29084228.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Cowley PM, Wang G, Joshi S, Swigart PM, Lovett DH, Simpson PC, Baker AJ. a1A-Subtype adrenergic agonist therapy for the failing right ventricle. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2017 Dec 01; 313(6):H1109-H1118. PMID: 28822963.
      View in: PubMed
    6. López JE, Sharma J, Avila J, Wood TS, VanDyke JE, McLaughlin B, Abbey CK, Wong A, Myagmar BE, Swigart PM, Simpson PC, Chiamvimonvat N. Novel large-particle FACS purification of adult ventricular myocytes reveals accumulation of myosin and actin disproportionate to cell size and proteome in normal post-weaning development. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2017 10; 111:114-122. PMID: 28780067.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Simpson PC, Myagmar BE, Swigart PM, Melov S, Baker AJ. Response by Simpson et al to Letter Regarding Article, "Adrenergic Receptors in Individual Ventricular Myocytes: the Beta-1 and Alpha-1B Are in All Cells, the Alpha-1A Is in a Subpopulation, and the Beta-2 and Beta-3 Are Mostly Absent". Circ Res. 2017 06 09; 120(12):e56-e57. PMID: 28596177.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Myagmar BE, Flynn JM, Cowley PM, Swigart PM, Montgomery MD, Thai K, Nair D, Gupta R, Deng DX, Hosoda C, Melov S, Baker AJ, Simpson PC. Adrenergic Receptors in Individual Ventricular Myocytes: The Beta-1 and Alpha-1B Are in All Cells, the Alpha-1A Is in a Subpopulation, and the Beta-2 and Beta-3 Are Mostly Absent. Circ Res. 2017 Mar 31; 120(7):1103-1115. PMID: 28219977.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Beak J, Huang W, Parker JS, Hicks ST, Patterson C, Simpson PC, Ma A, Jin J, Jensen BC. An Oral Selective Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor Agonist Prevents Doxorubicin Cardiotoxicity. JACC Basic Transl Sci. 2017 Feb; 2(1):39-53. PMID: 28286875.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Montgomery MD, Chan T, Swigart PM, Myagmar BE, Dash R, Simpson PC. An Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor Agonist Prevents Acute Doxorubicin Cardiomyopathy in Male Mice. PLoS One. 2017; 12(1):e0168409. PMID: 28081170.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Willis MS, Ilaiwy A, Montgomery MD, Simpson PC, Jensen BC. The alpha-1A adrenergic receptor agonist A61603 reduces cardiac polyunsaturated fatty acid and endocannabinoid metabolites associated with inflammation in vivo. Metabolomics. 2016 Oct; 12(10). PMID: 28533737.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Thomas RC, Cowley PM, Singh A, Myagmar BE, Swigart PM, Baker AJ, Simpson PC. The Alpha-1A Adrenergic Receptor in the Rabbit Heart. PLoS One. 2016; 11(6):e0155238. PMID: 27258143.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Thomas RC, Singh A, Cowley P, Myagmar BE, Montgomery MD, Swigart PM, De Marco T, Baker AJ, Simpson PC. A Myocardial Slice Culture Model Reveals Alpha-1A-Adrenergic Receptor Signaling in the Human Heart. JACC Basic Transl Sci. 2016 04; 1(3):155-167. PMID: 27453955.
      View in: PubMed
    14. Simpson PC. A New Pathway for Sympathetic Cardioprotection in Heart Failure. Circ Res. 2015 Sep 11; 117(7):592-5. PMID: 26358108.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Cowley PM, Wang G, Chang AN, Makwana O, Swigart PM, Lovett DH, Stull JT, Simpson PC, Baker AJ. The a1A-adrenergic receptor subtype mediates increased contraction of failing right ventricular myocardium. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2015 Sep; 309(5):H888-96. PMID: 26116709.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Shimkunas R, Makwana O, Spaulding K, Bazargan M, Khazalpour M, Takaba K, Soleimani M, Myagmar BE, Lovett DH, Simpson PC, Ratcliffe MB, Baker AJ. Myofilament dysfunction contributes to impaired myocardial contraction in the infarct border zone. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2014 Oct 15; 307(8):H1150-8. PMID: 25128171.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Jensen BC, O'Connell TD, Simpson PC. Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors in heart failure: the adaptive arm of the cardiac response to chronic catecholamine stimulation. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 2014 Apr; 63(4):291-301. PMID: 24145181.
      View in: PubMed
    18. O'Connell TD, Jensen BC, Baker AJ, Simpson PC. Cardiac alpha1-adrenergic receptors: novel aspects of expression, signaling mechanisms, physiologic function, and clinical importance. Pharmacol Rev. 2014; 66(1):308-33. PMID: 24368739.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Chu C, Thai K, Park KW, Wang P, Makwana O, Lovett DH, Simpson PC, Baker AJ. Intraventricular and interventricular cellular heterogeneity of inotropic responses to a(1)-adrenergic stimulation. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2013 Apr 01; 304(7):H946-53. PMID: 23355341.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Lam J, Simpson PC, Yang PC, Dash R. Synthesis of an in vivo MRI-detectable apoptosis probe. J Vis Exp. 2012 Jul 31; (65). PMID: 22871963.
      View in: PubMed
    21. May D, Blow MJ, Kaplan T, McCulley DJ, Jensen BC, Akiyama JA, Holt A, Plajzer-Frick I, Shoukry M, Wright C, Afzal V, Simpson PC, Rubin EM, Black BL, Bristow J, Pennacchio LA, Visel A. Large-scale discovery of enhancers from human heart tissue. Nat Genet. 2011 Dec 04; 44(1):89-93. PMID: 22138689.
      View in: PubMed
    22. Simpson PC. Where are the new drugs to treat heart failure? Introduction to the special issue on "key signaling molecules in hypertrophy and heart failure". J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011 Oct; 51(4):435-7. PMID: 21851824.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Doze VA, Papay RS, Goldenstein BL, Gupta MK, Collette KM, Nelson BW, Lyons MJ, Davis BA, Luger EJ, Wood SG, Haselton JR, Simpson PC, Perez DM. Long-term a1A-adrenergic receptor stimulation improves synaptic plasticity, cognitive function, mood, and longevity. Mol Pharmacol. 2011 Oct; 80(4):747-58. PMID: 21791575.
      View in: PubMed
    24. López JE, Myagmar BE, Swigart PM, Montgomery MD, Haynam S, Bigos M, Rodrigo MC, Simpson PC. ß-myosin heavy chain is induced by pressure overload in a minor subpopulation of smaller mouse cardiac myocytes. Circ Res. 2011 Sep 02; 109(6):629-38. PMID: 21778428.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Dash R, Chung J, Chan T, Yamada M, Barral J, Nishimura D, Yang PC, Simpson PC. A molecular MRI probe to detect treatment of cardiac apoptosis in vivo. Magn Reson Med. 2011 Oct; 66(4):1152-62. PMID: 21360750.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Jensen BC, O'Connell TD, Simpson PC. Alpha-1-adrenergic receptors: targets for agonist drugs to treat heart failure. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2011 Oct; 51(4):518-28. PMID: 21118696.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Jensen BC, Swigart PM, Montgomery MD, Simpson PC. Functional alpha-1B adrenergic receptors on human epicardial coronary artery endothelial cells. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2010 Dec; 382(5-6):475-82. PMID: 20857090.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Nigam V, Sievers HH, Jensen BC, Sier HA, Simpson PC, Srivastava D, Mohamed SA. Altered microRNAs in bicuspid aortic valve: a comparison between stenotic and insufficient valves. J Heart Valve Dis. 2010 Jul; 19(4):459-65. PMID: 20845893.
      View in: PubMed
    29. Yeh CC, Li H, Malhotra D, Turcato S, Nicholas S, Tu R, Zhu BQ, Cha J, Swigart PM, Myagmar BE, Baker AJ, Simpson PC, Mann MJ. Distinctive ERK and p38 signaling in remote and infarcted myocardium during post-MI remodeling in the mouse. J Cell Biochem. 2010 Apr 15; 109(6):1185-91. PMID: 20186881.
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    30. Smyth JW, Hong TT, Gao D, Vogan JM, Jensen BC, Fong TS, Simpson PC, Stainier DY, Chi NC, Shaw RM. Limited forward trafficking of connexin 43 reduces cell-cell coupling in stressed human and mouse myocardium. J Clin Invest. 2010 Jan; 120(1):266-79. PMID: 20038810.
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    31. Wang GY, Yeh CC, Jensen BC, Mann MJ, Simpson PC, Baker AJ. Heart failure switches the RV alpha1-adrenergic inotropic response from negative to positive. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2010 Mar; 298(3):H913-20. PMID: 20035030.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Methven L, Simpson PC, McGrath JC. Alpha1A/B-knockout mice explain the native alpha1D-adrenoceptor's role in vasoconstriction and show that its location is independent of the other alpha1-subtypes. Br J Pharmacol. 2009 Dec; 158(7):1663-75. PMID: 19888965.
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    33. Jensen BC, Swigart PM, Laden ME, DeMarco T, Hoopes C, Simpson PC. The alpha-1D Is the predominant alpha-1-adrenergic receptor subtype in human epicardial coronary arteries. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2009 Sep 22; 54(13):1137-45. PMID: 19761933.
      View in: PubMed
    34. Jensen BC, Swigart PM, De Marco T, Hoopes C, Simpson PC. {alpha}1-Adrenergic receptor subtypes in nonfailing and failing human myocardium. Circ Heart Fail. 2009 Nov; 2(6):654-63. PMID: 19919991.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Jensen BC, Swigart PM, Simpson PC. Ten commercial antibodies for alpha-1-adrenergic receptor subtypes are nonspecific. Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 2009 Apr; 379(4):409-12. PMID: 18989658.
      View in: PubMed
    36. Muramatsu I, Morishima S, Suzuki F, Yoshiki H, Anisuzzaman AS, Tanaka T, Rodrigo MC, Myagmar BE, Simpson PC. Identification of alpha 1L-adrenoceptor in mice and its abolition by alpha 1A-adrenoceptor gene knockout. Br J Pharmacol. 2008 Dec; 155(8):1224-34. PMID: 18806813.
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    37. Bao X, Lu CM, Liu F, Gu Y, Dalton ND, Zhu BQ, Foster E, Chen J, Karliner JS, Ross J, Simpson PC, Ziegler MG. Epinephrine is required for normal cardiovascular responses to stress in the phenylethanolamine N-methyltransferase knockout mouse. Circulation. 2007 Aug 28; 116(9):1024-31. PMID: 17698731.
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    38. Hosoda C, Hiroyama M, Sanbe A, Birumachi J, Kitamura T, Cotecchia S, Simpson PC, Tsujimoto G, Tanoue A. Blockade of both alpha1A- and alpha1B-adrenergic receptor subtype signaling is required to inhibit neointimal formation in the mouse femoral artery. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jul; 293(1):H514-9. PMID: 17384126.
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    39. Huang Y, Wright CD, Merkwan CL, Baye NL, Liang Q, Simpson PC, O'Connell TD. An alpha1A-adrenergic-extracellular signal-regulated kinase survival signaling pathway in cardiac myocytes. Circulation. 2007 Feb 13; 115(6):763-72. PMID: 17283256.
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    40. O'Connell TD, Rodrigo MC, Simpson PC. Isolation and culture of adult mouse cardiac myocytes. Methods Mol Biol. 2007; 357:271-96. PMID: 17172694.
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    41. Joho S, Ishizaka S, Sievers R, Foster E, Simpson PC, Grossman W. Left ventricular pressure-volume relationship in conscious mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2007 Jan; 292(1):H369-77. PMID: 16905597.
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    42. Papay R, Gaivin R, Jha A, McCune DF, McGrath JC, Rodrigo MC, Simpson PC, Doze VA, Perez DM. Localization of the mouse alpha1A-adrenergic receptor (AR) in the brain: alpha1AAR is expressed in neurons, GABAergic interneurons, and NG2 oligodendrocyte progenitors. J Comp Neurol. 2006 Jul 10; 497(2):209-22. PMID: 16705673.
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    43. Wang GY, McCloskey DT, Turcato S, Swigart PM, Simpson PC, Baker AJ. Contrasting inotropic responses to alpha1-adrenergic receptor stimulation in left versus right ventricular myocardium. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Oct; 291(4):H2013-7. PMID: 16731650.
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    44. O'Connell TD, Swigart PM, Rodrigo MC, Ishizaka S, Joho S, Turnbull L, Tecott LH, Baker AJ, Foster E, Grossman W, Simpson PC. Alpha1-adrenergic receptors prevent a maladaptive cardiac response to pressure overload. J Clin Invest. 2006 Apr; 116(4):1005-15. PMID: 16585965.
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    45. Turcato S, Turnbull L, Wang GY, Honbo N, Simpson PC, Karliner JS, Baker AJ. Ischemic preconditioning depends on age and gender. Basic Res Cardiol. 2006 May; 101(3):235-43. PMID: 16450074.
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    46. Turnbull L, Zhou HZ, Swigart PM, Turcato S, Karliner JS, Conklin BR, Simpson PC, Baker AJ. Sustained preconditioning induced by cardiac transgenesis with the tetracycline transactivator. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Mar; 290(3):H1103-9. PMID: 16243914.
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    47. Wang GY, Bergman MR, Nguyen AP, Turcato S, Swigart PM, Rodrigo MC, Simpson PC, Karliner JS, Lovett DH, Baker AJ. Cardiac transgenic matrix metalloproteinase-2 expression directly induces impaired contractility. Cardiovasc Res. 2006 Feb 15; 69(3):688-96. PMID: 16183043.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Rorabaugh BR, Gaivin RJ, Papay RS, Shi T, Simpson PC, Perez DM. Both alpha(1A)- and alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptors crosstalk to down regulate beta(1)-ARs in mouse heart: coupling to differential PTX-sensitive pathways. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2005 Nov; 39(5):777-84. PMID: 16171811.
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    49. McCloskey DT, Turnbull L, Swigart PM, Zambon AC, Turcato S, Joho S, Grossman W, Conklin BR, Simpson PC, Baker AJ. Cardiac transgenesis with the tetracycline transactivator changes myocardial function and gene expression. Physiol Genomics. 2005 Jun 16; 22(1):118-26. PMID: 15797971.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Rorabaugh BR, Ross SA, Gaivin RJ, Papay RS, McCune DF, Simpson PC, Perez DM. alpha1A- but not alpha1B-adrenergic receptors precondition the ischemic heart by a staurosporine-sensitive, chelerythrine-insensitive mechanism. Cardiovasc Res. 2005 Feb 01; 65(2):436-45. PMID: 15639483.
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    51. Okoshi MP, Yan X, Okoshi K, Nakayama M, Schuldt AJ, O'Connell TD, Simpson PC, Lorell BH. Aldosterone directly stimulates cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. J Card Fail. 2004 Dec; 10(6):511-8. PMID: 15599842.
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    52. Ishizaka S, Sievers RE, Zhu BQ, Rodrigo MC, Joho S, Foster E, Simpson PC, Grossman W. New technique for measurement of left ventricular pressure in conscious mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2004 Mar; 286(3):H1208-15. PMID: 14563661.
      View in: PubMed
    53. McCloskey DT, Turnbull L, Swigart P, O'Connell TD, Simpson PC, Baker AJ. Abnormal myocardial contraction in alpha(1A)- and alpha(1B)-adrenoceptor double-knockout mice. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2003 Oct; 35(10):1207-16. PMID: 14519431.
      View in: PubMed
    54. Rapp JH, Pan XM, Yu B, Swanson RA, Higashida RT, Simpson P, Saloner D. Cerebral ischemia and infarction from atheroemboli <100 microm in Size. Stroke. 2003 Aug; 34(8):1976-80. PMID: 12855822.
      View in: PubMed
    55. O'Connell TD, Ishizaka S, Nakamura A, Swigart PM, Rodrigo MC, Simpson GL, Cotecchia S, Rokosh DG, Grossman W, Foster E, Simpson PC. The alpha(1A/C)- and alpha(1B)-adrenergic receptors are required for physiological cardiac hypertrophy in the double-knockout mouse. J Clin Invest. 2003 Jun; 111(11):1783-91. PMID: 12782680.
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    56. McLean BG, Lee KS, Simpson PC, Farrance IK. Basal and alpha1-adrenergic-induced activity of minimal rat betaMHC promoters in cardiac myocytes requires multiple TEF-1 but not NFAT binding sites. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2003 May; 35(5):461-71. PMID: 12738228.
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    57. Gilman AG, Simon MI, Bourne HR, Harris BA, Long R, Ross EM, Stull JT, Taussig R, Bourne HR, Arkin AP, Cobb MH, Cyster JG, Devreotes PN, Ferrell JE, Fruman D, Gold M, Weiss A, Stull JT, Berridge MJ, Cantley LC, Catterall WA, Coughlin SR, Olson EN, Smith TF, Brugge JS, Botstein D, Dixon JE, Hunter T, Lefkowitz RJ, Pawson AJ, Sternberg PW, Varmus H, Subramaniam S, Sinkovits RS, Li J, Mock D, Ning Y, Saunders B, Sternweis PC, Hilgemann D, Scheuermann RH, DeCamp D, Hsueh R, Lin KM, Ni Y, Seaman WE, Simpson PC, O'Connell TD, Roach T, Simon MI, Choi S, Eversole-Cire P, Fraser I, Mumby MC, Zhao Y, Brekken D, Shu H, Meyer T, Chandy G, Heo WD, Liou J, O'Rourke N, Verghese M, Mumby SM, Han H, Brown HA, Forrester JS, Ivanova P, Milne SB, Casey PJ, Harden TK, Arkin AP, Doyle J, Gray ML, Meyer T, Michnick S, Schmidt MA, Toner M, Tsien RY, Natarajan M, Ranganathan R, Sambrano GR. Overview of the Alliance for Cellular Signaling. Nature. 2002 Dec 12; 420(6916):703-6. PMID: 12478301.
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    58. Turnbull L, McCloskey DT, O'Connell TD, Simpson PC, Baker AJ. Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor responses in alpha 1AB-AR knockout mouse hearts suggest the presence of alpha 1D-AR. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2003 Apr; 284(4):H1104-9. PMID: 12595294.
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    59. McCloskey DT, Rokosh DG, O'Connell TD, Keung EC, Simpson PC, Baker AJ. Alpha(1)-adrenoceptor subtypes mediate negative inotropy in myocardium from alpha(1A/C)-knockout and wild type mice. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 2002 Aug; 34(8):1007-17. PMID: 12234770.
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    60. Rokosh DG, Simpson PC. Knockout of the alpha 1A/C-adrenergic receptor subtype: the alpha 1A/C is expressed in resistance arteries and is required to maintain arterial blood pressure. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2002 Jul 09; 99(14):9474-9. PMID: 12093905.
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    61. Kinugawa K, Yonekura K, Ribeiro RC, Eto Y, Aoyagi T, Baxter JD, Camacho SA, Bristow MR, Long CS, Simpson PC. Regulation of thyroid hormone receptor isoforms in physiological and pathological cardiac hypertrophy. Circ Res. 2001 Sep 28; 89(7):591-8. PMID: 11577024.
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    62. Nakamura A, Rokosh DG, Paccanaro M, Yee RR, Simpson PC, Grossman W, Foster E. LV systolic performance improves with development of hypertrophy after transverse aortic constriction in mice. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001 Sep; 281(3):H1104-12. PMID: 11514276.
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    63. O'Connell TD, Rokosh DG, Simpson PC. Cloning and characterization of the mouse alpha1C/A-adrenergic receptor gene and analysis of an alpha1C promoter in cardiac myocytes: role of an MCAT element that binds transcriptional enhancer factor-1 (TEF-1). Mol Pharmacol. 2001 May; 59(5):1225-34. PMID: 11306707.
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    64. Baker AJ, Redfern CH, Harwood MD, Simpson PC, Conklin BR. Abnormal contraction caused by expression of G(i)-coupled receptor in transgenic model of dilated cardiomyopathy. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2001 Apr; 280(4):H1653-9. PMID: 11247776.
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    65. Zuzarte PC, Farrance IK, Simpson PC, Wildeman AG. Tumor cell splice variants of the transcription factor TEF-1 induced by SV40 T-antigen transformation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2000 Dec 15; 1517(1):82-90. PMID: 11118619.
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    66. Deng XF, Rokosh DG, Simpson PC. Autonomous and growth factor-induced hypertrophy in cultured neonatal mouse cardiac myocytes. Comparison with rat. Circ Res. 2000 Oct 27; 87(9):781-8. PMID: 11055982.
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    67. Simpson PC. Beta-protein kinase C and hypertrophic signaling in human heart failure. Circulation. 1999 Jan 26; 99(3):334-7. PMID: 9918516.
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    68. Yue P, Long CS, Austin R, Chang KC, Simpson PC, Massie BM. Post-infarction heart failure in the rat is associated with distinct alterations in cardiac myocyte molecular phenotype. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1998 Aug; 30(8):1615-30. PMID: 9737947.
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    69. Yue P, Massie BM, Simpson PC, Long CS. Cytokine expression increases in nonmyocytes from rats with postinfarction heart failure. Am J Physiol. 1998 07; 275(1):H250-8. PMID: 9688921.
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    70. Chang KC, Figueredo VM, Schreur JH, Kariya K, Weiner MW, Simpson PC, Camacho SA. Thyroid hormone improves function and Ca2+ handling in pressure overload hypertrophy. Association with increased sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase and alpha-myosin heavy chain in rat hearts. J Clin Invest. 1997 Oct 01; 100(7):1742-9. PMID: 9312172.
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    71. Rokosh DG, Stewart AF, Chang KC, Bailey BA, Karliner JS, Camacho SA, Long CS, Simpson PC. Alpha1-adrenergic receptor subtype mRNAs are differentially regulated by alpha1-adrenergic and other hypertrophic stimuli in cardiac myocytes in culture and in vivo. Repression of alpha1B and alpha1D but induction of alpha1C. J Biol Chem. 1996 Mar 08; 271(10):5839-43. PMID: 8621454.
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    72. Karns LR, Kariya K, Simpson PC. M-CAT, CArG, and Sp1 elements are required for alpha 1-adrenergic induction of the skeletal alpha-actin promoter during cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. Transcriptional enhancer factor-1 and protein kinase C as conserved transducers of the fetal program in cardiac growth. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jan 06; 270(1):410-7. PMID: 7814403.
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    73. Stewart AF, Rokosh DG, Bailey BA, Karns LR, Chang KC, Long CS, Kariya K, Simpson PC. Cloning of the rat alpha 1C-adrenergic receptor from cardiac myocytes. alpha 1C, alpha 1B, and alpha 1D mRNAs are present in cardiac myocytes but not in cardiac fibroblasts. Circ Res. 1994 Oct; 75(4):796-802. PMID: 7923624.
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    74. Rokosh DG, Bailey BA, Stewart AF, Karns LR, Long CS, Simpson PC. Distribution of alpha 1C-adrenergic receptor mRNA in adult rat tissues by RNase protection assay and comparison with alpha 1B and alpha 1D. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1994 May 16; 200(3):1177-84. PMID: 8185565.
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    75. Kariya K, Karns LR, Simpson PC. An enhancer core element mediates stimulation of the rat beta-myosin heavy chain promoter by an alpha 1-adrenergic agonist and activated beta-protein kinase C in hypertrophy of cardiac myocytes. J Biol Chem. 1994 Feb 04; 269(5):3775-82. PMID: 8106422.
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    76. Kariya K, Farrance IK, Simpson PC. Transcriptional enhancer factor-1 in cardiac myocytes interacts with an alpha 1-adrenergic- and beta-protein kinase C-inducible element in the rat beta-myosin heavy chain promoter. J Biol Chem. 1993 Dec 15; 268(35):26658-62. PMID: 8253797.
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    77. Long CS, Hartogensis WE, Simpson PC. Beta-adrenergic stimulation of cardiac non-myocytes augments the growth-promoting activity of non-myocyte conditioned medium. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1993 Aug; 25(8):915-25. PMID: 7505339.
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    78. Long CS, Kariya K, Karns L, Simpson PC. Sympathetic modulation of the cardiac myocyte phenotype: studies with a cell-culture model of myocardial hypertrophy. Basic Res Cardiol. 1992; 87 Suppl 2:19-31. PMID: 1338564.
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    79. Long CS, Henrich CJ, Simpson PC. A growth factor for cardiac myocytes is produced by cardiac nonmyocytes. Cell Regul. 1991 Dec; 2(12):1081-95. PMID: 1801925.
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    80. Kariya K, Karns LR, Simpson PC. Expression of a constitutively activated mutant of the beta-isozyme of protein kinase C in cardiac myocytes stimulates the promoter of the beta-myosin heavy chain isogene. J Biol Chem. 1991 Jun 05; 266(16):10023-6. PMID: 2037558.
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    81. Simpson PC, Kariya K, Karns LR, Long CS, Karliner JS. Adrenergic hormones and control of cardiac myocyte growth. Mol Cell Biochem. 1991 May 29-Jun 12; 104(1-2):35-43. PMID: 1656195.
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    82. Long CS, Kariya K, Karns L, Simpson PC. Sympathetic activity: modulator of myocardial hypertrophy. J Cardiovasc Pharmacol. 1991; 17 Suppl 2:S20-4. PMID: 1715479.
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    83. Long CS, Kariya K, Karns L, Simpson PC. Trophic factors for cardiac myocytes. J Hypertens Suppl. 1990 Dec; 8(7):S219-24. PMID: 1965655.
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    84. Mochly-Rosen D, Henrich CJ, Cheever L, Khaner H, Simpson PC. A protein kinase C isozyme is translocated to cytoskeletal elements on activation. Cell Regul. 1990 Aug; 1(9):693-706. PMID: 2078573.
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    85. Waspe LE, Ordahl CP, Simpson PC. The cardiac beta-myosin heavy chain isogene is induced selectively in alpha 1-adrenergic receptor-stimulated hypertrophy of cultured rat heart myocytes. J Clin Invest. 1990 Apr; 85(4):1206-14. PMID: 2156896.
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    86. Karliner JS, Kagiya T, Simpson PC. Effects of pertussis toxin on alpha 1-agonist-mediated phosphatidylinositide turnover and myocardial cell hypertrophy in neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. Experientia. 1990 Jan 15; 46(1):81-4. PMID: 2153573.
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    87. Simpson PC, Long CS, Waspe LE, Henrich CJ, Ordahl CP. Transcription of early developmental isogenes in cardiac myocyte hypertrophy. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1989 Dec; 21 Suppl 5:79-89. PMID: 2560798.
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    88. Long CS, Ordahl CP, Simpson PC. Alpha 1-adrenergic receptor stimulation of sarcomeric actin isogene transcription in hypertrophy of cultured rat heart muscle cells. J Clin Invest. 1989 Mar; 83(3):1078-82. PMID: 2537847.
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    89. Simpson PC. Proto-oncogenes and cardiac hypertrophy. Annu Rev Physiol. 1989; 51:189-202. PMID: 2469381.
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    90. Henrich CJ, Simpson PC. Differential acute and chronic response of protein kinase C in cultured neonatal rat heart myocytes to alpha 1-adrenergic and phorbol ester stimulation. J Mol Cell Cardiol. 1988 Dec; 20(12):1081-5. PMID: 2907916.
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    91. Karliner JS, Simpson PC. Beta-adrenoceptor and adenylate cyclase regulation in cardiac myocyte growth. Basic Res Cardiol. 1988 Nov-Dec; 83(6):655-63. PMID: 2851972.
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    92. Simpson PC. Role of proto-oncogenes in myocardial hypertrophy. Am J Cardiol. 1988 Oct 05; 62(11):13G-19G. PMID: 2972186.
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    93. Simpson PC. Comments on "Load regulation of the properties of adult feline cardiocytes: the role of substrate adhesion."Circ Res 1986;58:692-705. Circ Res. 1988 Apr; 62(4):864-9. PMID: 3349579.
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    94. Bishopric NH, Simpson PC, Ordahl CP. Induction of the skeletal alpha-actin gene in alpha 1-adrenoceptor-mediated hypertrophy of rat cardiac myocytes. J Clin Invest. 1987 Oct; 80(4):1194-9. PMID: 2821075.
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    95. Starksen NF, Simpson PC, Bishopric N, Coughlin SR, Lee WM, Escobedo JA, Williams LT. Cardiac myocyte hypertrophy is associated with c-myc protooncogene expression. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Nov; 83(21):8348-50. PMID: 3022291.
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    96. Karliner JS, Simpson PC, Honbo N, Woloszyn W. Mechanisms and time course of beta 1 adrenoceptor desensitisation in mammalian cardiac myocytes. Cardiovasc Res. 1986 Mar; 20(3):221-8. PMID: 3011269.
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    97. Simpson P. Stimulation of hypertrophy of cultured neonatal rat heart cells through an alpha 1-adrenergic receptor and induction of beating through an alpha 1- and beta 1-adrenergic receptor interaction. Evidence for independent regulation of growth and beating. Circ Res. 1985 Jun; 56(6):884-94. PMID: 2988814.
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    98. Karliner JS, Simpson PC, Taylor JE, Honbo N, Woloszyn W. Adrenergic receptor characteristics of cardiac myocytes cultured in serum-free medium: comparison with serum-supplemented medium. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 1985 Apr 16; 128(1):376-82. PMID: 3985976.
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    99. Inouye IK, Massie BM, Benowitz N, Simpson P, Loge D. Antihypertensive therapy with diltiazem and comparison with hydrochlorothiazide. Am J Cardiol. 1984 Jun 01; 53(11):1588-92. PMID: 6375339.
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    100. Inouye IK, Massie BM, Loge D, Simpson P, Tubau JF. Failure of antihypertensive therapy with diuretic, beta-blocking and calcium channel-blocking drugs to consistently reverse left ventricular diastolic filling abnormalities. Am J Cardiol. 1984 Jun 01; 53(11):1583-7. PMID: 6731303.
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    101. Inouye I, Massie B, Benowitz N, Simpson P, Loge D, Topic N. Monotherapy in mild to moderate hypertension: comparison of hydrochlorothiazide, propranolol and prazosin. Am J Cardiol. 1984 Jan 27; 53(3):24A-28A. PMID: 6320622.
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    102. Inouye I, Massie B, Loge D, Topic N, Silverstein D, Simpson P, Tubau J. Abnormal left ventricular filling: an early finding in mild to moderate systemic hypertension. Am J Cardiol. 1984 Jan 01; 53(1):120-6. PMID: 6691248.
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    103. Simpson P. Norepinephrine-stimulated hypertrophy of cultured rat myocardial cells is an alpha 1 adrenergic response. J Clin Invest. 1983 Aug; 72(2):732-8. PMID: 6135712.
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    104. Simpson P, McGrath A, Savion S. Myocyte hypertrophy in neonatal rat heart cultures and its regulation by serum and by catecholamines. Circ Res. 1982 Dec; 51(6):787-801. PMID: 6216022.
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    105. Simpson P, Savion S. Differentiation of rat myocytes in single cell cultures with and without proliferating nonmyocardial cells. Cross-striations, ultrastructure, and chronotropic response to isoproterenol. Circ Res. 1982 Jan; 50(1):101-16. PMID: 7053872.
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    106. Godwin JD, Axel L, Adams JR, Schiller NB, Simpson PC, Gertz EW. Computed tomography: a new method for diagnosing tumor of the heart. Circulation. 1981 Feb; 63(2):448-51. PMID: 7449067.
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    107. McGee R, Simpson P, Christian C, Mata M, Nelson P, Nirenberg M. Regulation of acetylcholine release from neuroblastoma x glioma hybrid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1978 Mar; 75(3):1314-8. PMID: 206894.
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    108. Sherman WR, Simpson PC, Goodwin SL. scyllo-inositol and myo-inositol levels in tissues of the skate Raja erinacea. Comp Biochem Physiol B. 1978; 59(3):201-2. PMID: 318234.
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    109. Birnberger AC, Birnberger KL, Eliasson SG, Simpson PC. Effect of cyanide and electrical stimulation on phosphoinositide metabolism in lobster nerves. J Neurochem. 1971 Jul; 18(7):1291-8. PMID: 4330289.
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    110. Sherman WR, Stewart MA, Simpson PC, Goodwin SL. The identification of myo-inosose-2 and scyllo-inositol in mammalian tissues. Biochemistry. 1968 Feb; 7(2):819-24. PMID: 5644141.
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