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Raymond Swanson, MD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentNeurology
Address1700 Owens Street
San Francisco CA 94107
Phone415-575-0403
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoResidency School of Medicine

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Raymond A. Swanson graduated from the University of Michigan Medical School and completed Neurology residency training at UCSF. He subsequently completed post-doctoral research fellowships at UCSF and Stanford University. He is currently chief of the Neurology service at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and heads a research lab located on the UCSF Mission Bay campus.

    His research focus is on bioenergetics and oxidative signaling in neurological disease. Studies in the area of stroke aim to identify ways to mitigate the dendritic and axonal ischemic injury caused by neuronal NADPH oxidase and formation of cofilin rods. Work pertaining to Parkinson's disease aims to identify interactions between neuronal redox state and alpha-synuclein aggregation. This effort also involves pre-clinical and clinical studies of thiol repletion agents as a disease-modifying therapeutic approach.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Thiol repletion therapy for Parkinson's disease
    VA I01BX003249Oct 1, 2016 - Sep 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regulatory Control of Glutamate - Induced Superoxide Production
    NIH/NINDS R01NS081149Sep 1, 2012 - May 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Three-day scientific conference to be held April 18-20, 2012
    NIH/NINDS R13NS077646Sep 30, 2011 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Effects of PARP-1 gene deletion in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    NIH/NIA R21AG029483Aug 1, 2007 - Apr 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    VIIth International Conference on Brain Energy Metabolism
    NIH/NINDS R13NS056861Aug 1, 2006 - Jul 31, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Hypoglycemic neuronal death
    NIH/NINDS R01NS051855Sep 30, 2004 - Jul 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of PARP and PARG mediated cell death
    NIH/NINDS R01NS041421Apr 1, 2001 - May 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ASTROCYTE FUNCTION AND EAA NEUROTOXICITY IN ISCHEMIA
    NIH/NINDS R01NS031914May 20, 1994 - Jul 31, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CNS Injury and Edema Research Center
    NIH/NINDS P50NS014543Jul 1, 1978 - Jul 31, 2012
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Shen Y, Kapfhamer D, Minnella AM, Kim JE, Won SJ, Chen Y, Huang Y, Low LH, Massa SM, Swanson R. Bioenergetic state regulates innate inflammatory responses through the transcriptional co-repressor CtBP. Nat Commun. 2017 Sep 22; 8(1):624. PMID: 28935892.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Haefeli J, Ferguson AR, Bingham D, Orr A, Won SJ, Lam TI, Shi J, Hawley S, Liu J, Swanson R, Massa SM. A data-driven approach for evaluating multi-modal therapy in traumatic brain injury. Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 16; 7:42474. PMID: 28205533.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Ko HR, Kwon IS, Hwang I, Jin EJ, Shin JH, Brennan-Minnella AM, Swanson R, Cho SW, Lee KH, Ahn JY. Akt1-Inhibitor of DNA binding2 is essential for growth cone formation and axon growth and promotes central nervous system axon regeneration. Elife. 2016 Dec 12; 5. PMID: 27938661.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Xu J, Wang H, Won SJ, Basu J, Kapfhamer D, Swanson R. Microglial activation induced by the alarmin S100B is regulated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Glia. 2016 Nov; 64(11):1869-78. PMID: 27444121.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Reyes RC, Cittolin-Santos GF, Kim JE, Won SJ, Brennan-Minnella AM, Katz M, Glass GA, Swanson R. Neuronal Glutathione Content and Antioxidant Capacity can be Normalized In Situ by N-acetyl Cysteine Concentrations Attained in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid. Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Jan; 13(1):217-25. PMID: 26572666; PMCID: PMC4720670 [Available on 01/01/17].
    6. Reyes RC, Cittolin-Santos GF, Kim JE, Won SJ, Brennan-Minnella AM, Katz M, Glass GA, Swanson R. Erratum to: Neuronal Glutathione Content and Antioxidant Capacity can be Normalized In Situ by N-acetyl Cysteine Concentrations Attained in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid. Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Jan; 13(1):239. PMID: 26659493; PMCID: PMC4720674.
    7. Vuong B, Hogan-Cann AD, Alano CC, Stevenson M, Chan WY, Anderson CM, Swanson R, Kauppinen TM. NF-?B transcriptional activation by TNFa requires phospholipase C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. J Neuroinflammation. 2015 Dec 04; 12:229. PMID: 26637332; PMCID: PMC4670503.
    8. Sheth SA, Iavarone AT, Liebeskind DS, Won SJ, Swanson R. Targeted Lipid Profiling Discovers Plasma Biomarkers of Acute Brain Injury. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0129735. PMID: 26076478; PMCID: PMC4468135.
    9. Gulati T, Won SJ, Ramanathan DS, Wong CC, Bodepudi A, Swanson R, Ganguly K. Robust neuroprosthetic control from the stroke perilesional cortex. J Neurosci. 2015 Jun 03; 35(22):8653-61. PMID: 26041930.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Won SJ, Kim JE, Cittolin-Santos GF, Swanson R. Assessment at the single-cell level identifies neuronal glutathione depletion as both a cause and effect of ischemia-reperfusion oxidative stress. J Neurosci. 2015 May 06; 35(18):7143-52. PMID: 25948264; PMCID: PMC4420782.
    11. Katz M, Won SJ, Park Y, Orr A, Jones DP, Swanson R, Glass GA. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of N-acetylcysteine after oral administration in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2015 May; 21(5):500-3. PMID: 25765302.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Chen Y, Brennan-Minnella AM, Sheth S, El-Benna J, Swanson R. Tat-NR2B9c prevents excitotoxic neuronal superoxide production. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2015 May; 35(5):739-42. PMID: 25669908; PMCID: PMC4420863.
    13. Brennan-Minnella AM, Won SJ, Swanson R. NADPH oxidase-2: linking glucose, acidosis, and excitotoxicity in stroke. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015 Jan 10; 22(2):161-74. PMID: 24628477; PMCID: PMC4281853.
    14. Knox R, Brennan-Minnella AM, Lu F, Yang D, Nakazawa T, Yamamoto T, Swanson R, Ferriero DM, Jiang X. NR2B phosphorylation at tyrosine 1472 contributes to brain injury in a rodent model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Stroke. 2014 Oct; 45(10):3040-7. PMID: 25158771; PMCID: PMC4175024.
    15. Cleaver JE, Brennan-Minnella AM, Swanson R, Fong KW, Chen J, Chou KM, Chen YW, Revet I, Bezrookove V. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are scavenged by Cockayne syndrome B protein in human fibroblasts without nuclear DNA damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 16; 111(37):13487-92. PMID: 25136123; PMCID: PMC4169934.
    16. Swanson R. Brain glycogen--vestigial no more. Foreword. Metab Brain Dis. 2015 Feb; 30(1):251-3. PMID: 25060966.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Robbins NM, Swanson R. Opposing effects of glucose on stroke and reperfusion injury: acidosis, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. Stroke. 2014 Jun; 45(6):1881-6. PMID: 24743441; PMCID: PMC4102697.
    18. Jain M, Ngoy S, Sheth SA, Swanson R, Rhee EP, Liao R, Clish CB, Mootha VK, Nilsson R. A systematic survey of lipids across mouse tissues. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Apr 15; 306(8):E854-68. PMID: 24518676; PMCID: PMC3989739.
    19. Swanson R. Glucose, acid, and aspartate: Friends and foes of the axon. Ann Neurol. 2014 Apr; 75(4):490-1. PMID: 24272667; PMCID: PMC4074545.
    20. Chen Y, Won SJ, Xu Y, Swanson R. Targeting microglial activation in stroke therapy: pharmacological tools and gender effects. Curr Med Chem. 2014; 21(19):2146-55. PMID: 24372213; PMCID: PMC4076056.
    21. Lam TI, Brennan-Minnella AM, Won SJ, Shen Y, Hefner C, Shi Y, Sun D, Swanson R. Intracellular pH reduction prevents excitotoxic and ischemic neuronal death by inhibiting NADPH oxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 12; 110(46):E4362-8. PMID: 24163350; PMCID: PMC3832003.
    22. Min SW, Sohn PD, Cho SH, Swanson R, Gan L. Sirtuins in neurodegenerative diseases: an update on potential mechanisms. Front Aging Neurosci. 2013 Sep 25; 5:53. PMID: 24093018; PMCID: PMC3782645.
    23. Baxter P, Chen Y, Xu Y, Swanson R. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1: a treatable cause of cell death in stroke. Transl Stroke Res. 2014 Feb; 5(1):136-44. PMID: 24323707; PMCID: PMC4034530.
    24. Swanson R, Schouboe A, McKenna MC. 10th International Conference on Brain Energy Metabolism. Preface. J Neurosci Res. 2013 Aug; 91(8):1005-6. PMID: 23798354.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Lam TI, Bingham D, Chang TJ, Lee CC, Shi J, Wang D, Massa S, Swanson R, Liu J. Beneficial effects of minocycline and botulinum toxin-induced constraint physical therapy following experimental traumatic brain injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013 Nov-Dec; 27(9):889-99. PMID: 23778701.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Kauppinen TM, Gan L, Swanson R. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-induced NAD(+) depletion promotes nuclear factor-?B transcriptional activity by preventing p65 de-acetylation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Aug; 1833(8):1985-91. PMID: 23597856; PMCID: PMC4041949.
    27. Brennan-Minnella AM, Shen Y, El-Benna J, Swanson R. Phosphoinositide 3-kinase couples NMDA receptors to superoxide release in excitotoxic neuronal death. Cell Death Dis. 2013 Apr 04; 4:e580. PMID: 23559014; PMCID: PMC3641334.
    28. Reyes RC, Brennan AM, Shen Y, Baldwin Y, Swanson R. Activation of neuronal NMDA receptors induces superoxide-mediated oxidative stress in neighboring neurons and astrocytes. J Neurosci. 2012 Sep 12; 32(37):12973-8. PMID: 22973021; PMCID: PMC3478885.
    29. Won SJ, Yoo BH, Kauppinen TM, Choi BY, Kim JH, Jang BG, Lee MW, Sohn M, Liu J, Swanson R, Suh SW. Recurrent/moderate hypoglycemia induces hippocampal dendritic injury, microglial activation, and cognitive impairment in diabetic rats. J Neuroinflammation. 2012 Jul 25; 9:182. PMID: 22830525; PMCID: PMC3458941.
    30. Won SJ, Choi BY, Yoo BH, Sohn M, Ying W, Swanson R, Suh SW. Prevention of traumatic brain injury-induced neuron death by intranasal delivery of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. J Neurotrauma. 2012 May 01; 29(7):1401-9. PMID: 22352983.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Swanson R. One cell's poison is another cell's cure. Nat Neurosci. 2012 Mar 27; 15(4):505-6. PMID: 22449958.
      View in: PubMed
    32. d'Avila JC, Lam TI, Bingham D, Shi J, Won SJ, Kauppinen TM, Massa S, Liu J, Swanson R. Microglial activation induced by brain trauma is suppressed by post-injury treatment with a PARP inhibitor. J Neuroinflammation. 2012 Feb 15; 9:31. PMID: 22335939; PMCID: PMC3298794.
    33. Kauppinen TM, Suh SW, Higashi Y, Berman AE, Escartin C, Won SJ, Wang C, Cho SH, Gan L, Swanson R. Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 modulates microglial responses to amyloid ß. J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Nov 03; 8:152. PMID: 22051244; PMCID: PMC3247192.
    34. Won SJ, Tang XN, Suh SW, Yenari MA, Swanson R. Hyperglycemia promotes tissue plasminogen activator-induced hemorrhage by Increasing superoxide production. Ann Neurol. 2011 Oct; 70(4):583-90. PMID: 22002675; PMCID: PMC4554391.
    35. Escartin C, Won SJ, Malgorn C, Auregan G, Berman AE, Chen PC, Déglon N, Johnson JA, Suh SW, Swanson R. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 facilitates neuronal glutathione synthesis by upregulating neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3 expression. J Neurosci. 2011 May 18; 31(20):7392-401. PMID: 21593323; PMCID: PMC3339848.
    36. Berman AE, Chan WY, Brennan AM, Reyes RC, Adler BL, Suh SW, Kauppinen TM, Edling Y, Swanson R. N-acetylcysteine prevents loss of dopaminergic neurons in the EAAC1-/- mouse. Ann Neurol. 2011 Mar; 69(3):509-20. PMID: 21446024; PMCID: PMC4096233.
    37. Won SJ, Yoo BH, Brennan AM, Shin BS, Kauppinen TM, Berman AE, Swanson R, Suh SW. EAAC1 gene deletion alters zinc homeostasis and exacerbates neuronal injury after transient cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci. 2010 Nov 17; 30(46):15409-18. PMID: 21084597.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Yenari MA, Kauppinen TM, Swanson R. Microglial activation in stroke: therapeutic targets. Neurotherapeutics. 2010 Oct; 7(4):378-91. PMID: 20880502.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Tang XN, Berman AE, Swanson R, Yenari MA. Digitally quantifying cerebral hemorrhage using Photoshop and Image J. J Neurosci Methods. 2010 Jul 15; 190(2):240-3. PMID: 20452374; PMCID: PMC2898728.
    40. Tang KS, Suh SW, Alano CC, Shao Z, Hunt WT, Swanson R, Anderson CM. Astrocytic poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation leads to bioenergetic depletion and inhibition of glutamate uptake capacity. Glia. 2010 Mar; 58(4):446-57. PMID: 19795500.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Alano CC, Garnier P, Ying W, Higashi Y, Kauppinen TM, Swanson R. NAD+ depletion is necessary and sufficient for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-mediated neuronal death. J Neurosci. 2010 Feb 24; 30(8):2967-78. PMID: 20181594; PMCID: PMC2864043.
    42. Wang Q, van Hoecke M, Tang XN, Lee H, Zheng Z, Swanson R, Yenari MA. Pyruvate protects against experimental stroke via an anti-inflammatory mechanism. Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Oct; 36(1):223-31. PMID: 19635562; PMCID: PMC2742567.
    43. Brennan AM, Suh SW, Won SJ, Narasimhan P, Kauppinen TM, Lee H, Edling Y, Chan PH, Swanson R. NADPH oxidase is the primary source of superoxide induced by NMDA receptor activation. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Jul; 12(7):857-63. PMID: 19503084; PMCID: PMC2746760.
    44. Nagasawa K, Escartin C, Swanson R. Astrocyte cultures exhibit P2X7 receptor channel opening in the absence of exogenous ligands. Glia. 2009 Apr 15; 57(6):622-33. PMID: 18942742.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Burns DM, Ying W, Kauppinen TM, Zhu K, Swanson R. Selective down-regulation of nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase. PLoS One. 2009; 4(3):e4896. PMID: 19319190; PMCID: PMC2655720.
    46. Kauppinen TM, Suh SW, Berman AE, Hamby AM, Swanson R. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase suppresses inflammation and promotes recovery after ischemic injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Apr; 29(4):820-9. PMID: 19190653.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Suh SW, Shin BS, Ma H, Van Hoecke M, Brennan AM, Yenari MA, Swanson R. Glucose and NADPH oxidase drive neuronal superoxide formation in stroke. Ann Neurol. 2008 Dec; 64(6):654-63. PMID: 19107988; PMCID: PMC4304737.
    48. Suh SW, Hamby AM, Gum ET, Shin BS, Won SJ, Sheline CT, Chan PH, Swanson R. Sequential release of nitric oxide, zinc, and superoxide in hypoglycemic neuronal death. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008 Oct; 28(10):1697-706. PMID: 18545258.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Kauppinen TM, Higashi Y, Suh SW, Escartin C, Nagasawa K, Swanson R. Zinc triggers microglial activation. J Neurosci. 2008 May 28; 28(22):5827-35. PMID: 18509044; PMCID: PMC2680357.
    50. Alano CC, Tran A, Tao R, Ying W, Karliner JS, Swanson R. Differences among cell types in NAD(+) compartmentalization: a comparison of neurons, astrocytes, and cardiac myocytes. J Neurosci Res. 2007 Nov 15; 85(15):3378-85. PMID: 17853438.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Suh SW, Hamby AM, Swanson R. Hypoglycemia, brain energetics, and hypoglycemic neuronal death. Glia. 2007 Sep; 55(12):1280-6. PMID: 17659530.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Voloboueva LA, Suh SW, Swanson R, Giffard RG. Inhibition of mitochondrial function in astrocytes: implications for neuroprotection. J Neurochem. 2007 Aug; 102(4):1383-94. PMID: 17488276; PMCID: PMC3175820.
    53. Suh SW, Aoyama K, Alano CC, Anderson CM, Hamby AM, Swanson R. Zinc inhibits astrocyte glutamate uptake by activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Mol Med. 2007 Jul-Aug; 13(7-8):344-9. PMID: 17728843; PMCID: PMC1952665.
    54. Suh SW, Gum ET, Hamby AM, Chan PH, Swanson R. Hypoglycemic neuronal death is triggered by glucose reperfusion and activation of neuronal NADPH oxidase. J Clin Invest. 2007 Apr; 117(4):910-8. PMID: 17404617; PMCID: PMC1838937.
    55. Bourguignon LY, Gilad E, Peyrollier K, Brightman A, Swanson R. Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction stimulates Rac1 signaling and PKN gamma kinase activation leading to cytoskeleton function and cell migration in astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2007 May; 101(4):1002-17. PMID: 17403031.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Hamby AM, Suh SW, Kauppinen TM, Swanson R. Use of a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor to suppress inflammation and neuronal death after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Stroke. 2007 Feb; 38(2 Suppl):632-6. PMID: 17261705.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Suh SW, Bergher JP, Anderson CM, Treadway JL, Fosgerau K, Swanson R. Astrocyte glycogen sustains neuronal activity during hypoglycemia: studies with the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor CP-316,819 ([R-R*,S*]-5-chloro-N-[2-hydroxy-3-(methoxymethylamino)-3-oxo-1-(phenylmethyl)propyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr; 321(1):45-50. PMID: 17251391.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Yenari MA, Swanson R. INTRODUCTION: Immune mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Clin Neurosci Res. 2006 Dec; 6(5):225. PMID: 17464366.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Kauppinen TM, Swanson R. The role of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 in CNS disease. Neuroscience. 2007 Apr 14; 145(4):1267-72. PMID: 17084037.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Szabo C, Pacher P, Swanson R. Novel modulators of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006 Dec; 27(12):626-30. PMID: 17055069; PMCID: PMC2228253.
    61. Swanson R. Intracerebral hematoma: beyond the mass lesion. Stroke. 2006 Oct; 37(10):2445. PMID: 16960087.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Alano CC, Kauppinen TM, Valls AV, Swanson R. Minocycline inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 at nanomolar concentrations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 20; 103(25):9685-90. PMID: 16769901; PMCID: PMC1480467.
    63. Zeng J, Yang GY, Ying W, Kelly M, Hirai K, James TL, Swanson R, Litt L. Pyruvate improves recovery after PARP-1-associated energy failure induced by oxidative stress in neonatal rat cerebrocortical slices. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007 Feb; 27(2):304-15. PMID: 16736046.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Alano CC, Swanson R. Players in the PARP-1 cell-death pathway: JNK1 joins the cast. Trends Biochem Sci. 2006 Jun; 31(6):309-11. PMID: 16679020.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Kauppinen TM, Chan WY, Suh SW, Wiggins AK, Huang EJ, Swanson R. Direct phosphorylation and regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 02; 103(18):7136-41. PMID: 16627622; PMCID: PMC1459030.
    66. Zhou HZ, Swanson R, Simonis U, Ma X, Cecchini G, Gray MO. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 hyperactivation and impairment of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I function in reperfused mouse hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Aug; 291(2):H714-23. PMID: 16582021.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Aoyama K, Suh SW, Hamby AM, Liu J, Chan WY, Chen Y, Swanson R. Neuronal glutathione deficiency and age-dependent neurodegeneration in the EAAC1 deficient mouse. Nat Neurosci. 2006 Jan; 9(1):119-26. PMID: 16311588.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Zhu K, Swanson R, Ying W. NADH can enter into astrocytes and block poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-mediated astrocyte death. Neuroreport. 2005 Aug 01; 16(11):1209-12. PMID: 16012350.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Kauppinen TM, Suh SW, Genain CP, Swanson R. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation in a primate model of multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci Res. 2005 Jul 15; 81(2):190-8. PMID: 15931673.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Giffard RG, Swanson R. Ischemia-induced programmed cell death in astrocytes. Glia. 2005 Jun; 50(4):299-306. PMID: 15846803.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Green AJ, Roberts DR, Swanson R. Post-traumatic epidermoid cyst presenting with headache. Neurology. 2005 May 10; 64(9):1657. PMID: 15883342.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Suh SW, Aoyama K, Matsumori Y, Liu J, Swanson R. Pyruvate administered after severe hypoglycemia reduces neuronal death and cognitive impairment. Diabetes. 2005 May; 54(5):1452-8. PMID: 15855333.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Aoyama K, Burns DM, Suh SW, Garnier P, Matsumori Y, Shiina H, Swanson R. Acidosis causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and caspase-12-mediated astrocyte death. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005 Mar; 25(3):358-70. PMID: 15689959.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Kauppinen TM, Swanson R. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 promotes microglial activation, proliferation, and matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated neuron death. J Immunol. 2005 Feb 15; 174(4):2288-96. PMID: 15699164.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Suh SW, Fan Y, Hong SM, Liu Z, Matsumori Y, Weinstein PR, Swanson R, Liu J. Hypoglycemia induces transient neurogenesis and subsequent progenitor cell loss in the rat hippocampus. Diabetes. 2005 Feb; 54(2):500-9. PMID: 15677508.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Ying W, Alano CC, Garnier P, Swanson R. NAD+ as a metabolic link between DNA damage and cell death. J Neurosci Res. 2005 Jan 1-15; 79(1-2):216-23. PMID: 15562437.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Suh SW, Garnier P, Aoyama K, Chen Y, Swanson R. Zinc release contributes to hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death. Neurobiol Dis. 2004 Aug; 16(3):538-45. PMID: 15262265.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Zeng J, Hirai K, Yang GY, Ying W, Swanson R, Kelly M, Mayer M, James TL, Litt L. Using 31P NMR spectroscopy at 14.1 Tesla to investigate PARP-1 associated energy failure and metabolic rescue in cerebrocortical slices. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2004 Aug; 36(4):415-9. PMID: 15377881.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Garnier P, Prigent-Tessier A, Van Hoecke M, Bertrand N, Demougeot C, Sordet O, Swanson R, Marie C, Beley A. Hypoxia induces caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation without neuronal death in gerbil brains. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Aug; 20(4):937-46. PMID: 15305862.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Swanson R, Ying W, Kauppinen TM. Astrocyte influences on ischemic neuronal death. Curr Mol Med. 2004 Mar; 4(2):193-205. PMID: 15032713.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Alano CC, Ying W, Swanson R. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-mediated cell death in astrocytes requires NAD+ depletion and mitochondrial permeability transition. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 30; 279(18):18895-902. PMID: 14960594.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Castro-Obregón S, Rao RV, del Rio G, Chen SF, Poksay KS, Rabizadeh S, Vesce S, Zhang XK, Swanson R, Bredesen DE. Alternative, nonapoptotic programmed cell death: mediation by arrestin 2, ERK2, and Nur77. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 23; 279(17):17543-53. PMID: 14769794.
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    83. Gum ET, Swanson R, Alano C, Liu J, Hong S, Weinstein PR, Panter SS. Human serum albumin and its N-terminal tetrapeptide (DAHK) block oxidant-induced neuronal death. Stroke. 2004 Feb; 35(2):590-5. PMID: 14726550.
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    84. Anderson CM, Bergher JP, Swanson R. ATP-induced ATP release from astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2004 Jan; 88(1):246-56. PMID: 14675168.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Suh SW, Aoyama K, Chen Y, Garnier P, Matsumori Y, Gum E, Liu J, Swanson R. Hypoglycemic neuronal death and cognitive impairment are prevented by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors administered after hypoglycemia. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 19; 23(33):10681-90. PMID: 14627653.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Tsuchiya D, Hong S, Matsumori Y, Kayama T, Swanson R, Dillman WH, Liu J, Panter SS, Weinstein PR. Overexpression of rat heat shock protein 70 reduces neuronal injury after transient focal ischemia, transient global ischemia, or kainic acid-induced seizures. Neurosurgery. 2003 Nov; 53(5):1179-87; discussion 1187-8. PMID: 14580286.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Sevigny MB, Silva JM, Lan WC, Alano CC, Swanson R. Expression and activity of poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase in cultured astrocytes, neurons, and C6 glioma cells. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2003 Oct 07; 117(2):213-20. PMID: 14559156.
      View in: PubMed
    88. Ying W, Garnier P, Swanson R. NAD+ repletion prevents PARP-1-induced glycolytic blockade and cell death in cultured mouse astrocytes. Biochem Biophys Res Commun. 2003 Sep 05; 308(4):809-13. PMID: 12927790.
      View in: PubMed
    89. Garnier P, Ying W, Swanson R. Ischemic preconditioning by caspase cleavage of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. J Neurosci. 2003 Sep 03; 23(22):7967-73. PMID: 12954857.
      View in: PubMed
    90. Rapp JH, Pan XM, Yu B, Swanson R, Higashida RT, Simpson P, Saloner D. Cerebral ischemia and infarction from atheroemboli <100 microm in Size. Stroke. 2003 Aug; 34(8):1976-80. PMID: 12855822.
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    91. Tsuchiya D, Hong S, Matsumori Y, Shiina H, Kayama T, Swanson R, Dillman WH, Liu J, Panter SS, Weinstein PR. Overexpression of rat heat shock protein 70 is associated with reduction of early mitochondrial cytochrome C release and subsequent DNA fragmentation after permanent focal ischemia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Jun; 23(6):718-27. PMID: 12796720.
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    92. Frizzo ME, Antunes Soares FA, Dall'Onder LP, Lara DR, Swanson R, Souza DO. Extracellular conversion of guanine-based purines to guanosine specifically enhances astrocyte glutamate uptake. Brain Res. 2003 May 16; 972(1-2):84-9. PMID: 12711081.
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    93. Chen Y, Swanson R. The glutamate transporters EAAT2 and EAAT3 mediate cysteine uptake in cortical neuron cultures. J Neurochem. 2003 Mar; 84(6):1332-9. PMID: 12614333.
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    94. Duan S, Anderson CM, Keung EC, Chen Y, Chen Y, Swanson R. P2X7 receptor-mediated release of excitatory amino acids from astrocytes. J Neurosci. 2003 Feb 15; 23(4):1320-8. PMID: 12598620.
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    95. Chen Y, Swanson R. Astrocytes and brain injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2003 Feb; 23(2):137-49. PMID: 12571445.
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    96. Sevigny M, Garnier P, Kauppinen T, Swanson R. Heat shock - induced Hsp70 expression in murine astrocytes does not require poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase activity. Cell Physiol Biochem. 2003; 13(5):297-300. PMID: 14586173.
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    97. Anderson CM, Norquist BA, Vesce S, Nicholls DG, Soine WH, Duan S, Swanson R. Barbiturates induce mitochondrial depolarization and potentiate excitotoxic neuronal death. J Neurosci. 2002 Nov 01; 22(21):9203-9. PMID: 12417645.
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    98. Castro-Obregón S, Del Rio G, Chen SF, Swanson R, Frankowski H, Rao RV, Stoka V, Vesce S, Nicholls DG, Bredesen DE. A ligand-receptor pair that triggers a non-apoptotic form of programmed cell death. Cell Death Differ. 2002 Aug; 9(8):807-17. PMID: 12107824.
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    99. Ying W, Chen Y, Alano CC, Swanson R. Tricarboxylic acid cycle substrates prevent PARP-mediated death of neurons and astrocytes. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2002 Jul; 22(7):774-9. PMID: 12142562.
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    100. Anderson CM, Bridges RJ, Chamberlin AR, Shimamoto K, Yasuda-Kamatani Y, Swanson R. Differing effects of substrate and non-substrate transport inhibitors on glutamate uptake reversal. J Neurochem. 2001 Dec; 79(6):1207-16. PMID: 11752061.
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    101. Ying W, Sevigny MB, Chen Y, Swanson R. Poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase mediates oxidative and excitotoxic neuronal death. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Oct 09; 98(21):12227-32. PMID: 11593040; PMCID: PMC59796.
    102. Chen Y, Vartiainen NE, Ying W, Chan PH, Koistinaho J, Swanson R. Astrocytes protect neurons from nitric oxide toxicity by a glutathione-dependent mechanism. J Neurochem. 2001 Jun; 77(6):1601-10. PMID: 11413243.
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    103. Peng L, Swanson R, Hertz L. Effects of L-glutamate, D-aspartate, and monensin on glycolytic and oxidative glucose metabolism in mouse astrocyte cultures: further evidence that glutamate uptake is metabolically driven by oxidative metabolism. Neurochem Int. 2001 Apr; 38(5):437-43. PMID: 11222924.
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    104. Frizzo ME, Lara DR, Dahm KC, Prokopiuk AS, Swanson R, Souza DO. Activation of glutamate uptake by guanosine in primary astrocyte cultures. Neuroreport. 2001 Mar 26; 12(4):879-81. PMID: 11277601.
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    105. Chen Y, Chan PH, Swanson R. Astrocytes overexpressing Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase have increased resistance to oxidative injury. Glia. 2001 Mar 15; 33(4):343-7. PMID: 11246233.
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    106. Anderson CM, Swanson R. Astrocyte glutamate transport: review of properties, regulation, and physiological functions. Glia. 2000 Oct; 32(1):1-14. PMID: 10975906.
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    107. Wender R, Brown AM, Fern R, Swanson R, Farrell K, Ransom BR. Astrocytic glycogen influences axon function and survival during glucose deprivation in central white matter. J Neurosci. 2000 Sep 15; 20(18):6804-10. PMID: 10995824.
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    108. Chen Y, Ying W, Simma V, Copin JC, Chan PH, Swanson R. Overexpression of Cu,Zn superoxide dismutase attenuates oxidative inhibition of astrocyte glutamate uptake. J Neurochem. 2000 Sep; 75(3):939-45. PMID: 10936174.
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    109. Liu J, Ying W, Massa S, Duriez PJ, Swanson R, Poirier GG, Sharp FR. Effects of transient global ischemia and kainate on poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) gene expression and proteolytic cleavage in gerbil and rat brains. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 2000 Aug 14; 80(1):7-16. PMID: 11039724.
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    110. Ying W, Swanson R. The poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase inhibitor gallotannin blocks oxidative astrocyte death. Neuroreport. 2000 May 15; 11(7):1385-8. PMID: 10841343.
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    111. Ying W, Anderson CM, Chen Y, Stein BA, Fahlman CS, Copin JC, Chan PH, Swanson R. Differing effects of copper,zinc superoxide dismutase overexpression on neurotoxicity elicited by nitric oxide, reactive oxygen species, and excitotoxins. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2000 Feb; 20(2):359-68. PMID: 10698074.
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    112. Duan S, Anderson CM, Stein BA, Swanson R. Glutamate induces rapid upregulation of astrocyte glutamate transport and cell-surface expression of GLAST. J Neurosci. 1999 Dec 01; 19(23):10193-200. PMID: 10575016.
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    113. Ying W, Han SK, Miller JW, Swanson R. Acidosis potentiates oxidative neuronal death by multiple mechanisms. J Neurochem. 1999 Oct; 73(4):1549-56. PMID: 10501200.
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    114. Swanson R. Intravenous heparin for acute stroke: what can we learn from the megatrials? Neurology. 1999 Jun 10; 52(9):1746-50. PMID: 10371518.
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    115. Sharp FR, Massa SM, Swanson R. Heat-shock protein protection. Trends Neurosci. 1999 Mar; 22(3):97-9. PMID: 10199631.
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    116. Longuemare MC, Rose CR, Farrell K, Ransom BR, Waxman SG, Swanson R. K(+)-induced reversal of astrocyte glutamate uptake is limited by compensatory changes in intracellular Na+. Neuroscience. 1999; 93(1):285-92. PMID: 10430492.
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    117. Swanson R, Seid LL. Barbiturates impair astrocyte glutamate uptake. Glia. 1998 Dec; 24(4):365-71. PMID: 9814816.
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    118. Hertz L, Swanson R, Newman GC, Marrif H, Juurlink BH, Peng L. Can experimental conditions explain the discrepancy over glutamate stimulation of aerobic glycolysis? Dev Neurosci. 1998; 20(4-5):339-47. PMID: 9778570.
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    119. Swanson R, Farrell K, Stein BA. Astrocyte energetics, function, and death under conditions of incomplete ischemia: a mechanism of glial death in the penumbra. Glia. 1997 Sep; 21(1):142-53. PMID: 9298857.
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    120. Longuemare MC, Swanson R. Net glutamate release from astrocytes is not induced by extracellular potassium concentrations attainable in brain. J Neurochem. 1997 Aug; 69(2):879-82. PMID: 9231751.
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    121. Swanson R, Liu J, Miller JW, Rothstein JD, Farrell K, Stein BA, Longuemare MC. Neuronal regulation of glutamate transporter subtype expression in astrocytes. J Neurosci. 1997 Feb 01; 17(3):932-40. PMID: 8994048.
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    122. Narasimhan P, Sklar R, Murrell M, Swanson R, Sharp FR. Methylmalonyl-CoA mutase induction by cerebral ischemia and neurotoxicity of the mitochondrial toxin methylmalonic acid. J Neurosci. 1996 Nov 15; 16(22):7336-46. PMID: 8929440.
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    123. Longhurst PA, Schwegel T, Folander K, Swanson R. The human P2x1 receptor: molecular cloning, tissue distribution, and localization to chromosome 17. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1996 Sep 11; 1308(3):185-8. PMID: 8809107.
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    124. Narasimhan P, Swanson R, Sagar SM, Sharp FR. Astrocyte survival and HSP70 heat shock protein induction following heat shock and acidosis. Glia. 1996 Jun; 17(2):147-59. PMID: 8776581.
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    125. Longuemare MC, Keung EC, Chun S, Sharp FR, Chan PH, Swanson R. MK-801 reduces uptake and stimulates efflux of excitatory amino acids via membrane depolarization. Am J Physiol. 1996 May; 270(5 Pt 1):C1398-404. PMID: 8967440.
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    126. Swanson R, Benington JH. Astrocyte glucose metabolism under normal and pathological conditions in vitro. Dev Neurosci. 1996; 18(5-6):515-21. PMID: 8940626.
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    127. Massa SM, Swanson R, Sharp FR. The stress gene response in brain. Cerebrovasc Brain Metab Rev. 1996; 8(2):95-158. PMID: 8727184.
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    128. Swanson R, Farrell K, Simon RP. Acidosis causes failure of astrocyte glutamate uptake during hypoxia. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1995 May; 15(3):417-24. PMID: 7713999.
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    129. Longuemare MC, Swanson R. Excitatory amino acid release from astrocytes during energy failure by reversal of sodium-dependent uptake. J Neurosci Res. 1995 Feb 15; 40(3):379-86. PMID: 7745632.
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    130. Swanson R, Graham SH. Fluorocitrate and fluoroacetate effects on astrocyte metabolism in vitro. Brain Res. 1994 Nov 21; 664(1-2):94-100. PMID: 7895052.
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    131. Morgan ET, Thomas KB, Swanson R, Vales T, Hwang J, Wright K. Selective suppression of cytochrome P-450 gene expression by interleukins 1 and 6 in rat liver. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1994 Oct 18; 1219(2):475-83. PMID: 7918645.
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    132. Sharp FR, Butman M, Koistinaho J, Aardalen K, Nakki R, Massa SM, Swanson R, Sagar SM. Phencyclidine induction of the hsp 70 stress gene in injured pyramidal neurons is mediated via multiple receptors and voltage gated calcium channels. Neuroscience. 1994 Oct; 62(4):1079-92. PMID: 7845588.
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    133. Fraser CL, Swanson R. Female sex hormones inhibit volume regulation in rat brain astrocyte culture. Am J Physiol. 1994 Oct; 267(4 Pt 1):C909-14. PMID: 7943284.
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    134. Longuemare MC, Hill MP, Swanson R. Glycolysis can prevent non-synaptic excitatory amino acid release during hypoxia. Neuroreport. 1994 Sep 08; 5(14):1789-92. PMID: 7827333.
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    135. Swanson R, Sharp FR. Infarct measurement methodology. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1994 Jul; 14(4):697-8. PMID: 7516936.
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    136. Swanson R, Chen J, Graham SH. Glucose can fuel glutamate uptake in ischemic brain. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1994 Jan; 14(1):1-6. PMID: 7903308.
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    137. Sharp FR, Butman M, Aardalen K, Nickolenko J, Nakki R, Massa SM, Swanson R, Sagar SM. Neuronal injury produced by NMDA antagonists can be detected using heat shock proteins and can be blocked with antipsychotics. Psychopharmacol Bull. 1994; 30(4):555-60. PMID: 7770620.
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    138. Swanson R, Sharp FR. BW619C89, a glutamate release inhibitor, protects against focal cerebral ischemic damage. Stroke. 1994 Jan; 25(1):225-6. PMID: 7903493.
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    139. Koistinaho J, Swanson R, de Vente J, Sagar SM. NADPH-diaphorase (nitric oxide synthase)-reactive amacrine cells of rabbit retina: putative target cells and stimulation by light. Neuroscience. 1993 Dec; 57(3):587-97. PMID: 7508576.
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    140. Giffard RG, Weiss JH, Swanson R, Choi DW. Secobarbital attenuates excitotoxicity but potentiates oxygen-glucose deprivation neuronal injury in cortical cell culture. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1993 Sep; 13(5):803-10. PMID: 8360287.
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    141. Pulliam L, West D, Haigwood N, Swanson R. HIV-1 envelope gp120 alters astrocytes in human brain cultures. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1993 May; 9(5):439-44. PMID: 8318270.
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    142. Sharp FR, Sagar SM, Swanson R. Metabolic mapping with cellular resolution: c-fos vs. 2-deoxyglucose. Crit Rev Neurobiol. 1993; 7(3-4):205-28. PMID: 8221912.
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    143. Swanson R, Choi DW. Glial glycogen stores affect neuronal survival during glucose deprivation in vitro. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1993 Jan; 13(1):162-9. PMID: 8417005.
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    144. Swanson R. Astrocyte glutamate uptake during chemical hypoxia in vitro. Neurosci Lett. 1992 Dec 07; 147(2):143-6. PMID: 1362805.
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    145. Halt PS, Swanson R, Faden AI. Alcohol exacerbates behavioral and neurochemical effects of rat spinal cord trauma. Arch Neurol. 1992 Nov; 49(11):1178-84. PMID: 1444885.
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    146. Swanson R, Morton MM, Sagar SM, Sharp FR. Sensory stimulation induces local cerebral glycogenolysis: demonstration by autoradiography. Neuroscience. 1992 Nov; 51(2):451-61. PMID: 1465204.
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    147. Chang LH, Shimizu H, Abiko H, Swanson R, Faden AI, James TL, Weinstein PR. Effect of dichloroacetate on recovery of brain lactate, phosphorus energy metabolites, and glutamate during reperfusion after complete cerebral ischemia in rats. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1992 Nov; 12(6):1030-8. PMID: 1356994.
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    148. Tombaugh GC, Yang SH, Swanson R, Sapolsky RM. Glucocorticoids exacerbate hypoxic and hypoglycemic hippocampal injury in vitro: biochemical correlates and a role for astrocytes. J Neurochem. 1992 Jul; 59(1):137-46. PMID: 1613495.
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    149. Swanson R. Physiologic coupling of glial glycogen metabolism to neuronal activity in brain. Can J Physiol Pharmacol. 1992; 70 Suppl:S138-44. PMID: 1295664.
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    150. Swanson R, Sharp FR. Zinc toxicity and induction of the 72 kD heat shock protein in primary astrocyte culture. Glia. 1992; 6(3):198-205. PMID: 1335969.
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    151. Swanson R, Sharp FR. Glucose and infarct size. Neurology. 1991 Dec; 41(12):2013. PMID: 1745369.
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    152. Young GP, Hedges JR, Gibler WB, Green TR, Swanson R. Do CK-MB results affect chest pain decision making in the emergency department? Ann Emerg Med. 1991 Nov; 20(11):1220-8. PMID: 1952309.
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    153. Luneau CJ, Williams JB, Marshall J, Levitan ES, Oliva C, Smith JS, Antanavage J, Folander K, Stein RB, Swanson R. Alternative splicing contributes to K+ channel diversity in the mammalian central nervous system. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1991 May 01; 88(9):3932-6. PMID: 2023941; PMCID: PMC51567.
    154. Hisanaga K, Sagar SM, Hicks KJ, Swanson R, Sharp FR. c-fos proto-oncogene expression in astrocytes associated with differentiation or proliferation but not depolarization. Brain Res Mol Brain Res. 1990 Jun; 8(1):69-75. PMID: 2166202.
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    155. Swanson R, Morton MT, Tsao-Wu G, Savalos RA, Davidson C, Sharp FR. A semiautomated method for measuring brain infarct volume. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 1990 Mar; 10(2):290-3. PMID: 1689322.
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    156. Swanson R, Yu AC, Chan PH, Sharp FR. Glutamate increases glycogen content and reduces glucose utilization in primary astrocyte culture. J Neurochem. 1990 Feb; 54(2):490-6. PMID: 1967630.
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    157. Swanson R, Shiraishi K, Morton MT, Sharp FR. Methionine sulfoximine reduces cortical infarct size in rats after middle cerebral artery occlusion. Stroke. 1990 Feb; 21(2):322-7. PMID: 2305410.
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    158. Swanson R, Yu AC, Sharp FR, Chan PH. Regulation of glycogen content in primary astrocyte culture: effects of glucose analogues, phenobarbital, and methionine sulfoximine. J Neurochem. 1989 May; 52(5):1359-65. PMID: 2540267.
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    159. Swanson R, Sagar SM, Sharp FR. Regional brain glycogen stores and metabolism during complete global ischaemia. Neurol Res. 1989 Mar; 11(1):24-8. PMID: 2565546.
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    160. Sagar SM, Sharp FR, Swanson R. The regional distribution of glycogen in rat brain fixed by microwave irradiation. Brain Res. 1987 Aug 04; 417(1):172-4. PMID: 3304537.
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    161. Swanson R, Schmidley JW. Amnestic syndrome and vertical gaze palsy: early detection of bilateral thalamic infarction by CT and NMR. Stroke. 1985 Sep-Oct; 16(5):823-7. PMID: 4049446.
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    162. Monteiro ML, Swanson R, Coppeto JR, Cuneo RA, DeArmond SJ, Prusiner SB. A microangiopathic syndrome of encephalopathy, hearing loss, and retinal arteriolar occlusions. Neurology. 1985 Aug; 35(8):1113-21. PMID: 4022345.
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    163. WAY EL, SWANSON R, GIMBLE AI. Studies in vitro and in vivo on the influence of the liver on isonipecaine (demerol) activity. J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 1947 Oct; 91(2):178-84. PMID: 20270121.
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