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Raymond Swanson, MD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentNeurology
Address1700 Owens Street
San Francisco CA 94107
Phone415-575-0403
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoResidency School of Medicine

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Raymond A. Swanson graduated from the University of Michigan Medical School and completed Neurology residency training at UCSF. He subsequently completed post-doctoral research fellowships at UCSF and Stanford University. He is currently chief of the Neurology service at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and heads a research lab located on the UCSF Mission Bay campus.

    His research focus is on bioenergetics and oxidative signaling in neurological disease. Studies in the area of stroke aim to identify ways to mitigate the dendritic and axonal ischemic injury caused by neuronal NADPH oxidase and formation of cofilin rods. Work pertaining to Parkinson's disease aims to identify interactions between neuronal redox state and alpha-synuclein aggregation. This effort also involves pre-clinical and clinical studies of thiol repletion agents as a disease-modifying therapeutic approach.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Integrating pathogenic mechanisms in Parkinson's disease
    NIH/NINDS R01NS105774Jun 15, 2018 - May 31, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Thiol repletion therapy for Parkinson's disease
    VA I01BX003249Oct 1, 2016 - Sep 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regulatory Control of Glutamate - Induced Superoxide Production
    NIH/NINDS R01NS081149Sep 1, 2012 - May 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Three-day scientific conference to be held April 18-20, 2012
    NIH/NINDS R13NS077646Sep 30, 2011 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Effects of PARP-1 gene deletion in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    NIH/NIA R21AG029483Aug 1, 2007 - Apr 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    VIIth International Conference on Brain Energy Metabolism
    NIH/NINDS R13NS056861Aug 1, 2006 - Jul 31, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Hypoglycemic neuronal death
    NIH/NINDS R01NS051855Sep 30, 2004 - Jul 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of PARP and PARG mediated cell death
    NIH/NINDS R01NS041421Apr 1, 2001 - May 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ASTROCYTE FUNCTION AND EAA NEUROTOXICITY IN ISCHEMIA
    NIH/NINDS R01NS031914May 20, 1994 - Jul 31, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CNS Injury and Edema Research Center
    NIH/NINDS P50NS014543Jul 1, 1978 - Jul 31, 2012
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
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    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Ramanathan DS, Guo L, Gulati T, Davidson G, Hishinuma AK, Won SJ, Knight RT, Chang EF, Swanson R, Ganguly K. Low-frequency cortical activity is a neuromodulatory target that tracks recovery after stroke. Nat Med. 2018 Jun 18. PMID: 29915259.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Barros F, Brown AM, Swanson R. Editorial. Glia. 2018 Jun; 66(6):1133. PMID: 29663573.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Barros LF, Brown A, Swanson R. Glia in brain energy metabolism: A perspective. Glia. 2018 Feb 24. PMID: 29476554.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Irvine K, Bishop R, Won SJ, Xu J, Hamel K, Coppes V, Singh P, Sondag A, Rome E, Basu J, Santos G, Panter SS, Swanson R. Effects of veliparib on microglial activation and functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury in the rat and pig. J Neurotrauma. 2017 Dec 29. PMID: 29285982.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Connolly NMC, Theurey P, Adam-Vizi V, Bazan NG, Bernardi P, Bolaños JP, Culmsee C, Dawson VL, Deshmukh M, Duchen MR, Düssmann H, Fiskum G, Galindo MF, Hardingham GE, Hardwick JM, Jekabsons MB, Jonas EA, Jordán J, Lipton SA, Manfredi G, Mattson MP, McLaughlin B, Methner A, Murphy AN, Murphy MP, Nicholls DG, Polster BM, Pozzan T, Rizzuto R, Satrústegui J, Slack RS, Swanson R, Swerdlow RH, Will Y, Ying Z, Joselin A, Gioran A, Moreira Pinho C, Watters O, Salvucci M, Llorente-Folch I, Park DS, Bano D, Ankarcrona M, Pizzo P, Prehn JHM. Guidelines on experimental methods to assess mitochondrial dysfunction in cellular models of neurodegenerative diseases. Cell Death Differ. 2018 Mar; 25(3):542-572. PMID: 29229998.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Ghosh S, Castillo E, Frias ES, Swanson R. Bioenergetic regulation of microglia. Glia. 2017 Dec 08. PMID: 29219210.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Shen Y, Kapfhamer D, Minnella AM, Kim JE, Won SJ, Chen Y, Huang Y, Low LH, Massa SM, Swanson R. Bioenergetic state regulates innate inflammatory responses through the transcriptional co-repressor CtBP. Nat Commun. 2017 09 22; 8(1):624. PMID: 28935892.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Haefeli J, Ferguson AR, Bingham D, Orr A, Won SJ, Lam TI, Shi J, Hawley S, Liu J, Swanson R, Massa SM. A data-driven approach for evaluating multi-modal therapy in traumatic brain injury. Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 16; 7:42474. PMID: 28205533.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Ko HR, Kwon IS, Hwang I, Jin EJ, Shin JH, Brennan-Minnella AM, Swanson R, Cho SW, Lee KH, Ahn JY. Akt1-Inhibitor of DNA binding2 is essential for growth cone formation and axon growth and promotes central nervous system axon regeneration. Elife. 2016 12 12; 5. PMID: 27938661.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Xu J, Wang H, Won SJ, Basu J, Kapfhamer D, Swanson R. Microglial activation induced by the alarmin S100B is regulated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Glia. 2016 11; 64(11):1869-78. PMID: 27444121.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Reyes RC, Cittolin-Santos GF, Kim JE, Won SJ, Brennan-Minnella AM, Katz M, Glass GA, Swanson R. Neuronal Glutathione Content and Antioxidant Capacity can be Normalized In Situ by N-acetyl Cysteine Concentrations Attained in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid. Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Jan; 13(1):217-25. PMID: 26572666; PMCID: PMC4720670 [Available on 01/01/17].
    12. Reyes RC, Cittolin-Santos GF, Kim JE, Won SJ, Brennan-Minnella AM, Katz M, Glass GA, Swanson R. Erratum to: Neuronal Glutathione Content and Antioxidant Capacity can be Normalized In Situ by N-acetyl Cysteine Concentrations Attained in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid. Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Jan; 13(1):239. PMID: 26659493; PMCID: PMC4720674.
    13. Vuong B, Hogan-Cann AD, Alano CC, Stevenson M, Chan WY, Anderson CM, Swanson R, Kauppinen TM. NF-?B transcriptional activation by TNFa requires phospholipase C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. J Neuroinflammation. 2015 Dec 04; 12:229. PMID: 26637332; PMCID: PMC4670503.
    14. Sheth SA, Iavarone AT, Liebeskind DS, Won SJ, Swanson R. Targeted Lipid Profiling Discovers Plasma Biomarkers of Acute Brain Injury. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0129735. PMID: 26076478; PMCID: PMC4468135.
    15. Gulati T, Won SJ, Ramanathan DS, Wong CC, Bodepudi A, Swanson R, Ganguly K. Robust neuroprosthetic control from the stroke perilesional cortex. J Neurosci. 2015 Jun 03; 35(22):8653-61. PMID: 26041930.
      View in: PubMed
    16. Won SJ, Kim JE, Cittolin-Santos GF, Swanson R. Assessment at the single-cell level identifies neuronal glutathione depletion as both a cause and effect of ischemia-reperfusion oxidative stress. J Neurosci. 2015 May 06; 35(18):7143-52. PMID: 25948264; PMCID: PMC4420782.
    17. Katz M, Won SJ, Park Y, Orr A, Jones DP, Swanson R, Glass GA. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of N-acetylcysteine after oral administration in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2015 May; 21(5):500-3. PMID: 25765302.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Chen Y, Brennan-Minnella AM, Sheth S, El-Benna J, Swanson R. Tat-NR2B9c prevents excitotoxic neuronal superoxide production. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2015 May; 35(5):739-42. PMID: 25669908; PMCID: PMC4420863.
    19. Brennan-Minnella AM, Won SJ, Swanson R. NADPH oxidase-2: linking glucose, acidosis, and excitotoxicity in stroke. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015 Jan 10; 22(2):161-74. PMID: 24628477; PMCID: PMC4281853.
    20. Knox R, Brennan-Minnella AM, Lu F, Yang D, Nakazawa T, Yamamoto T, Swanson R, Ferriero DM, Jiang X. NR2B phosphorylation at tyrosine 1472 contributes to brain injury in a rodent model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Stroke. 2014 Oct; 45(10):3040-7. PMID: 25158771; PMCID: PMC4175024.
    21. Cleaver JE, Brennan-Minnella AM, Swanson R, Fong KW, Chen J, Chou KM, Chen YW, Revet I, Bezrookove V. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are scavenged by Cockayne syndrome B protein in human fibroblasts without nuclear DNA damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 16; 111(37):13487-92. PMID: 25136123; PMCID: PMC4169934.
    22. Swanson R. Brain glycogen--vestigial no more. Foreword. Metab Brain Dis. 2015 Feb; 30(1):251-3. PMID: 25060966.
      View in: PubMed
    23. Robbins NM, Swanson R. Opposing effects of glucose on stroke and reperfusion injury: acidosis, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. Stroke. 2014 Jun; 45(6):1881-6. PMID: 24743441; PMCID: PMC4102697.
    24. Jain M, Ngoy S, Sheth SA, Swanson R, Rhee EP, Liao R, Clish CB, Mootha VK, Nilsson R. A systematic survey of lipids across mouse tissues. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Apr 15; 306(8):E854-68. PMID: 24518676; PMCID: PMC3989739.
    25. Swanson R. Glucose, acid, and aspartate: Friends and foes of the axon. Ann Neurol. 2014 Apr; 75(4):490-1. PMID: 24272667; PMCID: PMC4074545.
    26. Lam TI, Brennan-Minnella AM, Won SJ, Shen Y, Hefner C, Shi Y, Sun D, Swanson R. Intracellular pH reduction prevents excitotoxic and ischemic neuronal death by inhibiting NADPH oxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 12; 110(46):E4362-8. PMID: 24163350; PMCID: PMC3832003.
    27. Min SW, Sohn PD, Cho SH, Swanson R, Gan L. Sirtuins in neurodegenerative diseases: an update on potential mechanisms. Front Aging Neurosci. 2013 Sep 25; 5:53. PMID: 24093018; PMCID: PMC3782645.
    28. Baxter P, Chen Y, Xu Y, Swanson R. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1: a treatable cause of cell death in stroke. Transl Stroke Res. 2014 Feb; 5(1):136-44. PMID: 24323707; PMCID: PMC4034530.
    29. Swanson R, Schouboe A, McKenna MC. 10th International Conference on Brain Energy Metabolism. Preface. J Neurosci Res. 2013 Aug; 91(8):1005-6. PMID: 23798354.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Lam TI, Bingham D, Chang TJ, Lee CC, Shi J, Wang D, Massa S, Swanson R, Liu J. Beneficial effects of minocycline and botulinum toxin-induced constraint physical therapy following experimental traumatic brain injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013 Nov-Dec; 27(9):889-99. PMID: 23778701.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Kauppinen TM, Gan L, Swanson R. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-induced NAD(+) depletion promotes nuclear factor-?B transcriptional activity by preventing p65 de-acetylation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Aug; 1833(8):1985-91. PMID: 23597856; PMCID: PMC4041949.
    32. Reyes RC, Brennan AM, Shen Y, Baldwin Y, Swanson R. Activation of neuronal NMDA receptors induces superoxide-mediated oxidative stress in neighboring neurons and astrocytes. J Neurosci. 2012 Sep 12; 32(37):12973-8. PMID: 22973021; PMCID: PMC3478885.
    33. Won SJ, Yoo BH, Kauppinen TM, Choi BY, Kim JH, Jang BG, Lee MW, Sohn M, Liu J, Swanson R, Suh SW. Recurrent/moderate hypoglycemia induces hippocampal dendritic injury, microglial activation, and cognitive impairment in diabetic rats. J Neuroinflammation. 2012 Jul 25; 9:182. PMID: 22830525; PMCID: PMC3458941.
    34. Won SJ, Choi BY, Yoo BH, Sohn M, Ying W, Swanson R, Suh SW. Prevention of traumatic brain injury-induced neuron death by intranasal delivery of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. J Neurotrauma. 2012 May 01; 29(7):1401-9. PMID: 22352983.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Swanson R. One cell's poison is another cell's cure. Nat Neurosci. 2012 Mar 27; 15(4):505-6. PMID: 22449958.
      View in: PubMed
    36. d'Avila JC, Lam TI, Bingham D, Shi J, Won SJ, Kauppinen TM, Massa S, Liu J, Swanson R. Microglial activation induced by brain trauma is suppressed by post-injury treatment with a PARP inhibitor. J Neuroinflammation. 2012 Feb 15; 9:31. PMID: 22335939; PMCID: PMC3298794.
    37. Kauppinen TM, Suh SW, Higashi Y, Berman AE, Escartin C, Won SJ, Wang C, Cho SH, Gan L, Swanson R. Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 modulates microglial responses to amyloid ß. J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Nov 03; 8:152. PMID: 22051244; PMCID: PMC3247192.
    38. Won SJ, Tang XN, Suh SW, Yenari MA, Swanson R. Hyperglycemia promotes tissue plasminogen activator-induced hemorrhage by Increasing superoxide production. Ann Neurol. 2011 Oct; 70(4):583-90. PMID: 22002675; PMCID: PMC4554391.
    39. Escartin C, Won SJ, Malgorn C, Auregan G, Berman AE, Chen PC, Déglon N, Johnson JA, Suh SW, Swanson R. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 facilitates neuronal glutathione synthesis by upregulating neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3 expression. J Neurosci. 2011 May 18; 31(20):7392-401. PMID: 21593323; PMCID: PMC3339848.
    40. Berman AE, Chan WY, Brennan AM, Reyes RC, Adler BL, Suh SW, Kauppinen TM, Edling Y, Swanson R. N-acetylcysteine prevents loss of dopaminergic neurons in the EAAC1-/- mouse. Ann Neurol. 2011 Mar; 69(3):509-20. PMID: 21446024; PMCID: PMC4096233.
    41. Won SJ, Yoo BH, Brennan AM, Shin BS, Kauppinen TM, Berman AE, Swanson R, Suh SW. EAAC1 gene deletion alters zinc homeostasis and exacerbates neuronal injury after transient cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci. 2010 Nov 17; 30(46):15409-18. PMID: 21084597.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Yenari MA, Kauppinen TM, Swanson R. Microglial activation in stroke: therapeutic targets. Neurotherapeutics. 2010 Oct; 7(4):378-91. PMID: 20880502.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Tang XN, Berman AE, Swanson R, Yenari MA. Digitally quantifying cerebral hemorrhage using Photoshop and Image J. J Neurosci Methods. 2010 Jul 15; 190(2):240-3. PMID: 20452374; PMCID: PMC2898728.
    44. Tang KS, Suh SW, Alano CC, Shao Z, Hunt WT, Swanson R, Anderson CM. Astrocytic poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation leads to bioenergetic depletion and inhibition of glutamate uptake capacity. Glia. 2010 Mar; 58(4):446-57. PMID: 19795500.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Alano CC, Garnier P, Ying W, Higashi Y, Kauppinen TM, Swanson R. NAD+ depletion is necessary and sufficient for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-mediated neuronal death. J Neurosci. 2010 Feb 24; 30(8):2967-78. PMID: 20181594; PMCID: PMC2864043.
    46. Wang Q, van Hoecke M, Tang XN, Lee H, Zheng Z, Swanson R, Yenari MA. Pyruvate protects against experimental stroke via an anti-inflammatory mechanism. Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Oct; 36(1):223-31. PMID: 19635562; PMCID: PMC2742567.
    47. Brennan AM, Suh SW, Won SJ, Narasimhan P, Kauppinen TM, Lee H, Edling Y, Chan PH, Swanson R. NADPH oxidase is the primary source of superoxide induced by NMDA receptor activation. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Jul; 12(7):857-63. PMID: 19503084; PMCID: PMC2746760.
    48. Nagasawa K, Escartin C, Swanson R. Astrocyte cultures exhibit P2X7 receptor channel opening in the absence of exogenous ligands. Glia. 2009 Apr 15; 57(6):622-33. PMID: 18942742.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Burns DM, Ying W, Kauppinen TM, Zhu K, Swanson R. Selective down-regulation of nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase. PLoS One. 2009; 4(3):e4896. PMID: 19319190; PMCID: PMC2655720.
    50. Kauppinen TM, Suh SW, Berman AE, Hamby AM, Swanson R. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase suppresses inflammation and promotes recovery after ischemic injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Apr; 29(4):820-9. PMID: 19190653.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Suh SW, Shin BS, Ma H, Van Hoecke M, Brennan AM, Yenari MA, Swanson R. Glucose and NADPH oxidase drive neuronal superoxide formation in stroke. Ann Neurol. 2008 Dec; 64(6):654-63. PMID: 19107988; PMCID: PMC4304737.
    52. Suh SW, Hamby AM, Gum ET, Shin BS, Won SJ, Sheline CT, Chan PH, Swanson R. Sequential release of nitric oxide, zinc, and superoxide in hypoglycemic neuronal death. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008 Oct; 28(10):1697-706. PMID: 18545258.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Kauppinen TM, Higashi Y, Suh SW, Escartin C, Nagasawa K, Swanson R. Zinc triggers microglial activation. J Neurosci. 2008 May 28; 28(22):5827-35. PMID: 18509044; PMCID: PMC2680357.
    54. Alano CC, Tran A, Tao R, Ying W, Karliner JS, Swanson R. Differences among cell types in NAD(+) compartmentalization: a comparison of neurons, astrocytes, and cardiac myocytes. J Neurosci Res. 2007 Nov 15; 85(15):3378-85. PMID: 17853438.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Suh SW, Hamby AM, Swanson R. Hypoglycemia, brain energetics, and hypoglycemic neuronal death. Glia. 2007 Sep; 55(12):1280-6. PMID: 17659530.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Voloboueva LA, Suh SW, Swanson R, Giffard RG. Inhibition of mitochondrial function in astrocytes: implications for neuroprotection. J Neurochem. 2007 Aug; 102(4):1383-94. PMID: 17488276; PMCID: PMC3175820.
    57. Suh SW, Aoyama K, Alano CC, Anderson CM, Hamby AM, Swanson R. Zinc inhibits astrocyte glutamate uptake by activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Mol Med. 2007 Jul-Aug; 13(7-8):344-9. PMID: 17728843; PMCID: PMC1952665.
    58. Suh SW, Gum ET, Hamby AM, Chan PH, Swanson R. Hypoglycemic neuronal death is triggered by glucose reperfusion and activation of neuronal NADPH oxidase. J Clin Invest. 2007 Apr; 117(4):910-8. PMID: 17404617; PMCID: PMC1838937.
    59. Bourguignon LY, Gilad E, Peyrollier K, Brightman A, Swanson R. Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction stimulates Rac1 signaling and PKN gamma kinase activation leading to cytoskeleton function and cell migration in astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2007 May; 101(4):1002-17. PMID: 17403031.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Hamby AM, Suh SW, Kauppinen TM, Swanson R. Use of a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor to suppress inflammation and neuronal death after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Stroke. 2007 Feb; 38(2 Suppl):632-6. PMID: 17261705.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Suh SW, Bergher JP, Anderson CM, Treadway JL, Fosgerau K, Swanson R. Astrocyte glycogen sustains neuronal activity during hypoglycemia: studies with the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor CP-316,819 ([R-R*,S*]-5-chloro-N-[2-hydroxy-3-(methoxymethylamino)-3-oxo-1-(phenylmethyl)propyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr; 321(1):45-50. PMID: 17251391.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Yenari MA, Swanson R. INTRODUCTION: Immune mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Clin Neurosci Res. 2006 Dec; 6(5):225. PMID: 17464366.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Szabo C, Pacher P, Swanson R. Novel modulators of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006 Dec; 27(12):626-30. PMID: 17055069.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Swanson R. Intracerebral hematoma: beyond the mass lesion. Stroke. 2006 Oct; 37(10):2445. PMID: 16960087.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Alano CC, Kauppinen TM, Valls AV, Swanson R. Minocycline inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 at nanomolar concentrations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 20; 103(25):9685-90. PMID: 16769901; PMCID: PMC1480467.
    66. Zeng J, Yang GY, Ying W, Kelly M, Hirai K, James TL, Swanson R, Litt L. Pyruvate improves recovery after PARP-1-associated energy failure induced by oxidative stress in neonatal rat cerebrocortical slices. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007 Feb; 27(2):304-15. PMID: 16736046.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Alano CC, Swanson R. Players in the PARP-1 cell-death pathway: JNK1 joins the cast. Trends Biochem Sci. 2006 Jun; 31(6):309-11. PMID: 16679020.
      View in: PubMed
    68. Kauppinen TM, Chan WY, Suh SW, Wiggins AK, Huang EJ, Swanson R. Direct phosphorylation and regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 02; 103(18):7136-41. PMID: 16627622; PMCID: PMC1459030.
    69. Zhou HZ, Swanson R, Simonis U, Ma X, Cecchini G, Gray MO. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 hyperactivation and impairment of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I function in reperfused mouse hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Aug; 291(2):H714-23. PMID: 16582021.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Aoyama K, Suh SW, Hamby AM, Liu J, Chan WY, Chen Y, Swanson R. Neuronal glutathione deficiency and age-dependent neurodegeneration in the EAAC1 deficient mouse. Nat Neurosci. 2006 Jan; 9(1):119-26. PMID: 16311588.
      View in: PubMed
    71. Zhu K, Swanson R, Ying W. NADH can enter into astrocytes and block poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-mediated astrocyte death. Neuroreport. 2005 Aug 01; 16(11):1209-12. PMID: 16012350.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Kauppinen TM, Suh SW, Genain CP, Swanson R. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation in a primate model of multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci Res. 2005 Jul 15; 81(2):190-8. PMID: 15931673.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Giffard RG, Swanson R. Ischemia-induced programmed cell death in astrocytes. Glia. 2005 Jun; 50(4):299-306. PMID: 15846803.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Suh SW, Aoyama K, Matsumori Y, Liu J, Swanson R. Pyruvate administered after severe hypoglycemia reduces neuronal death and cognitive impairment. Diabetes. 2005 May; 54(5):1452-8. PMID: 15855333.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Aoyama K, Burns DM, Suh SW, Garnier P, Matsumori Y, Shiina H, Swanson R. Acidosis causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and caspase-12-mediated astrocyte death. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005 Mar; 25(3):358-70. PMID: 15689959.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Kauppinen TM, Swanson R. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 promotes microglial activation, proliferation, and matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated neuron death. J Immunol. 2005 Feb 15; 174(4):2288-96. PMID: 15699164.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Suh SW, Fan Y, Hong SM, Liu Z, Matsumori Y, Weinstein PR, Swanson R, Liu J. Hypoglycemia induces transient neurogenesis and subsequent progenitor cell loss in the rat hippocampus. Diabetes. 2005 Feb; 54(2):500-9. PMID: 15677508.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Ying W, Alano CC, Garnier P, Swanson R. NAD+ as a metabolic link between DNA damage and cell death. J Neurosci Res. 2005 Jan 1-15; 79(1-2):216-23. PMID: 15562437.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Garnier P, Prigent-Tessier A, Van Hoecke M, Bertrand N, Demougeot C, Sordet O, Swanson R, Marie C, Beley A. Hypoxia induces caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation without neuronal death in gerbil brains. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Aug; 20(4):937-46. PMID: 15305862.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Zeng J, Hirai K, Yang GY, Ying W, Swanson R, Kelly M, Mayer M, James TL, Litt L. Using 31P NMR spectroscopy at 14.1 Tesla to investigate PARP-1 associated energy failure and metabolic rescue in cerebrocortical slices. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2004 Aug; 36(4):415-9. PMID: 15377881.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Suh SW, Garnier P, Aoyama K, Chen Y, Swanson R. Zinc release contributes to hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death. Neurobiol Dis. 2004 Aug; 16(3):538-45. PMID: 15262265.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Swanson R, Ying W, Kauppinen TM. Astrocyte influences on ischemic neuronal death. Curr Mol Med. 2004 Mar; 4(2):193-205. PMID: 15032713.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Alano CC, Ying W, Swanson R. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-mediated cell death in astrocytes requires NAD+ depletion and mitochondrial permeability transition. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 30; 279(18):18895-902. PMID: 14960594.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Castro-Obregón S, Rao RV, del Rio G, Chen SF, Poksay KS, Rabizadeh S, Vesce S, Zhang XK, Swanson R, Bredesen DE. Alternative, nonapoptotic programmed cell death: mediation by arrestin 2, ERK2, and Nur77. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 23; 279(17):17543-53. PMID: 14769794.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Gum ET, Swanson R, Alano C, Liu J, Hong S, Weinstein PR, Panter SS. Human serum albumin and its N-terminal tetrapeptide (DAHK) block oxidant-induced neuronal death. Stroke. 2004 Feb; 35(2):590-5. PMID: 14726550.
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    86. Anderson CM, Bergher JP, Swanson R. ATP-induced ATP release from astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2004 Jan; 88(1):246-56. PMID: 14675168.
      View in: PubMed
    87. Suh SW, Aoyama K, Chen Y, Garnier P, Matsumori Y, Gum E, Liu J, Swanson R. Hypoglycemic neuronal death and cognitive impairment are prevented by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitors administered after hypoglycemia. J Neurosci. 2003 Nov 19; 23(33):10681-90. PMID: 14627653.
      View in: PubMed
    88. Tsuchiya D, Hong S, Matsumori Y, Kayama T, Swanson R, Dillman WH, Liu J, Panter SS, Weinstein PR. Overexpression of rat heat shock protein 70 reduces neuronal injury after transient focal ischemia, transient global ischemia, or kainic acid-induced seizures. Neurosurgery. 2003 Nov; 53(5):1179-87; discussion 1187-8. PMID: 14580286.
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