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Raymond Swanson, MD

TitleProfessor
InstitutionUniversity of California San Francisco
DepartmentNeurology
Address1700 Owens Street
San Francisco CA 94107
Phone415-575-0403
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San FranciscoResidency School of Medicine

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Raymond A. Swanson graduated from the University of Michigan Medical School and completed Neurology residency training at UCSF. He subsequently completed post-doctoral research fellowships at UCSF and Stanford University. He is currently chief of the Neurology service at the San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, and heads a research lab located on the UCSF Mission Bay campus.

    His research focus is on bioenergetics and oxidative signaling in neurological disease. Studies in the area of stroke aim to identify ways to mitigate the dendritic and axonal ischemic injury caused by neuronal NADPH oxidase and formation of cofilin rods. Work pertaining to Parkinson's disease aims to identify interactions between neuronal redox state and alpha-synuclein aggregation. This effort also involves pre-clinical and clinical studies of thiol repletion agents as a disease-modifying therapeutic approach.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Integrating pathogenic mechanisms in Parkinson's disease
    NIH/NINDS R01NS105774Jun 15, 2018 - May 31, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Thiol repletion therapy for Parkinson's disease
    VA I01BX003249Oct 1, 2016 - Sep 30, 2020
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Regulatory Control of Glutamate - Induced Superoxide Production
    NIH/NINDS R01NS081149Sep 1, 2012 - May 31, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Three-day scientific conference to be held April 18-20, 2012
    NIH/NINDS R13NS077646Sep 30, 2011 - Aug 31, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Effects of PARP-1 gene deletion in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease
    NIH/NIA R21AG029483Aug 1, 2007 - Apr 30, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    VIIth International Conference on Brain Energy Metabolism
    NIH/NINDS R13NS056861Aug 1, 2006 - Jul 31, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Hypoglycemic neuronal death
    NIH/NINDS R01NS051855Sep 30, 2004 - Jul 31, 2010
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Mechanisms of PARP and PARG mediated cell death
    NIH/NINDS R01NS041421Apr 1, 2001 - May 31, 2015
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ASTROCYTE FUNCTION AND EAA NEUROTOXICITY IN ISCHEMIA
    NIH/NINDS R01NS031914May 20, 1994 - Jul 31, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    CNS Injury and Edema Research Center
    NIH/NINDS P50NS014543Jul 1, 1978 - Jul 31, 2012
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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    1. Won SJ, Minnella AM, Wu L, Eun CH, Rome E, Herson PS, Shaw AE, Bamburg JR, Swanson RA. Cofilin-actin rod formation in neuronal processes after brain ischemia. PLoS One. 2018; 13(10):e0198709. PMID: 30325927.
      View in: PubMed
    2. Ryu JK, Rafalski VA, Meyer-Franke A, Adams RA, Poda SB, Rios Coronado PE, Pedersen LØ, Menon V, Baeten KM, Sikorski SL, Bedard C, Hanspers K, Bardehle S, Mendiola AS, Davalos D, Machado MR, Chan JP, Plastira I, Petersen MA, Pfaff SJ, Ang KK, Hallenbeck KK, Syme C, Hakozaki H, Ellisman MH, Swanson RA, Zamvil SS, Arkin MR, Zorn SH, Pico AR, Mucke L, Freedman SB, Stavenhagen JB, Nelson RB, Akassoglou K. Fibrin-targeting immunotherapy protects against neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Nat Immunol. 2018 Oct 15. PMID: 30323343.
      View in: PubMed
    3. Ramanathan DS, Guo L, Gulati T, Davidson G, Hishinuma AK, Won SJ, Knight RT, Chang EF, Swanson RA, Ganguly K. Low-frequency cortical activity is a neuromodulatory target that tracks recovery after stroke. Nat Med. 2018 Jun 18. PMID: 29915259.
      View in: PubMed
    4. Barros F, Brown AM, Swanson RA. Editorial. Glia. 2018 Jun; 66(6):1133. PMID: 29663573.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Barros LF, Brown A, Swanson RA. Glia in brain energy metabolism: A perspective. Glia. 2018 Feb 24. PMID: 29476554.
      View in: PubMed
    6. Irvine K, Bishop R, Won SJ, Xu J, Hamel K, Coppes V, Singh P, Sondag A, Rome E, Basu J, Santos G, Panter SS, Swanson R. Effects of veliparib on microglial activation and functional outcomes following traumatic brain injury in the rat and pig. J Neurotrauma. 2017 Dec 29. PMID: 29285982.
      View in: PubMed
    7. Connolly NMC, Theurey P, Adam-Vizi V, Bazan NG, Bernardi P, Bolaños JP, Culmsee C, Dawson VL, Deshmukh M, Duchen MR, Düssmann H, Fiskum G, Galindo MF, Hardingham GE, Hardwick JM, Jekabsons MB, Jonas EA, Jordán J, Lipton SA, Manfredi G, Mattson MP, McLaughlin B, Methner A, Murphy AN, Murphy MP, Nicholls DG, Polster BM, Pozzan T, Rizzuto R, Satrústegui J, Slack RS, Swanson RA, Swerdlow RH, Will Y, Ying Z, Joselin A, Gioran A, Moreira Pinho C, Watters O, Salvucci M, Llorente-Folch I, Park DS, Bano D, Ankarcrona M, Pizzo P, Prehn JHM. Guidelines on experimental methods to assess mitochondrial dysfunction in cellular models of neurodegenerative diseases. Cell Death Differ. 2018 Mar; 25(3):542-572. PMID: 29229998.
      View in: PubMed
    8. Ghosh S, Castillo E, Frias ES, Swanson RA. Bioenergetic regulation of microglia. Glia. 2017 Dec 08. PMID: 29219210.
      View in: PubMed
    9. Shen Y, Kapfhamer D, Minnella AM, Kim JE, Won SJ, Chen Y, Huang Y, Low LH, Massa SM, Swanson RA. Bioenergetic state regulates innate inflammatory responses through the transcriptional co-repressor CtBP. Nat Commun. 2017 09 22; 8(1):624. PMID: 28935892.
      View in: PubMed
    10. Haefeli J, Ferguson AR, Bingham D, Orr A, Won SJ, Lam TI, Shi J, Hawley S, Liu J, Swanson RA, Massa SM. A data-driven approach for evaluating multi-modal therapy in traumatic brain injury. Sci Rep. 2017 Feb 16; 7:42474. PMID: 28205533.
      View in: PubMed
    11. Ko HR, Kwon IS, Hwang I, Jin EJ, Shin JH, Brennan-Minnella AM, Swanson R, Cho SW, Lee KH, Ahn JY. Akt1-Inhibitor of DNA binding2 is essential for growth cone formation and axon growth and promotes central nervous system axon regeneration. Elife. 2016 12 12; 5. PMID: 27938661.
      View in: PubMed
    12. Xu J, Wang H, Won SJ, Basu J, Kapfhamer D, Swanson RA. Microglial activation induced by the alarmin S100B is regulated by poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Glia. 2016 11; 64(11):1869-78. PMID: 27444121.
      View in: PubMed
    13. Reyes RC, Cittolin-Santos GF, Kim JE, Won SJ, Brennan-Minnella AM, Katz M, Glass GA, Swanson RA. Neuronal Glutathione Content and Antioxidant Capacity can be Normalized In Situ by N-acetyl Cysteine Concentrations Attained in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid. Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Jan; 13(1):217-25. PMID: 26572666; PMCID: PMC4720670 [Available on 01/01/17].
    14. Reyes RC, Cittolin-Santos GF, Kim JE, Won SJ, Brennan-Minnella AM, Katz M, Glass GA, Swanson RA. Erratum to: Neuronal Glutathione Content and Antioxidant Capacity can be Normalized In Situ by N-acetyl Cysteine Concentrations Attained in Human Cerebrospinal Fluid. Neurotherapeutics. 2016 Jan; 13(1):239. PMID: 26659493; PMCID: PMC4720674.
    15. Vuong B, Hogan-Cann AD, Alano CC, Stevenson M, Chan WY, Anderson CM, Swanson RA, Kauppinen TM. NF-?B transcriptional activation by TNFa requires phospholipase C, extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. J Neuroinflammation. 2015 Dec 04; 12:229. PMID: 26637332; PMCID: PMC4670503.
    16. Sheth SA, Iavarone AT, Liebeskind DS, Won SJ, Swanson RA. Targeted Lipid Profiling Discovers Plasma Biomarkers of Acute Brain Injury. PLoS One. 2015; 10(6):e0129735. PMID: 26076478; PMCID: PMC4468135.
    17. Gulati T, Won SJ, Ramanathan DS, Wong CC, Bodepudi A, Swanson RA, Ganguly K. Robust neuroprosthetic control from the stroke perilesional cortex. J Neurosci. 2015 Jun 03; 35(22):8653-61. PMID: 26041930.
      View in: PubMed
    18. Won SJ, Kim JE, Cittolin-Santos GF, Swanson RA. Assessment at the single-cell level identifies neuronal glutathione depletion as both a cause and effect of ischemia-reperfusion oxidative stress. J Neurosci. 2015 May 06; 35(18):7143-52. PMID: 25948264; PMCID: PMC4420782.
    19. Katz M, Won SJ, Park Y, Orr A, Jones DP, Swanson RA, Glass GA. Cerebrospinal fluid concentrations of N-acetylcysteine after oral administration in Parkinson's disease. Parkinsonism Relat Disord. 2015 May; 21(5):500-3. PMID: 25765302.
      View in: PubMed
    20. Chen Y, Brennan-Minnella AM, Sheth S, El-Benna J, Swanson RA. Tat-NR2B9c prevents excitotoxic neuronal superoxide production. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2015 May; 35(5):739-42. PMID: 25669908; PMCID: PMC4420863.
    21. Brennan-Minnella AM, Won SJ, Swanson RA. NADPH oxidase-2: linking glucose, acidosis, and excitotoxicity in stroke. Antioxid Redox Signal. 2015 Jan 10; 22(2):161-74. PMID: 24628477; PMCID: PMC4281853.
    22. Knox R, Brennan-Minnella AM, Lu F, Yang D, Nakazawa T, Yamamoto T, Swanson RA, Ferriero DM, Jiang X. NR2B phosphorylation at tyrosine 1472 contributes to brain injury in a rodent model of neonatal hypoxia-ischemia. Stroke. 2014 Oct; 45(10):3040-7. PMID: 25158771; PMCID: PMC4175024.
    23. Cleaver JE, Brennan-Minnella AM, Swanson RA, Fong KW, Chen J, Chou KM, Chen YW, Revet I, Bezrookove V. Mitochondrial reactive oxygen species are scavenged by Cockayne syndrome B protein in human fibroblasts without nuclear DNA damage. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Sep 16; 111(37):13487-92. PMID: 25136123; PMCID: PMC4169934.
    24. Swanson RA. Brain glycogen--vestigial no more. Foreword. Metab Brain Dis. 2015 Feb; 30(1):251-3. PMID: 25060966.
      View in: PubMed
    25. Robbins NM, Swanson RA. Opposing effects of glucose on stroke and reperfusion injury: acidosis, oxidative stress, and energy metabolism. Stroke. 2014 Jun; 45(6):1881-6. PMID: 24743441; PMCID: PMC4102697.
    26. Jain M, Ngoy S, Sheth SA, Swanson RA, Rhee EP, Liao R, Clish CB, Mootha VK, Nilsson R. A systematic survey of lipids across mouse tissues. Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. 2014 Apr 15; 306(8):E854-68. PMID: 24518676; PMCID: PMC3989739.
    27. Swanson RA. Glucose, acid, and aspartate: Friends and foes of the axon. Ann Neurol. 2014 Apr; 75(4):490-1. PMID: 24272667; PMCID: PMC4074545.
    28. Lam TI, Brennan-Minnella AM, Won SJ, Shen Y, Hefner C, Shi Y, Sun D, Swanson RA. Intracellular pH reduction prevents excitotoxic and ischemic neuronal death by inhibiting NADPH oxidase. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013 Nov 12; 110(46):E4362-8. PMID: 24163350; PMCID: PMC3832003.
    29. Min SW, Sohn PD, Cho SH, Swanson RA, Gan L. Sirtuins in neurodegenerative diseases: an update on potential mechanisms. Front Aging Neurosci. 2013 Sep 25; 5:53. PMID: 24093018; PMCID: PMC3782645.
    30. Baxter P, Chen Y, Xu Y, Swanson RA. Mitochondrial dysfunction induced by nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1: a treatable cause of cell death in stroke. Transl Stroke Res. 2014 Feb; 5(1):136-44. PMID: 24323707; PMCID: PMC4034530.
    31. Swanson R, Schouboe A, McKenna MC. 10th International Conference on Brain Energy Metabolism. Preface. J Neurosci Res. 2013 Aug; 91(8):1005-6. PMID: 23798354.
      View in: PubMed
    32. Lam TI, Bingham D, Chang TJ, Lee CC, Shi J, Wang D, Massa S, Swanson RA, Liu J. Beneficial effects of minocycline and botulinum toxin-induced constraint physical therapy following experimental traumatic brain injury. Neurorehabil Neural Repair. 2013 Nov-Dec; 27(9):889-99. PMID: 23778701.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Kauppinen TM, Gan L, Swanson RA. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-induced NAD(+) depletion promotes nuclear factor-?B transcriptional activity by preventing p65 de-acetylation. Biochim Biophys Acta. 2013 Aug; 1833(8):1985-91. PMID: 23597856; PMCID: PMC4041949.
    34. Reyes RC, Brennan AM, Shen Y, Baldwin Y, Swanson RA. Activation of neuronal NMDA receptors induces superoxide-mediated oxidative stress in neighboring neurons and astrocytes. J Neurosci. 2012 Sep 12; 32(37):12973-8. PMID: 22973021; PMCID: PMC3478885.
    35. Won SJ, Yoo BH, Kauppinen TM, Choi BY, Kim JH, Jang BG, Lee MW, Sohn M, Liu J, Swanson RA, Suh SW. Recurrent/moderate hypoglycemia induces hippocampal dendritic injury, microglial activation, and cognitive impairment in diabetic rats. J Neuroinflammation. 2012 Jul 25; 9:182. PMID: 22830525; PMCID: PMC3458941.
    36. Won SJ, Choi BY, Yoo BH, Sohn M, Ying W, Swanson RA, Suh SW. Prevention of traumatic brain injury-induced neuron death by intranasal delivery of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide. J Neurotrauma. 2012 May 01; 29(7):1401-9. PMID: 22352983.
      View in: PubMed
    37. Swanson RA. One cell's poison is another cell's cure. Nat Neurosci. 2012 Mar 27; 15(4):505-6. PMID: 22449958.
      View in: PubMed
    38. d'Avila JC, Lam TI, Bingham D, Shi J, Won SJ, Kauppinen TM, Massa S, Liu J, Swanson RA. Microglial activation induced by brain trauma is suppressed by post-injury treatment with a PARP inhibitor. J Neuroinflammation. 2012 Feb 15; 9:31. PMID: 22335939; PMCID: PMC3298794.
    39. Kauppinen TM, Suh SW, Higashi Y, Berman AE, Escartin C, Won SJ, Wang C, Cho SH, Gan L, Swanson RA. Poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase-1 modulates microglial responses to amyloid ß. J Neuroinflammation. 2011 Nov 03; 8:152. PMID: 22051244; PMCID: PMC3247192.
    40. Won SJ, Tang XN, Suh SW, Yenari MA, Swanson RA. Hyperglycemia promotes tissue plasminogen activator-induced hemorrhage by Increasing superoxide production. Ann Neurol. 2011 Oct; 70(4):583-90. PMID: 22002675; PMCID: PMC4554391.
    41. Escartin C, Won SJ, Malgorn C, Auregan G, Berman AE, Chen PC, Déglon N, Johnson JA, Suh SW, Swanson RA. Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 facilitates neuronal glutathione synthesis by upregulating neuronal excitatory amino acid transporter 3 expression. J Neurosci. 2011 May 18; 31(20):7392-401. PMID: 21593323; PMCID: PMC3339848.
    42. Berman AE, Chan WY, Brennan AM, Reyes RC, Adler BL, Suh SW, Kauppinen TM, Edling Y, Swanson RA. N-acetylcysteine prevents loss of dopaminergic neurons in the EAAC1-/- mouse. Ann Neurol. 2011 Mar; 69(3):509-20. PMID: 21446024; PMCID: PMC4096233.
    43. Won SJ, Yoo BH, Brennan AM, Shin BS, Kauppinen TM, Berman AE, Swanson RA, Suh SW. EAAC1 gene deletion alters zinc homeostasis and exacerbates neuronal injury after transient cerebral ischemia. J Neurosci. 2010 Nov 17; 30(46):15409-18. PMID: 21084597.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Yenari MA, Kauppinen TM, Swanson RA. Microglial activation in stroke: therapeutic targets. Neurotherapeutics. 2010 Oct; 7(4):378-91. PMID: 20880502.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Tang XN, Berman AE, Swanson RA, Yenari MA. Digitally quantifying cerebral hemorrhage using Photoshop and Image J. J Neurosci Methods. 2010 Jul 15; 190(2):240-3. PMID: 20452374; PMCID: PMC2898728.
    46. Tang KS, Suh SW, Alano CC, Shao Z, Hunt WT, Swanson RA, Anderson CM. Astrocytic poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation leads to bioenergetic depletion and inhibition of glutamate uptake capacity. Glia. 2010 Mar; 58(4):446-57. PMID: 19795500.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Alano CC, Garnier P, Ying W, Higashi Y, Kauppinen TM, Swanson RA. NAD+ depletion is necessary and sufficient for poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-mediated neuronal death. J Neurosci. 2010 Feb 24; 30(8):2967-78. PMID: 20181594; PMCID: PMC2864043.
    48. Wang Q, van Hoecke M, Tang XN, Lee H, Zheng Z, Swanson RA, Yenari MA. Pyruvate protects against experimental stroke via an anti-inflammatory mechanism. Neurobiol Dis. 2009 Oct; 36(1):223-31. PMID: 19635562; PMCID: PMC2742567.
    49. Brennan AM, Suh SW, Won SJ, Narasimhan P, Kauppinen TM, Lee H, Edling Y, Chan PH, Swanson RA. NADPH oxidase is the primary source of superoxide induced by NMDA receptor activation. Nat Neurosci. 2009 Jul; 12(7):857-63. PMID: 19503084; PMCID: PMC2746760.
    50. Nagasawa K, Escartin C, Swanson RA. Astrocyte cultures exhibit P2X7 receptor channel opening in the absence of exogenous ligands. Glia. 2009 Apr 15; 57(6):622-33. PMID: 18942742.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Burns DM, Ying W, Kauppinen TM, Zhu K, Swanson RA. Selective down-regulation of nuclear poly(ADP-ribose) glycohydrolase. PLoS One. 2009; 4(3):e4896. PMID: 19319190; PMCID: PMC2655720.
    52. Kauppinen TM, Suh SW, Berman AE, Hamby AM, Swanson RA. Inhibition of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase suppresses inflammation and promotes recovery after ischemic injury. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2009 Apr; 29(4):820-9. PMID: 19190653.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Suh SW, Shin BS, Ma H, Van Hoecke M, Brennan AM, Yenari MA, Swanson RA. Glucose and NADPH oxidase drive neuronal superoxide formation in stroke. Ann Neurol. 2008 Dec; 64(6):654-63. PMID: 19107988; PMCID: PMC4304737.
    54. Suh SW, Hamby AM, Gum ET, Shin BS, Won SJ, Sheline CT, Chan PH, Swanson RA. Sequential release of nitric oxide, zinc, and superoxide in hypoglycemic neuronal death. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2008 Oct; 28(10):1697-706. PMID: 18545258.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Kauppinen TM, Higashi Y, Suh SW, Escartin C, Nagasawa K, Swanson RA. Zinc triggers microglial activation. J Neurosci. 2008 May 28; 28(22):5827-35. PMID: 18509044; PMCID: PMC2680357.
    56. Alano CC, Tran A, Tao R, Ying W, Karliner JS, Swanson RA. Differences among cell types in NAD(+) compartmentalization: a comparison of neurons, astrocytes, and cardiac myocytes. J Neurosci Res. 2007 Nov 15; 85(15):3378-85. PMID: 17853438.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Suh SW, Hamby AM, Swanson RA. Hypoglycemia, brain energetics, and hypoglycemic neuronal death. Glia. 2007 Sep; 55(12):1280-6. PMID: 17659530.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Voloboueva LA, Suh SW, Swanson RA, Giffard RG. Inhibition of mitochondrial function in astrocytes: implications for neuroprotection. J Neurochem. 2007 Aug; 102(4):1383-94. PMID: 17488276; PMCID: PMC3175820.
    59. Suh SW, Aoyama K, Alano CC, Anderson CM, Hamby AM, Swanson RA. Zinc inhibits astrocyte glutamate uptake by activation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1. Mol Med. 2007 Jul-Aug; 13(7-8):344-9. PMID: 17728843; PMCID: PMC1952665.
    60. Suh SW, Gum ET, Hamby AM, Chan PH, Swanson RA. Hypoglycemic neuronal death is triggered by glucose reperfusion and activation of neuronal NADPH oxidase. J Clin Invest. 2007 Apr; 117(4):910-8. PMID: 17404617; PMCID: PMC1838937.
    61. Bourguignon LY, Gilad E, Peyrollier K, Brightman A, Swanson RA. Hyaluronan-CD44 interaction stimulates Rac1 signaling and PKN gamma kinase activation leading to cytoskeleton function and cell migration in astrocytes. J Neurochem. 2007 May; 101(4):1002-17. PMID: 17403031.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Hamby AM, Suh SW, Kauppinen TM, Swanson RA. Use of a poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase inhibitor to suppress inflammation and neuronal death after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion. Stroke. 2007 Feb; 38(2 Suppl):632-6. PMID: 17261705.
      View in: PubMed
    63. Suh SW, Bergher JP, Anderson CM, Treadway JL, Fosgerau K, Swanson RA. Astrocyte glycogen sustains neuronal activity during hypoglycemia: studies with the glycogen phosphorylase inhibitor CP-316,819 ([R-R*,S*]-5-chloro-N-[2-hydroxy-3-(methoxymethylamino)-3-oxo-1-(phenylmethyl)propyl]-1H-indole-2-carboxamide). J Pharmacol Exp Ther. 2007 Apr; 321(1):45-50. PMID: 17251391.
      View in: PubMed
    64. Yenari MA, Swanson RA. INTRODUCTION: Immune mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Clin Neurosci Res. 2006 Dec; 6(5):225. PMID: 17464366.
      View in: PubMed
    65. Szabo C, Pacher P, Swanson RA. Novel modulators of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase. Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2006 Dec; 27(12):626-30. PMID: 17055069.
      View in: PubMed
    66. Swanson RA. Intracerebral hematoma: beyond the mass lesion. Stroke. 2006 Oct; 37(10):2445. PMID: 16960087.
      View in: PubMed
    67. Alano CC, Kauppinen TM, Valls AV, Swanson RA. Minocycline inhibits poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 at nanomolar concentrations. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 Jun 20; 103(25):9685-90. PMID: 16769901; PMCID: PMC1480467.
    68. Zeng J, Yang GY, Ying W, Kelly M, Hirai K, James TL, Swanson RA, Litt L. Pyruvate improves recovery after PARP-1-associated energy failure induced by oxidative stress in neonatal rat cerebrocortical slices. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2007 Feb; 27(2):304-15. PMID: 16736046.
      View in: PubMed
    69. Alano CC, Swanson RA. Players in the PARP-1 cell-death pathway: JNK1 joins the cast. Trends Biochem Sci. 2006 Jun; 31(6):309-11. PMID: 16679020.
      View in: PubMed
    70. Kauppinen TM, Chan WY, Suh SW, Wiggins AK, Huang EJ, Swanson RA. Direct phosphorylation and regulation of poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 by extracellular signal-regulated kinases 1/2. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2006 May 02; 103(18):7136-41. PMID: 16627622; PMCID: PMC1459030.
    71. Zhou HZ, Swanson RA, Simonis U, Ma X, Cecchini G, Gray MO. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 hyperactivation and impairment of mitochondrial respiratory chain complex I function in reperfused mouse hearts. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol. 2006 Aug; 291(2):H714-23. PMID: 16582021.
      View in: PubMed
    72. Aoyama K, Suh SW, Hamby AM, Liu J, Chan WY, Chen Y, Swanson RA. Neuronal glutathione deficiency and age-dependent neurodegeneration in the EAAC1 deficient mouse. Nat Neurosci. 2006 Jan; 9(1):119-26. PMID: 16311588.
      View in: PubMed
    73. Zhu K, Swanson RA, Ying W. NADH can enter into astrocytes and block poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-mediated astrocyte death. Neuroreport. 2005 Aug 01; 16(11):1209-12. PMID: 16012350.
      View in: PubMed
    74. Kauppinen TM, Suh SW, Genain CP, Swanson RA. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 activation in a primate model of multiple sclerosis. J Neurosci Res. 2005 Jul 15; 81(2):190-8. PMID: 15931673.
      View in: PubMed
    75. Giffard RG, Swanson RA. Ischemia-induced programmed cell death in astrocytes. Glia. 2005 Jun; 50(4):299-306. PMID: 15846803.
      View in: PubMed
    76. Suh SW, Aoyama K, Matsumori Y, Liu J, Swanson RA. Pyruvate administered after severe hypoglycemia reduces neuronal death and cognitive impairment. Diabetes. 2005 May; 54(5):1452-8. PMID: 15855333.
      View in: PubMed
    77. Aoyama K, Burns DM, Suh SW, Garnier P, Matsumori Y, Shiina H, Swanson RA. Acidosis causes endoplasmic reticulum stress and caspase-12-mediated astrocyte death. J Cereb Blood Flow Metab. 2005 Mar; 25(3):358-70. PMID: 15689959.
      View in: PubMed
    78. Kauppinen TM, Swanson RA. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 promotes microglial activation, proliferation, and matrix metalloproteinase-9-mediated neuron death. J Immunol. 2005 Feb 15; 174(4):2288-96. PMID: 15699164.
      View in: PubMed
    79. Suh SW, Fan Y, Hong SM, Liu Z, Matsumori Y, Weinstein PR, Swanson RA, Liu J. Hypoglycemia induces transient neurogenesis and subsequent progenitor cell loss in the rat hippocampus. Diabetes. 2005 Feb; 54(2):500-9. PMID: 15677508.
      View in: PubMed
    80. Ying W, Alano CC, Garnier P, Swanson RA. NAD+ as a metabolic link between DNA damage and cell death. J Neurosci Res. 2005 Jan 1-15; 79(1-2):216-23. PMID: 15562437.
      View in: PubMed
    81. Garnier P, Prigent-Tessier A, Van Hoecke M, Bertrand N, Demougeot C, Sordet O, Swanson RA, Marie C, Beley A. Hypoxia induces caspase-9 and caspase-3 activation without neuronal death in gerbil brains. Eur J Neurosci. 2004 Aug; 20(4):937-46. PMID: 15305862.
      View in: PubMed
    82. Zeng J, Hirai K, Yang GY, Ying W, Swanson RA, Kelly M, Mayer M, James TL, Litt L. Using 31P NMR spectroscopy at 14.1 Tesla to investigate PARP-1 associated energy failure and metabolic rescue in cerebrocortical slices. J Bioenerg Biomembr. 2004 Aug; 36(4):415-9. PMID: 15377881.
      View in: PubMed
    83. Suh SW, Garnier P, Aoyama K, Chen Y, Swanson RA. Zinc release contributes to hypoglycemia-induced neuronal death. Neurobiol Dis. 2004 Aug; 16(3):538-45. PMID: 15262265.
      View in: PubMed
    84. Swanson RA, Ying W, Kauppinen TM. Astrocyte influences on ischemic neuronal death. Curr Mol Med. 2004 Mar; 4(2):193-205. PMID: 15032713.
      View in: PubMed
    85. Alano CC, Ying W, Swanson RA. Poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1-mediated cell death in astrocytes requires NAD+ depletion and mitochondrial permeability transition. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 30; 279(18):18895-902. PMID: 14960594.
      View in: PubMed
    86. Castro-Obregón S, Rao RV, del Rio G, Chen SF, Poksay KS, Rabizadeh S, Vesce S, Zhang XK, Swanson RA, Bredesen DE. Alternative, nonapoptotic programmed cell death: mediation by arrestin 2, ERK2, and Nur77. J Biol Chem. 2004 Apr 23; 279(17):17543-53. PMID: 14769794.
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