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Jay Levy, MD

TitleProfessor
SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
DepartmentMedicine
Address513 Parnassus Avenue
San Francisco CA 94117
Phone415-476-4071
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Wesleyan UniversityBABiology
    Universite de ParisRegeneration
    Columbia University MDMedicine and Virology
    University of PennsylvaniaMed. Internship, Residency I
    NIH, National Cancer InstituteStaff Associate
    University of California, San FranciscoMed. Residency II
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    American Association for the Advancement of Science1993Fellow
    Wesleyan University1996Doctor of Science Honorary Degree
    University of California, San Francisco2002UCSF 45th Faculty Research Lecturer
    American Academy of Microbiology2003Fellow
    American Academy of Arts and Sciences2004Fellow
    Columbia University2008Gold Medal for Excellence in Medical Research
    University of California, San Francisco2015UCSF 150th Anniversary Alumni Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Research in the Levy laboratory is directed at understanding the interaction of viruses and the immune system in microbial pathogenesis. It focuses on HIV infection with the goal of designing novel antiviral therapies and an effective AIDS vaccine for which both innate and adaptive responses are needed. Biologic, serologic, and molecular characterization of several HIV-1 and HIV-2 strains has revealed their extensive heterogeneity and how viruses can evolve differently in the same individual in the immune system, bowel, and the brain. A major emphasis in the laboratory has been on anti-HIV innate immune responses. The research group is evaluating the role of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDC), the main producers of type 1 interferons. Studies are directed at understanding how HIV-infected cells induce interferon production from PDC and what cell surface molecules, including toll-like receptors (TLR), are involved in this process. An important potent innate response we have discovered is the ability of CD8+ lymphocytes to suppress HIV replication without killing the cells. This novel CD8+ cell noncytotoxic antiviral response (CNAR) is mediated by an as yet unidentified, natural CD8+ cell antiviral factor (CAF) that blocks HIV transcription. In summary, the Levy laboratory has been conducting studies to identify CAF through RNA Seq procedures, to determine the best strategy for an AIDS vaccine and to use genetically modified stem cell approaches towards a potential HIV cure.


    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Characterization of a New Anti-HIV Immune Protein
    NIH/NIAID R21AI129685Mar 6, 2017 - Feb 28, 2019
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV Cure with CCr5 (-) Human IPS Hematopoietic Stem Cells
    NIH/NIAID R01AI102825May 1, 2014 - Apr 30, 2017
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV cure with CCR5 (-) human IPS hematopoietic stem cells
    NIH/NIAID R56AI102825Jun 7, 2012 - Aug 31, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Protection from HIV Infection in Intravenous Drug Users
    NIH/NIDA R21DA030272Jul 1, 2010 - Jun 30, 2013
    Role: Principal Investigator
    MBSR, Stress Arousal and Immune Response in Early HIV
    NIH/NCCIH P01AT002024Sep 30, 2004 - Jun 30, 2010
    Role: Co-Investigator
    Role of Innate Immunity in Controlling HIV Infection
    NIH/NIAID R01AI056992Jul 1, 2003 - Feb 28, 2012
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Role of Innate Immunity in Controlling HIV Infection
    NIH/NIAID R56AI056992Jul 1, 2003 - Aug 31, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    20Years of HIV Research: From Discovery to Understanding
    NIH/NIAID R13AI054154Mar 1, 2003 - Feb 29, 2004
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Suppression of HIV replication by CD8+ cells
    NIH/NIAID R21AI049926Apr 1, 2001 - Mar 31, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ANIMAL MODEL FOR HIV VACCINE DEVELOPMENT
    NIH/NCRR R01RR014181Jun 1, 1999 - Nov 30, 2002
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Immunologic &Virologic Features of Early HIV Infection
    NIH/NIAID U01AI041531Jul 1, 1997 - Jun 30, 2008
    Role: Principal Investigator
    VERTICAL TRANSMISSION OF HIV-1 IN THAILAND--VIRAL FACTOR
    NIH/FIC R03TW000535Sep 30, 1995 - Sep 29, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    HIV 2 INFECTION--A POTENTIAL MODEL
    NIH/NIAID R01AI034704Aug 1, 1994 - Jul 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    VIROLOGY AND IMMUNOLOGY OF CHRONIC FATIGUE SYNDROME
    NIH/NIAID R01AI035572Apr 1, 1994 - Mar 31, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SIV/HIV CHIMERAS--AN ANIMAL MODEL FOR HIV INFECTION
    NIH/NIAID R01AI034742Sep 30, 1993 - Jun 30, 1997
    Role: Principal Investigator
    UCSF AIDS RESEARCH TRAINING PROGRAM
    NIH/NIAID T32AI007395Aug 1, 1990 - Jan 31, 2007
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SUPPRESSION OF HIV REPLICATION BY CD8+ CELLS
    NIH/NIAID R21AI030350Jun 1, 1990 - Sep 29, 2001
    Role: Principal Investigator
    SUPPRESSION OF HIV REPLICATION BY CD8+ CELLS
    NIH/NIAID R01AI030350Jun 1, 1990 - Jun 30, 2000
    Role: Principal Investigator
    ENHANCING ANTIBODIES IN HIV INFECTION
    NIH/NIAID R01AI029394Sep 30, 1989 - Jul 31, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator
    AIDS RETROVIRUS FEATURES AFFECTING ANTIVIRAL THERAPY
    NIH/NIAID R01AI024499Apr 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 1990
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Bio-Organic Biomedical Mass Spectrometry Resource
    NIH P41RR001614Mar 1, 1982 - May 31, 2015
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Websites
    Collapse In The News
    Collapse Global Health

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
    List All   |   Timeline
    1. Levy J, Murphy EL. Schwab M (ed.) Encyclopedia of Cancer. Human T-Lymphotropic Virus. 2017; 3:2146 - 2149.
    2. Blazek D, Teque F, Mackewicz C, Peterlin M, Levy JA. The CD8+ cell non-cytotoxic antiviral response affects RNA polymerase II-mediated human immunodeficiency virus transcription in infected CD4+ cells. J Gen Virol. 2016 Jan; 97(1):220-4. PMID: 26499373; PMCID: PMC4772706 [Available on 01/01/17].
    3. Levy JA. Discovery of another anti-HIV protein in the search for the CD8+ cell anti-HIV Factor. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2015 Jun 30; 112(26):7888-9. PMID: 26085138; PMCID: PMC4491768.
    4. Levy JA. Dispelling myths and focusing on notable concepts in HIV pathogenesis. Trends Mol Med. 2015 Jun; 21(6):341-53. PMID: 25883070.
      View in: PubMed
    5. Roff SR, Sanou MP, Rathore MH, Levy JA, Yamamoto JK. Conserved epitopes on HIV-1, FIV and SIV p24 proteins are recognized by HIV-1 infected subjects. Hum Vaccin Immunother. 2015; 11(6):1540-56. PMID: 25844718; PMCID: PMC4514358.
    6. Ye L, Wang J, Beyer AI, Teque F, Cradick TJ, Qi Z, Chang JC, Bao G, Muench MO, Yu J, Levy JA, Kan YW. Seamless modification of wild-type induced pluripotent stem cells to the natural CCR5?32 mutation confers resistance to HIV infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2014 Jul 01; 111(26):9591-6. PMID: 24927590; PMCID: PMC4084478.
    7. Venditto VJ, Wieczorek L, Molnar S, Teque F, Landucci G, Watson DS, Forthal D, Polonis VR, Levy JA, Szoka FC. Chemically modified peptides based on the membrane-proximal external region of the HIV-1 envelope induce high-titer, epitope-specific nonneutralizing antibodies in rabbits. Clin Vaccine Immunol. 2014 Aug; 21(8):1086-93. PMID: 24872518; PMCID: PMC4135905.
    8. Sanou MP, Roff SR, Mennella A, Sleasman JW, Rathore MH, Yamamoto JK, Levy JA. Evolutionarily conserved epitopes on human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and feline immunodeficiency virus reverse transcriptases detected by HIV-1-infected subjects. J Virol. 2013 Sep; 87(18):10004-15. PMID: 23824804; PMCID: PMC3754003.
    9. Liu L, Wang L, Huang L, Siu V, Teque F, Aweeka FT, Levy JA. Nevirapine inhibits the anti-HIV activity of CD8+ cells. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2013 Jun 01; 63(2):184-8. PMID: 23392464; PMCID: PMC3653990.
    10. Kaushik S, Teque F, Patel M, Fujimura SH, Schmidt B, Levy JA. Plasmacytoid dendritic cell number and responses to Toll-like receptor 7 and 9 agonists vary in HIV Type 1-infected individuals in relation to clinical state. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2013 Mar; 29(3):501-10. PMID: 23131038; PMCID: PMC3581027.
    11. Ippolito G, Levy JA, Sonnerborg A, Mugusi F, Dianzani F. AIDS and HIV Infection after Thirty Years. AIDS Res Treat. 2013; 2013:731983. PMID: 23365727; PMCID: PMC3556433.
    12. Levy JA, Levy Y. HIV infection: what should be considered in approaches for a cure? AIDS. 2012 Nov 13; 26(17):2253-5. PMID: 23060292; PMCID: PMC3835309.
    13. Araya AX, Norr KF, Pérez CM, Levy JA, Park CG, Kim MJ. HIV-related symptoms and patient clusters among Chileans living with HIV. AIDS Care. 2013; 25(4):488-95. PMID: 22909386; PMCID: PMC3563858.
    14. Levy JA, Autran B, Coutinho RA, Phair JP. 25 Years of AIDS: recording progress and future challenges. AIDS. 2012 Jun 19; 26(10):1187-9. PMID: 22546989.
      View in: PubMed
    15. Tugizov SM, Herrera R, Veluppillai P, Greenspan D, Soros V, Greene WC, Levy JA, Palefsky JM. Differential transmission of HIV traversing fetal oral/intestinal epithelia and adult oral epithelia. J Virol. 2012 Mar; 86(5):2556-70. PMID: 22205732; PMCID: PMC3302289.
    16. Killian MS, Levy JA. HIV/AIDS: 30 years of progress and future challenges. Eur J Immunol. 2011 Dec; 41(12):3401-11. PMID: 22125008.
      View in: PubMed
    17. Liu L, Johnson C, Fujimura S, Teque F, Levy JA. Transfection optimization for primary human CD8+ cells. J Immunol Methods. 2011 Sep 30; 372(1-2):22-9. PMID: 21777592; PMCID: PMC3170435.
    18. Knox K, Carrigan D, Simmons G, Teque F, Zhou Y, Hackett J, Qiu X, Luk KC, Schochetman G, Knox A, Kogelnik AM, Levy JA. No evidence of murine-like gammaretroviruses in CFS patients previously identified as XMRV-infected. Science. 2011 Jul 01; 333(6038):94-7. PMID: 21628393.
      View in: PubMed
    19. Levy JA. Virus-host interactions in HIV pathogenesis: directions for therapy. Adv Dent Res. 2011 Apr; 23(1):13-8. PMID: 21441474; PMCID: PMC3144039.
    20. Meditz AL, MaWhinney S, Allshouse A, Feser W, Markowitz M, Little S, Hecht R, Daar ES, Collier AC, Margolick J, Kilby JM, Routy JP, Conway B, Kaldor J, Levy J, Schooley R, Cooper DA, Altfeld M, Richman D, Connick E. Sex, race, and geographic region influence clinical outcomes following primary HIV-1 infection. J Infect Dis. 2011 Feb 15; 203(4):442-51. PMID: 21245157; PMCID: PMC3071223.
    21. Killian MS, Johnson C, Teque F, Fujimura S, Levy JA. Natural suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication is mediated by transitional memory CD8+ T cells. J Virol. 2011 Feb; 85(4):1696-705. PMID: 21147929; PMCID: PMC3028886.
    22. Tugizov SM, Herrera R, Veluppillai P, Greenspan D, Soros V, Greene WC, Levy JA, Palefsky JM. HIV is inactivated after transepithelial migration via adult oral epithelial cells but not fetal epithelial cells. Virology. 2011 Jan 20; 409(2):211-22. PMID: 21056450; PMCID: PMC3034249.
    23. Pereyra F, Jia X, McLaren PJ, Telenti A, de Bakker PI, Walker BD, Ripke S, Brumme CJ, Pulit SL, Carrington M, Kadie CM, Carlson JM, Heckerman D, Graham RR, Plenge RM, Deeks SG, Gianniny L, Crawford G, Sullivan J, Gonzalez E, Davies L, Camargo A, Moore JM, Beattie N, Gupta S, Crenshaw A, Burtt NP, Guiducci C, Gupta N, Gao X, Qi Y, Yuki Y, Piechocka-Trocha A, Cutrell E, Rosenberg R, Moss KL, Lemay P, O'Leary J, Schaefer T, Verma P, Toth I, Block B, Baker B, Rothchild A, Lian J, Proudfoot J, Alvino DM, Vine S, Addo MM, Allen TM, Altfeld M, Henn MR, Le Gall S, Streeck H, Haas DW, Kuritzkes DR, Robbins GK, Shafer RW, Gulick RM, Shikuma CM, Haubrich R, Riddler S, Sax PE, Daar ES, Ribaudo HJ, Agan B, Agarwal S, Ahern RL, Allen BL, Altidor S, Altschuler EL, Ambardar S, Anastos K, Anderson B, Anderson V, Andrady U, Antoniskis D, Bangsberg D, Barbaro D, Barrie W, Bartczak J, Barton S, Basden P, Basgoz N, Bazner S, Bellos NC, Benson AM, Berger J, Bernard NF, Bernard AM, Birch C, Bodner SJ, Bolan RK, Boudreaux ET, Bradley M, Braun JF, Brndjar JE, Brown SJ, Brown K, Brown ST, Burack J, Bush LM, Cafaro V, Campbell O, Campbell J, Carlson RH, Carmichael JK, Casey KK, Cavacuiti C, Celestin G, Chambers ST, Chez N, Chirch LM, Cimoch PJ, Cohen D, Cohn LE, Conway B, Cooper DA, Cornelson B, Cox DT, Cristofano MV, Cuchural G, Czartoski JL, Dahman JM, Daly JS, Davis BT, Davis K, Davod SM, DeJesus E, Dietz CA, Dunham E, Dunn ME, Ellerin TB, Eron JJ, Fangman JJ, Farel CE, Ferlazzo H, Fidler S, Fleenor-Ford A, Frankel R, Freedberg KA, French NK, Fuchs JD, Fuller JD, Gaberman J, Gallant JE, Gandhi RT, Garcia E, Garmon D, Gathe JC, Gaultier CR, Gebre W, Gilman FD, Gilson I, Goepfert PA, Gottlieb MS, Goulston C, Groger RK, Gurley TD, Haber S, Hardwicke R, Hardy WD, Harrigan PR, Hawkins TN, Heath S, Hecht FM, Henry WK, Hladek M, Hoffman RP, Horton JM, Hsu RK, Huhn GD, Hunt P, Hupert MJ, Illeman ML, Jaeger H, Jellinger RM, John M, Johnson JA, Johnson KL, Johnson H, Johnson K, Joly J, Jordan WC, Kauffman CA, Khanlou H, Killian RK, Kim AY, Kim DD, Kinder CA, Kirchner JT, Kogelman L, Kojic EM, Korthuis PT, Kurisu W, Kwon DS, LaMar M, Lampiris H, Lanzafame M, Lederman MM, Lee DM, Lee JM, Lee MJ, Lee ET, Lemoine J, Levy JA, Llibre JM, Liguori MA, Little SJ, Liu AY, Lopez AJ, Loutfy MR, Loy D, Mohammed DY, Man A, Mansour MK, Marconi VC, Markowitz M, Marques R, Martin JN, Martin HL, Mayer KH, McElrath MJ, McGhee TA, McGovern BH, McGowan K, McIntyre D, Mcleod GX, Menezes P, Mesa G, Metroka CE, Meyer-Olson D, Miller AO, Montgomery K, Mounzer KC, Nagami EH, Nagin I, Nahass RG, Nelson MO, Nielsen C, Norene DL, O'Connor DH, Ojikutu BO, Okulicz J, Oladehin OO, Oldfield EC, Olender SA, Ostrowski M, Owen WF, Pae E, Parsonnet J, Pavlatos AM, Perlmutter AM, Pierce MN, Pincus JM, Pisani L, Price LJ, Proia L, Prokesch RC, Pujet HC, Ramgopal M, Rathod A, Rausch M, Ravishankar J, Rhame FS, Richards CS, Richman DD, Rodes B, Rodriguez M, Rose RC, Rosenberg ES, Rosenthal D, Ross PE, Rubin DS, Rumbaugh E, Saenz L, Salvaggio MR, Sanchez WC, Sanjana VM, Santiago S, Schmidt W, Schuitemaker H, Sestak PM, Shalit P, Shay W, Shirvani VN, Silebi VI, Sizemore JM, Skolnik PR, Sokol-Anderson M, Sosman JM, Stabile P, Stapleton JT, Starrett S, Stein F, Stellbrink HJ, Sterman FL, Stone VE, Stone DR, Tambussi G, Taplitz RA, Tedaldi EM, Telenti A, Theisen W, Torres R, Tosiello L, Tremblay C, Tribble MA, Trinh PD, Tsao A, Ueda P, Vaccaro A, Valadas E, Vanig TJ, Vecino I, Vega VM, Veikley W, Wade BH, Walworth C, Wanidworanun C, Ward DJ, Warner DA, Weber RD, Webster D, Weis S, Wheeler DA, White DJ, Wilkins E, Winston A, Wlodaver CG, van't Wout A, Wright DP, Yang OO, Yurdin DL, Zabukovic BW, Zachary KC, Zeeman B, Zhao M. The major genetic determinants of HIV-1 control affect HLA class I peptide presentation. Science. 2010 Dec 10; 330(6010):1551-7. PMID: 21051598; PMCID: PMC3235490.
    24. Ndhlovu LC, Sinclair E, Epling L, Tan QX, Ho T, Jha AR, Eccles-James I, Tincati C, Levy JA, Nixon DF, Hecht FM, Barbour JD. IL-2 immunotherapy to recently HIV-1 infected adults maintains the numbers of IL-17 expressing CD4+ T (T(H)17) cells in the periphery. J Clin Immunol. 2010 Sep; 30(5):681-92. PMID: 20571894; PMCID: PMC2935971.
    25. Yuan L, Ma L, Fan X, Feng Y, Peng H, Zhao Q, Ruan Y, Levy JA, Shao Y. CD8+ cell noncytotoxic antiviral response in long-term HIV-1 infected former blood donors in China. Curr HIV Res. 2009 Jul; 7(4):437-40. PMID: 19601780.
      View in: PubMed
    26. Levy JA. The unexpected pleiotropic activities of RANTES. J Immunol. 2009 Apr 01; 182(7):3945-6. PMID: 19299688.
      View in: PubMed
    27. Levy JA. Not an HIV cure, but encouraging new directions. N Engl J Med. 2009 Feb 12; 360(7):724-5. PMID: 19213687.
      View in: PubMed
    28. Barbour JD, Ndhlovu LC, Xuan Tan Q, Ho T, Epling L, Bredt BM, Levy JA, Hecht FM, Sinclair E. High CD8+ T cell activation marks a less differentiated HIV-1 specific CD8+ T cell response that is not altered by suppression of viral replication. PLoS One. 2009; 4(2):e4408. PMID: 19198651; PMCID: PMC2634967.
    29. Killian MS, Roop J, Ng S, Hecht FM, Levy JA. CD8+ cell anti-HIV activity rapidly increases upon discontinuation of early antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Immunol. 2009 May; 29(3):311-8. PMID: 19189205.
      View in: PubMed
    30. Levy JA. HIV pathogenesis: 25 years of progress and persistent challenges. AIDS. 2009 Jan 14; 23(2):147-60. PMID: 19098484.
      View in: PubMed
    31. Cohen MS, Hellmann N, Levy JA, DeCock K, Lange J. The spread, treatment, and prevention of HIV-1: evolution of a global pandemic. J Clin Invest. 2008 Apr; 118(4):1244-54. PMID: 18382737; PMCID: PMC2276790.
    32. Bonneau KR, Ng S, Foster H, Choi KB, Berkhout B, Rabson A, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. Derivation of infectious HIV-1 molecular clones with LTR mutations: sensitivity to the CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response. Virology. 2008 Mar 30; 373(1):30-8. PMID: 18086484.
      View in: PubMed
    33. Song H, Nakayama EE, Yokoyama M, Sato H, Levy JA, Shioda T. A single amino acid of the human immunodeficiency virus type 2 capsid affects its replication in the presence of cynomolgus monkey and human TRIM5alphas. J Virol. 2007 Jul; 81(13):7280-5. PMID: 17475650; PMCID: PMC1933286.
    34. Sriram U, Wong M, Caillier SJ, Hecht FM, Elkins MK, Levy JA, Oksenberg JR, Baranzini SE. Quantitative longitudinal analysis of T cell receptor repertoire expression in HIV-infected patients on antiretroviral and interleukin-2 therapy. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2007 May; 23(5):741-7. PMID: 17531001.
      View in: PubMed
    35. Barbour JD, Sriram U, Caillier SJ, Levy JA, Hecht FM, Oksenberg JR. Synergy or independence? Deciphering the interaction of HLA Class I and NK cell KIR alleles in early HIV-1 disease progression. PLoS Pathog. 2007 Apr; 3(4):e43. PMID: 17447840; PMCID: PMC1853116.
    36. Martinez-Mariño B, Foster H, Hao Y, Levy JA. Differential gene expression in CD8(+) cells from HIV-1-infected subjects showing suppression of HIV replication. Virology. 2007 May 25; 362(1):217-25. PMID: 17240414; PMCID: PMC1987396.
    37. Killian MS, Norris PJ, Rawal BD, Lebedeva M, Hecht FM, Levy JA, Busch MP. The effects of early antiretroviral therapy and its discontinuation on the HIV-specific antibody response. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2006 Jul; 22(7):640-7. PMID: 16831088.
      View in: PubMed
    38. Killian MS, Fujimura SH, Hecht FM, Levy JA. Similar changes in plasmacytoid dendritic cell and CD4 T-cell counts during primary HIV-1 infection and treatment. AIDS. 2006 Jun 12; 20(9):1247-52. PMID: 16816552.
      View in: PubMed
    39. Levy JA. HIV pathogenesis: knowledge gained after two decades of research. Adv Dent Res. 2006 Apr 01; 19(1):10-6. PMID: 16672543.
      View in: PubMed
    40. Sanchez-Mejia RO, Ojemann SG, Simko J, Chaudhary UB, Levy J, Lawton MT. Sacral epithelioid angiosarcoma associated with a bleeding diathesis and spinal epidural hematoma: case report. J Neurosurg Spine. 2006 Mar; 4(3):246-50. PMID: 16572625.
      View in: PubMed
    41. Hare CB, Pappalardo BL, Busch MP, Karlsson AC, Phelps BH, Alexander SS, Bentsen C, Ramstead CA, Nixon DF, Levy JA, Hecht FM. Seroreversion in subjects receiving antiretroviral therapy during acute/early HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Mar 01; 42(5):700-8. PMID: 16447118.
      View in: PubMed
    42. Schmidt B, Fujimura SH, Martin JN, Levy JA. Variations in plasmacytoid dendritic cell (PDC) and myeloid dendritic cell (MDC) levels in HIV-infected subjects on and off antiretroviral therapy. J Clin Immunol. 2006 Jan; 26(1):55-64. PMID: 16418803.
      View in: PubMed
    43. Schmidt B, Ashlock BM, Foster H, Fujimura SH, Levy JA. HIV-infected cells are major inducers of plasmacytoid dendritic cell interferon production, maturation, and migration. Virology. 2005 Dec 20; 343(2):256-66. PMID: 16278001.
      View in: PubMed
    44. Lennette ET, Busch MP, Hecht FM, Levy JA. Potential herpesvirus interaction during HIV type 1 primary infection. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2005 Oct; 21(10):869-75. PMID: 16225414.
      View in: PubMed
    45. Killian MS, Ng S, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. A screening assay for detecting CD8+ cell non-cytotoxic anti-HIV responses. J Immunol Methods. 2005 Sep; 304(1-2):137-50. PMID: 16129447.
      View in: PubMed
    46. Locher CP, Witt SA, Kassel R, Dowell NL, Fujimura S, Levy JA. Differential effects of R5 and X4 human immunodeficiency virus type 1 infection on CD4+ cell proliferation and activation. J Gen Virol. 2005 Apr; 86(Pt 4):1171-9. PMID: 15784911.
      View in: PubMed
    47. Elkins MK, Vittinghoff E, Baranzini SE, Hecht FM, Sriram U, Busch MP, Levy JA, Oksenberg JR. Longitudinal analysis of B cell repertoire and antibody gene rearrangements during early HIV infection. Genes Immun. 2005 Feb; 6(1):66-9. PMID: 15538390.
      View in: PubMed
    48. Diaz LS, Foster H, Stone MR, Fujimura S, Relman DA, Levy JA. VCAM-1 expression on CD8+ cells correlates with enhanced anti-HIV suppressing activity. J Immunol. 2005 Feb 01; 174(3):1574-9. PMID: 15661918.
      View in: PubMed
    49. Levy JA, Autran B, Coutinho R, Phair JP. Registration of clinical trials. AIDS. 2005 Jan 28; 19(2):105. PMID: 15665791.
      View in: PubMed
    50. Schmidt B, Scott I, Whitmore RG, Foster H, Fujimura S, Schmitz J, Levy JA. Low-level HIV infection of plasmacytoid dendritic cells: onset of cytopathic effects and cell death after PDC maturation. Virology. 2004 Nov 24; 329(2):280-8. PMID: 15518808.
      View in: PubMed
    51. Martinez-Mariño B, Shiboski S, Hecht FM, Kahn JO, Levy JA. Interleukin-2 therapy restores CD8 cell non-cytotoxic anti-HIV responses in primary infection subjects receiving HAART. AIDS. 2004 Oct 21; 18(15):1991-9. PMID: 15577620.
      View in: PubMed
    52. Levy JA. Prospects for an AIDS vaccine: encourage innate immunity. AIDS. 2004 Oct 21; 18(15):2085-6. PMID: 15577631.
      View in: PubMed
    53. Schmidt B, Ashlock B, Neipel F, Levy JA. Potential screening assay for undetectable viruses on the basis of their capacity to induce alpha interferon production. J Clin Microbiol. 2004 Sep; 42(9):4300-2. PMID: 15365027; PMCID: PMC516323.
    54. Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Polacino P, Hu SL, Shiboski S, Schmidt AM, Agy MB, Anderson DM, Staprans SI, zur Megede J, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 2 DNA vaccine provides partial protection from acute baboon infection. Vaccine. 2004 Jun 02; 22(17-18):2261-72. PMID: 15149785.
      View in: PubMed
    55. Levy JA, Autran B, Coutinho R, Phair JP. Retraction. Clinical course of cardiomyopathy in HIV-infected patients with or without encephalopathy related to the myocardial expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide synthase. AIDS. 2004 May 21; 18(8):1087. PMID: 15166523.
      View in: PubMed
    56. Deeks SG, Kitchen CM, Liu L, Guo H, Gascon R, Narváez AB, Hunt P, Martin JN, Kahn JO, Levy J, McGrath MS, Hecht FM. Immune activation set point during early HIV infection predicts subsequent CD4+ T-cell changes independent of viral load. Blood. 2004 Aug 15; 104(4):942-7. PMID: 15117761.
      View in: PubMed
    57. Martinez-Mariño B, Ashlock BM, Shiboski S, Hecht FM, Levy JA. Effect of IL-2 therapy on CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response during primary HIV-1 infection. J Clin Immunol. 2004 Mar; 24(2):135-44. PMID: 15024180.
      View in: PubMed
    58. Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy JA. Evaluation of genetic immunization adjuvants to improve the effectiveness of a human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) envelope DNA vaccine. DNA Cell Biol. 2004 Feb; 23(2):107-10. PMID: 15000750.
      View in: PubMed
    59. Castelli J, Thomas EK, Gilliet M, Liu YJ, Levy JA. Mature dendritic cells can enhance CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV responses: the role of IL-15. Blood. 2004 Apr 01; 103(7):2699-704. PMID: 14684414.
      View in: PubMed
    60. Locher CP, Putnam D, Langer R, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy JA. Enhancement of a human immunodeficiency virus env DNA vaccine using a novel polycationic nanoparticle formulation. Immunol Lett. 2003 Dec 15; 90(2-3):67-70. PMID: 14687705.
      View in: PubMed
    61. Altfeld M, Addo MM, Rosenberg ES, Hecht FM, Lee PK, Vogel M, Yu XG, Draenert R, Johnston MN, Strick D, Allen TM, Feeney ME, Kahn JO, Sekaly RP, Levy JA, Rockstroh JK, Goulder PJ, Walker BD. Influence of HLA-B57 on clinical presentation and viral control during acute HIV-1 infection. AIDS. 2003 Dec 05; 17(18):2581-91. PMID: 14685052.
      View in: PubMed
    62. Levy JA. The search for the CD8+ cell anti-HIV factor (CAF). Trends Immunol. 2003 Dec; 24(12):628-32. PMID: 14644135.
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    63. Li JZ, Mack EC, Levy JA. Virucidal efficacy of soap and water against human immunodeficiency virus in genital secretions. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2003 Oct; 47(10):3321-2. PMID: 14506048; PMCID: PMC201149.
    64. Mackewicz CE, Yuan J, Tran P, Diaz L, Mack E, Selsted ME, Levy JA. alpha-Defensins can have anti-HIV activity but are not CD8 cell anti-HIV factors. AIDS. 2003 Sep 26; 17(14):F23-32. PMID: 14502030.
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    65. Levy JA, Scott I, Mackewicz C. Protection from HIV/AIDS: the importance of innate immunity. Clin Immunol. 2003 Sep; 108(3):167-74. PMID: 14499239.
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    66. Diaz LS, Stone MR, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. Differential gene expression in CD8+ cells exhibiting noncytotoxic anti-HIV activity. Virology. 2003 Jul 05; 311(2):400-9. PMID: 12842629.
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    67. Levy JA, Autran B, Coutinho R, Phair JP. Clinical course of cardiomyopathy in HIV-infected patients with or without encephalopathy related to the myocardial expression of tumour necrosis factor-alpha and nitric oxide synthase. AIDS. 2003 May 23; 17(8):1119. PMID: 12819511.
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    68. Mackewicz CE, Wang B, Metkar S, Richey M, Froelich CJ, Levy JA. Lack of the CD8+ cell anti-HIV factor in CD8+ cell granules. Blood. 2003 Jul 01; 102(1):180-3. PMID: 12649153.
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    69. Mackewicz CE, Craik CS, Levy JA. The CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response can be blocked by protease inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2003 Mar 18; 100(6):3433-8. PMID: 12624186; PMCID: PMC152310.
    70. Levy JA. Is HIV superinfection worrisome? Lancet. 2003 Jan 11; 361(9352):98-9. PMID: 12531573.
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    71. Locher CP, Fujimura S, Murthy KK, Brasky K, Leland M, Levy JA. Expression patterns of phenotypic markers on lymphocytes from human immunodeficiency virus type 2-infected baboons. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2003 Jan 01; 19(1):31-40. PMID: 12581514.
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    72. Locher CP, Witt SA, Herndier BG, Abbey NW, Tenner-Racz K, Racz P, Kiviat NB, Murthy KK, Brasky K, Leland M, Levy JA. Increased virus replication and virulence after serial passage of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 in baboons. J Virol. 2003 Jan; 77(1):77-83. PMID: 12477812; PMCID: PMC140565.
    73. Soumelis V, Scott I, Liu YJ, Levy J. Natural type 1 interferon producing cells in HIV infection. Hum Immunol. 2002 Dec; 63(12):1206-12. PMID: 12480265.
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    74. Locher CP, Witt SA, Ashlock BM, Levy JA. Enhancement of antibody responses to an HIV-2 DNA envelope vaccine using an expression vector containing a constitutive transport element. DNA Cell Biol. 2002 Aug; 21(8):581-6. PMID: 12215261.
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    75. Levy JA. HIV-1: hitching a ride on erythrocytes. Lancet. 2002 Jun 29; 359(9325):2212-3. PMID: 12103280.
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    76. Castelli JC, Deeks SG, Shiboski S, Levy JA. Relationship of CD8(+) T cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response to CD4(+) T cell number in untreated asymptomatic HIV-infected individuals. Blood. 2002 Jun 01; 99(11):4225-7. PMID: 12010831.
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    77. Hecht FM, Busch MP, Rawal B, Webb M, Rosenberg E, Swanson M, Chesney M, Anderson J, Levy J, Kahn JO. Use of laboratory tests and clinical symptoms for identification of primary HIV infection. AIDS. 2002 May 24; 16(8):1119-29. PMID: 12004270.
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    78. Locher CP, Witt SA, Levy JA. The nuclear factor kappa B and Spl binding sites do not appear to be involved in virus suppression by CD8 T lymphocytes. AIDS. 2001 Dec 07; 15(18):2455-7. PMID: 11774833.
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    79. Locher CP, Witt SA, Herndier BG, Tenner-Racz K, Racz P, Levy JA. Baboons as an animal model for human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis and vaccine development. Immunol Rev. 2001 Oct; 183:127-40. PMID: 11782253.
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    80. Ghanekar SA, Stranford SA, Ong JC, Walker JM, Maino VC, Levy JA. Decreased HIV-specific CD4 T cell proliferation in long-term HIV-infected individuals on antiretroviral therapy. AIDS. 2001 Sep 28; 15(14):1885-7. PMID: 11579254.
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    81. Soumelis V, Scott I, Gheyas F, Bouhour D, Cozon G, Cotte L, Huang L, Levy JA, Liu YJ. Depletion of circulating natural type 1 interferon-producing cells in HIV-infected AIDS patients. Blood. 2001 Aug 15; 98(4):906-12. PMID: 11493432.
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    82. Levy JA. The importance of the innate immune system in controlling HIV infection and disease. Trends Immunol. 2001 Jun; 22(6):312-6. PMID: 11377290.
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    83. Levy JA. What can be achieved with an HIV vaccine? Lancet. 2001 Jan 20; 357(9251):223-4. PMID: 11213112.
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    84. Altfeld M, Rosenberg ES, Shankarappa R, Mukherjee JS, Hecht FM, Eldridge RL, Addo MM, Poon SH, Phillips MN, Robbins GK, Sax PE, Boswell S, Kahn JO, Brander C, Goulder PJ, Levy JA, Mullins JI, Walker BD. Cellular immune responses and viral diversity in individuals treated during acute and early HIV-1 infection. J Exp Med. 2001 Jan 15; 193(2):169-80. PMID: 11148221; PMCID: PMC2193337.
    85. Stranford SA, Ong JC, Martinez-Marino B, Busch M, Hecht FM, Kahn J, Levy JA. Reduction in CD8+ cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV activity in individuals receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy during primary infection. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2001 Jan 16; 98(2):597-602. PMID: 11136234; PMCID: PMC14633.
    86. Schito AM, Vittinghoff E, Hecht FM, Elkins MK, Kahn JO, Levy JA, Oksenberg JR. Longitudinal analysis of T-cell receptor gene use by CD8(+) T cells in early human immunodeficiency virus infection in patients receiving highly active antiretroviral therapy. Blood. 2001 Jan 01; 97(1):214-20. PMID: 11133763.
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    87. Kliks S, Contag CH, Corliss H, Learn G, Rodrigo A, Wara D, Mullins JI, Levy JA. Genetic analysis of viral variants selected in transmission of human immunodeficiency viruses to newborns. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000 Sep 01; 16(13):1223-33. PMID: 10957720.
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    88. Blackbourn DJ, Lennette E, Klencke B, Moses A, Chandran B, Weinstein M, Glogau RG, Witte MH, Way DL, Kutzkey T, Herndier B, Levy JA. The restricted cellular host range of human herpesvirus 8. AIDS. 2000 Jun 16; 14(9):1123-33. PMID: 10894276.
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    89. Mackewicz CE, Patterson BK, Lee SA, Levy JA. CD8(+) cell noncytotoxic anti-human immunodeficiency virus response inhibits expression of viral RNA but not reverse transcription or provirus integration. J Gen Virol. 2000 May; 81(Pt 5):1261-4. PMID: 10769068.
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    90. Mackewicz CE, Lieberman J, Froelich C, Levy JA. HIV virions and HIV infection in vitro are unaffected by human granzymes A and B. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 2000 Mar 01; 16(4):367-72. PMID: 10716374.
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    91. Mackewicz CE, Ridha S, Levy JA. HIV virions and HIV replication are unaffected by granulysin. AIDS. 2000 Feb 18; 14(3):328-30. PMID: 10716513.
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    92. Mackewicz CE, Ridha S, Levy JA. Fas and Fas ligand are not involved in the suppression of HIV replication by CD8 cells. AIDS. 2000 Jan 28; 14(2):204-5. PMID: 10708293.
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    93. Blackbourn DJ, Fujimura S, Kutzkey T, Levy JA. Induction of human herpesvirus-8 gene expression by recombinant interferon gamma. AIDS. 2000 Jan 07; 14(1):98-9. PMID: 10714578.
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    94. Locher CP, Grant RM, Collisson EA, Reyes-Terán G, Elbeik T, Kahn JO, Levy JA. Antibody and cellular immune responses in breakthrough infection subjects after HIV type 1 glycoprotein 120 vaccination. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999 Dec 10; 15(18):1685-9. PMID: 10606091.
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    95. Mourich DV, Lee S, Reyes-Teran G, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. Lack of differences in nef alleles among HIV-infected asymptomatic long-term survivors and those who progressed to disease. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1999 Nov 20; 15(17):1573-5. PMID: 10580408.
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    96. Barker E, Bossart KN, Fujimura SH, Levy JA. The role of CD80 and CD86 in enhancing CD8(+) cell suppression of HIV replication. Cell Immunol. 1999 Sep 15; 196(2):95-103. PMID: 10527561.
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    97. Greco G, Mackewicz C, Levy JA. Sensitivity of human immunodeficiency virus infection to various alpha, beta and gamma chemokines. J Gen Virol. 1999 Sep; 80 ( Pt 9):2369-73. PMID: 10501489.
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    98. Locher CP, Blackbourn DJ, Levy JA. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication by a soluble factor produced by CD8+ lymphocytes from HIV-2-infected baboons. Immunol Lett. 1999 Mar; 66(1-3):151-7. PMID: 10203048.
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    99. Stranford SA, Skurnick J, Louria D, Osmond D, Chang SY, Sninsky J, Ferrari G, Weinhold K, Lindquist C, Levy JA. Lack of infection in HIV-exposed individuals is associated with a strong CD8(+) cell noncytotoxic anti-HIV response. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Feb 02; 96(3):1030-5. PMID: 9927688; PMCID: PMC15345.
    100. Levy JA. Xenotropism: the elusive viral receptor finally uncovered. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1999 Feb 02; 96(3):802-4. PMID: 9927648; PMCID: PMC33522.
    101. Greco G, Fujimura SH, Mourich DV, Levy JA. Differential effects of human immunodeficiency virus isolates on beta-chemokine and gamma interferon production and on cell proliferation. J Virol. 1999 Feb; 73(2):1528-34. PMID: 9882358; PMCID: PMC103977.
    102. Blackbourn DJ, Osmond D, Levy JA, Lennette ET. Increased human herpesvirus 8 seroprevalence in young homosexual men who have multiple sex contacts with different partners. J Infect Dis. 1999 Jan; 179(1):237-9. PMID: 9841846.
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    103. Barker E, Bossart KN, Levy JA. Differential effects of CD28 costimulation on HIV production by CD4+ cells. J Immunol. 1998 Dec 01; 161(11):6223-7. PMID: 9834109.
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    104. Mackewicz CE, Garovoy MR, Levy JA. HLA compatibility requirements for CD8(+)-T-cell-mediated suppression of human immunodeficiency virus replication. J Virol. 1998 Dec; 72(12):10165-70. PMID: 9811757; PMCID: PMC110558.
    105. Barker E, Mackewicz CE, Reyes-Terán G, Sato A, Stranford SA, Fujimura SH, Christopherson C, Chang SY, Levy JA. Virological and immunological features of long-term human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals who have remained asymptomatic compared with those who have progressed to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome. Blood. 1998 Nov 01; 92(9):3105-14. PMID: 9787145.
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    106. Greco G, Barker E, Levy JA. Differences in HIV replication in CD4+ lymphocytes are not related to beta-chemokine production. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Nov 01; 14(16):1407-11. PMID: 9824318.
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    107. Levy JA. Caution: should we be treating HIV infection early? Lancet. 1998 Sep 19; 352(9132):982-3. PMID: 9752836.
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    108. Rezza G, Lennette ET, Giuliani M, Pezzotti P, Caprilli F, Monini P, Buttò S, Lodi G, Di Carlo A, Levy JA, Ensoli B. Prevalence and determinants of anti-lytic and anti-latent antibodies to human herpesvirus-8 among Italian individuals at risk of sexually and parenterally transmitted infections. Int J Cancer. 1998 Jul 29; 77(3):361-5. PMID: 9663596.
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    109. Barker E, Kahn J, Fujimura S, Levy JA. Protease inhibitors do not increase the CD4+ cell count in HIV-uninfected individuals. AIDS. 1998 Jun 18; 12(9):1117-8. PMID: 9662217.
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    110. Locher CP, Barnett SW, Herndier BG, Blackbourn DJ, Reyes-Terán G, Murthy KK, Brasky KM, Hubbard GB, Reinhart TA, Haase AT, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus-2 infection in baboons is an animal model for human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis in humans. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1998 Jun; 122(6):523-33. PMID: 9625420.
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    111. Renne R, Blackbourn D, Whitby D, Levy J, Ganem D. Limited transmission of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in cultured cells. J Virol. 1998 Jun; 72(6):5182-8. PMID: 9573290; PMCID: PMC110093.
    112. Barker E, Bossart KN, Levy JA. Primary CD8+ cells from HIV-infected individuals can suppress productive infection of macrophages independent of beta-chemokines. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1998 Feb 17; 95(4):1725-9. PMID: 9465084; PMCID: PMC19166.
    113. Levy JA, Hsueh F, Blackbourn DJ, Wara D, Weintrub PS. CD8 cell noncytotoxic antiviral activity in human immunodeficiency virus-infected and -uninfected children. J Infect Dis. 1998 Feb; 177(2):470-2. PMID: 9466540.
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    114. Locher CP, Blackbourn DJ, Herndier BG, Reyes-Terán G, Barnett SW, Murthy KK, Levy JA. Transient virus infection and pathogenesis of a new HIV type 2 isolate, UC12, in baboons. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1998 Jan 01; 14(1):79-82. PMID: 9453254.
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    115. Blackbourn DJ, Lennette ET, Ambroziak J, Mourich DV, Levy JA. Human herpesvirus 8 detection in nasal secretions and saliva. J Infect Dis. 1998 Jan; 177(1):213-6. PMID: 9419191.
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    116. Barker E, Bossart KN, Fujimura SH, Levy JA. CD28 costimulation increases CD8+ cell suppression of HIV replication. J Immunol. 1997 Nov 15; 159(10):5123-31. PMID: 9366442.
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    117. Locher CP, Blackbourn DJ, Barnett SW, Murthy KK, Cobb EK, Rouse S, Greco G, Reyes-Terán G, Brasky KM, Carey KD, Levy JA. Superinfection with human immunodeficiency virus type 2 can reactivate virus production in baboons but is contained by a CD8 T cell antiviral response. J Infect Dis. 1997 Oct; 176(4):948-59. PMID: 9333153.
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    118. Mackewicz CE, Barker E, Greco G, Reyes-Teran G, Levy JA. Do beta-chemokines have clinical relevance in HIV infection? J Clin Invest. 1997 Aug 15; 100(4):921-30. PMID: 9259592; PMCID: PMC508265.
    119. Gulizia RJ, Collman RG, Levy JA, Trono D, Mosier DE. Deletion of nef slows but does not prevent CD4-positive T-cell depletion in human immunodeficiency virus type 1-infected human-PBL-SCID mice. J Virol. 1997 May; 71(5):4161-4. PMID: 9094701; PMCID: PMC191576.
    120. Blackbourn DJ, Locher CP, Ramachandran B, Barnett SW, Murthy KK, Carey KD, Brasky KM, Levy JA. CD8+ cells from HIV-2-infected baboons control HIV replication. AIDS. 1997 May; 11(6):737-46. PMID: 9143605.
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    121. Mackewicz CE, Orque R, Jung J, Levy JA. Derivation of herpesvirus saimiri-transformed CD8+ T cell lines with noncytotoxic anti-HIV activity. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1997 Mar; 82(3):274-81. PMID: 9073551.
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    122. Blackbourn DJ, Ambroziak J, Lennette E, Adams M, Ramachandran B, Levy JA. Infectious human herpesvirus 8 in a healthy North American blood donor. Lancet. 1997 Mar 01; 349(9052):609-11. PMID: 9057733.
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    123. Levy JA. Three new human herpesviruses (HHV6, 7, and 8). Lancet. 1997 Feb 22; 349(9051):558-63. PMID: 9048803.
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    124. Blackbourn DJ, Levy JA. Human herpesvirus 8 in semen and prostate. AIDS. 1997 Feb; 11(2):249-50. PMID: 9030373.
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    125. Barker E, Bossart KN, Locher CP, Patterson BK, Levy JA. CD8+ cells from asymptomatic human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals suppress superinfection of their peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Gen Virol. 1996 Dec; 77 ( Pt 12):2953-62. PMID: 9000085.
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    126. Mackewicz CE, Barker E, Levy JA. Role of beta-chemokines in suppressing HIV replication. Science. 1996 Nov 22; 274(5291):1393-5. PMID: 8966605.
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    127. Levy JA. Infection by human immunodeficiency virus--CD4 is not enough. N Engl J Med. 1996 Nov 14; 335(20):1528-30. PMID: 8890107.
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    128. Blackbourn DJ, Mackewicz CE, Barker E, Hunt TK, Herndier B, Haase AT, Levy JA. Suppression of HIV replication by lymphoid tissue CD8+ cells correlates with the clinical state of HIV-infected individuals. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1996 Nov 12; 93(23):13125-30. PMID: 8917555; PMCID: PMC24057.
    129. Mackewicz CE, Levy JA, Cruikshank WW, Kornfeld H, Center DM. Role of IL-16 in HIV replication. Nature. 1996 Oct 10; 383(6600):488-9. PMID: 8849720.
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    130. Locher CP, Blackbourn DJ, Castro BA, Brasky KM, Levy JA. Susceptibility of peripheral blood mononuclear cells from gorillas, orangutans and baboons to diverse HIV isolates. AIDS. 1996 Oct; 10(12):1438-40. PMID: 8902080.
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    131. Lennette ET, Blackbourn DJ, Levy JA. Antibodies to human herpesvirus type 8 in the general population and in Kaposi's sarcoma patients. Lancet. 1996 Sep 28; 348(9031):858-61. PMID: 8826812.
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    132. Murthy KK, Cobb EK, el-Amad Z, Ortega H, Hsueh FC, Satterfield W, Lee DR, Kalish ML, Haigwood NL, Kennedy RC, Steimer KS, Schultz A, Levy JA. Titration of a vaccine stock preparation of human immunodeficiency virus type 1SF2 in cultured lymphocytes and in chimpanzees. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1996 Sep 20; 12(14):1341-8. PMID: 8891113.
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    133. Hartley CA, Gilbert MJ, Brigido L, Elbeik T, Levy JA, Crowe SM, Mills J. Human immunodeficiency virus grown in CD4-expressing cells is associated with CD4. J Gen Virol. 1996 Sep; 77 ( Pt 9):2015-23. PMID: 8810998.
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    134. Voss TG, Fermin CD, Levy JA, Vigh S, Choi B, Garry RF. Alteration of intracellular potassium and sodium concentrations correlates with induction of cytopathic effects by human immunodeficiency virus. J Virol. 1996 Aug; 70(8):5447-54. PMID: 8764056; PMCID: PMC190502.
    135. Barnett SW, Legg HS, Sun Y, Klinger J, Blackbourn DJ, Locher CP, Levy JA. Molecular cloning of the human immunodeficiency virus subtype 2 strain HIV-2UC2. Virology. 1996 Aug 01; 222(1):257-61. PMID: 8806506.
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    136. Levy JA. Surrogate markers in AIDS research. Is there truth in numbers? JAMA. 1996 Jul 10; 276(2):161-2. PMID: 8656510.
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    137. Levy JA. The value of primate models for studying human immunodeficiency virus pathogenesis. J Med Primatol. 1996 Jun; 25(3):163-74. PMID: 8892037.
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    138. Gulizia RJ, Levy JA, Mosier DE. The envelope gp120 gene of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 determines the rate of CD4-positive T-cell depletion in SCID mice engrafted with human peripheral blood leukocytes. J Virol. 1996 Jun; 70(6):4184-7. PMID: 8648765; PMCID: PMC190315.
    139. Miller G, Rigsby MO, Heston L, Grogan E, Sun R, Metroka C, Levy JA, Gao SJ, Chang Y, Moore P. Antibodies to butyrate-inducible antigens of Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus in patients with HIV-1 infection. N Engl J Med. 1996 May 16; 334(20):1292-7. PMID: 8609946.
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    140. Levy JA, Mackewicz CE, Barker E. Controlling HIV pathogenesis: the role of the noncytotoxic anti-HIV response of CD8+ T cells. Immunol Today. 1996 May; 17(5):217-24. PMID: 8991383.
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    141. Ffrench R, Stewart GJ, Penny R, Levy JA. Managing HIV. Part 3. Mechanisms of disease. 3.2 How HIV produces immune deficiency. Med J Aust. 1996 Feb 05; 164(3):166-71. PMID: 8628137.
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    142. Levy JA, Ramachandran B, Barker E, Guthrie J, Elbeik T. Plasma viral load, CD4+ cell counts, and HIV-1 production by cells. Science. 1996 Feb 02; 271(5249):670-1. PMID: 8571134.
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    143. el-Amad Z, Murthy KK, Higgins K, Cobb EK, Haigwood NL, Levy JA, Steimer KS. Resistance of chimpanzees immunized with recombinant gp120SF2 to challenge by HIV-1SF2. AIDS. 1995 Dec; 9(12):1313-22. PMID: 8605050.
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    144. Barker E, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. Effects of TH1 and TH2 cytokines on CD8+ cell response against human immunodeficiency virus: implications for long-term survival. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Nov 21; 92(24):11135-9. PMID: 7479952; PMCID: PMC40586.
    145. Tang S, Patterson B, Levy JA. Highly purified quiescent human peripheral blood CD4+ T cells are infectible by human immunodeficiency virus but do not release virus after activation. J Virol. 1995 Sep; 69(9):5659-65. PMID: 7637012; PMCID: PMC189423.
    146. Ichimura H, Levy JA. Polymerase substrate depletion: a novel strategy for inhibiting the replication of the human immunodeficiency virus. Virology. 1995 Aug 20; 211(2):554-60. PMID: 7544050.
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    147. Allan JS, Ray P, Broussard S, Whitehead E, Hubbard G, Butler T, Brasky K, Luciw P, Cheng-Mayer C, Levy JA, et al. Infection of baboons with simian/human immunodeficiency viruses. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr Hum Retrovirol. 1995 Aug 15; 9(5):429-41. PMID: 7627620.
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    148. Luciw PA, Pratt-Lowe E, Shaw KE, Levy JA, Cheng-Mayer C. Persistent infection of rhesus macaques with T-cell-line-tropic and macrophage-tropic clones of simian/human immunodeficiency viruses (SHIV). Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Aug 01; 92(16):7490-4. PMID: 7638218; PMCID: PMC41365.
    149. Levy JA. HIV research: a need to focus on the right target. Lancet. 1995 Jun 24; 345(8965):1619-21. PMID: 7783542.
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    150. Sawai ET, Baur AS, Peterlin BM, Levy JA, Cheng-Mayer C. A conserved domain and membrane targeting of Nef from HIV and SIV are required for association with a cellular serine kinase activity. J Biol Chem. 1995 Jun 23; 270(25):15307-14. PMID: 7797518.
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    151. Ambroziak JA, Blackbourn DJ, Herndier BG, Glogau RG, Gullett JH, McDonald AR, Lennette ET, Levy JA. Herpes-like sequences in HIV-infected and uninfected Kaposi's sarcoma patients. Science. 1995 Apr 28; 268(5210):582-3. PMID: 7725108.
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    152. Mackewicz CE, Blackbourn DJ, Levy JA. CD8+ T cells suppress human immunodeficiency virus replication by inhibiting viral transcription. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1995 Mar 14; 92(6):2308-12. PMID: 7534418; PMCID: PMC42473.
    153. Mackewicz CE, Yang LC, Lifson JD, Levy JA. Non-cytolytic CD8 T-cell anti-HIV responses in primary HIV-1 infection. Lancet. 1994 Dec 17; 344(8938):1671-3. PMID: 7996961.
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    154. Stamatatos L, Levy JA. CD26 is not involved in infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells by HIV-1. AIDS. 1994 Dec; 8(12):1727-8. PMID: 7888123.
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    155. Hsueh FW, Walker CM, Blackbourn DJ, Levy JA. Suppression of HIV replication by CD8+ cell clones derived from HIV-infected and uninfected individuals. Cell Immunol. 1994 Dec; 159(2):271-9. PMID: 7994759.
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    156. Poulin L, Fauchon M, Darveau A, Levy JA. Inhibition of protein synthesis by the human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nef gene product. J Gen Virol. 1994 Nov; 75 ( Pt 11):2977-84. PMID: 7964607.
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    157. Barnett SW, Murthy KK, Herndier BG, Levy JA. An AIDS-like condition induced in baboons by HIV-2. Science. 1994 Oct 28; 266(5185):642-6. PMID: 7939718.
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    158. Levy JA. Long-term survivors of HIV infection. Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1994 Oct 15; 29(10):41-4, 47, 51-2. PMID: 7929674.
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    159. Mackewicz CE, Landay A, Hollander H, Levy JA. Effect of zidovudine therapy on CD8+ T cell anti-HIV activity. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1994 Oct; 73(1):80-7. PMID: 7923920.
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    160. Blackbourn DJ, Mackewicz C, Barker E, Levy JA. Human CD8+ cell non-cytolytic anti-HIV activity mediated by a novel cytokine. Res Immunol. 1994 Oct-Dec; 145(8-9):653-8; discussion 658-9. PMID: 7754216.
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    161. Kliks SC, Levy JA. Maternal antibody response and maternal-infant HIV-1 transmission. Lancet. 1994 May 28; 343(8909):1364. PMID: 7910354.
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    162. Herndier BG, Werner A, Arnstein P, Abbey NW, Demartis F, Cohen RL, Shuman MA, Levy JA. Characterization of a human Kaposi's sarcoma cell line that induces angiogenic tumors in animals. AIDS. 1994 May; 8(5):575-81. PMID: 7520247.
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    163. Koito A, Harrowe G, Levy JA, Cheng-Mayer C. Functional role of the V1/V2 region of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope glycoprotein gp120 in infection of primary macrophages and soluble CD4 neutralization. J Virol. 1994 Apr; 68(4):2253-9. PMID: 8139010; PMCID: PMC236701.
    164. Ichimura H, Kliks SC, Visrutaratna S, Ou CY, Kalish ML, Levy JA. Biological, serological, and genetic characterization of HIV-1 subtype E isolates from northern Thailand. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1994 Mar; 10(3):263-9. PMID: 8018386.
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    165. Sawai ET, Baur A, Struble H, Peterlin BM, Levy JA, Cheng-Mayer C. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 Nef associates with a cellular serine kinase in T lymphocytes. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1994 Feb 15; 91(4):1539-43. PMID: 8108442; PMCID: PMC43195.
    166. Dumitrescu O, Kalish ML, Kliks SC, Bandea CI, Levy JA. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 isolates from children in Romania: identification of a new envelope subtype. J Infect Dis. 1994 Feb; 169(2):281-8. PMID: 8106761.
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    167. Mackewicz CE, Ortega H, Levy JA. Effect of cytokines on HIV replication in CD4+ lymphocytes: lack of identity with the CD8+ cell antiviral factor. Cell Immunol. 1994 Feb; 153(2):329-43. PMID: 7907003.
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    168. Barker E, Fujimura SF, Fadem MB, Landay AL, Levy JA. Immunologic abnormalities associated with chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Jan; 18 Suppl 1:S136-41. PMID: 8148441.
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    169. Eaton AM, Ugen KE, Weiner DB, Wildes T, Levy JA. An anti-gp41 human monoclonal antibody that enhances HIV-1 infection in the absence of complement. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1994 Jan; 10(1):13-8. PMID: 7514015.
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    170. Levy JA. Viral studies of chronic fatigue syndrome. Clin Infect Dis. 1994 Jan; 18 Suppl 1:S117-20. PMID: 8148437.
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    171. Kliks SC, Shioda T, Haigwood NL, Levy JA. V3 variability can influence the ability of an antibody to neutralize or enhance infection by diverse strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1993 Dec 15; 90(24):11518-22. PMID: 7505441; PMCID: PMC48015.
    172. Landay AL, Mackewicz CE, Levy JA. An activated CD8+ T cell phenotype correlates with anti-HIV activity and asymptomatic clinical status. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1993 Oct; 69(1):106-16. PMID: 8403538.
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    173. LeGuern M, Shioda T, Levy JA, Cheng-Mayer C. Single amino acid change in Tat determines the different rates of replication of two sequential HIV-1 isolates. Virology. 1993 Aug; 195(2):441-7. PMID: 8337822.
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    174. Levy JA. The transmission of HIV and factors influencing progression to AIDS. Am J Med. 1993 Jul; 95(1):86-100. PMID: 8328502.
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    175. Werner A, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 envelope gp120 is cleaved after incubation with recombinant soluble CD4. J Virol. 1993 May; 67(5):2566-74. PMID: 8474162; PMCID: PMC237577.
    176. Mosier DE, Gulizia RJ, MacIsaac PD, Torbett BE, Levy JA. Rapid loss of CD4+ T cells in human-PBL-SCID mice by noncytopathic HIV isolates. Science. 1993 Apr 30; 260(5108):689-92. PMID: 8097595.
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    177. Levy JA. Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Microbiol Rev. 1993 Mar; 57(1):183-289. PMID: 8464405; PMCID: PMC372905.
    178. Pan LZ, Werner A, Levy JA. Detection of plasma viremia in human immunodeficiency virus-infected individuals at all clinical stages. J Clin Microbiol. 1993 Feb; 31(2):283-8. PMID: 8094395; PMCID: PMC262750.
    179. Barnett SW, Quiroga M, Werner A, Dina D, Levy JA. Distinguishing features of an infectious molecular clone of the highly divergent and noncytopathic human immunodeficiency virus type 2 UC1 strain. J Virol. 1993 Feb; 67(2):1006-14. PMID: 8419635; PMCID: PMC237455.
    180. Levy JA. Features of human immunodeficiency virus infection and disease. Pediatr Res. 1993 Jan; 33(1 Suppl):S63-9; discussion S69-70. PMID: 8433877.
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    181. Levy JA. HIV and host immune responses in AIDS pathogenesis. J Clin Apher. 1993; 8(1):19-28. PMID: 8505278.
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    182. Barboza A, Castro BA, Whalen M, Moore CC, Parkin JS, Miller WL, Gonzalez-Scarano F, Levy JA. Infection of cultured human adrenal cells by different strains of HIV. AIDS. 1992 Dec; 6(12):1437-43. PMID: 1492929.
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    183. Castro BA, Homsy J, Lennette E, Murthy KK, Eichberg JW, Levy JA. HIV-1 expression in chimpanzees can be activated by CD8+ cell depletion or CMV infection. Clin Immunol Immunopathol. 1992 Dec; 65(3):227-33. PMID: 1333378.
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    184. Shioda T, Levy JA, Cheng-Mayer C. Small amino acid changes in the V3 hypervariable region of gp120 can affect the T-cell-line and macrophage tropism of human immunodeficiency virus type 1. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Oct 15; 89(20):9434-8. PMID: 1409653; PMCID: PMC50146.
    185. Poulin L, Levy JA. The HIV-1 nef gene product is associated with phosphorylation of a 46 kD cellular protein. AIDS. 1992 Aug; 6(8):787-91. PMID: 1418774.
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    186. Mackewicz C, Levy JA. CD8+ cell anti-HIV activity: nonlytic suppression of virus replication. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1992 Jun; 8(6):1039-50. PMID: 1354466.
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    187. Tang S, Poulin L, Levy JA. Lack of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) replication and accumulation of viral DNA in HIV-1-infected T cells blocked in cell replication. J Gen Virol. 1992 Apr; 73 ( Pt 4):933-9. PMID: 1634879.
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    188. Berger JR, Levy JA. The human immunodeficiency virus, type 1: the virus and its role in neurologic disease. Semin Neurol. 1992 Mar; 12(1):1-9. PMID: 1615234.
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    189. Le Guern M, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 can superinfect HIV-2-infected cells: pseudotype virions produced with expanded cellular host range. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1992 Jan 01; 89(1):363-7. PMID: 1346069; PMCID: PMC48237.
    190. Cheng-Mayer C, Shioda T, Levy JA. Host range, replicative, and cytopathic properties of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 are determined by very few amino acid changes in tat and gp120. J Virol. 1991 Dec; 65(12):6931-41. PMID: 1658383; PMCID: PMC250799.
    191. Walker CM, Erickson AL, Hsueh FC, Levy JA. Inhibition of human immunodeficiency virus replication in acutely infected CD4+ cells by CD8+ cells involves a noncytotoxic mechanism. J Virol. 1991 Nov; 65(11):5921-7. PMID: 1920621; PMCID: PMC250255.
    192. Pan LZ, Sheppard HW, Winkelstein W, Levy JA. Lack of detection of human immunodeficiency virus in persistently seronegative homosexual men with high or medium risks for infection. J Infect Dis. 1991 Nov; 164(5):962-4. PMID: 1940475.
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    193. Walker CM, Thomson-Honnebier GA, Hsueh FC, Erickson AL, Pan LZ, Levy JA. CD8+ T cells from HIV-1-infected individuals inhibit acute infection by human and primate immunodeficiency viruses. Cell Immunol. 1991 Oct 15; 137(2):420-8. PMID: 1680028.
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    194. Landay AL, Jessop C, Lennette ET, Levy JA. Chronic fatigue syndrome: clinical condition associated with immune activation. Lancet. 1991 Sep 21; 338(8769):707-12. PMID: 1679864.
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    195. Castro BA, Nepomuceno M, Lerche NW, Eichberg JW, Levy JA. Persistent infection of baboons and rhesus monkeys with different strains of HIV-2. Virology. 1991 Sep; 184(1):219-26. PMID: 1678564.
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    196. Poulin L, Evans LA, Tang SB, Barboza A, Legg H, Littman DR, Levy JA. Several CD4 domains can play a role in human immunodeficiency virus infection in cells. J Virol. 1991 Sep; 65(9):4893-901. PMID: 1714523; PMCID: PMC248950.
    197. Weintrub PS, Ulrich PP, Edwards JR, Boucher F, Levy JA, Cowan MJ, Vyas GN. Use of polymerase chain reaction for the early detection of HIV infection in the infants of HIV-seropositive women. AIDS. 1991 Jul; 5(7):881-4. PMID: 1892594.
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    198. Tang SB, Levy JA. Inactivation of HIV-1 by trypsin and its use in demonstrating specific virus infection of cells. J Virol Methods. 1991 Jun; 33(1-2):39-46. PMID: 1682337.
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    199. Barnett SW, Barboza A, Wilcox CM, Forsmark CE, Levy JA. Characterization of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strains recovered from the bowel of infected individuals. Virology. 1991 Jun; 182(2):802-9. PMID: 2024498.
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    200. Mackewicz CE, Ortega HW, Levy JA. CD8+ cell anti-HIV activity correlates with the clinical state of the infected individual. J Clin Invest. 1991 Apr; 87(4):1462-6. PMID: 1707063; PMCID: PMC295198.
    201. Martin NL, Levy JA, Legg H, Weintrub PS, Cowan MJ, Wara DW. Detection of infection with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) type 1 in infants by an anti-HIV immunoglobulin A assay using recombinant proteins. J Pediatr. 1991 Mar; 118(3):354-8. PMID: 1705583.
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    202. Cheng-Mayer C, Seto D, Levy JA. Altered host range of HIV-1 after passage through various human cell types. Virology. 1991 Mar; 181(1):288-94. PMID: 1994578.
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    203. Shioda T, Levy JA, Cheng-Mayer C. Macrophage and T cell-line tropisms of HIV-1 are determined by specific regions of the envelope gp120 gene. Nature. 1991 Jan 10; 349(6305):167-9. PMID: 1986308.
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    204. Levy JA. Viral and cellular factors influencing HIV tropism. Adv Exp Med Biol. 1991; 300:1-15. PMID: 1685854.
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    205. Castro BA, Walker CM, Eichberg JW, Levy JA. Suppression of human immunodeficiency virus replication by CD8+ cells from infected and uninfected chimpanzees. Cell Immunol. 1991 Jan; 132(1):246-55. PMID: 1676614.
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    206. Brown M, Reed S, Levy JA, Busch M, McKerrow JH. Detection of HIV-1 in Entamoeba histolytica without evidence of transmission to human cells. AIDS. 1991 Jan; 5(1):93-6. PMID: 2059366.
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    207. Liu ZQ, Wood C, Levy JA, Cheng-Mayer C. The viral envelope gene is involved in macrophage tropism of a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 strain isolated from brain tissue. J Virol. 1990 Dec; 64(12):6148-53. PMID: 2243391; PMCID: PMC248789.
    208. Levy JA. The pathogenesis of HIV infection. Hosp Pract (Off Ed). 1990 Nov 15; 25(11):41-8. PMID: 2146279.
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    209. Weiss CD, Levy JA, White JM. Oligomeric organization of gp120 on infectious human immunodeficiency virus type 1 particles. J Virol. 1990 Nov; 64(11):5674-7. PMID: 2214033; PMCID: PMC248628.
    210. Levy JA. Changing concepts in HIV infection: challenges for the 1990s. AIDS. 1990 Nov; 4(11):1051-8. PMID: 1980820.
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    211. Castro BA, Barnett SW, Evans LA, Moreau J, Odehouri K, Levy JA. Biologic heterogeneity of human immunodeficiency virus type 2 (HIV-2) strains. Virology. 1990 Oct; 178(2):527-34. PMID: 2120848.
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    212. Levy JA, Landay A, Lennette ET. Human herpesvirus 6 inhibits human immunodeficiency virus type 1 replication in cell culture. J Clin Microbiol. 1990 Oct; 28(10):2362-4. PMID: 2172289; PMCID: PMC268180.
    213. Canivet M, Hoffman AD, Hardy D, Sernatinger J, Levy JA. Replication of HIV-1 in a wide variety of animal cells following phenotypic mixing with murine retroviruses. Virology. 1990 Oct; 178(2):543-51. PMID: 2171193.
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    214. Levy JA, Ferro F, Lennette ET, Oshiro L, Poulin L. Characterization of a new strain of HHV-6 (HHV-6SF) recovered from the saliva of an HIV-infected individual. Virology. 1990 Sep; 178(1):113-21. PMID: 1975142.
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    215. Cheng-Mayer C, Quiroga M, Tung JW, Dina D, Levy JA. Viral determinants of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 T-cell or macrophage tropism, cytopathogenicity, and CD4 antigen modulation. J Virol. 1990 Sep; 64(9):4390-8. PMID: 2384920; PMCID: PMC247907.
    216. York-Higgins D, Cheng-Mayer C, Bauer D, Levy JA, Dina D. Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 cellular host range, replication, and cytopathicity are linked to the envelope region of the viral genome. J Virol. 1990 Aug; 64(8):4016-20. PMID: 2370688; PMCID: PMC249703.
    217. Wiviott LD, Walker CM, Levy JA. CD8+ lymphocytes suppress HIV production by autologous CD4+ cells without eliminating the infected cells from culture. Cell Immunol. 1990 Jul; 128(2):628-34. PMID: 1972661.
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    218. Levy JA, Ferro F, Greenspan D, Lennette ET. Frequent isolation of HHV-6 from saliva and high seroprevalence of the virus in the population. Lancet. 1990 May 05; 335(8697):1047-50. PMID: 1970369.
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    219. Tang SB, Levy JA. Parameters involved in the cell fusion induced by HIV. AIDS. 1990 May; 4(5):409-15. PMID: 2196907.
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    220. Homsy J, Meyer M, Levy JA. Serum enhancement of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection correlates with disease in HIV-infected individuals. J Virol. 1990 Apr; 64(4):1437-40. PMID: 2319642; PMCID: PMC249276.
    221. Yong WH, Wyman S, Levy JA. Optimal conditions for synthesizing complementary DNA in the HIV-1 endogenous reverse transcriptase reaction. AIDS. 1990 Mar; 4(3):199-206. PMID: 1693515.
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    222. Cheng-Mayer C, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus infection of the CNS: characterization of "neurotropic" strains. Curr Top Microbiol Immunol. 1990; 160:145-56. PMID: 2191840.
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    223. Nielsen IL, McNeill C, Danzig W, Goldman S, Levy J, Miller AJ. Adaptation of craniofacial muscles in subjects with craniomandibular disorders. Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop. 1990 Jan; 97(1):20-34. PMID: 2296935.
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    224. Evans LA, Levy JA. Characteristics of HIV infection and pathogenesis. Biochim Biophys Acta. 1989 Dec 27; 989(3):237-54. PMID: 2695168.
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    225. Cheng-Mayer C, Iannello P, Shaw K, Luciw PA, Levy JA. Differential effects of nef on HIV replication: implications for viral pathogenesis in the host. Science. 1989 Dec 22; 246(4937):1629-32. PMID: 2531920.
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    226. Schiødt M, Greenspan D, Levy JA, Nelson JA, Chernoff D, Hollander H, Greenspan JS. Does HIV cause salivary gland disease? AIDS. 1989 Dec; 3(12):819-22. PMID: 2517203.
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    227. Cheng-Mayer C, Weiss C, Seto D, Levy JA. Isolates of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 from the brain may constitute a special group of the AIDS virus. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Nov; 86(21):8575-9. PMID: 2813413; PMCID: PMC298325.
    228. Swanson CA, Levy JA, Morrow WJ. Effect of low dietary lipid on the development of Sjögren's syndrome and haematological abnormalities in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice. Ann Rheum Dis. 1989 Sep; 48(9):765-70. PMID: 2802799; PMCID: PMC1003871.
    229. Edwards JR, Ulrich PP, Weintrub PS, Cowan MJ, Levy JA, Wara DW, Vyas GN. Polymerase chain reaction compared with concurrent viral cultures for rapid identification of human immunodeficiency virus infection among high-risk infants and children. J Pediatr. 1989 Aug; 115(2):200-3. PMID: 2754549.
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    230. Levy JA, Margaretten W, Nelson J. Detection of HIV in enterochromaffin cells in the rectal mucosa of an AIDS patient. Am J Gastroenterol. 1989 Jul; 84(7):787-9. PMID: 2741889.
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    231. Homsy J, Meyer M, Tateno M, Clarkson S, Levy JA. The Fc and not CD4 receptor mediates antibody enhancement of HIV infection in human cells. Science. 1989 Jun 16; 244(4910):1357-60. PMID: 2786647.
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    232. Tateno M, Gonzalez-Scarano F, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus can infect CD4-negative human fibroblastoid cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1989 Jun; 86(11):4287-90. PMID: 2786212; PMCID: PMC287436.
    233. Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency viruses and the pathogenesis of AIDS. JAMA. 1989 May 26; 261(20):2997-3006. PMID: 2654428.
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    234. Evans LA, Thomson-Honnebier G, Steimer K, Paoletti E, Perkus ME, Hollander H, Levy JA. Antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity is directed against both the gp120 and gp41 envelope proteins of HIV. AIDS. 1989 May; 3(5):273-6. PMID: 2548535.
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    235. Morrow WJ, Homsy J, Eichberg JW, Krowka J, Pan LZ, Gaston I, Legg H, Lerche N, Thomas J, Levy JA. Long-term observation of baboons, rhesus monkeys, and chimpanzees inoculated with HIV and given periodic immunosuppressive treatment. AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses. 1989 Apr; 5(2):233-45. PMID: 2713168.
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    236. Walker CM, Moody DJ, Stites DP, Levy JA. CD8+ T lymphocyte control of HIV replication in cultured CD4+ cells varies among infected individuals. Cell Immunol. 1989 Apr 01; 119(2):470-5. PMID: 2495184.
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    237. Walker CM, Levy JA. A diffusible lymphokine produced by CD8+ T lymphocytes suppresses HIV replication. Immunology. 1989 Apr; 66(4):628-30. PMID: 2497065; PMCID: PMC1385169.
    238. Levy JA. Pathogenesis of human immunodeficiency virus infection. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 1989; 567:58-68. PMID: 2552893.
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    239. Levy JA. The human immunodeficiency viruses. Detection and pathogenesis. Immunol Ser. 1989; 44:159-229. PMID: 2489112.
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    240. Greenspan D, Greenspan JS, de Souza Y, Levy JA, Ungar AM. Oral hairy leukoplakia in an HIV-negative renal transplant recipient. J Oral Pathol Med. 1989 Jan; 18(1):32-4. PMID: 2545870.
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    241. Michaelis B, Levy JA. HIV replication can be blocked by recombinant human interferon beta. AIDS. 1989 Jan; 3(1):27-31. PMID: 2496708.
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    242. Castro BA, Walker CM, Tateno M, Cheng-Mayer C, Heberling R, Eichberg JW, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) from experimentally infected chimpanzees: isolation and characterization. J Med Primatol. 1989; 18(3-4):337-42. PMID: 2760917.
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    243. Evans LA, Moreau J, Odehouri K, Seto D, Thomson-Honnebier G, Legg H, Barboza A, Cheng-Mayer C, Levy JA. Simultaneous isolation of HIV-1 and HIV-2 from an AIDS patient. Lancet. 1988 Dec 17; 2(8625):1389-91. PMID: 2904524.
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    244. Walker CM, Steimer KS, Rosenthal KL, Levy JA. Identification of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) envelope type-specific T helper cells in an HIV-infected individual. J Clin Invest. 1988 Dec; 82(6):2172-5. PMID: 2848870; PMCID: PMC442803.
    245. Levy JA. Can an AIDS vaccine be developed? Transfus Med Rev. 1988 Dec; 2(4):264-71. PMID: 2856529.
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    246. Cowan MJ, Walker C, Culver K, Weintrub PS, Wara DW, Levy JA. Maternally transmitted HIV infection in children. AIDS. 1988 Dec; 2(6):437-41. PMID: 3149491.
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    247. Levy JA, Greenspan D. HIV in saliva. Lancet. 1988 Nov 26; 2(8622):1248. PMID: 2903974.
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    248. Winkelstein W, Wiley JA, Padian NS, Samuel M, Shiboski S, Ascher MS, Levy JA. The San Francisco Men's Health Study: continued decline in HIV seroconversion rates among homosexual/bisexual men. Am J Public Health. 1988 Nov; 78(11):1472-4. PMID: 3177723; PMCID: PMC1350242.
    249. Tateno M, Levy JA. MT-4 plaque formation can distinguish cytopathic subtypes of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). Virology. 1988 Nov; 167(1):299-301. PMID: 3263731.
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    250. Castro BA, Weiss CD, Wiviott LD, Levy JA. Optimal conditions for recovery of the human immunodeficiency virus from peripheral blood mononuclear cells. J Clin Microbiol. 1988 Nov; 26(11):2371-6. PMID: 3266220; PMCID: PMC266895.
    251. Sernatinger J, Hoffman A, Hardman D, Kane JP, Levy JA. Neutralization of mouse xenotropic virus by lipoproteins involves binding to the virions. J Gen Virol. 1988 Oct; 69 ( Pt 10):2657-61. PMID: 2844973.
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    252. Jacobson MA, Crowe S, Levy J, Aweeka F, Gambertoglio J, McManus N, Mills J. Effect of Foscarnet therapy on infection with human immunodeficiency virus in patients with AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1988 Oct; 158(4):862-5. PMID: 2844921.
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    253. Evans LA, Moreau J, Odehouri K, Legg H, Barboza A, Cheng-Mayer C, Levy JA. Characterization of a noncytopathic HIV-2 strain with unusual effects on CD4 expression. Science. 1988 Jun 10; 240(4858):1522-5. PMID: 2836951.
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    254. Levy JA. Mysteries of HIV: challenges for therapy and prevention. Nature. 1988 Jun 09; 333(6173):519-22. PMID: 3287174.
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    255. Dean NC, Golden JA, Evans LA, Warnock ML, Addison TE, Hopewell PC, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus recovery from bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in patients with AIDS. Chest. 1988 Jun; 93(6):1176-9. PMID: 3371096.
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    256. Levy JA. The human immunodeficiency virus and its pathogenesis. Infect Dis Clin North Am. 1988 Jun; 2(2):285-97. PMID: 2974466.
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    257. Levy JA. The transmission of AIDS: the case of the infected cell. JAMA. 1988 May 27; 259(20):3037-8. PMID: 3285042.
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    258. Cheng-Mayer C, Seto D, Tateno M, Levy JA. Biologic features of HIV-1 that correlate with virulence in the host. Science. 1988 Apr 01; 240(4848):80-2. PMID: 2832945.
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    259. Cheng-Mayer C, Homsy J, Evans LA, Levy JA. Identification of human immunodeficiency virus subtypes with distinct patterns of sensitivity to serum neutralization. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1988 Apr; 85(8):2815-9. PMID: 3357892; PMCID: PMC280090.
    260. Nelson JA, Wiley CA, Reynolds-Kohler C, Reese CE, Margaretten W, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus detected in bowel epithelium from patients with gastrointestinal symptoms. Lancet. 1988 Feb 06; 1(8580):259-62. PMID: 2893081.
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    261. Evans LA, Homsy JM, Morrow WJ, Gaston I, Sooy CD, Levy JA. Human monoclonal antibody directed against gag gene products of the human immunodeficiency virus. J Immunol. 1988 Feb 01; 140(3):941-3. PMID: 2828474.
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    262. Cheng-Mayer C, Levy JA. Distinct biological and serological properties of human immunodeficiency viruses from the brain. Ann Neurol. 1988; 23 Suppl:S58-61. PMID: 3258140.
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    263. Homsy J, Thomson-Honnebier GA, Cheng-Mayer C, Levy JA. Detection of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) in serum and body fluids by sequential competition ELISA. J Virol Methods. 1988 Jan; 19(1):43-56. PMID: 3280585.
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    264. Castro BA, Cheng-Mayer C, Evans LA, Levy JA. HIV heterogeneity and viral pathogenesis. AIDS. 1988; 2 Suppl 1:S17-27. PMID: 3147667.
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    265. Eichberg JW, Zarling JM, Alter HJ, Levy JA, Berman PW, Gregory T, Lasky LA, McClure J, Cobb KE, Moran PA, et al. T-cell responses to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and its recombinant antigens in HIV-infected chimpanzees. J Virol. 1987 Dec; 61(12):3804-8. PMID: 3500328; PMCID: PMC255996.
    266. Perkins HA, Samson S, Garner J, Echenberg D, Allen JR, Cowan M, Levy JA. Risk of AIDS for recipients of blood components from donors who subsequently developed AIDS. Blood. 1987 Nov; 70(5):1604-10. PMID: 3663947.
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    267. Morrow WJ, Wharton M, Lau D, Levy JA. Small animals are not susceptible to human immunodeficiency virus infection. J Gen Virol. 1987 Aug; 68 ( Pt 8):2253-7. PMID: 2886549.
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    268. Gerberding JL, Bryant-LeBlanc CE, Nelson K, Moss AR, Osmond D, Chambers HF, Carlson JR, Drew WL, Levy JA, Sande MA. Risk of transmitting the human immunodeficiency virus, cytomegalovirus, and hepatitis B virus to health care workers exposed to patients with AIDS and AIDS-related conditions. J Infect Dis. 1987 Jul; 156(1):1-8. PMID: 3036953.
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    269. Evans LA, McHugh TM, Stites DP, Levy JA. Differential ability of human immunodeficiency virus isolates to productively infect human cells. J Immunol. 1987 May 15; 138(10):3415-8. PMID: 3106482.
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    270. Cheng-Mayer C, Rutka JT, Rosenblum ML, McHugh T, Stites DP, Levy JA. Human immunodeficiency virus can productively infect cultured human glial cells. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 May; 84(10):3526-30. PMID: 3472222; PMCID: PMC304904.
    271. Pan LZ, Cheng-Mayer C, Levy JA. Patterns of antibody response in individuals infected with the human immunodeficiency virus. J Infect Dis. 1987 Apr; 155(4):626-32. PMID: 3546516.
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    272. Kaplan LD, Wolfe PR, Volberding PA, Feorino P, Levy JA, Abrams DI, Kiprov D, Wong R, Kaufman L, Gottlieb MS. Lack of response to suramin in patients with AIDS and AIDS-related complex. Am J Med. 1987 Mar 23; 82(3 Spec No):615-20. PMID: 3548350.
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    273. Luciw PA, Cheng-Mayer C, Levy JA. Mutational analysis of the human immunodeficiency virus: the orf-B region down-regulates virus replication. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1987 Mar; 84(5):1434-8. PMID: 2434956; PMCID: PMC304445.
    274. Greenspan D, Greenspan JS, Hearst NG, Pan LZ, Conant MA, Abrams DI, Hollander H, Levy JA. Relation of oral hairy leukoplakia to infection with the human immunodeficiency virus and the risk of developing AIDS. J Infect Dis. 1987 Mar; 155(3):475-81. PMID: 3492574.
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    275. Koenig RE, Pittaluga J, Bogart M, Castro M, Nunez F, Vilorio I, Delvillar L, Calzada M, Levy JA. Prevalence of antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus in Dominicans and Haitians in the Dominican Republic. JAMA. 1987 Feb 06; 257(5):631-4. PMID: 3467076.
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    276. Lennette ET, Karpatkin S, Levy JA. Indirect immunofluorescence assay for antibodies to human immunodeficiency virus. J Clin Microbiol. 1987 Feb; 25(2):199-202. PMID: 3546359; PMCID: PMC265866.
    277. Walker CM, Moody DJ, Stites DP, Levy JA. CD8+ lymphocytes can control HIV infection in vitro by suppressing virus replication. Science. 1986 Dec 19; 234(4783):1563-6. PMID: 2431484.
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    278. Levy JA, Pan LZ, Beth-Giraldo E, Kaminsky LS, Henle G, Henle W, Giraldo G. Absence of antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus in sera from Africa prior to 1975. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 1986 Oct; 83(20):7935-7. PMID: 3464008; PMCID: PMC386838.
    279. Mitra G, Wong MF, Mozen MM, McDougal JS, Levy JA. Elimination of infectious retroviruses during preparation of immunoglobulins. Transfusion. 1986 Jul-Aug; 26(4):394-7. PMID: 3014692.
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    280. Steimer KS, Puma JP, Power MD, Powers MA, George-Nascimento C, Stephans JC, Levy JA, Sanchez-Pescador R, Luciw PA, Barr PJ, et al. Differential antibody responses of individuals infected with AIDS-associated retroviruses surveyed using the viral core antigen p25gag expressed in bacteria. Virology. 1986 Apr 15; 150(1):283-90. PMID: 3006341.
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    281. Wofsy CB, Cohen JB, Hauer LB, Padian NS, Michaelis BA, Evans LA, Levy JA. Isolation of AIDS-associated retrovirus from genital secretions of women with antibodies to the virus. Lancet. 1986 Mar 08; 1(8480):527-9. PMID: 2869262.
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    282. Ragni MV, Tegtmeier GE, Levy JA, Kaminsky LS, Lewis JH, Spero JA, Bontempo FA, Handwerk-Leber C, Bayer WL, Zimmerman DH, et al. AIDS retrovirus antibodies in hemophiliacs treated with factor VIII or factor IX concentrates, cryoprecipitate, or fresh frozen plasma: prevalence, seroconversion rate, and clinical correlations. Blood. 1986 Mar; 67(3):592-5. PMID: 3081062.
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    283. McHugh TM, Stites DP, Casavant CH, Carlson JR, Yee J, McVay PA, Busch MP, Levy JA. Evaluation of the indirect immunofluorescence assay as a confirmatory test for detecting antibodies to the human immunodeficiency virus. Diagn Immunol. 1986; 4(5):233-40. PMID: 3539456.
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    284. Morrow WJ, Ohashi Y, Hall J, Pribnow J, Hirose S, Shirai T, Levy JA. Dietary fat and immune function. I. Antibody responses, lymphocyte and accessory cell function in (NZB x NZW)F1 mice. J Immunol. 1985 Dec; 135(6):3857-63. PMID: 2415589.
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    285. Levy JA, Shimabukuro J, McHugh T, Casavant C, Stites D, Oshiro L. AIDS-associated retroviruses (ARV) can productively infect other cells besides human T helper cells. Virology. 1985 Dec; 147(2):441-8. PMID: 2416120.
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    286. Hoffman AD, Banapour B, Levy JA. Characterization of the AIDS-associated retrovirus reverse transcriptase and optimal conditions for its detection in virions. Virology. 1985 Dec; 147(2):326-35. PMID: 2416116.
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    287. Levy JA, Shimabukuro J, Hollander H, Mills J, Kaminsky L. Isolation of AIDS-associated retroviruses from cerebrospinal fluid and brain of patients with neurological symptoms. Lancet. 1985 Sep 14; 2(8455):586-8. PMID: 2863599.
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    288. Levy JA, Mitra GA, Wong MF, Mozen MM. Inactivation by wet and dry heat of AIDS-associated retroviruses during factor VIII purification from plasma. Lancet. 1985 Jun 22; 1(8443):1456-7. PMID: 2861402.
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    289. Homsy J, Morrow WJ, Levy JA. Life span of MRL/lpr/lpr mice. Immunol Today. 1985 Apr; 6(4):120. PMID: 25289493.
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    290. Cooper DA, Gold J, May W, Kaminsky LS, Penny R, Levy JA. Contact tracing in the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Evidence for transmission of virus and disease by an asymptomatic carrier. Med J Aust. 1984 Oct 27; 141(9):579-82. PMID: 6092883.
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    291. Hill AB, May W, Kaminsky LS, Levy JA, Penny R, Cooper DA. AIDS and related conditions. One year's experience in St. Vincent's Hospital, Sydney. Med J Aust. 1984 Oct 27; 141(9):573-8. PMID: 6092882.
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    292. Hays EF, Levy JA. Differences in lymphomagenic properties of AKR mouse retroviruses. Virology. 1984 Oct 15; 138(1):49-57. PMID: 6093361.
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    293. Varnier OE, Hoffman AD, Nexø BA, Levy JA. Murine xenotropic type C viruses. V. Biologic and structural differences among three cloned retroviruses isolated from kidney cells from one NZB mouse. Virology. 1984 Jan 15; 132(1):79-94. PMID: 6607566.
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    294. Morrow WJ, Levy JA. Dietary regulation of the autoimmune process in murine lupus. Immunol Today. 1983 Sep; 4(9):249-50. PMID: 25290301.
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    295. Levy JA, Oleszko O, Dimpfl J, Lau D, Rigdon RH, Jones J, Avery R. Murine xenotropic type C viruses. IV. Replication and pathogenesis of ducks. J Gen Virol. 1982 Jul; 61 (Pt l):65-74. PMID: 6288852.
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    296. Varnier OE, Levy JA. Differential effect of dexamethasone on replication of ecotropic and xenotropic mouse type C viruses. Virology. 1979 Jul 30; 96(2):604-14. PMID: 223319.
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    297. Avery RJ, Levy JA. Relationship of endogenous murine xenotropic type C virus production to spontaneous transformation of cultured cells. J Gen Virol. 1978 Jun; 39(3):427-35. PMID: 207818.
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    298. Oshiro LS, Levy JA, Riggs JL, Lennette EH. Distinction between envelope antigens of murine xenotropic and ecotropic type C viruses by immunoelectron microscopy. J Gen Virol. 1977 May; 35(2):317-23. PMID: 69013.
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    299. Levy JA, Kazan P, Varnier O, Kleiman H. Murine xenotropic type C viruses I. Distribution and further characterization of the virus in NZB mice. J Virol. 1975 Oct; 16(4):844-53. PMID: 170419; PMCID: PMC354744.
    300. Levy JA, Hartley JW, Rowe WP, Huebner RJ. Studies of FBJ osteosarcoma virus in tissue culture. II. Autoinhibition of focus formation. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1975 Mar; 54(3):615-9. PMID: 164561.
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    301. Levy JA, Hartley JW, Rowe WP, Huebner RJ. Studies of FBJ osteosarcoma virus in tissue culture. I. Biologic characteristics of the "C"-type viruses. J Natl Cancer Inst. 1973 Aug; 51(2):525-39. PMID: 4358136.
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    302. Levy JA, Rowe WP. Lack of requirement of murine leukemia virus for early steps in infection of mouse embryo cells by murine sarcoma virus. Virology. 1971 Sep; 45(3):844-7. PMID: 4331113.
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    303. Levy JA, Huebner RJ. Association of a [corrected] murine leukaemia virus from a mouse lymphoma (2731-L) associated [corrected] with reovirus type 3 infection. Nature. 1970 Mar 07; 225(5236):949-50. PMID: 4313576.
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    304. Levy JA, Henle G, Henle W, Zajac BA. Effect of reovirus type 3 on cultured Burkitt's tumour cells. Nature. 1968 Nov 09; 220(5167):607-8. PMID: 4879743.
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    305. Levy JA, Huebner RJ, Kern J, Gilden RV. High titre T antigen with minimal amounts of structural antigen in adenovirus-infected cells treated with hydroxyurea. Nature. 1968 Feb 24; 217(5130):744-5. PMID: 4295939.
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