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    Kathleen Mulligan, PhD

    TitleProfessor
    SchoolUCSF School of Medicine
    DepartmentMedicine
    Address1001 Potrero Ave, SFGH 30
    San Francisco CA 94110
    Phone415-206-5882
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      Collapse Biography 
      Collapse Awards and Honors
      Endocrine Society2009 - 2010Endocrine Society/Pfizer International Award for Excellence in Published Clinical Research

      Collapse Overview 
      Collapse Overview
      I study the nutritional and metabolic effects of chronic conditions including HIV infection and its therapies, obesity, fatty liver disease, and type 2 diabetes, with a focus on body composition, glucose and lipid metabolism, endocrine function, and bone metabolism; and a strong emphasis on treatments and mechanisms. My research has ranged from leading intense inpatient metabolic ward studies to chairing multicenter trials through consortia such as the adult and pediatric AIDS Clinical Trials Groups and Adolescent Trials Network.


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      Collapse Global Health

      Collapse Bibliographic 
      Collapse Publications
      Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help.
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      1. Martin PM, Stanley RE, Ross AP, Freitas AE, Moyer CE, Brumback AC, Iafrati J, Stapornwongkul KS, Dominguez S, Kivimäe S, Mulligan KA, Pirooznia M, McCombie WR, Potash JB, Zandi PP, Purcell SM, Sanders SJ, Zuo Y, Sohal VS, Cheyette BN. DIXDC1 contributes to psychiatric susceptibility by regulating dendritic spine and glutamatergic synapse density via GSK3 and Wnt/ß-catenin signaling. Mol Psychiatry. 2016 Oct 18. PMID: 27752079.
        View in: PubMed
      2. Hosek S, Rudy B, Landovitz R, Kapogiannis B, Siberry G, Rutledge B, Liu N, Brothers J, Mulligan K, Zimet G, Lally M, Mayer K, Anderson P, Kiser J, Rooney J, Wilson CM. An HIV Pre-Exposure Prophylaxis (PrEP) Demonstration Project and Safety Study for Young MSM. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Sep 13. PMID: 27632233.
        View in: PubMed
      3. Ruan A, Tobin NH, Mulligan K, Rollie A, Li F, Sleasman J, Aldrovandi GM. Brief Report: Macrophage Activation in HIV-Infected Adolescent Males Contributes to Differential Bone Loss by Sex: Adolescent Trials Network Study 021. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2016 Aug 1; 72(4):372-5. PMID: 26885808.
        View in: PubMed
      4. Gugliucci A, Lustig RH, Caccavello R, Erkin-Cakmak A, Noworolski SM, Tai VW, Wen MJ, Mulligan K, Schwarz JM. Short-term isocaloric fructose restriction lowers apoC-III levels and yields less atherogenic lipoprotein profiles in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Atherosclerosis. 2016 Oct; 253:171-177. PMID: 27451002.
        View in: PubMed
      5. Lustig RH, Mulligan K, Noworolski SM, Tai VW, Wen MJ, Erkin-Cakmak A, Gugliucci A, Schwarz JM. Isocaloric fructose restriction and metabolic improvement in children with obesity and metabolic syndrome. Obesity (Silver Spring). 2016 Feb; 24(2):453-60. PMID: 26499447.
        View in: PubMed
      6. Amin TS, Shenton S, Mulligan K, Wedderburn LR, Wood M, VanRooyen V, Leone V. Strategies for the prevention and management of methotrexate-related nausea and vomiting in juvenile idiopathic arthritis: results of a UK Paediatric Rheumatology prescriber survey. Rheumatology (Oxford). 2015 Nov; 54(11):2108-9. PMID: 26209331.
        View in: PubMed
      7. Mulligan K, Glidden DV, Anderson PL, Liu A, McMahan V, Gonzales P, Ramirez-Cardich ME, Namwongprom S, Chodacki P, de Mendonca LM, Wang F, Lama JR, Chariyalertsak S, Guanira JV, Buchbinder S, Bekker LG, Schechter M, Veloso VG, Grant RM. Effects of Emtricitabine/Tenofovir on Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Negative Persons in a Randomized, Double-Blind, Placebo-Controlled Trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2015 Aug 15; 61(4):572-80. PMID: 25908682; PMCID: PMC4565984 [Available on 08/15/16].
      8. Schwarz JM, Noworolski SM, Wen MJ, Dyachenko A, Prior JL, Weinberg ME, Herraiz LA, Tai VW, Bergeron N, Bersot TP, Rao MN, Schambelan M, Mulligan K. Effect of a High-Fructose Weight-Maintaining Diet on Lipogenesis and Liver Fat. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Jun; 100(6):2434-42. PMID: 25825943; PMCID: PMC4454806 [Available on 06/01/16].
      9. Rao MN, Neylan TC, Grunfeld C, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Schwarz JM. Subchronic sleep restriction causes tissue-specific insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2015 Apr; 100(4):1664-71. PMID: 25658017; PMCID: PMC4399283 [Available on 04/01/16].
      10. Rabl C, Rao MN, Schwarz JM, Mulligan K, Campos GM. Thermogenic changes after gastric bypass, adjustable gastric banding or diet alone. Surgery. 2014 Oct; 156(4):806-12. PMID: 25239323; PMCID: PMC4171693.
      11. Rubinstein ML, Harris DR, Rudy BJ, Kapogiannis BG, Aldrovandi GM, Mulligan K. Exploration of the Effect of Tobacco Smoking on Metabolic Measures in Young People Living with HIV. AIDS Res Treat. 2014; 2014:740545. PMID: 25114801; PMCID: PMC4119894.
      12. Solomon MM, Lama JR, Glidden DV, Mulligan K, McMahan V, Liu AY, Guanira JV, Veloso VG, Mayer KH, Chariyalertsak S, Schechter M, Bekker LG, Kallás EG, Burns DN, Grant RM. Changes in renal function associated with oral emtricitabine/tenofovir disoproxil fumarate use for HIV pre-exposure prophylaxis. AIDS. 2014 Mar 27; 28(6):851-9. PMID: 24499951; PMCID: PMC3966916.
      13. Havens PL, Hazra R, Stephensen CB, Kiser JJ, Flynn PM, Wilson CM, Rutledge B, Bethel J, Pan CG, Woodhouse LR, Van Loan MD, Liu N, Lujan-Zilbermann J, Baker A, Kapogiannis BG, Gordon CM, Mulligan K. Vitamin D3 supplementation increases fibroblast growth factor-23 in HIV-infected youths treated with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. Antivir Ther. 2014; 19(6):613-8. PMID: 24535626; PMCID: PMC4135028.
      14. Porter TR, Li X, Stephensen CB, Mulligan K, Rutledge B, Flynn PM, Lujan-Zilbermann J, Hazra R, Wilson CM, Havens PL, Tang J. Genetic associations with 25-hydroxyvitamin D deficiency in HIV-1-infected youth: fine-mapping for the GC/DBP gene that encodes the vitamin D-binding protein. Front Genet. 2013; 4:234. PMID: 24294218; PMCID: PMC3827582.
      15. Kendler DL, Borges JL, Fielding RA, Itabashi A, Krueger D, Mulligan K, Camargos BM, Sabowitz B, Wu CH, Yu EW, Shepherd J. The Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: Indications of Use and Reporting of DXA for Body Composition. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct-Dec; 16(4):496-507. PMID: 24090645.
        View in: PubMed
      16. Petak S, Barbu CG, Yu EW, Fielding R, Mulligan K, Sabowitz B, Wu CH, Shepherd JA. The Official Positions of the International Society for Clinical Densitometry: body composition analysis reporting. J Clin Densitom. 2013 Oct-Dec; 16(4):508-19. PMID: 24183640.
        View in: PubMed
      17. Khanijow K, Unemori P, Leslie KS, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Maurer T. Cutis Verticis Gyrata in Men Affected by HIV-Related Lipodystrophy. Dermatol Res Pract. 2013; 2013:941740. PMID: 24159328; PMCID: PMC3789479.
      18. Havens PL, Kiser JJ, Stephensen CB, Hazra R, Flynn PM, Wilson CM, Rutledge B, Bethel J, Pan CG, Woodhouse LR, Van Loan MD, Liu N, Lujan-Zilbermann J, Baker A, Kapogiannis BG, Gordon CM, Mulligan K. Association of higher plasma vitamin D binding protein and lower free calcitriol levels with tenofovir disoproxil fumarate use and plasma and intracellular tenofovir pharmacokinetics: cause of a functional vitamin D deficiency? Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2013 Nov; 57(11):5619-28. PMID: 24002093; PMCID: PMC3811269.
      19. Campos GM, Rabl C, Havel PJ, Rao M, Schwarz JM, Schambelan M, Mulligan K. Changes in post-prandial glucose and pancreatic hormones, and steady-state insulin and free fatty acids after gastric bypass surgery. Surg Obes Relat Dis. 2014 Jan-Feb; 10(1):1-8. PMID: 24209879; PMCID: PMC3896512.
      20. Havens PL, Mulligan K, Hazra R, Flynn P, Rutledge B, Van Loan MD, Lujan-Zilbermann J, Kapogiannis BG, Wilson CM, Stephensen CB. Serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D response to vitamin D3 supplementation 50,000 IU monthly in youth with HIV-1 infection. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2012 Nov; 97(11):4004-13. PMID: 22933542; PMCID: PMC3485594.
      21. Rao MN, Schambelan M, Tai VW, Abrams DI, Khatami H, Havel PJ, Sakkas G, Mulligan K. Assessing the Association between Leptin and Bone Mineral Density in HIV-Infected Men. AIDS Res Treat. 2012; 2012:103072. PMID: 22966425; PMCID: PMC3433112.
      22. Mulligan K, Harris DR, Emmanuel P, Fielding RA, Worrell C, Kapogiannis BG, Monte D, Sleasman J, Wilson CM, Aldrovandi GM. Low bone mass in behaviorally HIV-infected young men on antiretroviral therapy: Adolescent Trials Network Study 021B. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Aug; 55(3):461-8. PMID: 22573848; PMCID: PMC3491777.
      23. Lindsey JC, Jacobson DL, Li H, Houseman EA, Aldrovandi GM, Mulligan K. Using cluster heat maps to investigate relationships between body composition and laboratory measurements in HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected children and young adults. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2012 Mar 1; 59(3):325-8. PMID: 22083069; PMCID: PMC3288740.
      24. Havens PL, Stephensen CB, Hazra R, Flynn PM, Wilson CM, Rutledge B, Bethel J, Pan CG, Woodhouse LR, Van Loan MD, Liu N, Lujan-Zilbermann J, Baker A, Kapogiannis BG, Mulligan K. Vitamin D3 decreases parathyroid hormone in HIV-infected youth being treated with tenofovir: a randomized, placebo-controlled trial. Clin Infect Dis. 2012 Apr; 54(7):1013-25. PMID: 22267714; PMCID: PMC3297650.
      25. Wilson JP, Mulligan K, Fan B, Sherman JL, Murphy EJ, Tai VW, Powers CL, Marquez L, Ruiz-Barros V, Shepherd JA. Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-based body volume measurement for 4-compartment body composition. Am J Clin Nutr. 2012 Jan; 95(1):25-31. PMID: 22134952; PMCID: PMC3238462.
      26. Raiten DJ, Mulligan K, Papathakis P, Wanke C. Executive summary--nutritional care of HIV-infected adolescents and adults, including pregnant and lactating women: what do we know, what can we do, and where do we go from here? Am J Clin Nutr. 2011 Dec; 94(6):1667S-1676S. PMID: 22089438; PMCID: PMC3226019.
      27. Liu AY, Vittinghoff E, Sellmeyer DE, Irvin R, Mulligan K, Mayer K, Thompson M, Grant R, Pathak S, O'Hara B, Gvetadze R, Chillag K, Grohskopf L, Buchbinder SP. Bone mineral density in HIV-negative men participating in a tenofovir pre-exposure prophylaxis randomized clinical trial in San Francisco. PLoS One. 2011; 6(8):e23688. PMID: 21897852; PMCID: PMC3163584.
      28. Masharani UB, Maddux BA, Li X, Sakkas GK, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Goldfine ID, Youngren JF. Insulin resistance in non-obese subjects is associated with activation of the JNK pathway and impaired insulin signaling in skeletal muscle. PLoS One. 2011; 6(5):e19878. PMID: 21589939; PMCID: PMC3092773.
      29. Weinberg ME, Roman MC, Jacob P, Wen M, Cheung P, Walker UA, Mulligan K, Schambelan M. Enhanced uridine bioavailability following administration of a triacetyluridine-rich nutritional supplement. PLoS One. 2011; 6(2):e14709. PMID: 21379380; PMCID: PMC3040752.
      30. Choi AI, Lo JC, Mulligan K, Schnell A, Kalapus SC, Li Y, Hunt PW, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Hsue PY. Association of vitamin D insufficiency with carotid intima-media thickness in HIV-infected persons. Clin Infect Dis. 2011 Apr 1; 52(7):941-4. PMID: 21273298; PMCID: PMC3106229.
      31. Grant RM, Lama JR, Anderson PL, McMahan V, Liu AY, Vargas L, Goicochea P, Casapía M, Guanira-Carranza JV, Ramirez-Cardich ME, Montoya-Herrera O, Fernández T, Veloso VG, Buchbinder SP, Chariyalertsak S, Schechter M, Bekker LG, Mayer KH, Kallás EG, Amico KR, Mulligan K, Bushman LR, Hance RJ, Ganoza C, Defechereux P, Postle B, Wang F, McConnell JJ, Zheng JH, Lee J, Rooney JF, Jaffe HS, Martinez AI, Burns DN, Glidden DV. Preexposure chemoprophylaxis for HIV prevention in men who have sex with men. N Engl J Med. 2010 Dec 30; 363(27):2587-99. PMID: 21091279; PMCID: PMC3079639.
      32. Taylor SA, Lee GA, Pao VY, Anthonypillai J, Aweeka FT, Schwarz JM, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. Boosting dose ritonavir does not alter peripheral insulin sensitivity in healthy HIV-seronegative volunteers. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2010 Nov; 55(3):361-4. PMID: 20595906; PMCID: PMC3164483.
      33. Rao MN, Mulligan K, Tai V, Wen MJ, Dyachenko A, Weinberg M, Li X, Lang T, Grunfeld C, Schwarz JM, Schambelan M. Effects of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I/IGF-binding protein-3 treatment on glucose metabolism and fat distribution in human immunodeficiency virus-infected patients with abdominal obesity and insulin resistance. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2010 Sep; 95(9):4361-6. PMID: 20610601; PMCID: PMC2936071.
      34. Jacobson DL, Lindsey JC, Gordon CM, Moye J, Hardin DS, Mulligan K, Aldrovandi GM. Total body and spinal bone mineral density across Tanner stage in perinatally HIV-infected and uninfected children and youth in PACTG 1045. AIDS. 2010 Mar 13; 24(5):687-96. PMID: 20168204; PMCID: PMC3154736.
      35. Pao VY, Lee GA, Taylor S, Aweeka FT, Schwarz JM, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. The protease inhibitor combination lopinavir/ritonavir does not decrease insulin secretion in healthy, HIV-seronegative volunteers. AIDS. 2010 Jan 16; 24(2):265-70. PMID: 19890203.
        View in: PubMed
      36. Raboud JM, Diong C, Carr A, Grinspoon S, Mulligan K, Sutinen J, Rozenbaum W, Cavalcanti RB, Wand H, Costagliola D, Walmsley S. A meta-analysis of six placebo-controlled trials of thiazolidinedione therapy for HIV lipoatrophy. HIV Clin Trials. 2010 Jan-Feb; 11(1):39-50. PMID: 20400410; PMCID: PMC3733492.
      37. Mulligan K, Harris DR, Monte D, Stoszek S, Emmanuel P, Hardin DS, Kapogiannis BG, Worrell C, Meyer WA, Sleasman J, Wilson CM, Aldrovandi GM. Obesity and dyslipidemia in behaviorally HIV-infected young women: Adolescent Trials Network study 021. Clin Infect Dis. 2010 Jan 1; 50(1):106-14. PMID: 19947855; PMCID: PMC2939739.
      38. Sakkas GK, Schambelan M, Mulligan K. Can the use of creatine supplementation attenuate muscle loss in cachexia and wasting? Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. 2009 Nov; 12(6):623-7. PMID: 19741514; PMCID: PMC2905310.
      39. Campos GM, Rabl C, Peeva S, Ciovica R, Rao M, Schwarz JM, Havel P, Schambelan M, Mulligan K. Improvement in peripheral glucose uptake after gastric bypass surgery is observed only after substantial weight loss has occurred and correlates with the magnitude of weight lost. J Gastrointest Surg. 2010 Jan; 14(1):15-23. PMID: 19838759.
        View in: PubMed
      40. Lee GA, Schwarz JM, Patzek S, Kim S, Dyachenko A, Wen M, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. The acute effects of HIV protease inhibitors on insulin suppression of glucose production in healthy HIV-negative men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2009 Oct 1; 52(2):246-8. PMID: 19680131; PMCID: PMC3164488.
      41. Aldrovandi GM, Lindsey JC, Jacobson DL, Zadzilka A, Sheeran E, Moye J, Borum P, Meyer WA, Hardin DS, Mulligan K. Morphologic and metabolic abnormalities in vertically HIV-infected children and youth. AIDS. 2009 Mar 27; 23(6):661-72. PMID: 19279441; PMCID: PMC2680185.
      42. Sakkas GK, Mulligan K, Dasilva M, Doyle JW, Khatami H, Schleich T, Kent-Braun JA, Schambelan M. Creatine fails to augment the benefits from resistance training in patients with HIV infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. PLoS One. 2009; 4(2):e4605. PMID: 19242554; PMCID: PMC2646129.
      43. Mulligan K, Khatami H, Schwarz JM, Sakkas GK, DePaoli AM, Tai VW, Wen MJ, Lee GA, Grunfeld C, Schambelan M. The effects of recombinant human leptin on visceral fat, dyslipidemia, and insulin resistance in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated lipoatrophy and hypoleptinemia. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2009 Apr; 94(4):1137-44. PMID: 19174500; PMCID: PMC2682465.
      44. Sattler FR, Rajicic N, Mulligan K, Yarasheski KE, Koletar SL, Zolopa A, Alston Smith B, Zackin R, Bistrian B. Evaluation of high-protein supplementation in weight-stable HIV-positive subjects with a history of weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, multicenter trial. Am J Clin Nutr. 2008 Nov; 88(5):1313-21. PMID: 18996868; PMCID: PMC2797483.
      45. Campos GM, Rabl C, Mulligan K, Posselt A, Rogers SJ, Westphalen AC, Lin F, Vittinghoff E. Factors associated with weight loss after gastric bypass. Arch Surg. 2008 Sep; 143(9):877-883; discussion 884. PMID: 18794426; PMCID: PMC2747804.
      46. Ranade K, Geese WJ, Noor M, Flint O, Tebas P, Mulligan K, Powderly W, Grinspoon SK, Dube MP. Genetic analysis implicates resistin in HIV lipodystrophy. AIDS. 2008 Aug 20; 22(13):1561-8. PMID: 18670214; PMCID: PMC4410015.
      47. Sobieszczyk ME, Hoover DR, Anastos K, Mulligan K, Tan T, Shi Q, Gao W, Hyman C, Cohen MH, Cole SR, Plankey MW, Levine AM, Justman J. Prevalence and predictors of metabolic syndrome among HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected women in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2008 Jul 1; 48(3):272-80. PMID: 18545157.
        View in: PubMed
      48. Grunfeld C, Kotler DP, Arnett DK, Falutz JM, Haffner SM, Hruz P, Masur H, Meigs JB, Mulligan K, Reiss P, Samaras K. Contribution of metabolic and anthropometric abnormalities to cardiovascular disease risk factors. Circulation. 2008 Jul 8; 118(2):e20-8. PMID: 18566314; PMCID: PMC3170411.
      49. Hulgan T, Tebas P, Canter JA, Mulligan K, Haas DW, Dubé M, Grinspoon S, Robbins GK, Motsinger AA, Kallianpur AR. Hemochromatosis gene polymorphisms, mitochondrial haplogroups, and peripheral lipoatrophy during antiretroviral therapy. J Infect Dis. 2008 Mar 15; 197(6):858-66. PMID: 18419350.
        View in: PubMed
      50. Lee GA, Rao M, Mulligan K, Lo JC, Aweeka F, Schwarz JM, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. Effects of ritonavir and amprenavir on insulin sensitivity in healthy volunteers. AIDS. 2007 Oct 18; 21(16):2183-90. PMID: 18090045; PMCID: PMC3167072.
      51. Dubé MP, Komarow L, Mulligan K, Grinspoon SK, Parker RA, Robbins GK, Roubenoff R, Tebas P. Long-term body fat outcomes in antiretroviral-naive participants randomized to nelfinavir or efavirenz or both plus dual nucleosides. Dual X-ray absorptiometry results from A5005s, a substudy of Adult Clinical Trials Group 384. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2007 Aug 15; 45(5):508-14. PMID: 17589373.
        View in: PubMed
      52. Li X, Youngren JF, Hyun B, Sakkas GK, Mulligan K, Majumdar S, Masharani UB, Schambelan M, Goldfine ID. Technical evaluation of in vivo abdominal fat and IMCL quantification using MRI and MRSI at 3 T. Magn Reson Imaging. 2008 Feb; 26(2):188-97. PMID: 17683890; PMCID: PMC2713003.
      53. Dubé MP, Parker RA, Mulligan K, Tebas P, Robbins GK, Roubenoff R, Grinspoon SK. Effects of potent antiretroviral therapy on free testosterone levels and fat-free mass in men in a prospective, randomized trial: A5005s, a substudy of AIDS Clinical Trials Group Study 384. Clin Infect Dis. 2007 Jul 1; 45(1):120-6. PMID: 17554712.
        View in: PubMed
      54. Mulligan K, Yang Y, Wininger DA, Koletar SL, Parker RA, Alston-Smith BL, Schouten JT, Fielding RA, Basar MT, Grinspoon S. Effects of metformin and rosiglitazone in HIV-infected patients with hyperinsulinemia and elevated waist/hip ratio. AIDS. 2007 Jan 2; 21(1):47-57. PMID: 17148967.
        View in: PubMed
      55. Anastos K, Lu D, Shi O, Mulligan K, Tien PC, Freeman R, Cohen MH, Justman J, Hessol NA. The association of bone mineral density with HIV infection and antiretroviral treatment in women. Antivir Ther. 2007; 12(7):1049-58. PMID: 18018763.
        View in: PubMed
      56. Brown CT, Yap T, Cromwell DA, Rixon L, Steed L, Mulligan K, Mundy A, Newman SP, van der Meulen J, Emberton M. Self management for men with lower urinary tract symptoms: randomised controlled trial. BMJ. 2007 Jan 6; 334(7583):25. PMID: 17118949; PMCID: PMC1764065.
      57. Mulligan K, Zackin R, Von Roenn JH, Chesney MA, Egorin MJ, Sattler FR, Benson CA, Liu T, Umbleja T, Shriver S, Auchus RJ, Schambelan M. Testosterone supplementation of megestrol therapy does not enhance lean tissue accrual in men with human immunodeficiency virus-associated weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2007 Feb; 92(2):563-70. PMID: 17090640.
        View in: PubMed
      58. Wohl DA, McComsey G, Tebas P, Brown TT, Glesby MJ, Reeds D, Shikuma C, Mulligan K, Dube M, Wininger D, Huang J, Revuelta M, Currier J, Swindells S, Fichtenbaum C, Basar M, Tungsiripat M, Meyer W, Weihe J, Wanke C. Current concepts in the diagnosis and management of metabolic complications of HIV infection and its therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Sep 1; 43(5):645-53. PMID: 16886161.
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      59. Lee GA, Lo JC, Aweeka F, Schwarz JM, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. Single-dose lopinavir-ritonavir acutely inhibits insulin-mediated glucose disposal in healthy volunteers. Clin Infect Dis. 2006 Sep 1; 43(5):658-60. PMID: 16886163; PMCID: PMC3205942.
      60. Mulligan K, Parker RA, Komarow L, Grinspoon SK, Tebas P, Robbins GK, Roubenoff R, Dubé MP. Mixed patterns of changes in central and peripheral fat following initiation of antiretroviral therapy in a randomized trial. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2006 Apr 15; 41(5):590-7. PMID: 16652032.
        View in: PubMed
      61. Dubé MP, Parker RA, Tebas P, Grinspoon SK, Zackin RA, Robbins GK, Roubenoff R, Shafer RW, Wininger DA, Meyer WA, Snyder SW, Mulligan K. Glucose metabolism, lipid, and body fat changes in antiretroviral-naive subjects randomized to nelfinavir or efavirenz plus dual nucleosides. AIDS. 2005 Nov 4; 19(16):1807-18. PMID: 16227788.
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      62. Lo JC, Kazemi MR, Hsue PY, Martin JN, Deeks SG, Schambelan M, Mulligan K. The relationship between nucleoside analogue treatment duration, insulin resistance, and fasting arterialized lactate level in patients with HIV infection. Clin Infect Dis. 2005 Nov 1; 41(9):1335-40. PMID: 16206112.
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      63. Danoff A, Shi Q, Justman J, Mulligan K, Hessol N, Robison E, Lu D, Williams T, Wichienkuer P, Anastos K. Oral glucose tolerance and insulin sensitivity are unaffected by HIV infection or antiretroviral therapy in overweight women. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 May 1; 39(1):55-62. PMID: 15851914.
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      64. Mulligan K, Zackin R, Clark RA, Alston-Smith B, Liu T, Sattler FR, Delvers TB, Currier JS. Effect of nandrolone decanoate therapy on weight and lean body mass in HIV-infected women with weight loss: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial. Arch Intern Med. 2005 Mar 14; 165(5):578-85. PMID: 15767536.
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      65. Dubé MP, Kitch DW, Parker RA, Alston-Smith BL, Mulligan K. The effect of long-term storage on measured plasma lactate concentrations and prospective lactate results from a multicenter trial of antiretroviral therapy. Clin Chem Lab Med. 2005; 43(9):947-52. PMID: 16176175.
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      66. Mulligan K, Anastos K, Justman J, Freeman R, Wichienkuer P, Robison E, Hessol NA. Fat distribution in HIV-infected women in the United States: DEXA substudy in the Women's Interagency HIV Study. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2005 Jan 1; 38(1):18-22. PMID: 15608519.
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      67. Newman S, Steed L, Mulligan K. Self-management interventions for chronic illness. Lancet. 2004 Oct 23-29; 364(9444):1523-37. PMID: 15500899.
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      68. Shikuma CM, Zackin R, Sattler F, Mildvan D, Nyangweso P, Alston B, Evans S, Mulligan K. Changes in weight and lean body mass during highly active antiretroviral therapy. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Oct 15; 39(8):1223-30. PMID: 15486848.
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      69. Schwarz JM, Lee GA, Park S, Noor MA, Lee J, Wen M, Lo JC, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. Indinavir increases glucose production in healthy HIV-negative men. AIDS. 2004 Sep 3; 18(13):1852-4. PMID: 15316349.
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      70. Lo JC, Mulligan K, Noor MA, Lee GA, Schwarz JM, Grunfeld C, Schambelan M. The effects of low-dose growth hormone in HIV-infected men with fat accumulation: a pilot study. Clin Infect Dis. 2004 Sep 1; 39(5):732-5. PMID: 15356790; PMCID: PMC3170406.
      71. Lee GA, Mafong DD, Noor MA, Lo JC, Mulligan K, Schwarz JM, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. HIV protease inhibitors increase adiponectin levels in HIV-negative men. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2004 May 1; 36(1):645-7. PMID: 15097312.
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      72. Lee GA, Seneviratne T, Noor MA, Lo JC, Schwarz JM, Aweeka FT, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. The metabolic effects of lopinavir/ritonavir in HIV-negative men. AIDS. 2004 Mar 5; 18(4):641-9. PMID: 15090769; PMCID: PMC3166345.
      73. Stygall J, Newman SP, Fitzgerald G, Steed L, Mulligan K, Arrowsmith JE, Pugsley W, Humphries S, Harrison MJ. Cognitive change 5 years after coronary artery bypass surgery. Health Psychol. 2003 Nov; 22(6):579-86. PMID: 14640854.
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      74. Abrams DI, Hilton JF, Leiser RJ, Shade SB, Elbeik TA, Aweeka FT, Benowitz NL, Bredt BM, Kosel B, Aberg JA, Deeks SG, Mitchell TF, Mulligan K, Bacchetti P, McCune JM, Schambelan M. Short-term effects of cannabinoids in patients with HIV-1 infection: a randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Ann Intern Med. 2003 Aug 19; 139(4):258-66. PMID: 12965981.
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      75. Grinspoon S, Mulligan K. Weight loss and wasting in patients infected with human immunodeficiency virus. Clin Infect Dis. 2003 Apr 1; 36(Suppl 2):S69-78. PMID: 12652374.
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      76. Mulligan K. Metabolic abnormalities in patients with HIV infection. J Int Assoc Physicians AIDS Care (Chic). 2003 Apr-Jun; 2(2):66-74. PMID: 12961760.
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      77. Schambelan M, Benson CA, Carr A, Currier JS, Dubé MP, Gerber JG, Grinspoon SK, Grunfeld C, Kotler DP, Mulligan K, Powderly WG, Saag MS. Management of metabolic complications associated with antiretroviral therapy for HIV-1 infection: recommendations of an International AIDS Society-USA panel. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr. 2002 Nov 1; 31(3):257-75. PMID: 12439201.
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      78. Tai VW, Schambelan M, Algren H, Shayevich C, Mulligan K. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on fat distribution in patients with human immunodeficiency virus-associated wasting. Clin Infect Dis. 2002 Nov 15; 35(10):1258-62. PMID: 12410487.
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      79. Mulligan K, Schambelan M. Anabolic treatment with GH, IGF-I, or anabolic steroids in patients with HIV-associated wasting. Int J Cardiol. 2002 Sep; 85(1):151-9. PMID: 12163220.
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      80. Napolitano LA, Lo JC, Gotway MB, Mulligan K, Barbour JD, Schmidt D, Grant RM, Halvorsen RA, Schambelan M, McCune JM. Increased thymic mass and circulating naive CD4 T cells in HIV-1-infected adults treated with growth hormone. AIDS. 2002 May 24; 16(8):1103-11. PMID: 12004268.
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      81. Noor MA, Seneviratne T, Aweeka FT, Lo JC, Schwarz JM, Mulligan K, Schambelan M, Grunfeld C. Indinavir acutely inhibits insulin-stimulated glucose disposal in humans: a randomized, placebo-controlled study. AIDS. 2002 Mar 29; 16(5):F1-8. PMID: 11964551; PMCID: PMC3166537.
      82. Schwarz JM, Mulligan K, Lee J, Lo JC, Wen M, Noor MA, Grunfeld C, Schambelan M. Effects of recombinant human growth hormone on hepatic lipid and carbohydrate metabolism in HIV-infected patients with fat accumulation. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. 2002 Feb; 87(2):942. PMID: 11836345.
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      83. Clark RA, Mulligan K, Stamenovic E, Chang B, Watts H, Andersen J, Squires K, Benson C. Frequency of anovulation and early menopause among women enrolled in selected adult AIDS clinical trials group studies. J Infect Dis. 2001 Nov 15; 184(10):1325-7. PMID: 11679923.
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