Cindy Lai, MD

Title(s)Professor, Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
Address505 Parnassus Avenue, #M997
San Francisco CA 94117
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    Dr. Lai is a general internist who attends on the medicine wards at UCSF Health/Parnassus and has a primary care practice at UCSF/Mt. Zion, where she precepts residents and students. She serves as the Gold-Headed Cane Endowed Education Chair in Internal Medicine. She is the director of medical student clinical education for the Department of Medicine (clerkship director), and oversees the Parnassus site. Dr. Lai is a deputy editor for the Journal of General Internal Medicine and an editor for the First Aid for the Internal Medicine Boards. Dr. Lai has been recognized with teaching and mentoring awards and is a member of the Haile T. Debas Academy of Medical Educators. She completed an internal medicine residency at Massachusetts General Hospital and a general medicine clinician-educator fellowship at UCSF.

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    1. Changes in Gender and Racial/Ethnic Diversity in US Residency Program Applications From 2018 to 2022. J Grad Med Educ. 2024 Feb; 16(1):37-40. Huppert LA, Santhosh L, Alba-Nguyen S, Lai CJ, Babik JM. PMID: 38304603; PMCID: PMC10829929.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    2. Optimizing the Internal Medicine Residency Recruitment Process: A National Survey of Program Directors and Next Steps. Am J Med. 2024 Apr; 137(4):370-376. Wininger DA, Luther VP, Sweet M, Raj JM, Harper W, Amin AN, Lewis K, Harris L, Lai CJ. PMID: 38151143.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    3. Medical student advising during virtual residency recruitment: results of a national survey of internal medicine clerkship and sub-internship directors. Med Educ Online. 2023 Dec; 28(1):2143926. Alexandraki I, Ismail N, Lai CJ, Duca NS, Ratcliffe T, Kisielewski M, Pincavage AT. PMID: 36351170; PMCID: PMC9662014.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    4. Strategies for Advancing Equity in Frontline Clinical Assessment. Acad Med. 2023 Aug 01; 98(8S):S57-S63. Onumah CM, Pincavage AT, Lai CJ, Levine DL, Ismail NJ, Alexandraki I, Osman NY. PMID: 37071692.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    5. Reviewing Internal Medicine Clerkship Grading Through a Proequity Lens: Results of a National Survey. Acad Med. 2023 06 01; 98(6):723-728. Lai CJ, Alexandraki I, Ismail N, Levine D, Onumah C, Pincavage AT, Jacob J, Osborn Jenkins M, Nagarur A, Kisielewski M, Osman NY. PMID: 36634614.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    6. AAIM Recommendations to Promote Equity and Inclusion in the Internal Medicine Residency Interview Process. Am J Med. 2022 12; 135(12):1509-1516.e1. Dao AT, Garcia MM, Correa R, Gay LJ, Wininger DA, Sweet M, Luther VP, Chow TM, Harper W, Lai CJ. PMID: 35981650; PMCID: PMC9376147.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. Emerging from the Pandemic: AAIM Recommendations for Internal Medicine Residency and Fellowship Interview Standards. Am J Med. 2022 10; 135(10):1267-1272. Luther VP, Wininger DA, Lai CJ, Dao A, Garcia MM, Harper W, Chow TM, Correa R, Gay LJ, Fettig L, Dalal B, Vassallo P, Barczi S, Sweet M. PMID: 35820460; PMCID: PMC9513141.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    8. The Impact of Internal Medicine Clerkship Characteristics and NBME Subject Exams on USMLE Step 2 Clinical Knowledge Exam Performance. J Gen Intern Med. 2022 07; 37(9):2208-2216. Fitz M, Adams W, Heincelman M, Haist S, Whelan K, Cox L, Cao UT, Hingle S, Raff A, Houghton B, Fitzpatrick J, Nall R, Foster J, Appelbaum J, Grum C, Donovan A, Kiken S, Abraham R, Hlafka M, Miller C, Bansal S, Paauw D, Lai CJ, Pincavage A, Agarwal G, Burns C, Holzer H, Lappé K, John V, Barker B, Mingioni N, Rao D, Zakowski L, Chakraborti C, Williams W, Kelly W. PMID: 35764759; PMCID: PMC9296728.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. Innovation and Missed Opportunities in Internal Medicine Undergraduate Education During COVID-19: Results from a National Survey. J Gen Intern Med. 2022 07; 37(9):2149-2155. Alexandraki I, Walsh KJ, Ratcliffe T, Onumah C, Szauter K, Curren C, Osman N, Lai CJ, DeWaay D, Duca NS, Weinstein A, Ismail N, Jacob J, Kisielewski M, Pincavage AT. PMID: 35710667; PMCID: PMC9202971.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. AAIM Recommendations to Promote Equity in the Clerkship Clinical Learning Environment. Am J Med. 2022 08; 135(8):1021-1028. Pincavage AT, Osman NY, Alexandraki I, Ismail NJ, Levine DL, Onumah CM, Lai CJ. PMID: 35504324.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    11. Students receiving pages on their patients: A pilot. Med Educ. 2022 05; 56(5):570-571. Ow GM, Lai CJ, Choi N, Khanna R. PMID: 35199867.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Patient Advocacy Assessment in the Medicine Clerkship: A Qualitative Study of Definition, Context, and Impact. J Gen Intern Med. 2022 08; 37(10):2489-2495. Griffiths EP, Lai CJ, Ziv T, Dawson D, Dhaliwal G, Wheeler M, Teherani A. PMID: 35132554; PMCID: PMC8821783.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Roles and Responsibilities of Medicine Subinternship Directors : Medicine Subinternship Director Roles. J Gen Intern Med. 2022 08; 37(11):2698-2702. Duca NS, Lai CJ, Ratcliffe TA, Alexandraki I, Ismail N, Kisielewski M, Jacob J, Walsh K, Levine DL, Szauter K, Jasti H, Pincavage AT, LaRochelle J, Glod SA. PMID: 34545467; PMCID: PMC9411493.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. A is for advocacy: How introducing student advocacy assessment impacts longitudinal integrated clerkship students and clinical supervisors. Med Teach. 2022 Feb; 44(2):149-157. Ziv T, Wamsley M, Lai CJ, Griffiths EP, Maxey A, Kryzhanovskaya IE, Teherani A. PMID: 34433360.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. AAIM Principles and Recommendations for the 2021-2022 Internal Medicine Residency Interview Cycle in Response to the Continued COVID-19 Pandemic. Am J Med. 2021 11; 134(11):1427-1431. Raj JM, Lai CJ, Higgins S, Chretien KC, Barton T, Kroker-Bode CA, Calderon A, Apaloo C, Shaheen AW. PMID: 34411522; PMCID: PMC8366035.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    16. Aiming for Equity in Clerkship Grading: Recommendations for Reducing the Effects of Structural and Individual Bias. Am J Med. 2021 09; 134(9):1175-1183.e4. Onumah CM, Lai CJ, Levine D, Ismail N, Pincavage AT, Osman NY. PMID: 34144012.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Moving toward Mastery: Changes in Student Perceptions of Clerkship Assessment with Pass/Fail Grading and Enhanced Feedback. Teach Learn Med. 2022 Apr-May; 34(2):198-208. Bullock JL, Seligman L, Lai CJ, O'Sullivan PS, Hauer KE. PMID: 34014793.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Grade Appeals in the Internal Medicine Clerkship: A National Survey and Recommendations for Improvement. Am J Med. 2021 06; 134(6):817-822.e7. Packer CD, Duca NS, Dhaliwal G, Ismail N, Pincavage AT, Kisielewski M, DeWaay D, Walsh K, Lai CJ. PMID: 33675735.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    19. Designing and Implementing a Novel Virtual Rounds Curriculum for Medical Students' Internal Medicine Clerkship During the COVID-19 Pandemic. MedEdPORTAL. 2021 03 02; 17:11106. Sukumar S, Zakaria A, Lai CJ, Sakumoto M, Khanna R, Choi N. PMID: 33768143; PMCID: PMC7970635.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    20. "There Is a Lot of Change Afoot": A Qualitative Study of Faculty Adaptation to Elimination of Tiered Grades With Increased Emphasis on Feedback in Core Clerkships. Acad Med. 2021 02 01; 96(2):263-270. McDonald JA, Lai CJ, Lin MYC, O'Sullivan PS, Hauer KE. PMID: 32909998.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Advocacy in action: Medical student reflections of an experiential curriculum. Clin Teach. 2021 Apr; 18(2):168-173. Daya S, Choi N, Harrison JD, Lai CJ. PMID: 33058502; PMCID: PMC8009802.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    22. Internal Medicine Student Education on Direct-Care Hospital Medicine Services: Results of a National Survey. Am J Med. 2020 07; 133(7):868-875. Nagarur A, Lai CJ, Simmons LH, Kisielewski M, Ratcliffe TA, DeWaay DJ, Mattison MLP, Thapa B, Ziperstein JC, Johnston KT. PMID: 32278844.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Why and how to prepare, write and submit clinical cases. Clin Teach. 2020 10; 17(5):471-476. Sankey C, Williams W, Bhatnagar D, Miller CS, Lai CJ. PMID: 31923927.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    24. Clerkship Roles and Responsibilities in a Rapidly Changing Landscape: a National Survey of Internal Medicine Clerkship Directors. J Gen Intern Med. 2020 05; 35(5):1375-1381. Glod SA, Alexandraki I, Jasti H, Lai CJ, Ratcliffe TA, Walsh K, Kisielewski M, LaRochelle J. PMID: 31898141; PMCID: PMC7210333.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. In Pursuit of Honors: A Multi-Institutional Study of Students' Perceptions of Clerkship Evaluation and Grading. Acad Med. 2019 11; 94(11S Association of American Medical Colleges Learn Serve Lead: Proceedings of the 58th Annual Research in Medical Education Sessions):S48-S56. Bullock JL, Lai CJ, Lockspeiser T, O'Sullivan PS, Aronowitz P, Dellmore D, Fung CC, Knight C, Hauer KE. PMID: 31365406.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    26. Promoting patient advocacy through a medicine clerkship curriculum. Med Educ. 2019 11; 53(11):1135. Choi N, Daya S, Lai C. PMID: 31650600.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. A framework to promote equity in clinical clerkships. Clin Teach. 2020 06; 17(3):298-304. Lai CJ, Jackson AV, Wheeler M, Dhaliwal G, Ziv TA, Kryzhanovskaya I, Teherani A. PMID: 31486273.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Integrating Health Systems Science in early undergraduate medical education: barriers to implementation and lessons learned. MedEdPublish. 2017; 4(6):35. Mills LM, Hoffman AB, Khan A, Lai CJ.
    29. First Aid for the Internal Medicine Boards. 2017. Le T, Baudendistel T, Chin-Hong P, Lai C, eds.
    30. “Collective wisdom”: Assigning honors grades in a multi-site internal medicine clerkship through team calibration. Academic Internal Medicine Insight. 2017; 3(15):21-22. Lai C, Ziv T, Wheeler M, Stoltz S, Dhaliwal G.
    31. Going from good to great: explicating norms through continuity in the clinical workplace. Med Educ. 2017 08; 51(8):777-779. Poncelet A, Lai CJ. PMID: 28699293.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    32. Health Systems Science Curricula in Undergraduate Medical Education: Identifying and Defining a Potential Curricular Framework. Acad Med. 2017 01; 92(1):123-131. Gonzalo JD, Dekhtyar M, Starr SR, Borkan J, Brunett P, Fancher T, Green J, Grethlein SJ, Lai C, Lawson L, Monrad S, O'Sullivan P, Schwartz MD, Skochelak S. PMID: 27049541.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 56     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    33. Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships: Principles, Outcomes, Practical Tools, and Future Directions. Editors: Poncelet A, Hirsh D. Inpatient Education for Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships. 2016; 91-103. Lai C, Batalden M, Khan A.
    34. Decision Support in Medicine, LLC. Clinical Decision Support: Hospital Medicine. 2016.
    35. The Value of Student-Run Clinics for Premedical Students: A Multi-Institutional Study. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2016; 27(3):961-70. Pennington K, Tong IL, Lai CJ, O'Sullivan PS, Sheu L. PMID: 27524745.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. Pharmacy students teaching prescribers strategies to lower prescription drug costs for underserved patients. J Manag Care Pharm. 2013 Sep; 19(7):534-41. Stebbins MR, Frear ME, Cutler TW, Lightwood JM, Fingado AR, Lai CJ, Lipton HL. PMID: 23964614; PMCID: PMC10437620.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. An evaluation of interactive web-based curricula for teaching code status discussions. J Palliat Med. 2013 Sep; 16(9):1070-3. Chittenden EH, Anderson WG, Lai CJ, O'Sullivan P. PMID: 23937063.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Community health education at student-run clinics leads to sustained improvement in patients' hepatitis B knowledge. J Community Health. 2013 Jun; 38(3):471-9. Ouyang D, Yuan N, Sheu L, Lau G, Chen C, Lai CJ. PMID: 23161212.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    39. Systems-based practice learning opportunities in student-run clinics: a qualitative analysis of student experiences. Acad Med. 2013 Jun; 88(6):831-6. Sheu L, O'Brien B, O'Sullivan PS, Kwong A, Lai CJ. PMID: 23619068.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    40. GeriWard: An interprofessional curriculum for health professions student teams on systems-based care of the hospitalized older adult. MedEdPORTAL. 2013. Rennke S, Mackin L, Wallhagen M, Tam E, Jue V, Smoot B, Lai C. View Publication.
    41. Impact of student-run clinics on preclinical sociocultural and interprofessional attitudes: a prospective cohort analysis. J Health Care Poor Underserved. 2012 Aug; 23(3):1058-72. Sheu L, Lai CJ, Coelho AD, Lin LD, Zheng P, Hom P, Diaz V, O'Sullivan PS. PMID: 24212159.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    42. The Alliance for Clinical Education Guidebook for Clerkship Directors. Inpatient Medicine in Longitudinal Integrated Clerkships. 2012. Batalden M, Lai CJ.
    43. Promoting interprofessional collaboration: pharmacy students teaching current and future prescribers about Medicare Part D. J Manag Care Pharm. 2011 Jul-Aug; 17(6):439-48. Lai CJ, Smith AR, Stebbins MR, Cutler TW, Lipton HL. PMID: 21787029; PMCID: PMC10437694.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. First Aid for the Internal Medicine Boards. 2011; 1-754. Le T, Chin-Hong, PV, Baudendistel TE, Lai CJ, Editors.
    45. Learning through service: student perceptions on volunteering at interprofessional hepatitis B student-run clinics. J Cancer Educ. 2011 Jun; 26(2):228-33. Sheu LC, Zheng P, Coelho AD, Lin LD, O'Sullivan PS, O'Brien BC, Yu AY, Lai CJ. PMID: 20652476; PMCID: PMC3098345.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    46. Development of a longitudinal integrated clerkship at an academic medical center. Med Educ Online. 2011 Apr 04; 16. Poncelet A, Bokser S, Calton B, Hauer KE, Kirsch H, Jones T, Lai CJ, Mazotti L, Shore W, Teherani A, Tong L, Wamsley M, Robertson P. PMID: 21475642; PMCID: PMC3071870.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Peer-to-peer interprofessional health policy education for Medicare part D. Am J Pharm Educ. 2010 Aug 10; 74(6):102. Lipton HL, Lai CJ, Cutler TW, Smith AR, Stebbins MR. PMID: 21045944; PMCID: PMC2933011.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    48. A model for interprofessional health disparities education: student-led curriculum on chronic hepatitis B infection. J Gen Intern Med. 2010 May; 25 Suppl 2:S140-5. Sheu LC, Toy BC, Kwahk E, Yu A, Adler J, Lai CJ. PMID: 20352509; PMCID: PMC2847097.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. A professional development course for the clinical clerkships: developing a student-centered curriculum. J Gen Intern Med. 2008 Jul; 23(7):964-8. Hill-Sakurai LE, Lee CA, Schickedanz A, Maa J, Lai CJ. PMID: 18612725; PMCID: PMC2517931.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    50. Postdischarge follow-up visits for medical and pharmacy students on an inpatient medicine clerkship. J Hosp Med. 2008 Jan; 3(1):20-7. Lai CJ, Nye HE, Bookwalter T, Kwan A, Hauer KE. PMID: 18257097.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    51. Provider knowledge and practice regarding hepatitis B screening in Chinese-speaking patients. J Cancer Educ. 2007; 22(1):37-41. Lai CJ, Nguyen TT, Hwang J, Stewart SL, Kwan A, McPhee SJ. PMID: 17570807.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 44     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    52. Brief report: Multiprogram evaluation of reading habits of primary care internal medicine residents on ambulatory rotations. J Gen Intern Med. 2006 May; 21(5):486-9. Lai CJ, Aagaard E, Brandenburg S, Nadkarni M, Wei HG, Baron R. PMID: 16704393; PMCID: PMC1484781.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    53. Teaching chronic disease management to interdisciplinary medical learners. Med Educ. 2005 Nov; 39(11):1162-3. Lai C, Julian K, Baron R. PMID: 16262837.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    54. Antiviral therapy in patients with chronic hepatitis B and cirrhosis. Gastroenterol Clin North Am. 2004 Sep; 33(3):629-54, x-xi. Lai CJ, Terrault NA. PMID: 15324948.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
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