Pearl Toy, MD

Title(s)Professor Emeritus, Laboratory Medicine
SchoolSchool of Medicine
AddressLocation Required, #001
vCardDownload vCard

    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    Smith College, Northampton, MAB.A., Phi Beta Kappa1969Biochemistry
    Stanford Medical School, Stanford, CAM.D., Alpha Omega Alpha1973Medicine
    Primary Board Certification: Internal MedicineSubspecialties: Hematology, Transfusion Medicine
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    California Blood Bank Society2017Herbert Perkins & George Garratty Memorial Lectureship Award
    International Society Blood Transfusion, Am Assoc Blood Banks & British Blood Transfusion Society2007International Woman in Transfusion Medicine Award
    Harvard Medical School Transfusion Medicine Joint Program2007Inaugural Transfusion Medicine Margot S. Kruskall Lectureship
    UCSF2005Nominee, Chancellor's Award for Public Service
    NIH2000  - 2004Member, NHLBI Advisory Council
    TCU/Cliburn Institute, Fort Worth, Texas1999Winner, Amateur Piano Concerto Competition
    Various orchestras1997  - 2002Soloist, the 5 Beethoven piano concertos
    NHLBI, NIH1996  - 2011PI, Transfusion Medicine Specialized Center of Research SCOR grants (3 consecutive 5-yr awards)
    Smith College, Northampton, MA1991Smith College Medal
    UCSF Academic Senate1985Distinguished Teaching Award
    NHLBI, NIH1983  - 1988Transfusion Medicine Academic Award
    UCSF Department of Laboratory Medicine1983Faculty Teaching Award
    Stanford University School of Medicine1973Alpha Omega Alpha
    Smith College, Northampton, MA1968Phi Beta Kappa (Jr year), Sigma Xi

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    Pearl Toy M.D. is an Internist who specialized in Hematology and Transfusion Medicine and is Professor Emeritus at the UCSF School of Medicine. Her work there from 1980-2022 included research, teaching, patient care and volunteer work.

    Early on in 1981, she was director of the San Francisco Center, one of three centers of a study led by Cladd Stevens MD to determine the efficacy and safety of the hepatitis B virus (HBV) vaccine; the successful results led to FDA approval of the vaccines that safely prevented transmission of HBV from infected mother to child. In the AIDS era, she was Director of the American Red Cross in San Jose, CA (1983-84) where she installed some preventive measures to somewhat protect the safety of the blood supply prior to the availability of HIV testing. She also promoted the practice of patients donating their own blood for elective surgery. In 2003-5, she was Chair of the NIH committee on Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury (TRALI), the #1 cause of death from transfusion at that time. To investigate the causes and a prevention method, she was Principal Investigator of the NIH supported two-center TRALI study at UCSF and Mayo Clinic.

    She graduated with honors from Smith College (Phi Beta Kappa) and the Stanford School of Medicine (Alpha Omega Alpha). Other honors include the Smith College Medal, UCSF Distinguished Teaching Award, the California Blood Bank Systems Award and the International Woman in Transfusion Medicine Award. She was invited to speak at the inaugural Margot Kruskall Lecture series at Harvard Medical School.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Transfusion and Lung Injury
    NIH P50HL081027Sep 30, 2005 - Aug 31, 2011
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH P50HL054476Feb 1, 1996 - Dec 31, 2006
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R03HL050280Apr 1, 1994 - Mar 31, 1998
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH R01HL036715Apr 1, 1987 - Mar 31, 1993
    Role: Principal Investigator
    NIH U09HL007541Jul 1, 1985 - Jun 30, 1996
    Role: Co-Principal Investigator
    NIH K07HL001270Sep 30, 1983 - Sep 29, 1988
    Role: Principal Investigator
    General Clinical Research Center
    NIH M01RR000079Dec 1, 1974 - Mar 31, 2009
    Role: Co-Investigator

    Collapse ORNG Applications 
    Collapse Featured Publications

    Collapse Featured Content 
    Collapse Featured Videos

    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
    Newest   |   Oldest   |   Most Cited   |   Most Discussed   |   Timeline   |   Field Summary   |   Plain Text
    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Transfusion-related Acute Lung Injury: 36 Years of Progress (1985-2021). Ann Am Thorac Soc. 2022 05; 19(5):705-712. Toy P, Looney MR, Popovsky M, Palfi M, Berlin G, Chapman CE, Bolton-Maggs P, Matthay MA. PMID: 35045272; PMCID: PMC9116340.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    2. Complement activation on endothelium initiates antibody-mediated acute lung injury. J Clin Invest. 2020 11 02; 130(11):5909-5923. Cleary SJ, Kwaan N, Tian JJ, Calabrese DR, Mallavia B, Magnen M, Greenland JR, Urisman A, Singer JP, Hays SR, Kukreja J, Hay AM, Howie HL, Toy P, Lowell CA, Morrell CN, Zimring JC, Looney MR. PMID: 32730229; PMCID: PMC7598054.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    3. Update on transfusion-related acute lung injury. Clin Adv Hematol Oncol. 2019 Jul; 17(7):378-381. Toy P. PMID: 31449502.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. An update of the transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) definition. Transfus Clin Biol. 2019 Nov; 26(4):354-356. Vlaar APJ, Toy P, Fung M, Looney MR, Juffermans NP, Bux J, Bolton-Maggs P, Peters AL, Silliman CC, Kor DJ, Kleinman S. PMID: 31221537.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    5. A consensus redefinition of transfusion-related acute lung injury. Transfusion. 2019 07; 59(7):2465-2476. Vlaar APJ, Toy P, Fung M, Looney MR, Juffermans NP, Bux J, Bolton-Maggs P, Peters AL, Silliman CC, Kor DJ, Kleinman S. PMID: 30993745; PMCID: PMC6850655.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    6. Antibodies associated with TRALI: differences in clinical relevance. Transfusion. 2019 03; 59(3):1147-1151. Kopko PM, Bux J, Toy P. PMID: 30548883.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    7. Eradicating hepatitis B virus: The critical role of preventing perinatal transmission. Biologicals. 2017 Nov; 50:3-19. Stevens CE, Toy P, Kamili S, Taylor PE, Tong MJ, Xia GL, Vyas GN. PMID: 28870397.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 20     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    8. Differentiating pulmonary transfusion reactions using recipient and transfusion factors. Transfusion. 2017 07; 57(7):1684-1690. Roubinian NH, Looney MR, Keating S, Kor DJ, Lowell CA, Gajic O, Hubmayr R, Gropper M, Koenigsberg M, Wilson GA, A Matthay M, Toy P, Murphy EL, TRALI Study Group. PMID: 28470756; PMCID: PMC5758383.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    9. Proposed revised nomenclature for transfusion-related acute lung injury. Transfusion. 2017 03; 57(3):709-713. Toy P, Kleinman SH, Looney MR. PMID: 28019007.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    10. Reply to concerns regarding dropping the term "possible TRALI". Transfusion. 2016 09; 56(9):2394-5. Toy P, Kleinman SH, Looney MR. PMID: 27624212.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    11. A Clinical Trial to Detect Subclinical Transfusion-induced Lung Injury during Surgery. Anesthesiology. 2015 Jul; 123(1):126-35. Feiner JR, Gropper MA, Toy P, Lieberman J, Twiford J, Weiskopf RB. PMID: 25946480; PMCID: PMC4626309.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    12. Cytokines and clinical predictors in distinguishing pulmonary transfusion reactions. Transfusion. 2015 Aug; 55(8):1838-46. Roubinian NH, Looney MR, Kor DJ, Lowell CA, Gajic O, Hubmayr RD, Gropper MA, Koenigsberg M, Wilson GA, Matthay MA, Toy P, Murphy EL, TRALI Study Group. PMID: 25702590; PMCID: PMC4536135.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 27     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    13. Male-predominant plasma transfusion strategy for preventing transfusion-related acute lung injury: a systematic review. Crit Care Med. 2015 Jan; 43(1):205-25. Schmickl CN, Mastrobuoni S, Filippidis FT, Shah S, Radic J, Murad MH, Toy P, Gajic O. PMID: 25514705.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    14. Recipient clinical risk factors predominate in possible transfusion-related acute lung injury. Transfusion. 2015 May; 55(5):947-52. Toy P, Bacchetti P, Grimes B, Gajic O, Murphy EL, Winters JL, Gropper MA, Hubmayr RD, Matthay MA, Wilson G, Koenigsberg M, Lee DC, Hirschler NV, Lowell CA, Schuller RM, Gandhi MJ, Norris PJ, Mair DC, Sanchez Rosen R, Looney MR. PMID: 25488517; PMCID: PMC4428945.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. Prospective study on the clinical course and outcomes in transfusion-related acute lung injury*. Crit Care Med. 2014 Jul; 42(7):1676-87. Looney MR, Roubinian N, Gajic O, Gropper MA, Hubmayr RD, Lowell CA, Bacchetti P, Wilson G, Koenigsberg M, Lee DC, Wu P, Grimes B, Norris PJ, Murphy EL, Gandhi MJ, Winters JL, Mair DC, Schuller RM, Hirschler NV, Rosen RS, Matthay MA, Toy P, Transfusion-Related Acute Lung Injury Study Group. PMID: 24776608; PMCID: PMC4284060.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 22     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    16. Risk factors and outcomes in transfusion-associated circulatory overload. Am J Med. 2013 Apr; 126(4):357.e29-38. Murphy EL, Kwaan N, Looney MR, Gajic O, Hubmayr RD, Gropper MA, Koenigsberg M, Wilson G, Matthay M, Bacchetti P, Toy P, TRALI Study Group. PMID: 23357450; PMCID: PMC3652681.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 31     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    17. Lot-to-lot variability in HLA antibody screening using a multiplexed bead-based assay. Transfusion. 2013 Sep; 53(9):1940-7. Gandhi MJ, Carrick DM, Jenkins S, De Goey S, Ploeger NA, Wilson GA, Lee JH, Winters JL, Stubbs JR, Toy P, Norris PJ, National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute Specialized Center of Clinically Oriented Research TRALI S. PMID: 23305156; PMCID: PMC3626740.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    18. Electronic health record surveillance algorithms facilitate the detection of transfusion-related pulmonary complications. Transfusion. 2013 Jun; 53(6):1205-16. Clifford L, Singh A, Wilson GA, Toy P, Gajic O, Malinchoc M, Herasevich V, Pathak J, Kor DJ. PMID: 22934792; PMCID: PMC4839484.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    19. Two septic transfusion reactions presenting as transfusion-related acute lung injury from a split plateletpheresis unit. Crit Care Med. 2012 Aug; 40(8):2488-91. Rollins MD, Molofsky AB, Nambiar A, Pandey S, Weiskopf RB, Toy P. PMID: 22809916; PMCID: PMC3733455.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    20. Transfusion reactions: newer concepts on the pathophysiology, incidence, treatment, and prevention of transfusion-related acute lung injury. Crit Care Clin. 2012 Jul; 28(3):363-72, v. Sayah DM, Looney MR, Toy P. PMID: 22713611; PMCID: PMC3380279.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    21. Platelets induce neutrophil extracellular traps in transfusion-related acute lung injury. J Clin Invest. 2012 Jul; 122(7):2661-71. Caudrillier A, Kessenbrock K, Gilliss BM, Nguyen JX, Marques MB, Monestier M, Toy P, Werb Z, Looney MR. PMID: 22684106; PMCID: PMC3386815.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 493     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    22. Fresh and stored red blood cell transfusion equivalently induce subclinical pulmonary gas exchange deficit in normal humans. Anesth Analg. 2012 Mar; 114(3):511-9. Weiskopf RB, Feiner J, Toy P, Twiford J, Shimabukuro D, Lieberman J, Looney MR, Lowell CA, Gropper MA. PMID: 22262647; PMCID: PMC3927839.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    23. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: incidence and risk factors. Blood. 2012 Feb 16; 119(7):1757-67. Toy P, Gajic O, Bacchetti P, Looney MR, Gropper MA, Hubmayr R, Lowell CA, Norris PJ, Murphy EL, Weiskopf RB, Wilson G, Koenigsberg M, Lee D, Schuller R, Wu P, Grimes B, Gandhi MJ, Winters JL, Mair D, Hirschler N, Sanchez Rosen R, Matthay MA, TRALI Study Group. PMID: 22117051; PMCID: PMC3286351.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 151     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    24. High oxygen partial pressure decreases anemia-induced heart rate increase equivalent to transfusion. Anesthesiology. 2011 Sep; 115(3):492-8. Feiner JR, Finlay-Morreale HE, Toy P, Lieberman JA, Viele MK, Hopf HW, Weiskopf RB. PMID: 21768873; PMCID: PMC3166888.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    25. Current problems and future directions of transfusion-induced alloimmunization: summary of an NHLBI working group. Transfusion. 2011 Feb; 51(2):435-41. Zimring JC, Welniak L, Semple JW, Ness PM, Slichter SJ, Spitalnik SL, NHLBI Alloimmunization Working Group. PMID: 21251006; PMCID: PMC7003556.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    26. Transfusion-related acute lung injury after transfusion of maternal blood: a case-control study. Spine (Phila Pa 1976). 2010 Nov 01; 35(23):E1322-7. Dunbar N, Cooke M, Diab M, Toy P. PMID: 20938390; PMCID: PMC2964398.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. A multidisciplinary "think tank": the top 10 clinical trial opportunities in transfusion medicine from the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute-sponsored 2009 state-of-the-science symposium. Transfusion. 2011 Apr; 51(4):828-41. Josephson CD, Glynn SA, Kleinman SH, Blajchman MA, State-of-the Science Symposium Transfusion Medicine Committee. PMID: 21496044; PMCID: PMC5851593.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    28. Clinical trial opportunities in Transfusion Medicine: proceedings of a National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute State-of-the-Science Symposium. Transfus Med Rev. 2010 Oct; 24(4):259-85. Blajchman MA, Glynn SA, Josephson CD, Kleinman SH, State-of-the Science Symposium Transfusion Medicine Committee. PMID: 20851330.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    29. Microarray kit analysis of cytokines in blood product units and segments. Transfusion. 2009 Nov; 49(11):2269-75. Weiskopf RB, Yau R, Sanchez R, Lowell C, Toy P. PMID: 19548981; PMCID: PMC2783862.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    30. Research opportunities for pathogen reduction/inactivation of blood components: summary of an NHLBI workshop. Transfusion. 2009 Jun; 49(6):1262-8. Klein HG, Glynn SA, Ness PM, Blajchman MA, NHLBI Working Group on Research Opportunities for the Pathogen Reduction/Inactivation of Blood Compo. PMID: 19392769.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    31. Cost minimization analysis of preoperative erythropoietin vs autologous and allogeneic blood donation in total joint arthroplasty. J Arthroplasty. 2010 Jan; 25(1):93-6. Green WS, Toy P, Bozic KJ. PMID: 19056224.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 15     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    32. Red blood cell age and function. Transfusion. 2008 Sep; 48(9):2026. Weiskopf RB, Feiner J, Toy P. PMID: 18811899.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    33. Computer-generated automatic alerts of respiratory distress after blood transfusion. J Am Med Inform Assoc. 2008 May-Jun; 15(3):383-5. Finlay-Morreale HE, Louie C, Toy P. PMID: 18308991; PMCID: PMC2410003.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    34. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: a case-control pilot study of risk factors. Am J Clin Pathol. 2007 Jul; 128(1):128-34. Sanchez R, Bacchetti P, Toy P. PMID: 17580280.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    35. TRALI--definition, mechanisms, incidence and clinical relevance. Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol. 2007 Jun; 21(2):183-93. Toy P, Lowell C. PMID: 17650771; PMCID: PMC2767181.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 26     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    36. Transfusion-related acute lung injury and transfusion-associated circulatory overload: mutually exclusive or coexisting entities? Transfusion. 2007 Jan; 47(1):171-2. Fiebig EW, Wu AH, Krombach J, Tang J, Nguyen KA, Toy P. PMID: 17207246.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    37. Fresh frozen plasma and platelet transfusion for nonbleeding patients in the intensive care unit: benefit or harm? Crit Care Med. 2006 May; 34(5 Suppl):S170-3. Gajic O, Dzik WH, Toy P. PMID: 16617262.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 34     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Fresh blood and aged stored blood are equally efficacious in immediately reversing anemia-induced brain oxygenation deficits in humans. Anesthesiology. 2006 May; 104(5):911-20. Weiskopf RB, Feiner J, Hopf H, Lieberman J, Finlay HE, Quah C, Kramer JH, Bostrom A, Toy P. PMID: 16645441.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    39. Designing and testing a computer-based screening system for transfusion-related acute lung injury. Am J Clin Pathol. 2005 Oct; 124(4):601-9. Finlay HE, Cassorla L, Feiner J, Toy P. PMID: 16146824.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    40. Transfusion related acute lung injury: a pediatric perspective. Pediatr Blood Cancer. 2005 Sep; 45(3):248-55. Sanchez R, Toy P. PMID: 15852432.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    41. Extracellular potassium concentrations in red blood cell suspensions after irradiation and washing. Transfusion. 2005 Aug; 45(8):1295-301. Weiskopf RB, Schnapp S, Rouine-Rapp K, Bostrom A, Toy P. PMID: 16078915.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 7     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    42. A procedure for rapid issue of red cells for emergency use. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 2005 Apr; 129(4):492-6. Weiskopf RB, Webb M, Stangle D, Klinbergs G, Toy P. PMID: 15794672.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    43. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: definition and review. Crit Care Med. 2005 Apr; 33(4):721-6. Toy P, Popovsky MA, Abraham E, Ambruso DR, Holness LG, Kopko PM, McFarland JG, Nathens AB, Silliman CC, Stroncek D, National Heart, Lung and Blood Institute Working Group on TRALI. PMID: 15818095.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 145     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    44. Acute isovolemic anemia impairs central processing as determined by P300 latency. Clin Neurophysiol. 2005 May; 116(5):1028-32. Weiskopf RB, Toy P, Hopf HW, Feiner J, Finlay HE, Takahashi M, Bostrom A, Songster C, Aminoff MJ. PMID: 15826842.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 16     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    45. Transfusion-related acute lung injury. Anesth Analg. 2004 Dec; 99(6):1623-1624. Toy P, Gajic O. PMID: 15562043.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. Recipients of blood from a donor with multiple HLA antibodies: a lookback study of transfusion-related acute lung injury. Transfusion. 2004 Dec; 44(12):1683-8. Toy P, Hollis-Perry KM, Jun J, Nakagawa M. PMID: 15584980.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 28     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    47. Acute and transient decrease in neutrophil count in transfusion-related acute lung injury: cases at one hospital. Transfusion. 2004 Dec; 44(12):1689-94. Nakagawa M, Toy P. PMID: 15584981.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 14     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    48. Safe lead levels: blood transfusion of extremely low birth weight infants. Clin Pediatr (Phila). 2004 Sep; 43(7):681. Nakagawa M, Dempsey DA, Haller C, Toy P. PMID: 15378161.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    49. Acute isovolemic anemia does not impair peripheral or central nerve conduction. Anesthesiology. 2003 Sep; 99(3):546-51. Weiskopf RB, Aminoff MJ, Hopf HW, Feiner J, Viele MK, Watson JJ, Ho R, Songster C, Toy P. PMID: 12960537.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsCTClinical Trials
    50. Heart rate increases linearly in response to acute isovolemic anemia. Transfusion. 2003 Feb; 43(2):235-40. Weiskopf RB, Feiner J, Hopf H, Viele MK, Watson JJ, Lieberman J, Kelley S, Toy P. PMID: 12559019.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    51. Oxygen reverses deficits of cognitive function and memory and increased heart rate induced by acute severe isovolemic anemia. Anesthesiology. 2002 Apr; 96(4):871-7. Weiskopf RB, Feiner J, Hopf HW, Viele MK, Watson JJ, Kramer JH, Ho R, Toy P. PMID: 11964594.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 35     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    52. Research opportunities in transfusion medicine. JAMA. 2001 Feb 07; 285(5):577-80. Silberstein LE, Toy P. PMID: 11176862.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Cells
    53. Subcutaneous perfusion and oxygen during acute severe isovolemic hemodilution in healthy volunteers. Arch Surg. 2000 Dec; 135(12):1443-9. Hopf HW, Viele M, Watson JJ, Feiner J, Weiskopf R, Hunt TK, Noorani M, Yeap H, Ho R, Toy P. PMID: 11115350.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 11     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    54. Electrocardiographic ST-segment changes during acute, severe isovolemic hemodilution in humans. Anesthesiology. 2000 Oct; 93(4):1004-10. Leung JM, Weiskopf RB, Feiner J, Hopf HW, Kelley S, Viele M, Lieberman J, Watson J, Noorani M, Pastor D, Yeap H, Ho R, Toy P. PMID: 11020755.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    55. Universal WBC reduction. Transfusion. 2000 Jun; 40(6):751-2. Thurer RL, Luban NL, AuBuchon JP, Silver H, McCarthy LJ, Dzik S, Stowell CP, Moore SB, Vamvakas EC, Armstrong W, Kanter MH, Jeter E, Becker J, Higgins M, Galel S, Kleinman S, Marshall CS, Newman R, Ocaríz JA, Blackall D, Petz LD, Toy P, Oberman H, Siegel DL, Price TH, Slichter SJ. PMID: 10864999.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCellsPHPublic Health
    56. Very severe outcomes associated with autologous blood donation. Transfusion. 1996 Aug; 36(8):761. McVay PA, Toy PT. PMID: 8780675.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    57. Preoperative autologous blood donation. AACN Clin Issues. 1996 May; 7(2):221-8. Toy PT, Kerr K. PMID: 8718384.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    58. Audit and education in transfusion medicine. Vox Sang. 1996; 70(1):1-5. Toy PT. PMID: 8928483.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    
    59. Physician recommendation as the key factor in patients' decisions to participate in preoperative autologous blood donation programs: Preoperative Autologous Blood Donation Study Group. Am J Surg. 1994 Jul; 168(1):2-5. Ferguson KJ, Strauss RG, Toy PT. PMID: 8024094.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    60. Effectiveness of transfusion audits and practice guidelines. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1994 Apr; 118(4):435-7. Toy PT. PMID: 8166594.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    61. Efficacy of preoperative donation of blood for autologous use in radical prostatectomy. Transfusion. 1993 Sep; 33(9):721-4. Toy PT, Menozzi D, Strauss RG, Stehling LC, Kruskall M, Ahn DK. PMID: 8212117.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    62. Improvement in appropriate autologous donations with local education: 1987 to 1989. Transfusion. 1992 Jul-Aug; 32(6):562-4. Toy PT, McVay PA, Strauss RG, Stehling LC, Ahn DK. PMID: 1502710.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    63. Prospects for control of hepatitis B virus infection: implications of childhood vaccination and long-term protection. Pediatrics. 1992 Jul; 90(1 Pt 2):170-3. Stevens CE, Toy PT, Taylor PE, Lee T, Yip HY. PMID: 1534885.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 19     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    64. Continuous quality improvement. Autologous blood donations. Arch Pathol Lab Med. 1992 Jun; 116(6):611-2. Toy PT. PMID: 1616420.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    65. Factors associated with successful autologous blood donation for elective surgery. Am J Clin Pathol. 1992 Mar; 97(3):304-8. McVay PA, Hoag MS, Lee SJ, Toy PT. PMID: 1543153.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    66. Blood loss and replacement in total hip arthroplasty: a multicenter study. The Preoperative Autologous Blood Donation Study Group. Transfusion. 1992 Jan; 32(1):63-7. Toy PT, Kaplan EB, McVay PA, Lee SJ, Strauss RG, Stehling LC. PMID: 1731438.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 13     Fields:    Translation:HumansCTClinical Trials
    67. Laboratory hemostatic abnormalities in massively transfused patients given red blood cells and crystalloid. Am J Clin Pathol. 1991 Dec; 96(6):770-3. Leslie SD, Toy PT. PMID: 1746495.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    68. Probable reasons that autologous blood was not donated by patients having surgery for which crossmatched blood was ordered. Transfusion. 1991 Nov-Dec; 31(9):810-3. McVay PA, Strauss RG, Stehling LC, Toy PT. PMID: 1755085.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    69. Hypotension during transfusion of autologous blood. Anesthesiology. 1991 Mar; 74(3):624-8. Miller AC, Scherba-Krugliak L, Toy PT, Drasner K. PMID: 2001042.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    70. Donor room personnel attitudes toward autologous donors. Transfusion. 1991 Mar-Apr; 31(3):249-53. Skettino S, Ferguson K, Andrews A, Stehling LC, Strauss RG, Toy PT. PMID: 2003325.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    71. Return of autologous blood donors as homologous blood donors. Transfusion. 1991 Feb; 31(2):119-21. McVay PA, Fung HC, Toy PT. PMID: 1996480.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    72. Lack of increased bleeding after paracentesis and thoracentesis in patients with mild coagulation abnormalities. Transfusion. 1991 Feb; 31(2):164-71. McVay PA, Toy PT. PMID: 1996485.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 43     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    73. The variability of transfusion practice in coronary artery bypass surgery. Transfusion Medicine Academic Award Group. JAMA. 1991 Jan 02; 265(1):86-90. Goodnough LT, Johnston MF, Toy PT. PMID: 1984129.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    74. Lack of increased bleeding after liver biopsy in patients with mild hemostatic abnormalities. Am J Clin Pathol. 1990 Dec; 94(6):747-53. McVay PA, Toy PT. PMID: 2123077.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    75. Surgeons' knowledge, attitude, and use of preoperative autologous blood donation. Transfusion. 1990 Jun; 30(5):418-22. Strauss RG, Ferguson KJ, Stone GG, McVay PA, Black D, Stehling L, Toy PT, Daniels M, Randels J, Sears R, et al. PMID: 2360231.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    76. Donation reactions among autologous donors. Transfusion. 1990 Mar-Apr; 30(3):249-52. McVay PA, Andrews A, Kaplan EB, Black DB, Stehling LC, Strauss RG, Toy PT. PMID: 2315998.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    77. Red cell transfusion therapy for anemia in patients with AIDS and ARC: incidence, associated factors, and outcome. Transfusion. 1990 Feb; 30(2):133-7. Jacobson MA, Peiperl L, Volberding PA, Porteous D, Toy PT, Feigal D. PMID: 2305441.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    78. Agglutination of red blood cells from patients with diabetes mellitus by a polyclonal human antibody specific for D-glucose. Vox Sang. 1990; 58(3):215-8. Ellisor SS, Toy PT, Reid ME, Avoy DR. PMID: 2339533.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    79. Moderate and severe reactions during autologous blood donations are no more frequent than during homologous blood donations. Vox Sang. 1990; 59(2):70-2. McVay PA, Andrews A, Hoag MS, Polan D, Skettino S, Stehling LC, Strauss RG, Toy PT. PMID: 2238567.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    80. Safety and use of autologous blood donation during the third trimester of pregnancy. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1989 Jun; 160(6):1479-86; discussion 1486-8. McVay PA, Hoag RW, Hoag MS, Toy PT. PMID: 2735369.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    81. Exposure of cryptantigens on red blood cell membranes in patients with acquired immune deficiency syndrome or AIDS-related complex. J Acquir Immune Defic Syndr (1988). 1989; 2(3):224-8. Adams M, Toy PT, Reid ME. PMID: 2656988.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    82. Prevalence of ABO maternal-infant incompatibility in Asians, Blacks, Hispanics and Caucasians. Vox Sang. 1988; 54(3):181-3. Toy PT, Reid ME, Papenfus L, Yeap HH, Black D. PMID: 3369141.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 8     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    83. Oxygen-induced marrow red cell hypoplasia leading to transfusion in sickle painful crisis. Am J Hematol. 1988 Jan; 27(1):67-8. Lane PK, Embury SH, Toy PT. PMID: 3128106.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    84. Yeast-recombinant hepatitis B vaccine. Efficacy with hepatitis B immune globulin in prevention of perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission. JAMA. 1987 May 15; 257(19):2612-6. Stevens CE, Taylor PE, Tong MJ, Toy PT, Vyas GN, Nair PV, Weissman JY, Krugman S. PMID: 2952812.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 46     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    85. Predeposited autologous blood for elective surgery. A national multicenter study. N Engl J Med. 1987 Feb 26; 316(9):517-20. Toy PT, Strauss RG, Stehling LC, Sears R, Price TH, Rossi EC, Collins ML, Crowley JP, Eisenstaedt RS, Goodnough LT, et al. PMID: 3807996.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 10     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    86. Underutilization of autologous blood donation among eligible elective surgical patients. Am J Surg. 1986 Nov; 152(5):483-6. Toy PT, Stehling LC, Strauss RG, Esposito B, Huling D, Poole L, Sears R. PMID: 3777325.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    87. Yeast recombinant hepatitis B vaccine in perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission: a preliminary report. J Infect. 1986 Jul; 13 Suppl A:13. Stevens CE, Taylor PE, Tong MJ, Toy PT, Vyas GN. PMID: 2943810.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    88. Positive direct antiglobulin test associated with hyperglobulinemia in acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Am J Hematol. 1985 Jun; 19(2):145-50. Toy PT, Reid ME, Burns M. PMID: 4003386.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 5     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    89. Agglutination of an EDTA blood sample caused by an EDTA-dependent panagglutinin. Am J Clin Pathol. 1985 Apr; 83(4):534-5. Reid ME, Bottenfield LK, Toy PT, Ellisor SS, Hart CA. PMID: 3920896.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    90. Effect of fibronectin on adherence of Staphylococcus aureus to fibrin thrombi in vitro. Infect Immun. 1985 Apr; 48(1):83-6. Toy PT, Lai LW, Drake TA, Sande MA. PMID: 3980098; PMCID: PMC261918.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    91. Perinatal hepatitis B virus transmission in the United States. Prevention by passive-active immunization. JAMA. 1985 Mar 22-29; 253(12):1740-5. Stevens CE, Toy PT, Tong MJ, Taylor PE, Vyas GN, Nair PV, Gudavalli M, Krugman S. PMID: 3974052.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 63     Fields:    Translation:HumansPHPublic Health
    92. Factors associated with positive direct antiglobulin tests in pretransfusion patients: a case-control study. Vox Sang. 1985; 49(3):215-20. Toy PT, Chin CA, Reid ME, Burns MA. PMID: 4049807.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 6     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    93. Elimination of 37 degrees C reading: reduction of workload in a transfusion service. Transfusion. 1984 Nov-Dec; 24(6):542-3. Purcelli J, Reid ME, Burns MA, Toy PT. PMID: 6506192.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    94. Sample collection for determination of plasma fibronectin concentration. J Clin Pathol. 1984 Aug; 37(8):951-2. Toy PT, Reid ME. PMID: 6470172; PMCID: PMC498898.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    95. Use of preserved autologous red blood cells to absorb warm autoantibodies from the serum of patients receiving blood transfusion therapy. Vox Sang. 1984; 46(6):355-9. Reid ME, Toy PT. PMID: 6464409.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    96. Intravenous dimethylsulfoxide therapy causes severe hemolysis mimicking a hemolytic transfusion reaction. Transfusion. 1983 Sep-Oct; 23(5):405. Samoszuk M, Reid ME, Toy PT. PMID: 6623613.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    97. Simplified method for recovery of autologous red blood cells from transfused patients. Am J Clin Pathol. 1983 Mar; 79(3):364-6. Reid ME, Toy PT. PMID: 6829505.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    98. Severity of ABO-hemolytic disease of the newborn. Acta Paediatr Scand. 1982 May; 71(3):507-8. Toy PT, Reid M. PMID: 6890295.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    99. Transient anti-Gya in an untransfused man. Serologic characteristics and cell survival study. Transfusion. 1982 Mar-Apr; 22(2):166-8. Ellisor SS, Reid ME, Avoy DR, Toy PT, Mecoli J. PMID: 7071923.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    100. Amniotic fluid assessement of Jra-sensitized pregnant patients. Am J Obstet Gynecol. 1981 Jun 01; 140(3):352. Toy PT, Reid M, Lewis T, Ellisor S, Avoy DR. PMID: 7246647.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    101. Occlusive impedance plethysmography. A noninvasive method of diagnosis of proximal deep vein thrombosis. West J Med. 1978 Aug; 129(2):89-93. Toy PT, Schrier SL. PMID: 567893; PMCID: PMC1238262.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimals