Tiffany Scharschmidt, MD

Title(s)Associate Professor, Dermatology
SchoolSchool of Medicine
ORCID ORCID Icon0000-0001-5517-089X Additional info
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    Collapse Biography 
    Collapse Education and Training
    University of California, San Francisco, CA2019Diversity, Equity, and Inclusion Champion Training
    Collapse Awards and Honors
    American Academy of Dermatology2016Young Investigator Award
    Burroughs Wellcome Fund2016Career Award for Medical Scientists
    Doris Duke Charitable Foundation2017Clinical Scientist Development Award
    Leo Foundation2018Silver Award
    National Institutes of Health2018Director’s New Innovator Award
    ASCI2020Seldin Smith Finalist
    Dermatology Foundation2021Mid-Career Sun Pharma Award

    Collapse Overview 
    Collapse Overview
    I am a dermatologist, microbiologist, and immunologist and currently serve as an Associate Professor of Dermatology. I dedicate 80% of my time to research and the remaining time taking care of patients with severe inflammatory skin diseases. The central focus of my laboratory is to investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms that mediate interactions between bacteria and the developing immune system, with a long-term goal of developing new therapeutic approaches based on this knowledge. Work in my lab leverages access to human samples, including human skin and blood, as well as corresponding microbiome samples to dissect the role of host-microbe crosstalk in normal cutaneous immune development and inflammatory skin disease. We also employ a reductionist approach, utilizing sophisticated immunological and microbiological tools in murine models to ask fundamental questions about mechanisms mediating the innate and adaptive immune responses to bacteria in early life.

    Collapse Research 
    Collapse Research Activities and Funding
    Functional Dissection of Regulatory Myeloid Cells in Microbe-Immune Crosstalk in Skin
    NIH/NIAMS R01AR080034Apr 7, 2022 - Apr 7, 2027
    Role: Principal Investigator
    Decoding and harnessing microbial tuning of T cell responses in early life
    NIH DP2AI144968Sep 30, 2018 - Jun 30, 2023
    Role: Principal Investigator

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    Collapse Bibliographic 
    Collapse Publications
    Publications listed below are automatically derived from MEDLINE/PubMed and other sources, which might result in incorrect or missing publications. Researchers can login to make corrections and additions, or contact us for help. to make corrections and additions.
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    Altmetrics Details PMC Citations indicate the number of times the publication was cited by articles in PubMed Central, and the Altmetric score represents citations in news articles and social media. (Note that publications are often cited in additional ways that are not shown here.) Fields are based on how the National Library of Medicine (NLM) classifies the publication's journal and might not represent the specific topic of the publication. Translation tags are based on the publication type and the MeSH terms NLM assigns to the publication. Some publications (especially newer ones and publications not in PubMed) might not yet be assigned Field or Translation tags.) Click a Field or Translation tag to filter the publications.
    1. Early life tolerance depends on a subset of specialized dendritic cells and is reinforced by the skin microbiota. BioRxiv. 2022. View Publication.
    2. Intestinal inflammation alters the antigen-specific immune response to a skin commensal. Cell Rep. 2022 May 31; 39(9):110891. Merana GR, Dwyer LR, Dhariwala MO, Weckel A, Gonzalez JR, Okoro JN, Cohen JN, Tamaki CM, Han J, Tasoff P, Palacios-Calderon Y, Ha CWY, Lynch SV, Segre JA, Kong HH, Kattah MG, Ma A, Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 35649365; PMCID: PMC9248974.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    3. Early life host-microbe interactions in skin. Cell Host Microbe. 2022 05 11; 30(5):684-695. Dwyer LR, Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 35550671; PMCID: PMC9178950.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    4. Skin immunity: dissecting the complex biology of our body's outer barrier. Mucosal Immunol. 2022 04; 15(4):551-561. Zhang C, Merana GR, Harris-Tryon T, Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 35361906.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    
    5. Baby's skin bacteria: first impressions are long-lasting. Trends Immunol. 2021 12; 42(12):1088-1099. Dhariwala MO, Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 34743922; PMCID: PMC9206859.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    6. Layilin Anchors Regulatory T Cells in Skin. J Immunol. 2021 10 01; 207(7):1763-1775. Mehta P, Gouirand V, Boda DP, Zhang J, Gearty SV, Zirak B, Lowe MM, Clancy S, Boothby I, Mahuron KM, Fries A, Krummel MF, Mankoo P, Chang HW, Liu J, Moreau JM, Scharschmidt TC, Daud A, Kim E, Neuhaus IM, Harris HW, Liao W, Rosenblum MD. PMID: 34470859; PMCID: PMC8489406.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    7. Regulatory T cells promote innate inflammation after skin barrier breach via TGF-β activation. Sci Immunol. 2021 08 27; 6(62). Moreau JM, Dhariwala MO, Gouirand V, Boda DP, Boothby IC, Lowe MM, Cohen JN, Macon CE, Leech JM, Kalekar LA, Scharschmidt TC, Rosenblum MD. PMID: 34452925; PMCID: PMC8958044.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    8. Hair of the mouse: A skin bacteria "cocktail" gets follicles back on their feet. Cell Host Microbe. 2021 05 12; 29(5):742-744. Gonzalez JR, Merana GR, Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 33984276.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    9. Developing Human Skin Contains Lymphocytes Demonstrating a Memory Signature. Cell Rep Med. 2020 11 17; 1(8):100132. Dhariwala MO, Karthikeyan D, Vasquez KS, Farhat S, Weckel A, Taravati K, Leitner EG, Clancy S, Pauli M, Piper ML, Cohen JN, Ashouri JF, Lowe MM, Rosenblum MD, Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 33294857; PMCID: PMC7691438.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    10. Atlas of atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2020 06; 145(6):1558-1559. Boothby IC, Gonzalez JR, Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 32344054.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    11. Regulatory T cells use arginase 2 to enhance their metabolic fitness in tissues. JCI Insight. 2019 12 19; 4(24). Lowe MM, Boothby I, Clancy S, Ahn RS, Liao W, Nguyen DN, Schumann K, Marson A, Mahuron KM, Kingsbury GA, Liu Z, Munoz Sandoval P, Rodriguez RS, Pauli ML, Taravati K, Arron ST, Neuhaus IM, Harris HW, Kim EA, Shin US, Krummel MF, Daud A, Scharschmidt TC, Rosenblum MD. PMID: 31852848; PMCID: PMC6975275.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 17     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    12. Toxin-Triggered Interleukin-1 Receptor Signaling Enables Early-Life Discrimination of Pathogenic versus Commensal Skin Bacteria. Cell Host Microbe. 2019 12 11; 26(6):795-809.e5. Leech JM, Dhariwala MO, Lowe MM, Chu K, Merana GR, Cornuot C, Weckel A, Ma JM, Leitner EG, Gonzalez JR, Vasquez KS, Diep BA, Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 31784259; PMCID: PMC6989301.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 24     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    13. MAIT cells are imprinted by the microbiota in early life and promote tissue repair. Science. 2019 10 25; 366(6464). Constantinides MG, Link VM, Tamoutounour S, Wong AC, Perez-Chaparro PJ, Han SJ, Chen YE, Li K, Farhat S, Weckel A, Krishnamurthy SR, Vujkovic-Cvijin I, Linehan JL, Bouladoux N, Merrill ED, Roy S, Cua DJ, Adams EJ, Bhandoola A, Scharschmidt TC, Aubé J, Fischbach MA, Belkaid Y. PMID: 31649166; PMCID: PMC7603427.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 118     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    14. Antibiotics for Acne-A Pilot Study of Collateral Damage to the Skin Microbiome. JAMA Dermatol. 2019 04 01; 155(4):419-421. Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 30758480.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    15. The TNFRSF members CD27 and OX40 coordinately limit TH17 differentiation in regulatory T cells. Sci Immunol. 2018 12 21; 3(30). Remedios KA, Zirak B, Sandoval PM, Lowe MM, Boda D, Henley E, Bhattrai S, Scharschmidt TC, Liao W, Naik HB, Rosenblum MD. PMID: 30578350.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    16. The microbiome in patients with atopic dermatitis. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2019 01; 143(1):26-35. Paller AS, Kong HH, Seed P, Naik S, Scharschmidt TC, Gallo RL, Luger T, Irvine AD. PMID: 30476499; PMCID: PMC7163929.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 92     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    17. Alteration of the cutaneous microbiome in psoriasis and potential role in Th17 polarization. Microbiome. 2018 09 05; 6(1):154. Chang HW, Yan D, Singh R, Liu J, Lu X, Ucmak D, Lee K, Afifi L, Fadrosh D, Leech J, Vasquez KS, Lowe MM, Rosenblum MD, Scharschmidt TC, Lynch SV, Liao W. PMID: 30185226; PMCID: PMC6125946.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 61     Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    18. Skin Commensal Antigens: Taking the Road Less Traveled. Trends Immunol. 2018 04; 39(4):259-261. Dhariwala MO, Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 29478772; PMCID: PMC5880706.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Cells
    19. Fighting staph: Not child’s play. Science Translational Medicine. 2018 Jan 17; 10(424):eaar7518. Scharschmidt ST. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    20. Successful treatment of mucous membrane pemphigoid with bortezomib. JAAD Case Rep. 2018 Jan; 4(1):81-83. Saeed L, Schmidt TH, Gensler LS, Gross AJ, Fox LP, Scharschmidt TC, Gaensler K, Naik H, Rosenblum MA, Shinkai K. PMID: 29387757; PMCID: PMC5771728.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 1  
    21. S. aureus induces IL-36 to start the itch. Science Translational Medicine. 2017 Nov 29; 9(418):eaar2445. Scharschmidt ST. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    22. Growing good bugs with mom’s milk. Science Translational Medicine. 2017 Oct 18; 9(412):eaap8172. Scharschmidt ST. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    23. ILC regs : The new kid in class. Science Translational Medicine. 2017 Sep 6; 9(406):eaao6121. Scharschmidt ST. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    24. Interferon with antitumor immunity. Science Translational Medicine. 2017 Jul 26; 9(400):eaao0976. Scharschmidt ST. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    25. Skin Dysbiosis Goes "Off-Leish". Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Jul 12; 22(1):1-3. Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 28704646.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    26. A vitamin to D-crease sunburn. Sci Transl Med. 2017 06 14; 9(394). Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 28615360.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    27. Regulatory T Cells in Skin Facilitate Epithelial Stem Cell Differentiation. Cell. 2017 Jun 01; 169(6):1119-1129.e11. Ali N, Zirak B, Rodriguez RS, Pauli ML, Truong HA, Lai K, Ahn R, Corbin K, Lowe MM, Scharschmidt TC, Taravati K, Tan MR, Ricardo-Gonzalez RR, Nosbaum A, Bertolini M, Liao W, Nestle FO, Paus R, Cotsarelis G, Abbas AK, Rosenblum MD. PMID: 28552347; PMCID: PMC5504703.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 188     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    28. Measuring inflammation in IBD with an OSM-ostat. Sci Transl Med. 2017 05 03; 9(388). Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 28469037.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:HumansCells
    29. Commensal Microbes and Hair Follicle Morphogenesis Coordinately Drive Treg Migration into Neonatal Skin. Cell Host Microbe. 2017 Apr 12; 21(4):467-477.e5. Scharschmidt TC, Vasquez KS, Pauli ML, Leitner EG, Chu K, Truong HA, Lowe MM, Sanchez Rodriguez R, Ali N, Laszik ZG, Sonnenburg JL, Millar SE, Rosenblum MD. PMID: 28343820; PMCID: PMC5516645.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 76     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    30. When TLRs fail, IgG has your back. Sci Transl Med. 2017 03 22; 9(382). Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 28330862.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions:    Fields:    Translation:Humans
    31. Establishing Tolerance to Commensal Skin Bacteria: Timing Is Everything. Dermatol Clin. 2017 Jan; 35(1):1-9. Scharschmidt TC. PMID: 27890233; PMCID: PMC5130113.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    32. 014 Commensal microbes augment expression of the hair follicle chemokine Ccl20 to facilitate accumulation of Tregs in neonatal skin. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 2016 May 1; 136(5):s3. Scharschmidt ST, Vasquez VK, Pauli PM, Truong TH, Sonnenburg SJ, Millar MS, Rosenblum RM. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    33. Cutting Edge: Regulatory T Cells Facilitate Cutaneous Wound Healing. J Immunol. 2016 Mar 01; 196(5):2010-4. Nosbaum A, Prevel N, Truong HA, Mehta P, Ettinger M, Scharschmidt TC, Ali NH, Pauli ML, Abbas AK, Rosenblum MD. PMID: 26826250; PMCID: PMC4761457.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 133     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    34. A Wave of Regulatory T Cells into Neonatal Skin Mediates Tolerance to Commensal Microbes. Immunity. 2015 Nov 17; 43(5):1011-21. Scharschmidt TC, Vasquez KS, Truong HA, Gearty SV, Pauli ML, Nosbaum A, Gratz IK, Otto M, Moon JJ, Liese J, Abbas AK, Fischbach MA, Rosenblum MD. PMID: 26588783; PMCID: PMC4654993.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 178     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    35. Paradoxical benefits of psychological stress in inflammatory dermatoses models are glucocorticoid mediated. J Invest Dermatol. 2014 Dec; 134(12):2890-2897. Lin TK, Man MQ, Santiago JL, Scharschmidt TC, Hupe M, Martin-Ezquerra G, Youm JK, Zhai Y, Trullas C, Feingold KR, Elias PM. PMID: 24991965; PMCID: PMC4227540.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    36. What Lives On Our Skin: Ecology, Genomics and Therapeutic Opportunities Of the Skin Microbiome. Drug Discov Today Dis Mech. 2013 Dec 01; 10(3-4). Scharschmidt TC, Fischbach MA. PMID: 24273587; PMCID: PMC3833721.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 45  
    37. Immune reconstitution reactions in human immunodeficiency virus-negative patients: report of a case and review of the literature. JAMA Dermatol. 2013 Jan; 149(1):74-8. Scharschmidt TC, Amerson EH, Rosenberg OS, Jacobs RA, McCalmont TH, Shinkai K. PMID: 23324760; PMCID: PMC3773570.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 4     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    38. Neurogenic rosacea: a distinct clinical subtype requiring a modified approach to treatment. Arch Dermatol. 2011 Jan; 147(1):123-6. Scharschmidt TC, Yost JM, Truong SV, Steinhoff M, Wang KC, Berger TG. PMID: 21242409; PMCID: PMC3692271.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 9     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    39. Epidermal barrier dysfunction in non-atopic HIV: evidence for an "inside-to-outside" pathogenesis. J Invest Dermatol. 2010 Apr; 130(4):1185-8. Gunathilake R, Schmuth M, Scharschmidt TC, Gruber R, Grabher D, Leslie KS, Maurer TA, Mauro TM, Elias PM. PMID: 19924137; PMCID: PMC4548930.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 3     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    40. Filaggrin deficiency confers a paracellular barrier abnormality that reduces inflammatory thresholds to irritants and haptens. J Allergy Clin Immunol. 2009 Sep; 124(3):496-506, 506.e1-6. Scharschmidt TC, Man MQ, Hatano Y, Crumrine D, Gunathilake R, Sundberg JP, Silva KA, Mauro TM, Hupe M, Cho S, Wu Y, Celli A, Schmuth M, Feingold KR, Elias PM. PMID: 19733297; PMCID: PMC2881668.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 78     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    41. Matriptase-deficient mice exhibit ichthyotic skin with a selective shift in skin microbiota. J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Oct; 129(10):2435-42. Scharschmidt TC, List K, Grice EA, Szabo R, NISC Comparative Sequencing Program, Renaud G, Lee CC, Wolfsberg TG, Bugge TH, Segre JA. PMID: 19387477; PMCID: PMC2791707.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 23     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    42. Maintenance of an acidic stratum corneum prevents emergence of murine atopic dermatitis. J Invest Dermatol. 2009 Jul; 129(7):1824-35. Hatano Y, Man MQ, Uchida Y, Crumrine D, Scharschmidt TC, Kim EG, Mauro TM, Feingold KR, Elias PM, Holleran WM. PMID: 19177139; PMCID: PMC2695850.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 32     Fields:    Translation:AnimalsCells
    43. Modeling atopic dermatitis with increasingly complex mouse models. J Invest Dermatol. 2008 May; 128(5):1061-4. Scharschmidt TC, Segre JA. PMID: 18408744; PMCID: PMC3523690.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 12     Fields:    Translation:Animals
    44. Autosomal ichthyosis with hypotrichosis syndrome displays low matriptase proteolytic activity and is phenocopied in ST14 hypomorphic mice. J Biol Chem. 2007 Dec 14; 282(50):36714-23. List K, Currie B, Scharschmidt TC, Szabo R, Shireman J, Molinolo A, Cravatt BF, Segre J, Bugge TH. PMID: 17940283.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 47     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
    45. Clinical trial design issues raised during recombinant DNA advisory committee review of gene transfer protocols. Hum Gene Ther. 2006 Apr; 17(4):448-54. Scharschmidt T, Lo B. PMID: 16610932.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 2     Fields:    Translation:Humans
    46. Clinical Trial Design Issues Raised During Recombinant DNA Advisory Committee Review of Gene Transfer Protocols. Human Gene Therapy. 2006 Mar 1; 0(0):060301061832002. Scharschmidt ST, Lo LB. .
      View in: Publisher Site   Mentions:
    47. Estrogen receptor beta-selective transcriptional activity and recruitment of coregulators by phytoestrogens. J Biol Chem. 2001 May 25; 276(21):17808-14. An J, Tzagarakis-Foster C, Scharschmidt TC, Lomri N, Leitman DC. PMID: 11279159.
      View in: PubMed   Mentions: 55     Fields:    Translation:HumansAnimalsCells
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